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1

Feeding Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes Economically.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report includes four papers titled, 'Feeding Dairy Cattle Economically', 'Feeding of Buffaloes', 'Green Feeding to Cross-Bred Cows and Buffaloes for Milk Production' and 'Silage Making'. Subjects covered are protein, water and minerals, roughage, meta...

V. D. Mudgal S. P. Arora C. K. Kurar

1979-01-01

2

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

2009-11-01

3

SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

4

Efficiency of feed nitrogen conversion in dairy cattle herds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate the effect of feasible strategies to mitigate dairy herd’s environmental impact in a homogeneous area, the actual level of N excretion and conversion efficiency was determined in fifteen farms located in the North-West of Italy. Main factors affecting N efficiency (feeds consumption and composition, live weight, productions, milk urea and reproductive indexes) were recorded for cows (C), heifers (H, 12-24 months) and young heifers (YH, 6-12 months). N requirements, retention...

Davide Biagini; Carla Lazzaroni

2010-01-01

5

Efficiency of feed nitrogen conversion in dairy cattle herds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate the effect of feasible strategies to mitigate dairy herd's environmental impact in a homogeneous area, the actual level of N excretion and conversion efficiency was determined in fifteen farms located in the North-West of Italy. Main factors affecting N efficiency (feeds consumption and composition, live weight, productions, milk urea and reproductive indexes) were recorded for cows (C), heifers (H, 12-24 months) and young heifers (YH, 6-12 months). N requirements, retention, excr...

Lazzaroni, Carla; Biagini, Davide

2009-01-01

6

Physical Characteristics of Pressed Complete Feed for Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics of the pressed complete feed in the forms of cube, cylinder and ball. The study was conducted to get a complete feed of dairy cows that can be developed commercially. The evaluation was done on a physical test : bulkiness, hardness and hygroscopic properties of pressed complete feeds.  The results of this research showed that the bulkiness of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were between 0.20 up to 0.48 liter/kg; the hardness of pressed complete feed, cylinders and balls were 3 lbs up to 14 lbs; the hygroscopic factor of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were around 1.10% up to 9.69%. The pressed complete feed in the forms of cube and cylinder are better than  the form of ball in physical characteristics.doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.61-65

Syaiful Anwar

2013-06-01

7

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

8

Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat  

Science.gov (United States)

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

Galey, F. D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M. A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

2000-01-01

9

Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA. PMID:10826832

Galey, F D; Terra, R; Walker, R; Adaska, J; Etchebarne, M A; Puschner, B; Fisher, E; Whitlock, R H; Rocke, T; Willoughby, D; Tor, E

2000-05-01

10

Occurrence of Fusarium species and zearalenone in dairy cattle feeds in Vojvodina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Fusarium spp. and zearalenone (F-2 toxin) in dairy cattle feeds was studied during a period of three years (in all seasons) in Vojvodina. Fusarium species were found to be very common in feeds. They were classified into 11 different species (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. tabacinum and F. tricinctum). Some of these species are known to produce mycotoxins. The highest distribution of Fusarium spp. was observed in the autumn and spring of the second research year, when 53 and 56% of the feed samples, respectively, were contaminated with them. F. oxysporum and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent species throughout the three-year study. Zearalenone was found in various feed samples at concentrations between 140.00 and 960.00 micrograms/kg in all seasons, except in the summer of the first year, in the winter of the second year and in the autumn of the third research year. Pelleted sugar beet pulp and pelleted malt spent grains were the feeds most contaminated with this toxin. Thirty-five out of the 275 feed samples contained zearalenone and 11 of them were contaminated with zearalenone-producing moulds and zearalenone at the same time. PMID:7491864

Skrinjar, M; Stubblefield, R D; Stojanovi?, E; Dimi?, G

1995-01-01

11

Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082

Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos

2012-10-01

12

Cholecystokinin mediates depression of feed intake in dairy cattle fed high fat diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of 1) different concentrations of dietary fat and 2) i.v. administration of a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist (MK-329) on feed intake and plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in dairy cattle. In Experiment 1, 4 lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Treatments were diets with 1) no fat added, 2) 30 g fat/kg feed (calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids as fat supplement), 3) 60 g fat/kg, and 4) 90 g fat/kg added. Cows were fed once daily a diet of concentrate, corn silage, alfalfa haylage, and alfalfa pellets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of dietary fat (P < 0.0001). Overall plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001), triacylglycerol (P < 0.0006), and cholecystokinin (P < 0.02), increased linearly with each level of dietary fat, but there was a linear decrease in plasma insulin (P < 0.0008). In Experiment 2, 4 nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein heifers were used in a cross-over design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were diet (fatty acids, 27 g/kg vs 103 g/kg diet dry matter) and i.v. injections (MK-329 vs vehicle). Heifers were fed once daily a total mixed ration of corn silage, cracked corn and soybean meal with or without fat supplement. Diets were switched by period and either MK-329 (70 microg/kg body weight) or its vehicle was injected i.v. at 2 hr postfeeding. Daily dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the high fat diet (P < 0.02) but was not affected by injections. Injection of MK-329, however, increased dry matter intake by 92% in heifers fed the high fat diet during the first 2 hr postinjection compared to vehicle injection. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentration was increased by the high fat diet at 2 hr postfeeding (P < 0.02) but was lowered by MK-329 at 1 hr postinjection (P < 0.001). Plasma insulin was lowered by the high fat diet (P < 0.01) but was not affected by injections. The elevated plasma cholecystokinin concