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SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

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International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems

Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike

2013-01-01

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Physical Characteristics of Pressed Complete Feed for Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics of the pressed complete feed in the forms of cube, cylinder and ball. The study was conducted to get a complete feed of dairy cows that can be developed commercially. The evaluation was done on a physical test : bulkiness, hardness and hygroscopic properties of pressed complete feeds.  The results of this research showed that the bulkiness of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were between 0.20 up to 0.48 liter/kg; the hardness of pressed complete feed, cylinders and balls were 3 lbs up to 14 lbs; the hygroscopic factor of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were around 1.10% up to 9.69%. The pressed complete feed in the forms of cube and cylinder are better than  the form of ball in physical characteristics.doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.61-65

Syaiful Anwar

2013-06-01

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[The relationship between feeding and fertility in dairy cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible relationship between nutrition and fertility in dairy cows are reviewed. Study of the literature shows that opinions on the effect of the various nutrients differ markedly. The conclusion which can be made is that in countries where standards of dairy farming are high, nutrition only plays a minor role in the problem of herd subfertility. In the course of time deficiencies in a large number of minerals, trace elements and vitamins have been stressed as a cause of inadequate fertility. However cows are at present generally fed with a lot of well balanced concentrates and therefore deficiencies are very unlikely to occur. During early lactation every high producing dairy cow has a negative energy balance. In a number of cows this results in anoestrus and in a long interval from parturition to first insemination. Overfeeding during late lactation and the dry period does not adversely affect subsequent reproduction but may cause puerperal disorders. The relation between protein nutrition and fertility is complex. Protein effects on fertility are minor. Problems can arise if there is a combination of a high percentage of crude protein (greater than 18%), a high rumen degradability of the protein and a low energy content of the diet. The value of metabolic profile tests is minimal because they do not differentiate between normal herds and herds with fertility problems. PMID:1524581

De Kruif, A; Mijten, P

1992-08-01

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Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

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The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulting and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

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Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure suources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

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Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

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Use of gene profiling to evaluate the effects of a feed additive on immune function in periparturient dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives were to investigate mechanisms by which a nutritional supplement alters immunity in dairy cattle. Our hypothesis was that feeding this product to dairy cattle altered neutrophil gene expression. Eight periparturient Jersey cattle were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: control and treated. Control animals were fed a dry cow ration for 1 month prior to calving. The treated cows were fed the same ration supplemented with OmniGen-AF. Following calving, blood samples were taken and neutrophils were prepared after which RNA was extracted. Gene expression in neutrophils of treated versus control-fed animals was then assessed using bovine-total leukocyte (BOTL-5) arrays. Eighteen genes were differentially regulated in the experimental group and of these, twice as many were up-regulated as down-regulated. Patterns of changes indicated that the additive might alter neutrophil apoptosis, signaling and sensitivity. Two of the regulated genes [interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) and interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R)] were investigated in more detail using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Each was found to be elevated by the feeding of experimental product. Increased expression of ICE indicates potential for enhanced neutrophil expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a cytokine which plays roles in the inflammatory response and which stimulates adaptive immunity following innate immune activation. Altered expression of IL-4R indicates potential for changes in neutrophil apoptosis. The experiment identified mechanisms by which the additive altered neutrophil gene expression. While many nutrients support the immune system, we have shown that a non-traditional nutritional approach may also have utility in modulating immune function. PMID:19386010

Wang, Y-Q; Puntenney, S B; Burton, J L; Forsberg, N E

2009-02-01

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Feeding of dairy cattle in the forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423

Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H

1999-10-01

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Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)

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Mycotoxin Contaminating Maize and Grass Silages for Dairy Cattle Feeding: Current State and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silages may represent 50-80 % of the total amount of diet for dairy cows during the winter. There is overwhelming evidence of contamination of maize and grass silages with fungi and associated trichothecenes, fumonisins, zearalenone, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A as well as some emerging mycotoxins (agroclavine, andrastin A, beauvericin, enniatins, festuclavine, fusaric acid, mevinolin, mycophenolic acid, roquefortins, T2/HT2 toxins). From year to year, multi contaminations often occurred with sea...

Tangni, Emmanuel Kossi; Pussemier, Luc; Hove, Franc?ois

2013-01-01

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Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

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Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.

Guilherme Amorim Franchi

2014-04-01

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Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by universities. Several nutrition conferences are held regularly in the United States that are vital for transferring knowledge to the feed industry and the producers of food; the attendance at such programs has increased about 4-fold over the past 25 yr. More emphasis on animal welfare will direct some of the areas of nutrition research. Challenges ahead include having adequate funding for conducting applied nutrition research and for training of students as scientists and for employment in the feed industry. PMID:16537963

Eastridge, M L

2006-04-01

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International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.

Berry, D P; Coffey, M P

2014-01-01

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ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

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National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

Anneke Anggraeni

1999-05-01

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STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

E. SZÜCS

2013-07-01

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[Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770

Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.

E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.

2013-07-01

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Deuterium oxide dilution can be used to determine the net energy content of feeds for dairy cattle and goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores a technique for measuring the energy (NEL value of feeds without respiration calorimetry or slaughter. The objectives were to compare results obtained from goats with those from cows, and to describe factors which limited the precision of these NEL estimates. One lactating Alpine doe and one lactateing Holstein cow were assigned to each of six different sequences of three 56-d feeding treatments consisting of low, medium, and high doses of the basal diet, rice bran, or hominy feed. This resulted in 30 observations of the basal diet and 12 of each byproduct feed for each species and utilized a total of 18 cows and 18 does. The NEL values of the basal diet, rice bran, and hominy feed were calculated as the sum of milk energy, change in body energy, and estimated fasting heat production per kilogram of feed dry matter. Milk energy was determined by bomb calorimetry and body energy from live body weight and deuterium oxide space. The NEL (MJ/kg determined in this manner were basal diet, 5.73 and 5.98; rice bran, 7.11 and 7.07; and hominy feed, 6.99 and 8.20 for cows and goats, respectively.

Dan L. Brown

2013-07-01

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Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Québec  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides ...

Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

1984-01-01

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Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S Donkin

2008-07-01

25

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S, Donkin.

26

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S, Donkin.

2008-07-01

27

Socio-Economic Evaluation of Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda  

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Full Text Available Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti district. Descriptive statistics, partial budget analysis, probit model, and Ordinary Least Squares were used to analyze data. Results indicated that farmers using IFT had significantly (p<0.01 higher gross margins than those using local feeding methods. Probit model results indicated that profitability of technology influenced the decision to use IFT when interacted with improved cattle breed.  The decision to use IFTs had a positive significant (p<0.1 relationship with profitability of dairy cattle enterprises. Policies targeting efficient dissemination of IFTs are recommended to improve profitability.

Alice Turinawe

2012-01-01

28

Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

29

Abomasal ulcer disease in adult dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a review of case records of all dairy cattle greater than or equal to 1 year of age admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine in a 4-year-period, abomasal ulcer disease was diagnosed definitively in 42 (2.17%) of cattle. In 5 additional cattle, abomasal ulcers were secondary to lymphosarcoma. The mortality rate for cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease was 50%. For cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss or diffuse peritonitis, the mortality rate was 100%. Concurrent disease conditions were present in 76% of cattle with abomasal ulcer disease. Significant associations were observed between month of diagnosis and abomasal ulcer disease, and between lactation status and ulcer disease; however, no association between age and ulcer disease was observed. In 71% of all cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease, at least 1 of the following clinical signs was observed: abdominal pain, melena, or pale mucous membranes. Cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss typically had tachycardia and were anemic. Cattle with ulcers causing peritonitis had elevated concentrations of leukocytes in the peritoneal fluid. Hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis was a common finding in cattle with each type of abomasal ulcer disease except those with ulcers causing diffuse peritonitis, when metabolic acidosis occasionally occurred. PMID:6884033

Smith, D F; Munson, L; Erb, H N

1983-07-01

30

Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

31

Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

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Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

33

Mycotoxicoses in dairy cattle - a case history review  

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Full Text Available This manuscript describes the negative impacts of mycotoxins on dairy cattle. Observations were made with respect to overall herd health, production, and reproductive performance of animals in affected herds.Troubleshooting dairy herds in an effortto diagnose the problems associated with the ingestion of mycotoxins is covered, as well as the possible nutritional therapies that may be employed to offset the negative effects of mycotoxins. Feed additives included in the diets of affected herds were utilized to improve digestive tract integrity, reproductive performance, immune system function, and milk production. Depending on the level of severity of a mycotoxin poisoning, it is possible in some cases to offset the deleterious effects of mycotoxins with the use of nutritional therapy.

Randall Asher

2008-09-01

34

The place of Sanga cattle in dairy production in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle: 24 farms, with a total of 900 animals and distributed in four agro-ecological zones, were visited every 15 days over 18 months. Cows were fed on natural pastures as the only source of feed, and animal performance was dependent on the season and exhibited a dramatic drop in dry spells. Numeric productivity indices integrating productive performance for settler's, multipurpose, crop-livestock integrated and modern farms were 0.56, 0.74, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively. Milk productivity was higher on modem farms (6.7 L/cow per day) than in the other systems, and higher with Holstein-Friesian cows (7.7 L/cow per day) than with indigenous cattle (1.8 L/cow per day) or crossbred animals (3.7 L/cow per day). This paper speculates on the opportunity to improve the genetic potential of indigenous cattle, concomitantly with the efforts to adapt exotic cattle to a mountainous equatorial environment. PMID:17691546

Grimaud, P; Mpairwe, D; Chalimbaud, J; Messad, S; Faye, B

2007-04-01

35

Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value of crossbreeding is documented with special emphasis on results from a Danish crossbreeding experiment. This experiment included 1,680 cows from 3 breeds and their crosses. In general, at least 10% heterosis can be expected for total merit, mainly due to increased longevity and improvement of functional traits. A minor part of heterosis for total merit is due to heterosis for production traits. For production, there is evidence of recombination loss using continued crossbreeding programs, which does not seem to be the case for longevity and total merit. However, recombination loss should be investigated more carefully as crossbreeding is becoming more popular. A prerequisite for crossbreeding to be beneficial on a long-term basis is that genetic gain within the parental breeds not be reduced. As long as the crossbred cow population constitutes less than 50% of the whole population, and young bulls can be tested through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits

SØrensen, M K; Norberg, E

2008-01-01

36

Marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)

37

Acute recumbency and marginal phosphorus deficiency in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of a mixing error at a local feed mill, a diet marginally deficient in phosphorus, compared with recommendation from the National Research Council, was fed to a high-producing dairy herd for 5 months. Two mature cows in early lactation became recumbent. Serum phosphorus concentration in 1 cow was low (1.8 mg/dl), but was not measured in the other cow. Ten other high-producing, first-lactation cows in the herd developed severe lameness. Results of analysis of rib bone samples from the recumbent cows were consistent with changes associated with demineralization. Bone ash, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations were lower than published ranges for healthy cattle. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations in 8 unaffected cows were normal. For 6 unaffected cows, mean serum hydroxyproline concentration was higher during the period that the phosphorus-deficient diet was fed than when an adequate diet was fed. Moderate (15%) restrictions in dietary phosphorus intake, compared with National Research Council recommendations, can possibly result in health problems in high-producing dairy cattle. PMID:8617630

Gerloff, B J; Swensen, E P

1996-03-01

38

Genotype by environment interaction in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G × Efrom reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems. Methods applied to deal with G × E (controlledexperiments and large data modeling were discussed. A G × E was confirmed essentially when high differences betweenproduction environments and/or genotypes (genetically distant genotypes were observed. Environmental effects wereaggregated in most studies and identification of the components of the environment was largely unresolved, with only a fewstudies based on more definite-descriptors of environment. The implications of G × E on breeding decisions are discussed.Breeders should select genotypes on production traits within environmental conditions comparable to where candidate animalsare intended to perform.

Hammami H.

2009-01-01

39

The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157.H7 in dairy and beef cattle in Washington State.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli O157.H7 was found in 10 of 3570 (0.28%) faecal samples from dairy cattle in 5 of 60 herds (8.3%). Several tentative associations with manure handling and feeding management practices on dairy farms were identified. Faecal/urine slurry samples, bulk milk samples, and milk filters from dairy herds were negative for E. coli O157.H7. E. coli O157.H7 was also isolated from 10 of 1412 (0.71%) faecal samples from pastured beef cattle in 4 of 25 (16%) herds. The prevalence of E. coli...

Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Kinsel, M. L.; Rice, D. H.

1994-01-01

40

Parasitic infections in dairy cattle around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

In northern Vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. In the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around Hanoi. A total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. Furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. Coproscopical examination indicated a high prevalence of nematode eggs (Cooperia spp., Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum spp.) in animals (n=176) between 3 and 24 months (66%) and in adult cows (n=90; 54%). In these age groups the prevalence of Fasciola was 28% and 39%, respectively, and for Paramphistomum the prevalence was 78% and 82%, respectively. Fifty percent of the calves younger than 3 months (n=68) were positive for Giardia, and none for Cryptosporidium. Most Giardia isolates were identified as the non-zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage E on the beta-giardin gene. The blood samples were examined with commercially available Svanovir((R))Elisa's for the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina specific antibodies, and a prevalence of 28% and 54% was found, respectively. In the milk samples Neospora caninum specific antibodies (Svanovir((R))Elisa) were detected in 30% of the lactating animals. The present study demonstrates that parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Hanoi although animals are mainly kept confined, and indicates that further research on the economic impact of these infections is needed. PMID:18328629

Geurden, T; Somers, R; Thanh, N T G; Vien, L V; Nga, V T; Giang, H H; Dorny, P; Giao, H K; Vercruysse, J

2008-05-31

 
 
 
 
41

Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

42

Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...

Simenew, K.; Wondu, M.

2013-01-01

43

Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk ?3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was e...

Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

2012-01-01

44

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F. Arthur

2008-07-01

45

The Current Status, Main Problems and Solutions of Dairy Cattle Farms in Ni?de  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the current status of dairy cattle farms in Ni?de, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions. In the study, representing all provinces, total 95 dairy farms selected by stratified and random sampling method was taken. The data obtained from the surveys in farms, face-to-face was used. The results showed that the large portion of dairy cattle breeders (60% were primary school graduates, the average duration of cattle breeding was 15.2 years, a significant proportion of labor (92% of family labor was used, 54%, 19%, 15%, 6%, 4% and 2% of farms reared only Holstein, Holstein and Simmental, only Brown Swiss, only Simmental, Holstein and Brown Swiss, and Simmental and Brown Swiss respectively, the average number of animals per farm was 33, the number of dairy cows was 13, the average daily milk yield per lactating cow was 16.6 kg. Farmers agreed that the most important problems were the high cost of basic inputs, concentrated feed problem, low cost of products sold, roughage and pasture problem. In addition, according to Likert scale, the most satisfied activities were reared cattle breed (3.95, breeder’s organization services (3.94, milking process (3.76, calving and maintenance duties (3.74 and recording system (3.71. Beside, for the breeders, the worst issues were satisfied that Ministry policies about cattle breeding (1.83, sales price and the market situation of animals (1.96, sales price and the market situation of the milk (2.04, provision of essential inputs such as feed and labor costs (2.06, credit and financial support (2.08.

Adnan Ünalan

2013-12-01

46

Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe recent findings from the sequencing analysis of the cattle genome and to illustrate how this new information can be applied increase feed efficiency of cattle.

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

47

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected f [...] eed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F., Arthur; R.M., Herd.

48

Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe ...

Seongwon Seo; Woonsu Kim

2012-01-01

49

Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

M. M. Hossain

2014-05-01

50

Dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: choice of crossbreeding strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strategies for crossbreeding of indigenous and exotic cattle for milk production in the tropics, viz. rotational crossing and formation of a composite breed, have been compared. Genetic considerations suggest that rotational crossing would lead to somewhat better dairy performance, mainly because of more heterozygosity. Predictions based on the performance of adjacent genetic groups as obtained from a comprehensive literature review point in the same direction. Rotational crossbreeding depends on a continuous introduction of bulls of both parental breeds. The herd will consist of 2 (or more) genetic groups, which might be inconvenient for breeding arrangements, but provides more flexibility. The system requires good organisation and is most suitable in large farms. In small scale dairying the composite breed strategy is the most practical approach to dairy cattle breeding in the tropics. PMID:8888529

Syrstad, O

1996-08-01

51

Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Barns in Summer Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ppm. The overall hourly average ammonia emission was calculated as 56.1 g/h.barn. Ammonia concentrations increased with lower airflow rate while ammonia emissions increased with higher airflow rate. As a result of this study, there is no significant relationship observed between ammonia emission and indoor environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity.

Erkan Yaslioglu

2012-01-01

52

Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace minerals. Furthermore, opportunities for specific modulation of aspects of health, milk production, and reproduction through supplementation strategies for diets of transition dairy cows are attractive because of the known dynamics of energy metabolism, immune function, and oxidative metabolism during this timeframe. PMID:24305870

Overton, T R; Yasui, T

2014-02-01

53

Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

Jørgensen, K. F.; Kjeldsen, A. M.; Askegaard, M.

2013-01-01

54

Recycled poultry bedding as cattle feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1950s, recycled poultry bedding has been used as an economical feedstuff for beef cattle. It has been extensively studied at several experiment stations around the world with regard to its safety and nutritional aspects. It will continue to be closely scrutinized as the public increases its awareness of agricultural issues. As this study was being prepared, the news media was "spotlighting" bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Currently, in the United States there is a ban on incorporation of mammalian-derived protein feeds into ruminant diets. This has led to a requirement of beef cattle producers signing affidavits indicating that they had met this obligation. Some poultry companies use ruminant meat and bone meal in broiler diets when least-cost formulation indicates that it is economically desirable. This then poses the question of whether feeding RPB to beef cattle should be permitted if the birds had been fed ruminant meat and bone meal. It also raises the question of whether cattle grazing pastures fertilized with RPB are exposed to ruminant meat and bone meal. Because of the importance of pasture fertilization as a waste disposal solution for the poultry industry, it seems that the issue will be quickly resolved by omitting the ruminant meat and bone meal from poultry diets should concerns increase. Use of RPB, like many byproduct feeds, requires a higher level of management expertise than traditional feeds. Despite the potential problems discussed in this study, an informed beef cattle producer can gain a financially competitive edge by using RPB. A simple processing method, deep-stacking under polyethylene sheeting, can produce a safe product that will provide a complete diet when blended with an energy source and supplemented with some long-stem fiber. The diets can be used for both brood cows and stocker calves for extended periods of time, and the practice of feeding RPB is safe for both cattle and consumers [45]. Economic parameters will influence the future use of RPB; however, the general public's perception and acceptance will ultimately determine its long-term use. PMID:12235660

Rankins, Darrell L; Poore, Matthew H; Capucille, Dawn J; Rogers, Glenn M

2002-07-01

55

The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

Giuseppe Pulina

2011-10-01

56

Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production. PMID:17954744

Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

2007-11-01

57

Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria...

Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

2000-01-01

58

International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

F. Canavesi

2010-04-01

59

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (

E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.

60

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental ...

Donkin, Shawn S.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

THE ESTIMATE INDEX OF WELFARE AT DAIRY CATTLE  

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Full Text Available We have described in this paper the impact of closing elements of the shelter over the dairy cattle. After an analysis of animal waist, it is verify the way in which the stand, the limitation bars and the distance between the bars influence the behavior, as a welfare index. Next, the floor impact over the expression mode of the sudden movement and also over the heat manifestation was analyzed.

I. ?IBRU

2013-12-01

62

Detection and utilisation of quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of the thesis is on the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy cattle and their utilisation in breeding programmes. Analysis of one bovine chromosome for quantitative trait loci for milk production traits is described and a QTL for protein percent was identified that was significant at the 1% level.When analysing the chromosome it was observed that the degree of precision in estimating QTL location and size (or variance) is poor. Through stochastic simulation, the effec...

Spelman, R. J.

1998-01-01

63

Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions  

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Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

Kathy J. Soder

2013-07-01

64

Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

65

Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

66

Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and design; however, in these situations good stockmenship seems to be able to compensate for structural lacks.

Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

67

Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

R. Tocci

2010-04-01

68

Genomic dairy cattle breeding : risk and opportunities for cow welfare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.

Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter

2010-01-01

69

Quality and Yield of Chihuahua Cheese Produced from Dairy Cattle Supplemented with Enriched Apple Byproduct  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.

A. Muro-Reyes

2011-01-01

70

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge. PMID:23031138

Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

2013-03-01

71

Polysynovitis after Oligofructose Overload in Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24 h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24 h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

Danscher, A.M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2010-01-01

72

Ethological aspects on water supply for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C; the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C; the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R. Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001. Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001, took more sips (p<0.001 and spent more time drinking (p<0.001 from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows’ preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.

José Daniel Cazale

2009-12-01

73

Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Qu?bec  

Science.gov (United States)

Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides and 1% with P. liorchis. Based on data from one herd there appears to be significant seasonal variation in egg passage for P. microbothrioides. Furthermore, old cows exhibited a higher prevalence of infection. PMID:17422453

Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

1984-01-01

74

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

M. Umar

2011-09-01

75

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of catt...

Che Hashim Hassan; Gazi Mahabubul Alam; Abul Quasem Al-Amin; Ferdous Ahmed

2012-01-01

76

Malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of postparturient vulvovaginitis and metritis in cattle caused by Clostridium septicum (malignant edema) are described in the current report. The diagnosis was established based on detection of C. septicum by culture and fluorescent antibody test. All animals were Holsteins, and 4 were primiparous (the parity of 1 animal was not reported). All animals developed clinical signs 1-3 days after calving, consisting of swelling of perineal and perivulvar areas, fever, and depression. Perineal, perivulvar, and perivaginal gelatinous and often hemorrhagic edema was consistently observed on gross examination. Longitudinal vulvar, vaginal, cervical, and uterine body tears, covered by fibrinous exudates, were also present. Microscopically, vulvar, vaginal, and uterine mucosae were multifocally necrotic and ulcerated. Large Gram-positive rods, some with subterminal spores, were present within the edematous subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Clostridium septicum was demonstrated by culture and/or fluorescent antibody test in tissues of most animals. These cases of malignant edema were considered to be produced by C. septicum and predisposed by the trauma occurring during parturition. PMID:19901305

Odani, Jenee S; Blanchard, Patricia C; Adaska, John M; Moeller, Robert B; Uzal, Francisco A

2009-11-01

77

Measuring reproductive performance in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of futureher than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs

78

Neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. A long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for N. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. A total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. The percentage of abortions in seropositive cows was 3 times higher than in their seronegative counterparts (21.6 and 7.3%, respectively). No statistically significant association was found between the antibody level of positive during pregnancy and the proportion of aborting cows. However, 41.2% of the dams with antibody titers of 1:12,800 aborted. The risk of abortion for such dams was 2.7 times higher than for other seropositive cows which had lower titers of antibodies (p=0.0072). In the follow-up examinations of the seropositive cows during several pregnancies, the overall percent of abortions observed was significantly higher than in seronegative individuals (49.3 and 16.9%, respectively; p<0.0001). Moreover, the proportion of repetitive abortion observed was 5 to 1 (17.4 and 3.5%) in seropositive and seronegative dams, respectively (p<0.001). The rate of vertical transmission in positive dams was 61.0% and it appeared to be directly associated with antibody levels: the higher the titer in the dams during pregnancy, the higher the percentage of sero-positivity in their calves. Increased proportion of abortions was observed in seropositive cows both in summer and winter in comparison with spring and autumn. It was found that in seropositive cows, an increased number of pregnancies, which was directly related to the age of the dam, has been associated with an increased number of abortions. PMID:24986462

Mazuz, Monica L; Fish, Leah; Reznikov, Dror; Wolkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovitz, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Golenser, Jacob; Shkap, Varda

2014-09-15

79

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

Che Hashim Hassan

2012-01-01

80

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle in southern China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350. Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.

Zhou Dong-Hui

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7% of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45% of reported young stock deaths (Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21% for Iringa urban and 34% for Pangani). Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses. PMID:21526740

Swai, E S; Karimuribo, E D; Kambarage, D M

2010-12-01

82

GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE  

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Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.

Martino Cassandro

2007-06-01

83

Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

M.A. Aba

2006-01-01

84

Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production. However, the livestock system is also credited for the fact that the use of manure reduces the amount of artificial fertilizer being used. Consequently, a manure handling system was set up as a subsystem to the cattle system. This method allowed a comparison between different fodder crops on an equal basis. Furthermore, the crop-specific contribution from changes in soil C was estimated based on estimated amounts of C input to the soil.

Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

2014-01-01

85

Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction  

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Full Text Available This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, transition cow program and reproductive performance, immunosuppressant effect of transition period, early predictors of disorders and major abnormalities are discussed in an informative way. Future potential areas of research and possible challenges are also indicated briefly. Finally, it is concluded that despite decades of research in the area of transition cow health and management the high incidence of health disorders around calving continues to negatively affect milk production and reproductive performance; and as recommendation, implementing a transition nutrition program with the help of nutritionists can help dairy herd avoid most of the costly problems and molecular level research studies should get due attention to further understand the situation and devise proper intervention techniques.

K. Simenew

2013-04-01

86

Seroprevalence of Neospora Caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora can­inum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and ab­orted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to de­tect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cat­tle are recommended.

Gh Moghaddam

2011-09-01

87

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk  

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Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

Michael P. Combrink

2012-12-01

88

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended. PMID:23327323

Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances

2012-01-01

89

FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

90

RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA  

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Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

2013-01-01

91

Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400. Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%, followed by those that were???6 years old or?P?>?0.05. Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%. These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.

Zhou Dong-Hui

2013-02-01

92

Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross- | sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) a [...] nd positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77% (417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucella species, with a variable and generally I: low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% -2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota I: from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis I: eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

Massimo, Scacchia; Andrea, Di Provvido; Carla, Ippoliti; Uqbazghi, Kefle; Tesfaalem T, Sebhatu; Annarita, D' Angelo; Fabrizio, De Massis.

93

Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

Massimo Scacchia

2013-04-01

94

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

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Full Text Available A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (?12 months old were due to tick-borne diseases, mainly East Coast Fever (ECF and anaplasmosis. Disease events including ECF were reported to occur in all months of the year. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models indicated that, in both regions, death rate and risk was higher in young stock less than 12 months than in older animals (relative risk RR=4.92, P <0.001 for Iringa; RR = 5.03 P = 0.005 for Tanga. In the Tanga region reported mortality rates were significantly higher for male animals (RR = 3.66, P = 0.001 and F2 compared with F1 animals (RR=3.04, P=0.003. In the Iringa region, reported mortality rates were lower for cattle on farms where the owner had attended a dairy development project training course (RR = 0.47, P = 0.012. Farms located in Iringa urban district and Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21 % for Iringa urban and 34 % for Pangani. Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses.

E.D. Karimuribo

2012-05-01

95

Genetic evaluation of reproductive performance in Canadian dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.

F. Miglior

2010-04-01

96

Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits. The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data for both platforms

Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro

97

First investigation on economic sustainability of dairy cattle breeding in Apulia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally the dairy cattle breeding in Apulia is mostly concentrated in the “Murgia barese-tarantina”. The most represented breeds in the Apulian dairy cattle population are Italian Brown (IB) and Italian Friesian (IF). The figures plotted in Fig. 1 show the general upward trend of the two breeds recorded for the period 1965–2001 in Taranto's province, representing more than 50% of the above husbandry area. Even though during the last ten years the IB upward slope have s...

Sorrentino, A.; Pieragostini, E.; Roma, R.; Bramante, G.

2011-01-01

98

Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

99

Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

2014-04-01

100

Reproductive technologies and genomic selection in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic tools are now available for most livestock species and are used routinely for genomic selection (GS) in cattle. One of the most important developments resulting from the introduction of genomic testing for dairy cattle is the application of reasonably priced low-density single nucleotide polymorphism technology in the selection of females. In this context, combining genome testing and reproductive biotechnologies in young heifers enables new strategies to generate replacement and elite females in a given period of time. Moreover, multiple markers have been detected in biopsies of preimplantation stage embryos, thus paving the way to develop new strategies based on preimplantation diagnosis and the genetic screening of embryos. Based on recent advances in GS, the present review focuses on new possibilities inherent in reproductive technologies used for commercial purposes and in genetic schemes, possible side effects and beneficial impacts on reproductive efficiency. A particular focus is on the different steps allowing embryo genotyping, including embryo micromanipulation, DNA production and quality assessment. PMID:24305173

Ponsart, C; Le Bourhis, D; Knijn, H; Fritz, S; Guyader-Joly, C; Otter, T; Lacaze, S; Charreaux, F; Schibler, L; Dupassieux, D; Mullaart, E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h(2)=0.30) and a functional trait (h(2)=0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up to 3 percentage points. The results from this study supported our hypothesis that strong interaction effects exist. The strongest interaction effects were obtained between increased reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values and more intensive use of YB. The juvenile scheme was genetically inferior when the increase in reliability was low (5 percentage points), but became genetically superior at higher reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values. The juvenile scheme was always superior according to discounted profit because of the shorter generation interval and minimizing costs for housing and feeding waiting bulls. PMID:24239076

Thomasen, J R; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; Sørensen, A C

2014-01-01

102

Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya  

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Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

G.L. Mugunieri

2010-09-01

103

USE OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR GENETIC EVALUATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in the developed production set ups and explores the possibility of using test-day model for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Pakistan. Different options within test-model approach are also discussed.

G. BILAL AND M. S. KHAN1

2009-02-01

104

Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System  

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Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

I. Soliman

2010-02-01

105

The impact of feeding line on dairy production revenue  

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Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.

Vesna O?i?

2012-12-01

106

The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268 ± 54 and 180 ± 42 µg/l, respectively). PMID:24438753

Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

2014-04-01

107

Distribution of indole in tissues of dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of /sup 14/C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs.

Eisele, G.R.

1986-08-01

108

Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle.
The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin.
There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253. There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583 between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456. Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414 and composite (R2 = 0.262 milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008 and udder half samples (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054 and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R2 = -0.379.

J.C. Watermeyer

2010-09-01

109

Response, Effectiveness and Accuracy of Different Selection Methods and Intensities In Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1 to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2 to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods and intensities, (3 to study the best lactation period for selection in dairy cattle. Some conclusion can be drawn: (1 the estimated repeatability of milk production was considered low, the opposite was true for heritability estimate, (2 the selection response and its effectiveness increased when the number of animals maintained in the population decreased, (3 the selection accuracy increased along with the increased of number of record included, (4 the highest selection accuracy was obtained from individual selection with three records whilst the family selection resulted in the lowest selection accuracy. It was also concluded that selection in dairy cattle can be done as early as the first lactation and the accuracy will be increased if combined with the information from relatives. (Animal Production 11(1: 66-70 (2009 Key Words: dairy cattle, effectiveness selection method

SA Santosa

2009-01-01

110

A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

2004-09-15

111

Diagnosis of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

112

Ammonium Dissociation for Swine and Dairy Cattle Manures  

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Full Text Available The dissociation of ammonium (NH4+ into ammonia (NH3 in wastewaters is a key factor governing atmospheric nitrogen volatilization. Relatively rich in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN or NH4+ plus NH3, livestock manures are most susceptible to NH3 volatilization, although indirect measurements report 5 times less NH4+ dissociation as compared to theoretical values. The objective of this study was therefore to directly measure NH4+ dissociation of two standard NH4Cl solutions (1750 and 3500 mg TAN/L, and of swine and dairy cattle manures at various dilutions and temperatures using a ammonia selective electrode (hydrogen and silver-silver chloride electrode couple at various pH and temperatures. All solutions demonstrated NH4+ dissociation varying from theory, especially because of dissolved compounds such as atmospheric CO2. At a neutral pH, ratios of theoretical to measured [NH3-N] ranged from 1.5 to 3.5, with higher ratios corresponding to higher TAN levels. At a pH below 6, NH3 volatilization was enhanced by the shift of HCO3- to H2CO3 and CO2. With previous research projects reporting 5 times less NH3 volatilization as compared to theory, the present indicates that dissociation activity account for half of this drop with gas diffusion accounting for the other half.

Min Liu

2013-05-01

113

Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.  

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Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection differential in sires was 3.12 units of phenotypic standard deviation. Dams in first generation were randomly chosen. Data of progenies of 38 selected bulls were recorded in growing, pregnant and lactati...

Korver, S.; Eekelen, E. A. M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G. J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

1991-01-01

114

Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained under the cost-minimizing solution representing 1.9% of the insured amount. Our model identifies the lowest cost insurance contract for a desired target guaranteed income over feed cost. PMID:20630251

Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

2010-07-01

115

Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

Anna Nudda

2010-01-01

116

When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle  

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Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategyIn dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The aim was to establish the relationship between various oestrus characteristics and ovulation time in order to investigate whether these oestrus characteristics could predict ovulation time and to stu...

Roelofs, J. B.

2005-01-01

117

Salmonella enterica Serotype Cerro Among Dairy Cattle in New York: An Emerging Pathogen?  

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The focus of this study was Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro, a potentially emerging pathogen of cattle. Our objectives were to document the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Cerro among a sample of New York dairy herds, to describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of the isolates, and to elucidate the status of this serotype as a bovine pathogen. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 l...

Cummings, Kevin J.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Elton, Mara; Rodriguez-rivera, Lorraine D.; Siler, Julie D.; Wright, Emily M.; Gro?hn, Yrjo T.; Wiedmann, Martin

2010-01-01

118

Automated body condition scoring of dairy cattle: Technical and economic feasibility  

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Although the benefits of body condition scoring (BCS) may be intuitive to most dairy industry professionals; relatively few dairy farms have incorporated it as part of their routine management strategy. The lack of adoption of this technique is largely attributable to subjectivity and time requirements. An automated BCS system would be less demanding of time by trained personnel, less stressful to cattle, more objective and consistent, and possibly more cost effective. The technical feasibili...

Bewley, Jeffrey Michael

2008-01-01

119

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

120

Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy  

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Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

Cheryl M.E. McCrindle

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small dairy cattle populations are challenged because of the low reliabilities of genomic predictions. We have demonstrated that low reliabilities of genomic predictions sets limitations for moving towards more genetic efficient breeding schemes with more intensive use of young bulls without progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces that increase reliabilities of genomic predictions.

Thomasen, JØrn Rind; Egger-Danner, C

2014-01-01

122

Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk  

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Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Surv...

Eko Hendarto; Sri Mastuti

1999-01-01

123

First investigation on economic sustainability of dairy cattle breeding in Apulia  

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Full Text Available Traditionally the dairy cattle breeding in Apulia is mostly concentrated in the “Murgia barese-tarantina”. The most represented breeds in the Apulian dairy cattle population are Italian Brown (IB and Italian Friesian (IF. The figures plotted in Fig. 1 show the general upward trend of the two breeds recorded for the period 1965–2001 in Taranto's province, representing more than 50% of the above husbandry area. Even though during the last ten years the IB upward slope have stopped with an almost steady-state, the total number of cows in the herds now stands at 17213. Notwithstanding milk quotas regime since 1984.........

A. Sorrentino

2011-03-01

124

Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.

Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne; Moyes, Kasey

2013-01-01

125

Availability Analysis of A Cattle Feed Plant Using Matrix Method  

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Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth – death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.

Deepika Garg

2009-05-01

126

Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124

Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

2014-06-01

127

Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China  

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Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in da...

Zhou Dong-Hui; Zhao Fu-Rong; Xia Hui-Yan; Xu Min-Jun; Huang Si-Yang; Song Hui-Qun; Zhu Xing-Quan

2013-01-01

128

EFFECT OF PREGNANCY STRESS ON THE ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN DAIRY CATTLE  

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Full Text Available In present study attempts were made to measure the effect of pregnancy stress on the antioxidative capacity in the blood of dairy cattle. Results of the present study revealed that antioxidative capacity screens the health status of the animals. Animals far away from delivery time have higher levels of (ACW water soluble antioxidants in their blood which reflects healthier bodies while during this level decrease and it will adversely affect the health of cattle.

Firas Mahmoud Faleh Hayajneh

2014-07-01

129

Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011-2012  

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Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprev...

Elbers, A. R.; Loeffen, W. L. A.; Quak, J.; Boer-luijtze, E. A.; Spek, A. N.; Bouwstra, R. J.; Maas, H. A.; Spierenburg, M. A. H.; Kluijver, E. P.; Schaik, G.; Poel, W. H. M.

2012-01-01

130

9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.17 Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only,...

2010-01-01

131

Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.

Masson Luke

2011-06-01

132

Structural Characteristic of the Dairy Farms That Members of Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne  

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Full Text Available This research was carried out by consulting with dairy farms that were selected by chance from the analyzed farms registered in the Dairy Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne. The farms were selected through Edirne and its counties, thus it was aimed to find accurate results.The survey questions are about the general characteristic features of the farm owners, their educational degrees, their existing breeding status, their practical experiences in breeding cattle, their aims and expectations, the condition of the animal sheds and equipments, distribution and marketing of their products.The rate of literacy in the farms that were members of the Cattle Breeding Association is 100%. The dairy cattle breeding was made for providing subsistence income by 47.4% of the farms and it was made for gaining supplementary budget by the rest of the farms. The rate of working in the farms as owners of the farms and members of their family was 96.5%. Average animal stock 21-30 heads of cattle in 33.3% of the farms.98.2 per cent of the farm areas were in the residential areas, 96.5 per cent of the farms consist of bound-standstill type farms and 3.6% of those consist of free type farms. The rate of the milking with the milking machine was 100 % and in 89.5% of farm the average production of milk per cattle 20-25 liters/day in the farms.

A. R. Onal

2008-05-01

133

Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania  

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Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the cattle population in order to assess associated risks to public health. PMID:24304521

2013-01-01

134

Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks  

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The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

135

In Investigation of Structural Properties of Dairy Enterprises and Morphologic Characteristics of Black and White Cattle in Tekirdag Province  

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Full Text Available n this research the status of dairy cattle husbandry in Tekirda? and it’s share in the Agriculture of Tekirda? was investigated. This research was conducted in the content of determining several animal science and morphometric traits of dairy cattle enterprises in Tekirda? province. The research material was consisted of data obtained from operations determined according to the registration data of provincial agricultural directory sampled in the villages where has the relatively more quantitatively and qualitatively intensified dairy cattle farms of the distiches of central of Tekirda?, Malkara, Muratl?, ?arköy, Çerkezköy, Marmara Ere?lisi. This study was completed with 267 breeders in Tekirda?. Questionnaire included many question in order to determine the general structure of farms, Status of Education of farmers, number of Animals of operations, level of feeding, conditions of barns, sort of milking practises, quality of milk obtained, status of breeding organizations and expectation of farmer regarding support measures to animal husbandry in Tekirda?. Data obtained showed that %59, %29, % 11 and %1 of farmers graduated elementary school, university, middle school and illiteracy respectively. 75 % of enter prises has number of animal of (1-15 head, where as %25 and %5 has (15-40 and 40-100 animals. 96 % of farmer had neither cooling tank nor fixed or milking in parlour. In addition investigation aimed to determine the morphometric trait of total 98 head of animal (67 female and 31 male aged 30 month for female and 10 months for male raised in five different location as villages of central district of Tekirda? and districts of Muratl? , Çerkezköy , ?arköy ,Marmara .Ere?lisi. The average wither height of females (30 month age was 138,71 ± 1,44, the average rump height was 144,28 ± 2,03, the average chest girth was 166,71 ± 3,71 and the average body length was 149,14 ± 2,19 investigated in Tekirda? (center.

E.K. Gurcan

2007-09-01

136

Manual of good practices for welfare: a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality® protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.

Ana Luiza Mendonça Pinto

2013-11-01

137

Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.

2011-08-01

138

Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.

139

Macromineral nutrition by heat stress interactions in dairy cattle: review and original research.  

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This paper examines whether or not responses of dairy cattle to various dietary macromineral elements differed in hot weather compared with thermoneutral conditions. The consequences of heat stress and the interrelationships of macromineral elements on feed intake, digestive function, use of dietary buffers, mineral element uptake from the portal-drained viscera, perturbation of acid-base physiology and related mineral element nutrition, effects of dietary macromineral element concentrations on lactational performance as affected by season, and influence of mineral elements in drinking water are reviewed, and new research results are presented. Dietary mineral buffers aided in alleviation of the decline in DMI and milk yield induced by heat stress. New research results showed that portal plasma flow declined with heat stress or by restriction of DMI in a thermoneutral environment and that uptake of P from the portal-drained viscera by lactating cows was reduced 50% by heat stress compared with that of cows with the same DMI in a thermoneutral environment. Accelerated respiration rate caused respiratory alkalosis and apparently compensated metabolic acidosis, changing the demand for Na and K during heat stress. There is need to characterize more accurately the nyctohemeral pattern of acid-base physiology in the heat-stressed lactating dairy cow and to relate it to macromineral element needs. A large data set (n = 1444 cow period means) was used to compare milk yield and DMI responses to varying dietary concentrations of P, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and cation-anion difference in summer compared with those in winter. Interactions of dietary concentrations of Cl, Ca, and Mg with season on DMI and K, Ca, and Mg with season on 4% FCM yield were detected. Interactions of Na by Cl, Na by P, and Cl by P with season on DMI and of Cl by P with season on 4% FCM yield were detected. High concentrations of sulfate and chloride in drinking water jeopardized productivity of cows during hot weather. PMID:7929965

Sanchez, W K; McGuire, M A; Beede, D K

1994-07-01

140

Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated

 
 
 
 
141

Comparison between two methods of measurement of milking speed in dairy cattle reared in Trento province  

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Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......

M. Cassandro

2011-03-01

142

Studying the possibilities to reduce methane emission in dairy cattle by adding Product X to the diet  

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With Product X, Orffa Additives (an European feed additives supplier) and Cono Kaasmaker (a Dutch dairy cooperative) are searching for a practical feed application to reduce methane emissions (>10%) in dairy cattle. In this study three in vitro experiments were conducted to test the characteristics of Product X. The experiments were performed to test the cumulative gas, methane production (kinetics) and the fermentation end-products. It became clear that Product X is able to change rumen fermentation characteristics significantly. In the experiments Product X showed higher volatile fatty acids (VFA) levels and differences in methane production kinetics. It seems that the production of methane is delayed and the % of methane produced per total amount of gas is decreasing over weeks. This fact is especially of interest in live animals. Time feed remains in the rumen is relative short compared with this in vitro trial. With these results it also became clear that after six weeks of Product X administration there still is an effect on rumen fermentation and no signs of adaptation were found. A reduction of 10% means a potential reduction of 9522 MT CO2-eq per year when only the members of Cono are taken into account (e.g. 37500 lactating animals). On national level this means 0.58 Mton CO2-eq reduction per year. Reducing methane emissions is also improving feed efficiency. This means more milk for the same costs. It could be an option that Cono will implement an incentive to stimulate farmers to reduce methane emissions in their Caring Dairy program.

NONE

2011-12-15

143

Effects of supplementation of dairy cattle with fish oil on silage intake, milk yield and milk composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of level of fish oil inclusion in the diet on grass silage intake, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows offered either 5 or 10 kg concentrates/d were evaluated in a ten treatment, partly balanced, changeover design experiment involving 50 cows in early lactation. Concentrates were prepared to provide 0, 150, 300 or 450 g fish oil/cow per d or 300 g fish oil/cow per d from a premix when each animal was offered 5 kg/d. The fish oil was predominantly from herring and mackerel caught in the North Atlantic while the fish oil premix was obtained from a commercial source and used palm kernel expeller as a carrier. Increasing fish oil supplementation decreased silage dry matter intake and the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and increased milk yield and diet digestibility. There were significant interactions between concentrate feed level and level of fish oil for silage intake and milk yield. Other than for the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and 20:4n-6 fatty acids, the source of fish oil did not affect forage intake or animal performance. Fish oil supplementation also decreased the concentrations of milk protein by 0.9 g/kg for each 100 g increase in fish oil supplementation, the depression being similar at each level of concentrate feeding. Supplementing the feed of dairy cows with 450 g fish oil/cow per d decreased the concentration of milk fat by 15 g/kg. This study also showed that feeding dairy cattle with fish oil is an efficient method of increasing eicosapentaenoic acid in the human diet through transfer into milk. PMID:10840669

Keady, T W; Mayne, C S; Fitzpatrick, D A

2000-05-01

144

Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from dairy cattle emissions using a transportable smog chamber  

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Tropospheric ozone continues to be an air pollution problem in the United States, particularly in California, Texas, and across the eastern seaboard. The obvious sources of ozone precursors have been largely controlled over the past several decades, leading to the critical examination of secondary sources. In particular, California has new air quality rules addressing agricultural sources of ozone precursors, including dairy farms. Some recent estimates predict that dairy cattle are second only to on-road vehicles as a leading source of ozone precursor emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley. The objective of this work was to directly measure the ozone formation potential from dairy housing. A transportable "smog" chamber was constructed and validated using organic gases known to be present in dairy emissions. The ozone formation potential of emissions from eight non-lactating dairy cows and their fresh waste was then directly evaluated in the field at a completely enclosed cow corral on the campus of the University of California, Davis. The results demonstrate that the majority of the ozone formation is explained by ethanol (EtOH) in the emissions from the dairy cows, not by acetone as previously thought. Ozone formation potential is generally small, with <20 ppb of ozone produced under typical conditions when EtOH concentrations were ˜200 ppb and NO x concentrations were ˜50 ppb. The results match our current understanding of atmospheric ozone formation potential, ruling out the possibility of unknown organic compounds in dairy emissions with significant ozone formation potential. Simulations carried out with a modified form of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism verify that actual ozone formation from dairy emissions is much lower than what would be predicted using the current regulatory profiles. Based on these results, the ozone formation potential of emissions from dairy cattle in California seems to be lower than previously estimated.

Howard, Cody J.; Yang, Wenli; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Malkina, Irina L.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

145

Role of Cooperatives as an Information Source of Dairy Cattle Farmers  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the role of dairy cooperatives as an information source in solving problems at dairy cattle production in the district of Osmaniye, Turkey. Local animal husbandry activities were investigated by collecting data using a questionnaire with owners of 112 dairy farms. The results showed that 31.3% of farmers were members of dairy cooperatives. Only 8.7% of farmers used cooperatives as a main source when they need information about solving their problems and getting information about new technologies. Most respondents (94.6% evaluated the timeliness of advisory services provided by cooperative as poor. Almost 90 (89.3% of farmers wanted better access to improved dairy technologies through cooperatives. The most significant problems in adopting innovations related to dairy cattle production were lack of access to relevant knowledge and financial problems in applying these innovations. It was also found that the farmers preferred veterinarians and other farmers as sources of knowledge and that the role of the cooperatives as knowledge sources was quite low.

Dilek Bostan Budak

2012-01-01

146

Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products? : How can dairy products contribute to a healthy and sustainable diet?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a growing problem in the Western world. Dairy products comprise a food group containing a high amount of saturated fat, which has been linked to an increase in CVD risk. However, a recent metaanalysis including 611.430 subjects failed to find any association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. Consequently, there is less focus on the consumption of saturated fatty acid. However, many attempts have been made to prevent and reduce complications from CVD and T2DM and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid (FA) uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders, due to agonist ctivities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products (represented by cheese and butter) from cows fed green feed would affect the human concentration of plasma PA differently as compared to dairy products from cows fed conventional feed, and, further to examine the health effects of PA. A second objective was to examine the health effects of dairy products (represented by butter) produced from milk delivered from mountain-pasture grazing cows. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies where risk markers of CVD and T2DM were assessed. We found that it is possible to increase human plasma PA concentration after four weeks of intervention with butter and cheese containing even a traditional content of PA, which agrees with observational studies. No significant difference in plasma PA concentration between treatment groups was found; therefore, investigating any effect of PA on metabolic parameters was not possible. However, considering the strong correlation between plasma PA at baseline and total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), it may be suggested that PA have a specific LDL-C rising effects. We found no health beneficial effect on CVD and T2DM risk markers of butter delivered from mountain-pasture grazing, which had, among other differences, increased PA content compared to butter from conventionally fed cows. As no other study has been published regarding the health of milk delivered from grazing cattle, we cannot compare our findings directly with other studies and further evidence is needed. During the past few years climate change has been recognized as the major environmental problem facing the world. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high nutritional value. In addition, when discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food sector, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE by creating dietary scenarios with different quantities of dairy products. This was evaluated on the basis of one theoretical study based on national intake data and carbon footprint data of 71 widely consumed food items. Furthermore, an index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items. Our dietary scenarios

Werner, Louise Bruun

2013-01-01

147

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed include: (i) The entire...otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv) Mechanically separated...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed do not include: (A)...

2010-04-01

148

Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

2010-12-01

149

GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

A. O. Rini

2013-12-01

150

Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields  

Science.gov (United States)

Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

2014-05-01

151

Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60Co or 177Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

152

An outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on an Irish dairy farm, following the consumption of raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis

Doran P

2009-06-01

153

Colostrum and milk as risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections cause major losses to the dairy industry. Transmission of MAP occurs primarily via feces and in utero, but MAP can also be excreted in colostrum and milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether colostrum and milk fed to calves are important risk factors for infection with MAP. A questionnaire was sent to 1,050 farms participating in the Danish control program on paratuberculosis in early 2007. Details on practices regarding colostrum and milk feeding between 1999 and 2006 were obtained from 808 (77%) herds. Nine vaccinated herds were excluded. Information on MAP antibody-ELISA results, date of birth, and herd of birth of 93,994 animals was obtained from the Danish Cattle Database. A 2-level logistic regression model was fitted with a dichotomized ELISA response, with outcome, age, source of colostrum, and milk as fixed effects, and herd as a random effect. Animals fed colostrum from multiple cows had an odds ratio of 1.24 of being ELISA positive compared with animals fed colostrum from their own dam only. Calves suckling with foster cows had an odds ratio of 2.01 of being ELISA positive compared with calves fed milk replacer. Feeding bulk tank milk and pooled milk from cows with high somatic cell counts did not increase the risk of being ELISA positive. Overall, the results of the study suggested that source of milk was not of great importance for the transmission of MAP, but colostrum should be fed only from the dam of that calf.

Nielsen, S. S.; Bjerre, H.

2008-01-01

154

Competition at the feed bunk changes the feeding, standing, and social behavior of transition dairy cows.  

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Transition dairy cows are vulnerable to the negative consequences of depressed feed intake around calving. Competition can decrease feeding activity in midlactation cows, but the effects of competition on the transition cow are not well understood. The objective was to test the effect of competition on the behavior and feed intake of transition cows. Standing behavior, feeding behavior, and dry matter intake were monitored from 1 wk before to 2 wk after calving for 36 Holstein dairy cows. Displacements at the feed bins were recorded the week before calving. Cows were assigned to either competitive (2:1 cows:feed bin) or noncompetitive (1:1 cow:feed bin) treatments. Treatment groups were balanced for parity and baseline feeding measures, resulting in 8 primiparous and 10 multiparous cows per treatment. Competition increased the number of displacements at the feed bins for both primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows had no change in feed intake or standing time when fed in a competitive environment, but did increase the time spent for each meal during the week before calving (28 +/- 1.5 vs. 24 +/- 1.5 min/meal). In the week before and after calving, competitively fed multiparous cows had a lower feeding time per visit than noncompetitively fed cows (4.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.8 +/- 0.5 kg/visit and 5.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.0 +/- 0.7 kg/visit, respectively). Multiparous cows ate at a faster rate 2 wk after calving (142 +/- 11 vs. 105 +/- 11 g/min). Multiparous cows in the competitive treatment increased the time they spent standing (without eating) during the week after calving compared with cows in the noncompetitive treatment (820 +/- 44 vs. 649 +/- 44 min/d). Feeding rate was correlated with a displacement index in multiparous cows, whereby cows with lower displacement indices ate more rapidly. Results indicate that restricting access to feed increases displacements regardless of parity, and alters the feeding and standing behavior of primiparous and multiparous cows differently. PMID:19528589

Proudfoot, K L; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2009-07-01

155

Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a prescreening tool for detecting herds with a welfare problem, but this should be followed by a verification of the level of welfare in an on-farm assessment to identify false-positive herds. Consequently, the number of farm visits needed for routine welfare assessments can be reduced. The RHD also hold value for continuous monitoring of dairy cattle welfare. Prediction models developed in this study, however, should first be validated in additional field studies. PMID:24290821

de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

2014-02-01

156

Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for reproduction could also aid in resolving genetic antagonisms. Past breeding programmes have contributed to the deterioration in reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. The tools now exist, however, to reverse the genetic trends in reproductive performance underlying the observed phenotypic trends. PMID:24703258

Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E

2014-05-01

157

A longitudinal study of feed contamination by European starling excreta in Ohio dairy farms (2007-2008).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:24881798

Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

2014-08-01

158

Teat papillomatosis associated with bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 9, and 10 in dairy cattle from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. [...

Claudia C., Tozato; Michele, Lunardi; Alice F., Alfieri; Rodrigo A.A., Otonel; Giovana W., Di Santis; Brígida K. de, Alcântara; Selwyn A., Headley; Amauri A., Alfieri.

159

Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is 1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8) in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets without the need to increase their content in peNDF above the threshold that leads to lower DM intake. The latter would require strategies that modulate the fermentability characteristics of the diet and promote absorption and metabolic capacity of ruminal epithelia of dairy cows. PMID:22365188

Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

2012-03-01

160

Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions of feed intake, the increase in prediction error of all models was generally less than when compared with previous period animal data combined with current feed data. Milk yield as a model input in intake predictions can be substantially affected by current dietary factors. Milk yield can be used as model input when formulating rations aiming to sustain a given milk yield, but can generate large errors in estimates of future feed intake and milk production if the economically optimal diet deviates from the current diet. PMID:24508436

Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dairy cow monitoring by RFID  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia...

Stevan Stankovski; Gordana Ostojic; Ivana Senk; Marija Rakic-Skokovic; Snezana Trivunovic; Denis Kucevic

2012-01-01

162

Impact of oxidative stress on the health and immune function of dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation and the production of free radicals are an integral part of aerobic metabolism. A variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by normal metabolic processes and by certain leukocyte populations during defense against disease. Accumulated scientific evidence supports the concept that oxidative damage of tissues and cellular components are either a primary or secondary cause of many human diseases. Unfortunately, considerably less is known about how oxidative stress can affect veterinary health and well-being, particularly during times of high metabolic activity. The performance of high producing dairy cattle can be optimized to a certain extent by supplementing diets with optimal levels of micronutrients with antioxidant capabilities. However, oxidative stress continues to be a problem in transition cows. Innovative approaches are needed to enhance the antioxidant defense mechanisms of dairy cattle during times of increased metabolic demands. PMID:19027173

Sordillo, Lorraine M; Aitken, Stacey L

2009-03-15

163

Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

2013-01-01

164

Genetic Heterogeneity among Strains of Treponema phagedenis-Like Spirochetes Isolated from Dairy Cattle with Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis in Japan ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is an infectious foot disease of cattle that is prevalent throughout the world. Although it has been prevalent in Japan since the first case was reported in 1992, full epidemiological and bacteriological examinations have not been conducted. We collected 91 lesions of PDD from 80 dairy cattle on 12 farms in eight regions of Japan to isolate the spirochetes that are frequently detected in lesions. We isolated 40 strains of spirochetes from 24 cattle (30.0...

Yano, Takahisa; Yamagami, Ryoko; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Chikara; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yoshitani, Kazunori; Ohtake, Osamu; Misawa, Naoaki

2009-01-01

165

Occurrence of Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in Dairy Cattle from N ova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This  study  aimed  to  evaluate  the  occurrence  and  the  risk  factors  associated  to  the summer mastitis in  27  dairy cattle from  Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso.  From the 408 dairy  cows  evaluated,  62  animals  (15.19%  were  positive  to  mastitis  with  13.32%  of prevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed more influence on mastitis occurrence  due to the use  of  the  milking machine  OR:  20.64  (p: 0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle

R. R. Lima

2013-11-01

166

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...

Del Rosario Gonza?lez-de-la-vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-ramirez, Vicente; Va?zquez-chagoya?n, Juan Carlos; Villa-godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

2011-01-01

167

Whole Genome Scan to Detect Chromosomal Regions Affecting Multiple Traits in Dairy Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chromosomal regions affecting multiple traits (multiple trait quantitative trait regions or MQR) in dairy cattle were detected using a method based on results from single trait analyses to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The covariance between contrasts for different traits in single trait regression analysis was computed. A chromosomal region was considered an MQR when the observed covariance between contrasts deviated from the expected covariance under the null hypothesis of no pleiot...

Schrooten, C.; Bink, M. C. A. M.; Bovenhuis, H.

2004-01-01

168

Development of a multivariate approach to predict Direct Genomic Values in dairy and beef cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The huge number of markers in comparison with the phenotypes available represents one of the main issues in genomic selection. In the present work Principal Component Analysis has been used to reduce the dimensionality of predictors. The method has been tested on three Italian cattle breeds (Holstein, Brown and Simmental) with different production aptitudes, dairy and dual purpose, and population size. Bulls were genotyped with the 54K Illumina beadchip and a data editing has been carried ou...

Pintus, Maria Annunziata

2012-01-01

169

Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

Van Tassel CP.

1998-01-01

170

The Risk of Mycotoxins Contamination of Dairy Feed and Milk on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity. Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004. This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37. Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2% had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%, Kitui (9.6%, Thika (3.9%, and Machakos (2.9%. Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities, then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.

T.P. Lanyasunya

2005-01-01

171

Financial Analysis of Dairy Cattle Farm on the Farming Company Level  

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Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The result showed that ROI (20.44% is higher than deposit interest rate (8%. The length of payback period (3 years and 6 months is faster than maximum period that was predicted by the company (5 years. NPV (Rp. 45,565,585.16 and BC Ratio (1.42 have positive and higher value (more than 1, respectively. IRR’s value (38.45% is higher than credit interest rate (18%. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the company is feasible enough to continue the operational project. (Animal Production 7(1: 40-45 (2005 Key Words : Financial analysis, farming company, dairy cattle

H Setiyawan

2005-01-01

172

Topic of Master thesis Investigations of cattle prolactin gene polymorphism in Lithuanian dairy cattle  

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Object of work. 1. Investigation of prolactin gene polymorphism and distribution of different alleles at Lithuanian cattle breeds (Lithuanian Red, Lithuanian Light Grey, Lithuanian White Backed, Lithuanian Black and White). 2 Investigation of prolactin (PRL) gene influence to milk production. Tasks of work. 1. Introduce cattle prolactin gene research methodology at K. Janušauskas Laboratory of Animal Genetics, LVA. 2. Investigate prolactin gene polymorphism at LR, LBW, LWB, LLG cattle bre...

Riaubaite?, Laura

2005-01-01

173

Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally poor IOFC margin conditions. We analyzed the dynamics of realized IOFC margins in 2009 under 4 different risk management strategies and found that optimal strategies that were founded on the principles delineated above succeeded in reducing the decline in IOFC margins in 2009 by 93% for the Home-Feed profile and by 47% for the Market-Feed profile, and they performed substantially better than alternative strategies suggested by earlier literature. PMID:23040030

Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W

2012-12-01

174

Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weter weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

175

Prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle of Hamedan province, west of Iran  

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Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.

Jamal Gharekhani

2014-06-01

176

Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins  

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Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

Krnjaja Vesna

2013-01-01

177

Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite  

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High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...

Sumantri, I.; Murti, T. W.; Poel, A. F. B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

2012-01-01

178

Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.

Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.

2014-01-01

179

System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.

Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

180

Day variations of Laboratory Parameters of Dairy Cattle  

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The blood and urine tests for assessing the animal health and metabolic status in high yielding herds are an integral part of herd management. The objective of this study was the testing of different blood and urine parameters in regard to daily fluctuations. This investigation is supposed to include factors that influence blood and urine parameters during the course of the day. Blood and urine samples, were collected in a conventional dairy farm from March 2010 to February 2011. Based on the...

Thurmann, Jan-peter

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Tail docking dairy cattle: responses from an online engagement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tail docking remains a common practice on dairy farms in the United States. This paper describes the results of an online engagement designed to create discussion on tail docking, to document the reasons participants put forward for and against the practice, and to compare these reasons with the literature available on this topic. A total of 178 people responded; 30% were producers, 23% were veterinarians, 25% had no experience with the dairy industry, and 22% included a mixture of teachers, students, and industry professionals. Approximately 79% of participants were opposed to docking. Responses varied with participant demographics (e.g., females were more likely than males to oppose docking), but in every demographic subgroup (e.g., by sex, age, country of origin, and dairy production experience), the majority of respondents were opposed to tail docking. Common reasons for opposition to docking included the lack of scientific evidence that docking improves cleanliness or udder health, that docking is painful for cows, that docking is unnatural, and that tails are important for controlling flies. Some respondents in favor of docking cited cow cleanliness as an issue, despite the scientific evidence showing no positive effect of docking on cow cleanliness or udder health. Additional reasons included protecting producer safety. These results illustrate the range of reasons that are cited for supporting and opposing tail docking. This approach can be used to better target outreach efforts (e.g., improving farmer education on the lack of positive effects of docking on cleanliness and udder health while addressing concerns about producer safety). More generally, this type of online discussion provides a safe and productive format for discussions about contentious issues in the dairy industry and provides a mechanism for producers, industry professionals, and the public to share perspectives on these topics. PMID:21666003

Weary, D M; Schuppli, C A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2011-11-01

182

The Effect of Using Monensin on Haptoglobin Serum Level in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90, 120, time of parturition and 2 weeks after parturition the blood samples was collected from jugular vein and then serum was separated. In all serum samples the haptoglobin serum level was measured by biochemical kit. The average of serum haptoglobin did not have meaningful difference between two groups on day of zero but in care group there was decrease in serum haptoglobin after the day of 30 and on the day of 30 the difference between two groups was not significant (p = 0.066. On the day of 90 and 120 this difference was significant and it was p = 0.037 and p = 0.04, respectively. On parturition time, haptoglobin serum level increased in two groups and this increase in treatment group was less than control group which was nonsignificant (p = 0.003 and 2 weeks after parturition it was low in treatment group which was not significant (p = 0.586. The changes of serum haptoglobin in control group was not meaningful on different times but in treatment group the serum changes was significant on days of zero and 30 (p = 0.04. The mean serum level of this protein in affected cattle to parturition diseases was greater than healthy carrel in two groups. Final result was that adding monensin to pregnant cattle diet led to decrease of haptoglobin serum level, 4 month before parturition.

M. Gholipour

2011-01-01

183

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

184

Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), notably of methane (CH4), by domestic animals and possible ways of abatement have been the subject of many international studies in recent years. From all emission sources of CH4, agriculture is by far the most important source in The Netherlands. Several techniques to measure CH4 losses from farm animals exist. Most widely used among them are respiration calorimetric chambers and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. Also, there are several ways to express CH4 losses. The most widely used way is to express it as % of GEI. A less popular, but for dairy cows interesting way to express CH4 losses is as gram (or litre) per kg desired product, hence g CH4/kg of milk. Some years ago a series of research projects on the subject of CH4 losses from ruminants in The Netherlands were started, coordinated by the ROB-Agro research programme committee (www.robklimaat.nl). In a 2000 study the role that animal nutrition could play to alleviate the loss of CH4 from ruminant animals, notably from dairy cows, has been reviewed. Several Rob-Agro studies have been performed since and evaluated the effect of nutrition and feed additives on CH4 emission. Simultaneously, a research project, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board of Feedstuffs and the ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), started at the end of 2002 aiming at the quantification of CH4 emission by dairy cows by applying an integrative modelling approach. The model developed was recently used to deliver estimates for the national emission of CH4 by cows. These estimates were used in the Dutch national inventory of emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J. [Group Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bannink, A.; Zom, R. [Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

2007-02-15

185

Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.

van der Fels-Klerx, I.

2011-01-01

186

Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle  

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Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”), such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased...

Paul Boettcher

2010-01-01

187

Genotype by feeding system interaction in the genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of studies in dairy cattle about the magnitude of the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) are variable, depending on the definitions of genotype and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of the interaction of genotype and feeding system (confinement and grazing) in the Mexican genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield. The number of lactations and animals in the pedigree used were 5122 and 18 432. An animal model and the MTDFREML program were used to estimate genetic parameters and predict genetic values of the animals. Bivariate analysis was carried out considering the performance of confined and grazing cows as two different traits. Three indicator variables were used to assess GEI: (i) magnitude of the genetic correlation coefficients, (ii) correlation between predicted breeding values and (iii) frequency of coincidence in the ranking of top sires. The magnitude of GEI depended on the choice of the indicator variable. The estimate of genetic correlation coefficient less than unity (0.76; P GEI. The differences in phenotypic averages and variances between confinement and grazing systems seem to be the main causes for the genotype by environment interaction detected. However, the correlation coefficient between breeding values from confined and grazing animals (0.96) and the frequency of coincidence between breeding values of common sires within the top 100 in confinement and grazing (0.86) indicated low-to-moderate re-ranking of animals or top sires. In addition, the high correlations between predicted breeding values of Mexican genetic evaluation and the two environments (0.99 and 0.93 for confinement and grazing) indicated that for the two feeding systems, breeding values from national analyses could be safely used. PMID:22445370

Ramírez-Valverde, R; Peralta-Aban, J A; Núñez-Domínguez, R; Ruíz-Flores, A; García-Muñiz, J G; García-Peniche, T B

2010-12-01

188

The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols  

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Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

Yudi Sastro

2011-05-01

189

The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

190

Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.  

Science.gov (United States)

An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

Hopkirk, R G

1987-10-01

191

Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly test days were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System, which represents 97% of all Norwegian dairy cows. Besides veterinary treatments, these records also included information on daily milk yield at monthly test days. The data were stratified by parity groups (1, 2, and 3 and higher and time to conception periods (43-93 DIM and >93 DIM. The sample was selected using the following selection criteria: conception later than 42 DIM, calving season July to September, no records of veterinary treatment and the level of energy fed as concentrates between 8.69 and 12.83 MJ. The shape of the lactation curves were parameterized using a modified Wilmink-model in a mixed model analysis. Differences in the parameters of the lactation curves with different conception times were evaluated using confidence intervals. Results Lactation curves characterized by a low intercept and a steep ascending slope and a steep descending slope were associated with early conception across all parities. The peak milk yield was not associated with time of conception. Conclusions A practical application of the study results is the use of the shape of the lactation curve in future herd management. Groups of cows with impaired reproductive performance may be identified due to an unfavorable shape of the lactation curve. Monitoring lactation curves and adjusting the feeding strategy to adjust yield therefore may be useful for the improvement of reproductive performance at herd level.

Toft Nils

2011-02-01

192

Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p?>?0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p?Neospora seropositive cows. In conclusion, the finding discloses the strong association of N. caninum with reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

Asmare, Kassahun

2014-08-01

193

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

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Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

Sivertsen T

2006-12-01

194

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

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Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

Østerås O

2005-12-01

195

Prevalence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii seropositivity in Danish beef and dairy cattle at slaughter adjusted for test uncertainty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii have been found in the Danish dairy cattle population with high levels of herd and within herd seroprevalences. However, the prevalence of antibodies to C. burnetii in Danish beef cattle remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence and (2) identify risk factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity in Danish beef and dairy cattle based on sampling at slaughter. Eight hundred blood samples from slaughtered cattle were collected from six Danish slaughter houses from August to October 2012 following a random sampling procedure. Blood samples were tested by a commercially available C. burnetii antibody ELISA kit. A sample was defined positive if the sample-to-positive ratio was greater than or equal to 40. Animal and herd information were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. Apparent (AP) and true prevalences (TPs) specific for breed, breed groups, gender and herd type; and breed-specific true prevalences with a random effect of breed was estimated in a Bayesian framework. A Bayesian logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of C. burnetii seropositivity. Test sensitivity and specificity estimates from a previous study involving Danish dairy cattle were used to generate prior information. The prevalence was significantly higher in dairy breeds (AP=9.11%; TP=9.45%) than in beef breeds (AP=4.32%; TP=3.54%), in females (AP=9.10%; TP=9.40%) than in males (AP=3.62%; TP=2.61%) and in dairy herds (AP=15.10%; TP=16.67%) compared to beef herds (AP=4.54%; TP=3.66%). The Bayesian logistic regression model identified breed group along with age, and number of movements as contributors for C. burnetii seropositivity. The risk of seropositivity increased with age and increasing number of movements between herds. Results indicate that seroprevalence of C. burnetii is lower in cattle sent for slaughter than in Danish dairy cows in production units. A greater proportion of this prevalence is attributed to slaughtered cattle of dairy breeds or cattle raised in dairy herds rather than beef breeds. PMID:24485706

Paul, Suman; Agger, Jens F; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Markussen, Bo

2014-03-01

196

Assessment of Feed Supplementation to Dairy Goat: Results of Research and Technology Dissemination Trials  

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Full Text Available Over the years, role and strength of dairy goat is increasing in Barani Tract of Punjab. The bread and butter needs of poor and small household are largely depends on livestock specifically on the dairy goats. The 80 percent livestock management activities are mostly depends upon women; therefore under the experimentation of feed supplementation mainly women's were included as research partners. The women perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feed supplement were collected by using a well structured questionnaire. A total of 62 women's were included in the sample size. Results indicated that 95.08% women's had shown their complete satisfaction from the feed supplements given to dairy goats. A large majority of the respondents (98.31 were in view that the given feed supplements had increased their milk productivity. Overall, 82.69 % sample women had pointed out that their knowledge about goat management has increased with this experimentation. Both empirical and experimental data shows a significant increase in milk yield i.e 520 ml and 562 ml respectively. The marginal rate of returns from milk was about 246.38 % that also revealed economic significance of the feed supplementation intervention to the dairy goats. The sustainability of feed supplementation has serious problem, about 67.27 percent respondents were in view that feed supplementation to dairy goat will not sustain due to resources poorness, availability and relatively importance of goat in household economy.

M. Azeem Khan

2012-12-01

197

Survey on Ammonia Concentrations in Dairy Cattle Tie-Stall Barns  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to quantify the ammonia concentrations from the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns and to compare it with threshold limits recommended in our country and in other countries. The significance of interactions between ammonia concentration and air temperature, relative humidity and air flow velocity was also determined. Two measurements were done in each barn, in the morning and in the evening of the same day. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant differences between the two measurements only for the ammonia concentrations in the air (p=0.003. In 20% of the investigated cattle barns the ammonia concentration was bellow 10 ppm, in 20% of these it varied from 11 and 26 ppm while in 60% of these, it exceeded 26 ppm. There was a significantly positive correlation between relative humidity and ammonia concentration in all barns, both for the morning (r=0.57, p=0.008 and for the evening (r=0.64, p=0.002 measurements. Assuming an ammonia threshold limit of 26 ppm, 60% of the dairy cattle barns in this study exceeded this recommended limit, indicating a need for improved housing conditions in the future.

Silvana Popescu

2011-05-01

198

Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling  

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Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

Kadarmideen Haja N

2004-09-01

199

[Feed intake and performance of dairy cows during feeding of fodder beets supplementing grass silage].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a feeding experiment 3 x 12 dairy cows (German Simmental x Red Holstein Friesian) were used to investigate the influence of different amounts of fodder beets on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. The fodder beets (variety Kyros) were fed in exchange for concentrate. The amounts of fodder beets were either 22 kg cow-1 d-1 or 44 kg cow-1 d-1 or zero (control group). All groups received 4 kg hay cow-1 d-1, grass silage ad libitum, and concentrate corresponding to the milk yield. In order to balance the rations the concentrate was either rich in protein or rich in energy. Feeding 22 kg or 44 kg fodder beets increased forage intake (including fodder beets) significantly. However, the total feed intake diminished on average from 18.3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (control group) to 17.2 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (fodder beet groups). In each treatment the intake of hay was 3.3 kg DM cow-1 d-1. However, the intake of grass silage offered ad libitum was significantly suppressed by the fodder beets. Considering the different amounts of concentrate the quantity of suppression of grass silage by feeding fodder beets was calculated at -0.8 kg DM of grass silage per kg DM of fodder beet intake. The milk yield decreased linearly with increasing fodder beets on average up to 4 kg cow-1 d-1. However, the milk composition was scarcely influenced. The fat content increased a little, the mean alterations of the protein and lactose content were below 0.1 percentage points. Therefore, the change in daily excretion of milk fat, protein or lactose were similar to the change in milk yield. In conclusion, feeding fodder beets in combination to grass silage causes a positive effect on forage intake (including fodder beets). However, the amount of concentrate should not be reduced equivalently to the energy contents of the added fodder beets. PMID:9065309

Birkenmaier, F; Schwarz, F J; Müller, H L; Kirchgessner, M

1996-01-01

200

Black Quarter in crossbred dairy cattle- A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF cross bred cows (n=8 at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC and plasma biochemistry were performed on survived animals (n=6. The needle biopsy samples were subjected to culture and identification of the organism by Gram staining. Results: Two cows were died before instituting the treatment in this clinical incident. The carcasses were seen with typical bloated appearance immediately after death, laying one side with affected leg stuck out. Post-mortem of the carcasses were not been carried out. Pertinent findings of the CBC were a relative neutrophilia whilst a normal total leucocyte count and lowered Hb. Plasma biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in the mean activity of aspartate aminotransferase while alanine aminotransferase levels were within limits. Gram's staining of the inoculated culture revealed the presence of small gram-positive rods with sub terminal spores. Clinical treatment of the cases was performed with administration of heavy dose of crystalline penicillin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Clinical recoveries of the cases were good and cessation of spread within the herd confining itself as a sporadic clinical incident. Conclusion: Sporadic Clostridiosis (BQ of eight cross bred dairy cows was dealt in the present case study by including the details of its alterations in hematological parameters, Plasma biochemical parameters, observation of characteristic clinical signs of the disease and employment of empirical treatment with Penicillin. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 767-770

Umar Nazir Zahid

 
 
 
 
201

The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area  

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Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ? 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management...

Jalali, S.; Ghazikhani Shad, A.; Mahmoodi, M.; Alizadeh, A.

2012-01-01

202

Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

Abdolahad Shadparvar

2010-01-01

203

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

HR Shahbazkia

2011-12-01

204

Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

R.C.A Berber

2013-11-01

205

Effect of a soybean hull:soy lecithin:soapstock mixture on ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3% soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7% supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P Daily gain, DMI, and feed efficiency (kilograms of gain/kilogram of DMI) of growing beef calves were not affected (P > .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P < .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows. PMID:8389347

Shain, D H; Sindt, M H; Grant, R J; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

1993-05-01

206

A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring Node of the Physiological Signals for Unrestrained Dairy Cattle Using Wireless Sensor Network  

Science.gov (United States)

A newly developed smart sensor node that can monitor physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle is designed through modular design and its advantages are compact structure and small volume. This sensor node is based on a MSP430F133 micro-controller; the digital sensor includes temperature sensor (DS18B20-America) and vibration-displacement sensor (DN series China); transmission of the digital data uses the nRF903. The results show that this node can collect physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle and then send it to upper network node. This research can provide better hardware platform for further researching the communication protocols of wireless sensor networks.

Zhang, Xihai; Zhang, Changli; Fang, Junlong; Fan, Yongcun

207

The Associations between Calving Interval and Milk Production traits in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle.  

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The aim this work was to associations between calving interval and milk production traits in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle in the period 2003-2009. The basic statistic analysis were analysed using the SAS version 9.1.3. The average length between calving intervals was 413.34 days in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle. Correlation between evaluated calving interval and traits of milk production (milk, fat, proteins) were lower negative r=-0.00924, r=-0...

Jozef Bujko; Juraj Candrák; Peter Strapák; Július Žitný; Cyril Hrn?ár

2013-01-01

208

Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms  

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Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

Flaviana Gottardo

2010-04-01

209

PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran  

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Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

Saeid Hosseinzadeh

2014-12-01

210

Effect of crossbreeding on milk yield traits and somatic cell score in dairy cattle  

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This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF), Dutch Friesian (DF), Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY), and F1 crossbreds (DFxHF and MRYxHF) were considered. According to cows’ year of calving, productive records from animals calving from 1980 to 2004 were divided in five periods, while SCS record...

Cassandro, M.; Jong, G.; Dal Zotto, R.; Cecchinato, A.; Penasa, M.

2010-01-01

211

Prevalence of Antibodies Against of Neospora caninum in Dairy Cattle in Nuevo Leon, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The goal of the present epidemiological research was the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in order to determine the presence and prevalence of neosporosis in dairy cattle herds at 8 counties from the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A total of 33 herds and 371 animals were included. Detection of Neospora caninum was performed using a commercial kit observed prevalence was 45%. This result allowed the conclusion that animals which are seropositive for the protozoan Neospora caninum do exist in Nuevo Leon. Serological evidence was found in animals at milk-production stage indicating that the presence of emerging diseases in the region is a fact therefore, sanitary measurements should be re-evaluated or reinforced in order to keep the cattle free from pathogens that have a negative impact in the production of food from animal origin used for the human consumption.

G. Hernandez-Vidal

2011-01-01

212

Some viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle during the summer season  

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Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.

Kale M.

2013-01-01

213

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.

Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.

2014-02-01

214

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. PMID:25005431

Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Aning, Kwame G; Boi-Kikimoto, Bashiru; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

2014-01-01

215

Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition. PMID:24393175

White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

2014-03-01

216

Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

2014-01-01

217

Mastitis Causing Pathogens within the Dairy Cattle Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions from the bedding and from the teats of a representative sample of each herd. These were thenplated to isolate numbers of the environmental bacteria, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli (E. coli, and toconduct a total viable count for comparison. Statistical analysis showed that six of the nine relationships tested resultedin a P<0.05. The microbial test results also showed that the straw bedding hosted the lowest total number of bacteria at8.5 x 10. When compared with the incidence of mastitis infections within the herd, the straw bedding had aconsiderably higher number of infections than from the sand or sawdust with thirty-one cases recorded. In conclusion,minimising pathogen growth within the bedding material, results in lower numbers of pathogens being transmitted ontothe cow's teats thereby reducing the possibility of intrammamary infections. It is recommended that further work iscarried out through repeating the study on a larger number of farms to identify whether the relationship between thebacterial numbers exists on further farms. In addition to this, it is also recommended that further analysis of thepathogens responsible for the mastitis within the herds be undertaken to identify if the environmental pathogens areresponsible for these intrammamary infections.

Ayuba Caleb Kudi

2009-01-01

218

Mastitis Causing Pathogens within the Dairy Cattle Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions from the bedding and from the teats of a representative sample of each herd. These were thenplated to isolate numbers of the environmental bacteria, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli (E. coli, and toconduct a total viable count for comparison. Statistical analysis showed that six of the nine relationships tested resultedin a P8.5 x 10. When compared with the incidence of mastitis infections within the herd, the straw bedding had aconsiderably higher number of infections than from the sand or sawdust with thirty-one cases recorded. In conclusion,minimising pathogen growth within the bedding material, results in lower numbers of pathogens being transmitted ontothe cow's teats thereby reducing the possibility of intrammamary infections. It is recommended that further work iscarried out through repeating the study on a larger number of farms to identify whether the relationship between thebacterial numbers exists on further farms. In addition to this, it is also recommended that further analysis of thepathogens responsible for the mastitis within the herds be undertaken to identify if the environmental pathogens areresponsible for these intrammamary infections.

Ayuba Caleb Kudi

2009-02-01

219

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

Isbandi

2012-09-01

220

Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in...

Konosonoka, I. H.; Jemeljanovs, A.; Osmane, B.; Ikauniece, D.; Gulbe, G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bienestar animal en bovinos lecheros / Dairy cattle welfare  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumenta [...] r la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that th [...] ere are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) and affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.

Néstor, Tadich.

2011-09-01

222

Bienestar animal en bovinos lecheros / Dairy cattle welfare  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumenta [...] r la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that th [...] ere are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) and affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.

Néstor, Tadich.

223

Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981. The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of “good”. (Animal Production 1(2: 63-74 (1999 Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.

Eko Hendarto

1999-05-01

224

Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots  

Science.gov (United States)

Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 ?-stigmastanol and epi-5 ?-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

225

Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

226

Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

227

Radiation-hygiene control of imported foodstuffs and cattle feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasingly frequent use of nuclear energy in peacetime, experimental nuclear and thermo-nuclear explosions, as well as accidents in nuclear plants lead to an increased and unequal distribution of radioactive substances in the environment. Mankind is in this way threatened not only by environmental irradiation, but also by consuming contaminated food and water which contain radionuclides whose concentrations are above the level of natural radioactivity. From the aspect of the veterinary profession, the most important task is to organize the protection of domestic animals and their products from radioactive contamination. This work presents the results obtained by measurements of the activity level of 137Cs in products of animal origin and cattle feed, in samples obtained from border crossings in Yugoslavia and partly in Macedonia during the period from 1990 until 1999. Examined import samples were taken from cheese, prok, and corn and the activity level of 137Cs was within the permitted legal levels - less than 1 Bq/kg. However, powdered milk was found to contain an activity level of 137Cs from 1,22-7,27 Bq/kg, and saltwater fish from 1,10-3,30 Bq/kg, so that these products could not be released for sale under the Official Gazette of the FRY, Number 53/91.

Slavata Branislava

2002-01-01

228

Risk factors for tick attachment to smallholder dairy cattle in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, and a longitudinal study in Tanga, to investigate tick-control methods and other factors influencing tick attachment to the cattle of smallholder dairy farms. Most farmers reported applying acaricides at intervals of 1-2 weeks, most used acaricides that require on-farm dilution and most farmers incorrectly diluted the acaricides. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus spp. ticks were those most-frequently encountered on the cattle, but few cattle carried ticks of any species (only 13 and 4.6% of tick counts of the cattle yielded adult R. appendiculatus and Boophilus spp., respectively). Animals were more likely to carry one or more adult Boophilus spp. ticks if they also carried one or more R. appendiculatus adults (OR=14.4, CI=9.2, 22.5). The use of pour-on acaricides was associated with lower odds that animals carried a R. appendiculatus tick (OR=0.29, CI=0.18, 0.49) but higher odds that they carried a Boophilus spp. tick (OR=2.48, CI=1.55, 3.97). Animals >4 months old and those with a recent history of grazing had higher odds of carrying either a R. appendiculatus (ORs=3.41 and 2.58, CIs=2.34, 4.98 and 1.80, 3.71), or a Boophilus spp. tick (ORs=5.70 and 2.18, CIs=2.34, 4.98 and 1.49. 3.25), but zero-grazing management did not prevent ticks attaching to cattle even when combined with high-frequency acaricide treatments. The odds that animals carried ticks varied amongst the agro-ecological zones (AEZs) and administrative districts where the farms were situated-but there was still considerable residual variation in tick infestation at the farm level. PMID:15737429

Ogden, N H; Swai, E; Beauchamp, G; Karimuribo, E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bryant, M J; Kambarage, D; French, N P

2005-02-01

229

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

230

Studies on the utilization of non-protein nitrogen and agricultural by-products as feed for native cattle in the Republic of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)

231

Study the Importance of Net Energy Efficiency in breeding programs of Holstein Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvement of feed efficiency in dairy farming economically has a great importance. In this study, the genetic parameters of net energy efficiency and its relationships with milk yield, 3.2% fat corrected milk, body weight, gross income and income over feed costs were investigated, by the 2589 monthly records collected from the 723 lactating cows in the 3 herds. The different requirements of energy were estimated, by the National Research Council (NRC models. A general linear model was employed for determining significant factors affecting each trait. The genetic parameters were estimated by a multivariate analysis with the derivative free approach of restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The animal models contained the fixed effects of herd-year-season, parity number and stage of lactation, the regression coefficients of each trait on the dietary levels of rumen undegradable protein and metabolizable energy, and the random effects of animal additive genetic, permanent environment and residuals. The heritability of milk yield, 3.2 percent fat corrected milk, body weight, net energy efficiency, gross income and income over feed cost, were estimates 0.31, 0.32, 0.30, 0.34, 0.24 and 0.29 respectively. The results of this study indicated that the direct selection for net energy efficiency might genetically improve the feed efficiency. It also seems that the selection for fat corrected milk may be effective for the indirect improvement of feed efficiency and economic performance of dairy cows.

A. Naserian

2006-01-01

232

Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with rep period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

233

A review of genomic selection - Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selecti [...] on (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by using marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.

E., van Marle-Köster; C., Visser; D.P., Berry.

234

Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI?) or from the current data (REI?). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI?, 0.30 for REI?, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI?: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI?: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI? was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI?: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-06-01

235

The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period

Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

2014-01-01

236

Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro among dairy cattle in New York: an emerging pathogen?  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study was Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro, a potentially emerging pathogen of cattle. Our objectives were to document the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Cerro among a sample of New York dairy herds, to describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of the isolates, and to elucidate the status of this serotype as a bovine pathogen. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. Following enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period. Of these, 20 herds (46%) were positive for Salmonella Cerro. Upon follow-up sampling for estimation of prevalence, Cerro was identified in 10 of the 20 herds; the median within-herd Cerro prevalence was 17%, with a maximum of 53%. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and eight (40%) of the Cerro-positive farms generated drug-resistant isolates. Eight XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were represented among 116 isolates tested, although 89% of these isolates shared the predominant type. Among herds with clinical cases, cattle that had signs consistent with salmonellosis were more likely to test positive for Cerro than apparently healthy cattle, as estimated by a logistic regression model that controlled for herd as a random effect (odds ratio: 3.9). There is little in the literature concerning Salmonella Cerro, and published reports suggest an absence of disease association in cattle. However, in our region there has been an apparent increase in the prevalence of this serotype among cattle with salmonellosis. Other Salmonella serotypes important to bovine health have emerged to become leading causes of human foodborne disease, and close monitoring of Cerro is warranted. PMID:20187753

Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Siler, Julie D; Wright, Emily M; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Wiedmann, Martin

2010-06-01

237

Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and potential milk yield. A set of cow-states was defined by lactation number (1 to 12), calving interval (11 to 16 months), potential milk yield (15 levels) and stage of lactation (months 1 to 16). Act...

Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2001-01-01

238

Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia. PMID:25236935

Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

2014-12-01

239

The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

2013-10-18

240

Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg ± 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazinposition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Study of nutritional and reproductive constraints of Friesian dairy cattle in the Mitidja area of Algeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)

242

Vaccination using phase I vaccine is effective to control Coxiella burnetii shedding in infected dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of the vaccination of dairy cows combined or not with antibiotics (i.e. oxytetracycline) to control Coxiella burnetii (Cb) shedding at herd level was investigated in 77 Q fever clinically affected herds. In addition to nulliparous heifers' vaccination, one out of the four following medical strategies was randomly assigned to dairy cows in each herd: vaccination (using a phase I vaccine) alone, vaccination combined with oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline alone or nothing. Their effectiveness to reduce Cb load in quarterly samples of bulk tank milk (BTM) and of pooled milk of primiparous (MP) was assessed through logistic hierarchical models. A significant reduction in Cb load was observed in herds where the vaccination of ?80% of dairy cows was implemented; whereas the use of antibiotics was uneffective. Our findings support the interest of a whole vaccination strategy and provide evidence for decreasing the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle herds. PMID:24184019

Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Guatteo, Raphaël; Lehebel, Anne; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François

2014-01-01

243

AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING FEED SORTING IN TRANSITION DAIRY COWS FED GLYCEROL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC). Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each scr...

Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho; Milton Luiz Moreira Lima; Aldi Fernandes Souza França; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; Heather Muse White; Shawn Scott Donkin

2010-01-01

244

MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE  

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Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

Mardalena

2011-09-01

245

Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Kampala, Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens leading to subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cattle in Uganda. Coagulase negative staphylococci can vary between bacterial species in how they cause disease. The aim of the study was to characterize CNS, from cows with SCM in Uganda, at the species level. Findings Quarter milk samples (n?=?166) were collected from 78 animals with SCM. Bacteriological analyses were carried out at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. The most common pathogens found in milk samples from cows with SCM were CNS (31.7%). Two species of CNS were found, S. epidermidis (85%) and S. haemolyticus (15%). Of the CNS isolates, 16/20 (80%) were positive for ?-lactamase production (?+). Conclusions In milk samples from cows with SCM caused by CNS, S. epidermidis was most prevalent, followed by S. haemolyticus. PMID:24917926

2014-01-01

246

Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain.

Thomasen, JØrn Rind; SØrensen, Anders Christian

247

Nutritional and management strategies for the prevention of fatty liver in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty liver occurs in dairy cattle during periods of elevated blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Elevated blood NEFAs are associated with hormonal changes at parturition and negative energy balance. Approaches for preventing fatty liver include inhibition of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues and altering hepatic metabolism to enhance fatty acid oxidation or export as a constituent of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Nutritional and management strategies to implement these approaches have been examined. Increasing energy density of diet, either by increasing non-fiber carbohydrate or fat, has failed to prevent fatty liver. Two nutritional supplements, ruminally-protected choline and propylene glycol, have proven effective at preventing fatty liver. Choline probably enhances hepatic VLDL secretion. Propylene glycol most likely reduces fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue. Shortening or eliminating the dry period is a management strategy that reduces the magnitude of negative energy balance after calving and triglyceride accumulation in the liver. PMID:18329917

Grummer, Ric R

2008-04-01

248

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and pear waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion of pre-treated dairy cattle manure (LCM) with pear waste after a storage period (PLF) was tested at four inclusion levels: 0%, 25%, 75% and 100%. Inclusion levels consisted in the replacement of the volatile solids (VS) from the LCM with the VS from PLF keeping the organic loading rate around 1.1 ± 0.4 g SVL(-1)d(-1). The introduction of the co-substrate clearly enhanced methane production rate (MPR) in comparison to single substrate (phase I) as phases II and III, respectively, achieving values 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than phase I. The overall performance was optimized for the mixture 25:75 (LCM:PLF; v:v). Moreover, storage of pear waste did not compromise its use in AD. This fact is important once it can improve waste management from pear production through its valorisation as co-substrate in AD process. PMID:24865319

Dias, T; Fragoso, R; Duarte, E

2014-07-01

249

Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.

I. Yeruham

2012-07-01

250

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk for humans on dairy cattle farms, the Netherlands, 2010-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with ?50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637

Schimmer, B; Schotten, N; van Engelen, E; Hautvast, J L A; Schneeberger, P M; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

2014-03-01

251

Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

Daniela Souza Rajão

2014-02-01

252

Heritability and Repeatability Estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss Crossbred Dairy Cattle Population  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was genetic parameter estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss crossbred dairy population. The performance of Brown Swiss crossbred cattle in Iran was considered across years 1991-2003. Variance component were estimated using animal model (single trait and Derivative-free restricted Maximum Likelihood method for different traits. The estimation of the heritability for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage and milk days were 0.24, 0.163, 0.175 and 0.334, respectively for single models. Repeatability estimation for mentioned traits was 0.41, 0.31, 0.18 and 0.334. The result showed that the additive genetic variance share in milk yield and milk day’s traits and permanent environmental variance in milk and fat yield are high.

A. Gorbani

2011-08-01

253

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637

Schotten, N.; van Engelen, E.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Schneeberger, P.M.; van Duijnhoven, Y.T.H.P.

2014-01-01

254

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus seroprevalence and risk factors in endemic dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herd seroprevalence of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in 59 dairy cattle herds using serology on random selected animals stratified by two age classes (heifers, cows). Risk factors for primary infections in heifers were investigated using a questionnaire on management conditions and data on bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) status. At least one seropositive cow was present in all the herds. In 25% of the herds all individual were seropositive and 22% of herds had all heifers seronegative. Analysis of the influence of risk factors retained summer pasture and BVD status. In particular, absence of summer pasture and the BVD positive status of heifers were associated with an increased risk of BRSV infection in heifers group. PMID:19921456

Luzzago, Camilla; Bronzo, Valerio; Salvetti, Stefano; Frigerio, Michela; Ferrari, Nicola

2010-01-01

255

Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic prediction across breed

van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

256

The Use of Rose Bengal Plate Test to Asses Cattle Exposure to Brucella Infection in Traditional and Smallholder Dairy Production Systems of Tanga Region of Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structu...

Emanuel Senyael Swai; Luuk Schoonman

2010-01-01

257

Feeding behaviors of transition dairy cows fed glycerol as a replacement for corn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in the nutritive value of a total mixed ration (TMR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high-moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and the feed intake pattern of transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=26) were paired by expected calving date, housed in individual tie stalls, and fed diets containing either glycerol or high-moisture corn once daily from d -28 to +56 relative to calving. Glycerol was included at 11.5 and 10.8% of the ration dry matter for the pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. The feed consumption pattern was determined by measuring TMR disappearance during the intervals from 0 to 4 h, 4 to 8 h, 8 to 12 h, and 12 to 24 h relative to feed delivery. Feed sorting was determined on d -16, -9, 9, 16, and 51 relative to calving at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after feeding. The TMR particle size profile was determined at feed delivery and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 after feed delivery by using the Penn State Particle Separator (Nasco, Fort Atkinson, WI) to yield long (>19 mm), medium (8 mm), short (1.18 mm), and fine (transition cows. PMID:23084887

Carvalho, E R; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; White, H M; Wilcox, C S; Eicher, S D; Donkin, S S

2012-12-01

258

The Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Bangladesh waste contributes in emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria  

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Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are one of the categories of antibiotics most frequently used in treating several cattle diseases at the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF, Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh. Untreated veterinary clinical healthcare waste (VCHW of diseased cattle at CCBDF which directly disposed to surrounding may contribute to the antibiotic resistant bacteria pollution (ARB pollution. The investigation analyses the role of VCHW of CCBDF in spreading ARB. Here we studied?1 veterinary clinical data and antibiotics treatment history; 2 total and resistant bacteria counts in fecal samples of healthy and diseased cattles as well as VCHW of CCBDF; and 3 finally, data analysis to estimate the burden of VCHW of CCBDF in the pollution of environment with aminoglycoside antibiotics resistant bacteria. The results conclusively demonstrate the spread of 3 different aminoglycoside antibiotics, namely genta- mycin, kanamycin and streptomycin resistant bacte- ria in the surrounding environment alarmingly with high significant value (p

Sohel Ahmed

2013-02-01

259

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. RESULTS: The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44 K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44 K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44 K is limited.

Jensen, Just; Su, Guosheng

2012-01-01

260

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. Results The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker and familial (pedigree effects most (on average 77.2% of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. Conclusions Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.

Jensen Just

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.

Elwakeel Eman A

2012-03-01

262

Risk factors associated with multiple ovulation and twin birth rate in Irish dairy and beef cattle.  

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The objective of this study was to quantify the phenotypic and genetic risk factors associated with multiple ovulations and twin births in cattle. Prevalence and cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with ovulation rate were determined using 40,617 ultrasonographic records of the reproductive tract from 27,907 dairy and beef cows from 738 commercial herds. Prevalence of twin births was estimated from the Irish national database containing 23,658,351 calving events from 8,546,695 cows from 125,251 dairy and beef herds; factors associated with twin births were determined using a random subsample of 505,200 calving events from 280,638 cows in 81,329 herds. The mean prevalence of multiple ovulations was 6.83% while the prevalence of twin births was 1.74%. Occurrence of both multiple ovulations and twin births was associated with the month of scan (P Simmental, Hereford, and Charolais breed fractions were associated with a greater likelihood of multiple ovulations. There was no difference between breed proportion of the cow and incidence of twin births, where all breed proportions examined, litter difference existed among breeds in their association with risk of twin births. Although multiple ovulations were lowly heritable (0.028 ± 0.003), their occurrence was repeatable (0.326 ± 0.342) while twin birth rate in cattle was lowly heritable (0.017 ± 0.004) and repeatable (0.018 ± 0.011). The genetic SD of the presence of multiple ovulations and twin births was 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, indicating considerable genetic variation, especially for multiple ovulations. A moderate genetic correlation (0.66 ± 0.16) existed between multiple ovulations and twin births. PMID:24492554

Fitzgerald, A M; Berry, D P; Carthy, T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D P

2014-03-01

263

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cattle materials prohibited in animal food...in Animal Food or Feed § 589.2001 Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or...section is to prohibit the use of certain cattle origin materials in the food or...

2010-04-01

264

Diet crude protein content and sources for lactating dairy cattle / Quantidades e formas de proteína dietética para vacas em lactação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB), adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína metabolizável ( [...] PM) (NRC, 2001) com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5%) . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação) foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001). O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5) para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5) para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05) pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p Abstract in english Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP), adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable [...] protein (MP) according to NRC (2001), with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk) were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5) to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5) to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05). Milk protein content decreased (p

Hugo, Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela, Santos; Carla Maris Machado, Bittar; Paulo Sérgio, Correia; Júnio César, Martinez.

265

Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

Georges Michel

2009-03-01

266

Association of herd BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease in youngstock in Estonian dairy cattle.  

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The associations between herd bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) seroprevalence, along with other infectious and farm management factors with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy calves and heifers, were investigated. Serum samples from 103 dairy cattle herds were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis). A questionnaire was used to record herd management practices. A high occurrence of respiratory disease in unweaned calves was associated with low to moderate and high prevalence of BHV-1 among cows (OR=14.8, p=0.005 and OR=19.2, p=0.002, respectively) and positive BVDV status of a herd (OR=5.1, p=0.02). The presence of BVDV in a herd was related to a high incidence of respiratory disease in heifers 3-16 months old (OR=4.3, p=0.027). Based on the results of multiple correspondence analysis, holding youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, introducing new animals and the activities of on-farm employees may contribute to a higher incidence of BRD. PMID:22100246

Raaperi, K; Bougeard, S; Aleksejev, A; Orro, T; Viltrop, A

2012-10-01

267

Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL, we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (% and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some chromosomal regions with a high density of QTL, as well as a substantial number of QTL at single chromosomal locations. To extract the most information from these published records, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain consensus on QTL location and allelic substitution effect of these QTL. This required modification and development of statistical methodologies. The meta-analysis indicated a number of consensus regions, the most striking being two distinct regions affecting milk yield on chromosome 6 at 49 cM and 87 cM explaining 4.2 and 3.6 percent of the genetic variance of milk yield, respectively. The first of these regions (near marker BM143 affects five separate milk production traits (protein yield, protein percent, fat yield, fat percent, as well as milk yield.

Raadsma Herman W

2004-03-01

268

Effect of Johne's disease status on reproduction and culling in dairy cattle.  

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Among the costs attributed to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle, the effects on reproduction and culling are the least documented. To estimate the cost of MAP infections and Johne's disease in a dairy herd, the rates of calving and culling were calculated for cows in each stage of MAP infection relative to uninfected cows. Data from 6 commercial dairy herds, consisting of 2,818 cows with 2,754 calvings and 1,483 cullings, were used for analysis. Every cow in each study herd was tested regularly for MAP, and herds were followed for between 4 and 7 yr. An ordinal categorical variable for Johne's disease status [test-negative, low-positive (low-shedding or ELISA-positive only), or high-shedding] was defined as a time-dependent variable for all cows with at least 1 positive test result or 2 negative test results. A Cox regression model, stratified on herd and controlling for the time-dependent infection variable, was used to analyze time to culling. Nonshedding animals were significantly less likely to be culled in comparison with animals in the low-shedding or ELISA-positive category, and high-shedding animals had nonsignificantly higher culling rates than low-shedding or ELISA-positive animals. Time to calving was analyzed using a proportional rates model, an analog to the Andersen-Gill regression model suitable for recurrent event data, stratifying on herd and weighted to adjust for the dependent censoring caused by the culling effects described above. High-shedding animals had lower calving rates in comparison with low-shedding or ELISA-positive animals, which tended to have higher calving rates than test-negative animals. PMID:20655419

Smith, R L; Strawderman, R L; Schukken, Y H; Wells, S J; Pradhan, A K; Espejo, L A; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Wolfgang, D R; Gröhn, Y T

2010-08-01

269

Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.  

Science.gov (United States)

When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820

Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

2014-02-01

270

Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates in cattle and house sparrows on two Czech dairy farms.  

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Rectal smears of calves, cows and young bulls, as well as cloacal smears of house sparrows (Passer domesticus), from farms at the villages of Sumice and Troskotovice, Czech Republic, were examined for E. coli resistant to 12 antimicrobials. The resistant isolates were tested for antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons. Totals of 40% (n=183), 3% (n=95), 0% (n=33), and 9% (n=54) of Escherichia coli isolates from calves, cows, young bulls and house sparrows, respectively, were antimicrobial resistant. The following genes were identified in cattle E. coli isolates: tetA, tetB (isolates resistant to tetracycline), bla(TEM) (beta-lactams), strA, aadA (streptomycin), sul1, sul2 (sulphonamides), and cat, floR (chloramphenicol). Seven of 16 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates from the Sumice farm possessed class 1 integrons with the aadA1 gene cassette integrated, 1 kb in size. On the Troskotovice farm, eight of 57 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Integrons of 1.5kb with the dhfr1- aadA1 gene cassette were found in four isolates, followed by a 1kb integron with the aadA1 gene found in three isolates, and a 1.7kb integron with the dhfr17-aadA5 gene cassette and the phenotype ASSuTSxtNaCipCCfG. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in calves compared to adult cattle was much higher and probably was influenced by oral antimicrobial usage in calves, feeding with milk and colostrum from treated cows, as well as mechanisms unrelated to antimicrobial drug selection. Although house sparrows lived together with the cattle and came into contact with cattle waste on the farm, they were not infected by resistant E. coli isolates with the same characteristics as those found in cattle. PMID:18471838

Dolejská, M; Senk, D; Cízek, A; Rybaríková, J; Sychra, O; Literák, I

2008-12-01

271

Incidence of post parturient utero-vaginal complications in dairy cattle: a review  

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Full Text Available India possesses one of the largest livestock wealth in the world which comprises of 199 million cattle, 105.3 million buffaloes, 140 million goats and 71.5 million sheep. Even though, India is the largest milk producing country in the world, productivity per animal is less than 50 % of the world average. This is mainly due to poor level of nutrition and low genetic potential for milk production and health care. With ever increasing per capita consumption of milk in the country, there is increase in the domestic demand of milk. Hence therefore, crossbreeding is receiving more importance to overcome this gap. Crossbreeding of zebu cattle with exotic bulls of high merit for increasing productivity was initiated as a part of our breeding policy. The present economic condition demands that not only the individual animal be high producer but should be profitable too. However, the improvement of milk production in past few decades has not necessarily resulted in proportionate increase in profits to dairy farmers as animals with high milk production are prone to increased risk of exposure to health disorders.

V. B. Dongre

2011-12-01

272

Molecular and Pathological Study of Bovine Aborted Fetuses and Placenta from Neospora caninum Infected Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 pla­centas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and pe­rivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of he­morrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "n Conclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neos­pora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.

P Shayan

2009-07-01

273

Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms  

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Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains.

Valentina Bianchini

2014-07-01

274

Subtype analysis of Salmonella isolated from subclinically infected dairy cattle and dairy farm environments reveals the presence of both human- and bovine-associated subtypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

While it is well established that clinically ill livestock represent a reservoir of Salmonella, the importance of subclinical shedders as sources of human salmonellosis is less well defined. The aims of this study were to assess the subtype diversity of Salmonella in healthy dairy cattle and farm environments and to compare the subtypes isolated from these sources with the Salmonella subtypes associated with clinical human cases in the same geographic area. A total of 1349 Salmonella isolates from subclinical dairy cattle and farm environments (46 farms) were initially characterized by traditional or molecular serotyping and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A set of 381 representative isolates was selected for further characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); these isolates represented unique combinations of sampling date, serovar, antimicrobial resistance pattern, farm of origin, and source, to avoid overrepresentation of subtypes that were re-isolated from a given source. These 381 isolates represented 26 Salmonella serovars; the most common serovars were Cerro [(38.8%, 148/381) isolated from 21 farms], Kentucky [16.3%; 10 farms], Typhimurium [9.4%; 7 farms], Newport [7.6%; 8 farms], and Anatum [6.3%; 6 farms]. Among the 381 isolates, 90 (23.6%) were resistant to between 1 and 11 antimicrobial agents, representing 50 different antimicrobial resistance patterns. Overall, 61 XbaI-PFGE types were detected among these 381 isolates, indicating considerable Salmonella diversity on dairy farms. Fourteen PFGE types, representing 12 serovars, exactly matched PFGE types from human isolates, suggesting that subclinically infected dairy cattle could be sources of human disease-associated Salmonella. PMID:24636164

Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Wright, E M; Siler, J D; Elton, M; Cummings, K J; Warnick, L D; Wiedmann, M

2014-06-01

275

Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

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Full Text Available This study aimed (1 at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC in the feed and urine of cattle and (2 at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS. STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM. In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.

Yasuo Fushimi

2014-11-01

276

Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day, respectively). Breeds other than Holstein were used more prevalently on farms in clusters 2 and 4. Results indicated extreme variation in animal breed, structure, and feeding strategies among Wisconsin organic dairy farms. Feeding strategies appeared to be major determinants of RHA and IOFC. These findings may serve current organic and transition farmers when considering feeding management changes needed to meet organic pasture rule requirements or dealing with dietary supplementation challenges. PMID:24819131

Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

2014-07-01

277

The Feasibility of Feeding High Levels of Whey Silage and Effects on Production in Growing Cattle  

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Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage), fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey si...

Goonewardene, L. A.; Wiedmeier, R. D.; Olson, K. C.; Okine, E. K.; Zobell, D. R.; Stonecipher, C.

2004-01-01

278

NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS  

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Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

LAVINIA MOISE

2013-12-01

279

The Associations between Calving Interval and Milk Production traits in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle.  

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Full Text Available The aim this work was to associations between calving interval and milk production traits in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle in the period 2003-2009. The basic statistic analysis were analysed using the SAS version 9.1.3. The average length between calving intervals was 413.34 days in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle. Correlation between evaluated calving interval and traits of milk production (milk, fat, proteins were lower negative r=-0.00924, r=-0.00539, r=-0.02381and correlation between calving interval and proteins in kg statistically high significant (P<.0001. The analyses by the effect on calving interval was the highest effect of herd-years-season R2= 0.212786, others effects of father R2= 0.028230 and cods of milk groups R2= 0.001353.

Jozef Bujko

2013-10-01

280

Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle  

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Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine resp...

Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle herds in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia  

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Objective. To determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in non-vaccinated dairy cattle against infectious agents of reproductive syndrome in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods. Farms over 2527 meters over sea level were selected, a total of 238 serum samples of Holstein cows were collected and analyzed using the indirect ELISA test to determine N. caninum seropositivity. An epidemiological survey was realized in each herd which included v...

Darío Cedeño Q; Bibiana Benavides B.

2013-01-01

282

Potential improvements in rate of genetic gain from marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding schemes.  

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The value of marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding schemes is predicted by a deterministic model. In these schemes, associations between markers and milk production were assessed from production records of daughters of a grandsire by a multiple regression model with random marker effects. By tracing markers from the grandsire to grandoffspring, deviations of grandoffspring from their full-sib family mean were predicted. Predictions of the within-family variance of the grandoffspr...

Meuwissen, T. H. E.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

1992-01-01

283

Characteristics of Feed Mills at Farmers Group Scale in Supporting the Development of Beef Cattle  

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One of the strategies to increase the availability of beef cattle feed in small holder livestock farms is to build feed industry of raw material agricultural waste-based. Development of small scale feed mills at the farmers group level is a necessity in supporting their farm. The important thing to consider in feed production not only on the quality aspect, but also the economical aspects need to be considered, which can be affordable by the farmers. The farmer group of Padang Tawang is one o...

A Syamsu, Jasmal; Yusuf, Muhammad; Abdullah, Agustina

2014-01-01

284

Anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos de leite do sudoeste do estado do Paraná Antibodies to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Southwest of Paraná State  

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Full Text Available Since November 2007 until May 2009, 1,778 serum samples of cattle from dairy herds of the Southwest of Paraná State, Brazil, were used for search of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies. The frequency of seropositive animals, assessed by IFAT, was 24.2% (431/1,178, showing a relatively high occurrence in the studied population. These results show that Neospora caninum is widely distributed in the dairy cattle in the Southwest of Paraná State. The presence of Neospora caninum in a herd is worrisome, since this protozoan is closely related with reproductive disorders and low milk production in cattle.

G Camillo

2010-12-01

285

The Analysis of Application of Technical Management on Various Small Holder Dairy Farm Scale in Garut Regency West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.

Soni Sopiyana

2006-09-01

286

Relationship between Facilities, Conditions, Member Participation, and Founding and Maintenance of Dairy Cattle Farmers Group with Entrepreneurship of Its Member in Banyumas Regency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research was carried out for 12 weeks from May to June 2004 in Kecamatan Ajibarang, Cilongok, Kalibagor, Sokaraja and Purwokerto Timur. Aims of this research were (1 to find out level of entrepreneurship of dairy cattle farmers; (2 to find out relationship between facilities, conditions, member participation, and founding and maintenance of dairy farmers group with entrepreneurship attitude and income rate of its member. A total of 55 respondents (30% of the population was selected using random sampling. Analysis of rank spearmann was applied to observe relationship between factors. Results showed that (1 entrepreneurship of dairy cattle farmers was on moderate category; (2 members entrepreneurship has not significantly related to factors of facilities, conditions, and member participation, but it has a significant relationship to group founding and maintenance. . (Animal Production 7(2: 111-120 (2005Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Dairy cattle, Farmers group

M Nuskhi

2005-05-01

287

Improving Carcass Quality of Indigenous Cattle of West Sumatera Fed Local Feed Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lack of adequate nutrition all year round is one of the major causes of the low productivity of ruminants. An operational policy announced by the Indonesian government to achieve the target to be self sufficient on meat demand 2010 is to develop feed and ration for beef industry based on agricultural and industrial-wastes besides exploiting biodiversity that has not been fully implemented by the farmers. A feeding trial with 12 Pesisir cattle, indigenous cattle of West Sumatera weighed 120-150 kg aged 2-3 yrs old were carried out to investigate the effect of feeding local feed resources on their growth performance and carcass characteristics; dressing percentage, rib eye area, lean and fat percentage. Animals were divided into two equal groups of similar average body weight, assigned to Completely Randomized Design and were individually fed for 90 days. The first group was offered control feed as practiced by farmer and the second group was offered treatment diet based on ammoniated rice straw and chipped cassava. This feeding trial was followed by a slaughter experiment on one animal from each group to study of carcass traits. Cattle receiving a treatment diet performed better (p0.05 observed between the two groups with regard to Average Total Body Weight Gain (ATG and Average Daily Body Weight Gain (ADG 0.20 kg/d to 0.68 kg/d respectively. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet (52.59% than in control diet (50.82%. The rib eye area, lean and fat percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet than in control diet. It was concluded that feeding improved low quality local feed resources could have a positive effects on growth performance and carcass traits of indigenous cattle.

R.W.S. Ningrat

2010-01-01

288

Research on the Effect of Utilization CLA and ZLL Nutritional Supplements in Dairy Cows Feeding  

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Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cows is an area of great importance to ensure the basic needs of people. Dairy cows are also subjected to the action of various factors of influence due to the feeding peculiarities. This research aims to reveal the influence of the dairy cows feeding use of based on conjugated linoleic acid -CLA and a mixture of plant extracts and micro-ZLL supplements. The study was carried out in Agrimat Matca farm, on a herd of 100 cows at the first lactation. The experiment consisted in the administration of 0.20 kg VILOMIL ZLL and 0.13 kg VILOMIX CLA for a period of 24 days. Observations were made on the quantity of daily milk, the milk quality and hygiene and the health of the dairy cows. We observed that at the beginning of the experiment the somatic cell contents was 800000/ml, and at the end of the experiment it decreased to 400000/ml. The quantity of milk increased between 4 and 12.5%, the fat contents decreased by 0.4 to 0.6% while the protein content was not influenced.

Livia Vidu

2012-05-01

289

CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sample or 10 hours after AFB1 ingestion. The steady state of AFM1 concentration observed since the first day of treatment period and AFM1 contamination was still detected until 5 days after AFB1 removed from the diet. The COR in this study was observed 0.1%. AFM1 concentration was highly significantly (P0.05 of levels of AFB1 and bentonite inclusions on the COR, nutrients intake, milk production, and milk composition. IIt is concluded that AFM1 concentration was influenced by AFB1 intake and that transfer of AFB1-feed into AFM1-milk (COR in PFH cow was lower compare to reported COR value for dairy cow in sub tropical region.

I. Sumantri

2012-12-01

290

Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater milk production. PMID:23660144

Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

2013-07-01

291

Isolation, prevalence, and risk factors for infection by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rectal swabs of 198 Holstein × Gir crossbred beef cattle from 34 milk farms in the central west of Brazil were analyzed from August 2010 to February 2011. Strains of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 72.73% (144/198) of the animals, on over 97% of the surveyed properties. The molecular characterization indicated the most common toxin gene stx1 in 70.88% of the animals (202/285), followed by 18.95% (54/285) stx1/sxt2, and 10.18% (29/285) stx2. The presence of STEC in animals together with the probable risk factors based on a questionnaire was evaluated in the owners of the evaluated animals. Results showed that the animal category "calves" and production/technification scale "low" of the farm were related to high STEC prevalence in cattle. The season did not significantly affect the presence of STEC in cattle. The STEC strains are considered a major pathogen, causing severe and potentially lethal diseases in humans such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. This high prevalence of STEC in dairy cattle poses a significant risk to public health, since these microorganisms can contaminate products intended for human consumption, e.g., water, raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, dairy products, and/or products of plant origin. PMID:24510196

Ferreira, Marcos Roberto Alves; Freitas Filho, Edismauro Garcia; Pinto, Jefferson Fernando Naves; Dias, Márcia; Moreira, Cecília Nunes

2014-04-01

292

Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

2013-01-01

293

Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter : application to body condition scores in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.

Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc

2012-01-01

294

Incidental phosphorus and nitrogen loss from grassland plots receiving chemically amended dairy cattle slurry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical amendment of dairy cattle slurry has been shown to effectively reduce incidental phosphorus (P) losses in runoff; however, the effects of amendments on incidental nitrogen (N) losses are not as well documented. This study examined P and N losses in runoff during three simulated rainfall events 2, 10 and 28 days after a single application of unamended/chemically amended dairy cattle slurry. Twenty-five hydraulically isolated plots, each measuring 0.9 m by 0.4 m and instrumented with runoff collection channels, were randomly assigned the following treatments: (i) grass-only, (ii) slurry-only (the study-control), (iii) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid alum comprising 8% Al?O?, (iv) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) comprising 10% Al?O?, and (v) slurry amended with lime. During the first rainfall event, lime was ineffective but alum and PAC effectively reduced dissolved reactive P (DRP) (by 95 and 98%, respectively) and total P (TP) flow-weighted-mean-concentrations (by 82 and 93%, respectively) in runoff compared to the study-control. However, flow-weighted-mean-concentrations of ammonium-N (NH?--N) in runoff were increased with alum- (81%) and lime-treated (11%) slurry compared to the study-control whereas PAC reduced the NH?--N by 82%. Amendments were not observed to have a significant effect on NO?--N losses during this study. Slurry amendments reduced P losses for the duration of the study, whereas the effect of amendments on N losses was not significant following the first event. Antecedent volumetric water content of the soil or slope of the plots did not appear to affect runoff volume. However, runoff volumes (and consequently loads of P and N) were observed to increase for the chemically amended plots compared to the control and soil-only plots. This work highlights the importance of considering both P and N losses when implementing a specific nutrient mitigation measure. PMID:23137978

Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Grant, J; Ibrahim, T G; Fenton, O

2012-12-15

295

The Management in a Dairy Goat Farm Based on Feeding Systems  

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Full Text Available Yield and quantity of milk components are influenced by nutrition goats. The present study analyzes the factors such as heredity, infection, the number of secreting cells and the temperature who often offers nutritional effects. Proper feeding can improve the economics of production, increased production of milk with a maximum amount of fat and proteins are essential. High protein content in milk increased the price difference is due to people's demand for lowfat dairy products.

Roger Stan

2011-05-01

296

Bovine Nutritional Needs: Digestibility of Dry and Ensiled Forages when Feeding Young Dairy Heifers  

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Full Text Available The diets fed to growing animals are very important to ensure that young animals have the proper nutrients available for growth. When feeding dairy heifers, a farmer’s goal is to feed a very digestible diet that will provide nutrients to keep dairy heifers healthy and allow them to grow faster, while spending less money on feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding heifers diets containing dry or ensiled forage (haylage improved digestibility. Our hypothesis was that incorporating hay into the diet of 16-week-old dairy heifers would provide a more digestible source of nutrients. For this study, 12 heifers were randomly assigned to treatments, with 6 heifers fed hay-based diets and the other 6 heifers fed haylage-based diets. The heifers were housed in individual pens and fed individually on a daily basis for 8 days. Fecal samples were collected during the last 3 days of the feeding period. The fecal collection was achieved by collecting fecal samples from individual heifers every 6 hours over a 3-day period. Digestibility of the diets and nutrients were determined using chromic oxide as an external marker. In order to determine the digestibility of haylage or hay diets fed to the heifers, the percent of chromic oxide in feed was compared to the percent of chromic oxide in feces. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF of the feeds and feces was determined using the Ankom Fiber Analysis System. Data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter digestibility of the diets were similar between treatments (P = 0.19 and was 68.4% for the hay diet and 66.6% for the haylage diet. The NDF digestibility was also similar between diets (P = 0.21 with an NDF digestibility of 68.4% for hay and 66.1% for haylage diets. In summary, feeding dairy heifers hay-based diets did not significantly improve either the dry matter or NDF digestibility of the diets.

Shirley Nigaglioni

2012-01-01

297

Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

2014-04-01

298

Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

299

Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences

300

Lameness and claw lesions of the Norwegian red dairy cattle housed in free stalls in relation to environment, parity and stage of lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5-7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3-5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5-7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health. PMID:16398332

Sogstad, A M; Fjeldaas, T; Osterås, O

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

Sogstad ÅM

2006-12-01

302

Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

Østerås O

2005-12-01

303

Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine. PMID:21968538

Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

2011-12-01

304

Survival analysis of longevity in dairy cattle on a lactation basis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract An analysis of longevity in dairy cattle on a lactation basis is proposed. The approach allowed each lactation to have its own baseline hazard function, which gives a better description of the hazard than traditional analyses of the whole length of life. As a consequence, the overall fit of the model to the data was improved and fewer time-dependent variables were needed. Longevity on a lactation basis was defined from one calving to the next instead of from the first calving to culling. However, no new information was added and it was still the overall risk of being culled that was modelled. It is shown that no cow effect is needed in the lactation basis model because a censored record is not complete, a cow can appear as uncensored only once, and a cow cannot be censored after having been culled. Different subdivisions of the stage of lactation effect were tested and the first ten days of lactation were shown to correspond to an increased risk of being culled. There were no major differences in sire variance between the longevity analysed on a lactation basis and longevity based on the entire length of life.

Strandberg Erling

2003-05-01

305

Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

2012-01-01

306

Effect of the RSPCA Freedom Food Scheme on the welfare of dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effect of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Freedom Food (FF) scheme on the welfare of dairy cattle in England, 28 FF and 25 non-FF farms were assessed during the winter of 2000 to 2001. The assessments were based on a protocol which included the examination of the farms' records, the farmers' estimates of the incidence of disease, and independent observations of the behaviour and physical condition of the cows. The data were analysed to identify which measures of welfare were affected by FF membership and to assess the number of farms on which intervention would be required, as defined by a panel of 50 experts. The FF farms had better results for 12 of the welfare indicators, including those for mastitis, non-hock injuries, cow cleanliness and body condition, and poorer welfare indicators for eight of the measures, including hock injuries, lameness and restrictions in rising behaviour. Except for the prevalence of dull coats (which was lower on the FF farms) there were no significant differences in the proportions of FF and non-FF farms on which intervention was required according to the experts' assessment. PMID:12967145

Main, D C J; Whay, H R; Green, L E; Webster, A J F

2003-08-23

307

Effect of crossbreeding on milk yield traits and somatic cell score in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF, Dutch Friesian (DF, Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY, and F1 crossbreds (DFxHF and MRYxHF were considered. According to cows’ year of calving, productive records from animals calving from 1980 to 2004 were divided in five periods, while SCS records from animals calving from 1990 to 2004 were divided in four periods. Data were processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA according to a linear model which included effects of herd, season of calving, age at calving, and the genotype by period of calving interaction effect. Moreover, a linear covariate of sire’s estimated breeding value (EBV for 305-d milk yield was added to the model for yield traits. Heterosis values for productive traits were positive but decreased over time. For 305-d milk yield these values changed from 7.5 to 3.0% in the DFxHF crossbreds, and from 9.0 to 1.0% in the MRYxHF crossbreds. Average heterosis for SCS (-1.2% was small and negative with a favourable trend over years.

M. Cassandro

2010-04-01

308

Within-group contact of cattle in dairy barns and the implications for disease transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention, control and reduction of livestock diseases require a good understanding of how the underlying causative agents are transmitted. On livestock premises the rate of spread is strongly determined by the contact, both direct and indirect, between infectious and susceptible individuals. Here we consider contact amongst barn-housed dairy cattle, one of the most important UK livestock sectors. A novel observational study of faecal spread indicates that the level of contact an individual animal can have with other herd members via this transmission pathway is very high (80 ± 4% within sub-units). Additional observational studies indicate the possible level of direct physical contact an animal has with other group members (an approximate Poisson distribution with a mean rate of 14.4 distinct individuals per hour), and the potential for indirect transfer via inanimate objects by considering the proportion of the herd that touched a given gatepost in the milking parlour each day (43 ± 6%). Results suggest that mixing may be considered homogeneous for certain pathogens, but that the spread of diseases transmitted along only specific routes requires the incorporation of within group contact structures. PMID:23849647

Kleinlützum, Dina; Weaver, Giles; Schley, David

2013-10-01

309

Reliabilities of genomic prediction using combined reference data of the Nordic Red dairy cattle production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the possibility of increasing the reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) by combining reference opulations. The data were from 3,735 bulls from Danish, Swedish, and Finnish Red dairy cattle populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were fitted as random variables in a Bayesian model, using published estimated breeding values as response variables. In total, 17 index traits were analyzed. Reliabilities were estimated using a 5-fold cross validation, and calculated as the within-year squared correlation between estimated breeding values and DGV. Marker effects were estimated using reference populations from individual countries, as well as using a combined reference population from all 3 countries. Single-country reference populations gave mean reliabilities across 17 traits of 0.19 to 0.23, whereas the combined reference gave mean reliabilities of 0.26 for all populations. Using marker effects from 1 population to predict the other 2 gave a loss in mean reliability of 0.14 to 0.21 when predicting Swedish or Finnish animals with Danish marker effects, or vice versa. Using Swedish or Finnish marker effects to predict each other only showed a loss in mean reliability of 0.03 to 0.05. A combined Swedish-Finnish reference population led to an average reliability as high as that from the 3-country reference population, but somewhat different for individual traits. The results from this study show that it is possible to increase the reliability of DGV by combining reference populations from related populations

BrØndum, Rasmus Froberg; Rius-Vilarrasa, E

2011-01-01

310

Across breed multi-trait random regression genomic predictions in the Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study evaluates reliability of genomic predictions in selection candidates using multi-trait random regression model, which accounts for interactions between marker effects and breed of origin in the Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC). The population structure of the RDC is admixed. Data consisted of individual animal breed proportions calculated from the full pedigree, deregressed proofs (DRP) of published estimated breeding values (EBV) for yield traits and genotypic data for 37,595 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. The analysed data included 3330 bulls in the reference population and 812 bulls that were used for validation. Direct genomic breeding values (DGV) were estimated using the model under study, which accounts for breed effects and also with GBLUP, which assume uniform population. Validation reliability was calculated as a coefficient of determination from weighted regression of DRP on DGV (rDRP,DGV 2), scaled by the mean reliability of DRP. Using the breed-specific model increased the reliability of DGV by 2 and 3% for milk and protein, respectively, when compared to homogeneous population GBLUP. The exception was for fat, where there was no gain in reliability. Estimated validation reliabilities were low for milk (0.32) and protein (0.32) and slightly higher (0.42) for fat. PMID:23317061

Makgahlela, M L; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Koivula, M; Nielsen, U S; Sillanpää, M J; Juga, J

2013-02-01

311

Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results  

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Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

Andrea Serraino

2013-10-01

312

Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease. These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits.

Amigues Yves

2003-01-01

313

Phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial viruses from recent outbreaks in feedlot and dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major causes of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. In order to study the molecular epidemiology of the virus, samples from 30 BRSV outbreaks in cattle herds located in different parts of Sweden were collected from 2007 to 2011. The samples were analyzed by PCR, and the glycoprotein (G) gene was sequenced. BRSV was detected in outbreaks of respiratory disease in both dairy and feedlot herds most often during the winter period but also during the summer months (May to August). This indicates that circulation of the virus between herds occurs throughout the year. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a high degree (more than 94.5%) of sequence identity among the collected strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 29 out of the 30 strains formed a unique clade. Identical sequences found in herds sampled within a few months' time suggested that these herds were part of a common transmission chain. One strain from a single outbreak in a herd in southern Sweden clustered with Danish strains and showed a distant relationship to the rest of the Swedish strains. Further studies are highly warranted to clarify the inter-herd transmission routes of BRSV. Such knowledge is essential for the control of the spread of this virus between herds, regions and even countries. PMID:22209787

Bidokhti, Mehdi R M; Tråvén, Madeleine; Ohlson, Anna; Zarnegar, Behdad; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor; Alenius, Stefan; Liu, Lihong

2012-04-01

314

Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

Piekarska, J; P?oneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

2013-11-15

315

Profit Analysis of Small Holder Dairy Cattle Farm on Group and Individual System in Banyumas Regency  

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Full Text Available This research is aimed to study production, technical and the profit of group and individual system on smallholder dairy cattle farm. The research has been conducted in Banyumas Regency. Data collection was done by surveying about 80 farmers, Unit Output Price Cobb-Douglas Profit Function estimation employed Ordinary Leas Square (OLS method. The different of variable from the result of profit estimation. Profit function analysis on group system showed that manpower pay, animal age, lactation period, lactation month and farmer education have a significant influence on the profit. Whereas, on individual system influence of manpower pay, animal age and lactation month were significant on the profit. Dummy variable showed that group system has more profit than individual system, it was because on group system; (1 has cheaper price on forage and concentrate cost, (2 has higher average of production result, and (3 has higher price of milk per unit. (Animal Production 4(2: 94-100 (2002 Key words : Profit, Group and Individual System

Sri Mastuti

2002-05-01

316

Inbreeding trends and pedigree analysis of Irish dairy and beef cattle populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the inbreeding levels and to analyze the pedigree of Irish purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Hereford, Angus, and Simmental beef cattle, as well as the Holstein-Friesian dairy breed. Pedigree analyses included quantifying the depth of known pedigree, average generation intervals, effective population size, the effective number of founders, ancestors, and founder genomes, as well as identifying the most influential animals within the current population of each breed. The annual rate of increase in inbreeding over the past decade was 0.13% (P Simmental, and 0.10% (P Simmental, and Holstein-Friesian only, and was 64, 127, and 75, respectively. The effective number of founders varied from 55 (Simmental) to 357 (Charolais), whereas the effective number of ancestors varied from 35 (Simmental and Hereford) to 82 (Limousin). Thus, despite the majority of animals being inbred, the inbreeding level across breeds is low but rising at a slow rate in the Hereford, Simmental, and Holstein-Friesian. PMID:17040944

Mc Parland, S; Kearney, J F; Rath, M; Berry, D P

2007-02-01

317

DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphism in dairy and dual purpose Italian cattle breeds  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allele frequency distribution at the DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphic site in seven Italian dairy and dual purpose cattle breeds. On the whole, 651 animals belonging Italian Holstein (116, Italian Brown (105, Italian Simmental (95, Valdostana Red Pied (95, Rendena (62, Reggiana (128 and Modenese (50 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Sequencing was carried out to confirm results of the genotyping protocol. The DGAT1 p.232K allele was identified in Italian Holstein (25.4%, Reggiana (17.2%, and with very low frequency in Italian Simmental, Valdostana Red Pied and Rendena (1%. In Italian Brown and Modenese, this allele was not detected. These results indicated that this polymorphic site can be considered for association studies only in Italian Holstein and Reggiana breeds. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the Reggiana breed (P<0.01 in which there was an excess of heterozygous sires and absence of animals with the p.232KK genotype. This result should be further evaluated because the analysed sires represented almost all bulls available for artificial insemination in this breed. Comparison of allele frequencies at the DGAT1 locus with several other Holstein populations showed a wide range of variability, probably due to different selection strategies adopted.

Alessandro Bagnato

2010-02-01

318

Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.

319

Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.

2014-02-01

320

Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478

Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of this study indicate that young calves exhibit clear preferences for certain high-energy and high-protein feeds that may be considered highly palatable. Further, preference ranking of feed types provided as 50:50 mixtures was consistent with ranking of individual feed types, suggesting that palatability of mixed starter rations can be improved by inclusion of a preferred feed type. PMID:24418273

Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

2014-03-01

322

Mineral Inter-relationship among Soil, forage and Dairy cattle in Kashmir, India  

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Full Text Available Samples of soil, forage and blood serum of cattle in six villages Ganderbal district of kashmir were collected and analysed for different macro and micro mineral contents to establish the mineral correlation among soil, forage and animals. The macro and micro mineral contents in soils of Ganderbal district were higher than their respective critical levels except Mn. Similarly, in forage except for zinc all the mineral values were above critical level. The study also revealed the serum mineral values above the critical levels. The soil and forage (r=0.558 and forage and serum (r=0.463 showed significant positive correlations while, non-significant (P<0.05 positive correlation (r=0.08 between soil and serum for Cu was observed. The correlation for Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese observed between soil-forage, Forage-serum as well as soil-serum was non-sgnificant. Based on present study, supplementation of calcium, phosphorous, copper and zinc in the diet of cattle under existing feeding practices in Ganderbal district of Kashmir is imperative for better health and productivity. However, further, studies should elucidate the bioavailability and strategic dietary supplementation of minerals for livestock [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 550-553

R. Zaman

323

On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame-  ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con-  cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat-  tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed  that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52  to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for  cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo  farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W  = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In  all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor  (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P  stepping (P  nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance  (P  that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P  criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two  parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable  and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus  less feasible. 

Giuseppe De Rosa

2010-01-01

324

The Comparison Effects of Bolus and Dietary Supplements on Production, Milk Compositions and Udder Immune System of Holstein Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bolus and dietary supplements on production, fat, protein and SNF of milk and the evaluation of the udder immune system by SCC of Holstein dairy cattle. In this study 2 groups containing 30 cattle were selected with an average of milk production 30±2 kg and the same of the parity and days in milk. Both supplements were the same in composition. Dietary supplement was used in control group as TMR and bolus (2 bolus/cow were used in the treatment group for 6 months. Milk sample was collected 1 week later from the beginning, 3 and 6 months after the examination for analyzed SCC, milk production, percent of fat, protein and SNF of milk. Results indicated that the treatment group lead to a significant increase of milk production compared to the control group and fat and SNF milk were higher than the control group but it wasn’t significant. Also, between the two groups no significant differences were observed on SCC and milk protein at total sampling. It was concluded that bolus supplement had the same effects with dietary supplement in dairy cattle.

S. Eghbalsaeed

2011-01-01

325

Identification of splice variants, expression analysis and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PRMT2 gene in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2), also named HRMT1L1, belongs to the Bovine Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) genes which are involved in the immune response. To explore the variability of the PRMT2 gene and resistance to mastitis in cows, splice variant (SV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this study. A SV (PRMT2-SV) lacking exon 7 (98-bp) of the PRMT2 gene was found in healthy and mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues. Two of four SNPs were significantly associated with bovine milk yield and protein content. Further, we estimated the relative expression of PRMT2-SV in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that expression of the PRMT2-SV mRNA was significantly upregulated 4.02-fold (pPRMT2-SV may play an important role in mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. The SNPs may be used as a possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese Holstein cattle. PMID:24502989

Li, Zhixiong; Zhai, Mengxing; Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Ru, Caixia; Song, Ailong; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-04-10

326

Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding strategies; MR1, MR2-E or MR2-L. Cows fed according to the MR1 strategy were allowed one medium energy ration during the whole lactation. Cows on the MR2 strategies were allowed a high energy ration during early lactation, followed by an early (MR2-E) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows into a second period of mobilization, whereas cows continued to gain live weight in response to late reduction of ration energy concentration. In general results from the present experiment indicate that feeding according to live weight can be used to manipulate the extent and the duration of the mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition metabolism. Additionally the results suggest that the transition period from mobilization to deposition is relatively short. Udgivelsesdato: December

Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

2009-01-01

327

Effects of a subtropical climate on the fertility of dairy cattle in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.3±0.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studs were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs

328

21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...from which brains and spinal cords were not effectively removed or otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv... (A) The brain and spinal cord are not effectively removed from such cattle or the brain and...

2010-04-01

329

9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...authorized pens for such purpose. (a) Specifications for construction and maintenance. Cattle of the free area, and...noninfectious pens; source, shipment, handling. The hay, straw, or similar materials required for feed and bedding in...

2010-01-01

330

Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

2013-07-01

331

Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

Raaperi Kerli

2012-01-01

332

Comparison of a classical with a highly formularized body condition scoring system for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion of the overall appearance of the cow into the assessment process counteracted these errors and led to a fair predictability of BFT with the flowchart-based BCS. This might be particularly important, if different cattle types and breeds are assessed. PMID:25076185

Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P

2014-12-01

333

Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) Antibodies in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Cattle Herds of Mashhad Area, North-East of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), a member of retroviridae is an oncovirus that causes a chronic infection in cattle called Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) and has a worldwide distribution but its overall prevalence in Iran is unknown. EBL causes significant economic loss associated with the cost of control and eradication, loss in milk production and difficulties in exports. The bulk tank samples were collected from 92 dairy herds in Mashhad area during Summer, 2009. The dairy herds were categoriz...

Gholamreza Mohammadi; Elias Tabatabaiezadeh; Alireza Haghparast; Nahid Kord

2012-01-01

334

The Potential of Gelam Leaves (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell as Cattle Feed  

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Full Text Available Gelam putih (M. cajuputi Powell in Central Kalimantan, has not been exploited well. In vitro test conducted to evaluate the potential of gelam leaves as cattle feed. The measured variables were NH3, volatile fatty acids (VFA, dry matter Digestibility (DMD and organic matter Digestibility (DMO. Completely randomized design was made with 5 different treatments and 4 replications, in order to get 20 experimental units. Data were analyzed by analysis of Variance (ANOVA Followed by Duncan's multiple range test with a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the giving 100% of gelam leaves produced NH3 dan VFA for about 4.01 and 151.25 mM, also DMD and DMO by 58.35 and 52.38%. These results were significant (p<0.05, higher than the grass field, so it can be concluded that the waste of gelam leaves, potentially be used as cattle feed.

Ana Widiana

2014-01-01

335

Can pre-collected register data be used to identify dairy herds with good cattle welfare?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-recorded register data from dairy herds are available in almost all Nordic countries. These databases can be used for research purposes, and one of the research areas is animal welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate if pre-recorded register data could be used to identify herds with good welfare, and to investigate if a combination of register data sets could be used to be able to more correctly distinguish between herds with good welfare and herds with welfare deficiencies. Methods As a first step, nine animal-based measurements on calves, young stock and cows in 55 randomly selected herds were performed on-farm as the basis for a classification of welfare at the herd level. The definition for being a case herd with “good welfare” was no score lying among the 10% worst in any of the nine welfare measurements. Twenty-eight of the 55 herds were cases according to this definition. As a second step, 65 potential welfare indicators, based on register data in a national dairy database, were identified by expert opinion. In the final step, the extent to which the suggested welfare indicators predicted farms’ as having good welfare according to the stated definition was assessed. Moreover, the effect of combining in sequence a previously developed model that identified herds with poor welfare with the present model identifying herds with good welfare was investigated. Results The final set of welfare indicators used to identify herds with good animal welfare included two fertility measures, cow mortality, stillbirth rate, mastitis incidence and incidence of feed-related diseases (including gastrointestinal disturbances but excluding paralyses and cramps. This set had a test sensitivity of correctly classifying herds with no score lying among the 10% worst of the nine welfare measurements of 96 %. However, the specificity of the test was only 56% indicating difficulties for the test to correctly classifying herds with one or more scores lying among the 10% worst. Combining the previously developed model with the present model, improved the welfare classification. Conclusions This study shows that pre-collected register data may be used to give approval to dairy farms with “good welfare” and that combining different sets of register data can improve the classification of herd welfare.

Lindberg Ann

2011-06-01

336

Influence of macro and micro minerals in the peri-parturient period on fertility in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infertility in dairy cattle is a complex, multi-factorial problem that cannot be evaluated in isolation of other diseases and disorders. Clearly there is a role for the prevention of problems in the peri-parturient period, in particular hypocalcaemia, mastitis, lameness and retained placenta (RP), that all have a negative impact on the subsequent fertility of the cow. Minerals, trace elements and vitamins play a vital role in the prevention of these disorders at this time. Macro minerals are involved in the acid base status of the dairy cow and influence calcium metabolism. The use of anionic salts in combination with adequate calcium and magnesium supplementation may help to improve dry matter intakes and reduce negative energy balance in the post-calving period as well as prevent hypocalcaemia. Vitamin E and zinc are effective in prevention of mastitis that occurs predominantly in the first weeks of lactation, through enhanced antioxidant function and keratinisation of the teat canal. Lameness in dairy cattle also occurs mainly in lactation though most of the original insults to the hoof can occur prior to calving. Zinc and biotin are implicated in improving keratinisation of the hoof and prevention of this disease. Organic forms of zinc are retained better than inorganic sources and may provide greater benefit in disease prevention. Retained placenta can be reduced by prevention of hypocalcaemia and also adequate selenium status of the dairy cow. Selenium yeast is known to have higher retention in tissues and may play an important role in ensuring sufficient selenium is available to the cow for reduction of disease. PMID:16971071

Wilde, D

2006-12-01

337

Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1), Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4) and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalen...

Amira M Elhassan, M. A. Fadol And A. M. El-hussein

2011-01-01

338

Study on performance analysis of Holstein Fresien cattle under intensive management at government dairy farm, Pishin, Balochistan  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze the productive and reproductive performance ofHolstein Friesian cattle under intensive management at Government Dairy Farm, Pishin (Balochistanexploring the ten years performance records from 1997-2007. Parameters were productive traits(birth weight, lactation length, lactation milk yield, reproductive traits (age at first conception, age atfirst calving, service period, dry period, calving interval and effect of calving season on (milk yield,calving interval, birth weight, dry period on the Holstein Fresein cattle. Analysis of data revealedsignificant difference in all the productive traits (P0.05 in higher birth weight of calves, dry period,calving interval and milk yield of cows, respectively.

Yousaf H. Barozai

2011-06-01

339

AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING FEED SORTING IN TRANSITION DAIRY COWS FED GLYCEROL  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC. Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS to yield long (>19 mm, medium (8 mm, short (1.18 mm, and fine particles (19 mm and reduced (P1.18 mm and fine particles (0.05 the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm. Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol. Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol. There was no response (P>0.05 of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Feeding prepartum glycerol to transition dairy cows increases the preference for the long-stem forage particles of the diet. The alternative methodology proposed in this study is more reliable than the standard methodology to determine feed sorting.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho

2010-12-01

340

Accounting for genomic pre-selection in national BLUP evaluations in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In future Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP evaluations of dairy cattle, genomic selection of young sires will cause evaluation biases and loss of accuracy once the selected ones get progeny. Methods To avoid such bias in the estimation of breeding values, we propose to include information on all genotyped bulls, including the culled ones, in BLUP evaluations. Estimated breeding values based on genomic information were converted into genomic pseudo-performances and then analyzed simultaneously with actual performances. Using simulations based on actual data from the French Holstein population, bias and accuracy of BLUP evaluations were computed for young sires undergoing progeny testing or genomic pre-selection. For bulls pre-selected based on their genomic profile, three different types of information can be included in the BLUP evaluations: (1 data from pre-selected genotyped candidate bulls with actual performances on their daughters, (2 data from bulls with both actual and genomic pseudo-performances, or (3 data from all the genotyped candidates with genomic pseudo-performances. The effects of different levels of heritability, genomic pre-selection intensity and accuracy of genomic evaluation were considered. Results Including information from all the genotyped candidates, i.e. genomic pseudo-performances for both selected and culled candidates, removed bias from genetic evaluation and increased accuracy. This approach was effective regardless of the magnitude of the initial bias and as long as the accuracy of the genomic evaluations was sufficiently high. Conclusions The proposed method can be easily and quickly implemented in BLUP evaluations at the national level, although some improvement is necessary to more accurately propagate genomic information from genotyped to non-genotyped animals. In addition, it is a convenient method to combine direct genomic, phenotypic and pedigree-based information in a multiple-step procedure.

Patry Clotilde

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Concordance analysis for QTL detection in dairy cattle: a case study of leg morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present availability of sequence data gives new opportunities to narrow down from QTL (quantitative trait locus) regions to causative mutations. Our objective was to decrease the number of candidate causative mutations in a QTL region. For this, a concordance analysis was applied for a leg conformation trait in dairy cattle. Several QTL were detected for which the QTL status (homozygous or heterozygous for the QTL) was inferred for each individual. Subsequently, the inferred QTL status was used in a concordance analysis to reduce the number of candidate mutations. Methods Twenty QTL for rear leg set side view were mapped using Bayes C. Marker effects estimated during QTL mapping were used to infer the QTL status for each individual. Subsequently, polymorphisms present in the QTL regions were extracted from the whole-genome sequences of 71 Holstein bulls. Only polymorphisms for which the status was concordant with the QTL status were kept as candidate causative mutations. Results QTL statuscould be inferred for 15 of the 20 QTL. The number of concordant polymorphisms differed between QTL and depended on the number of QTL statuses that could be inferred and the linkage disequilibrium in the QTL region. For some QTL, the concordance analysis was efficient and narrowed down to a limited number of candidate mutations located in one or two genes, while for other QTL a large number of genes contained concordant polymorphisms. Conclusions For regions for which the concordance analysis could be performed, we were able to reduce the number of candidate mutations. For part of the QTL, the concordant analyses narrowed QTL regions down to a limited number of genes, of which some are known for their role in limb or skeletal development in humans and mice. Mutations in these genes are good candidates for QTN (quantitative trait nucleotides) influencing rear leg set side view.

van den Berg, Irene; Rodrigue<, Sabrina

2014-01-01

342

Reliabilities of genomic prediction using combined reference data of the Nordic Red dairy cattle populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the possibility of increasing the reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) by combining reference populations. The data were from 3,735 bulls from Danish, Swedish, and Finnish Red dairy cattle populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were fitted as random variables in a Bayesian model, using published estimated breeding values as response variables. In total, 17 index traits were analyzed. Reliabilities were estimated using a 5-fold cross validation, and calculated as the within-year squared correlation between estimated breeding values and DGV. Marker effects were estimated using reference populations from individual countries, as well as using a combined reference population from all 3 countries. Single-country reference populations gave mean reliabilities across 17 traits of 0.19 to 0.23, whereas the combined reference gave mean reliabilities of 0.26 for all populations. Using marker effects from 1 population to predict the other 2 gave a loss in mean reliability of 0.14 to 0.21 when predicting Swedish or Finnish animals with Danish marker effects, or vice versa. Using Swedish or Finnish marker effects to predict each other only showed a loss in mean reliability of 0.03 to 0.05. A combined Swedish-Finnish reference population led to an average reliability as high as that from the 3-country reference population, but somewhat different for individual traits. The results from this study show that it is possible to increase the reliability of DGV by combining reference populations from related populations. PMID:21854944

Brøndum, R F; Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandén, I; Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Fikse, W F; Lund, M S

2011-09-01

343

Rumen Fermentation and Milk Quality of Dairy Cows Fed Complete Feed Silages  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.

K. Komalasari

2014-04-01

344

Ruminal methane emission by dairy cattle in Southeast Brazil / Emissão de metano ruminal por bovinos leiteiros no sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas [...] secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, [...] 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu) ¼), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p

Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Odo, Primavesi; Magda Aparecida, Lima; Rosa, Frighetto; Simone Gisele de, Oliveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli.

345

Ruminal methane emission by dairy cattle in Southeast Brazil / Emissão de metano ruminal por bovinos leiteiros no sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas [...] secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, [...] 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu) ¼), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p

Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Odo, Primavesi; Magda Aparecida, Lima; Rosa, Frighetto; Simone Gisele de, Oliveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli.

2009-12-01

346

9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Identification and disposal of cattle. 50.18 Section 50.18 Animals...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas...18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle...

2010-01-01

347

Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition. PMID:24134470

Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

2014-02-01

348

Effect of selenium concentration on feed preferences by cattle and sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to livestock. The objective of this study was to determine if sheep and cattle could discriminate between forages and feeds with different concentrations of Se. In the first study, cattle and sheep preferences for intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens) of varying Se concentrations were assessed. The Se concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 50 mg/kg (DM) in grass, 1.4 to 275 mg/kg in alfalfa, and 4 to 4,455 mg/kg in aster. Selenium concentration had no influence (P > 0.05) on the initial or subsequent preferences of sheep or cattle for grass or alfalfa. Cattle developed an aversion to aster after consuming 95% of the plant material during the first brief exposure and subsequently refused to eat any aster. Sheep consumption of aster was variable, but their preference was not driven by Se concentration. In the next study, cattle and sheep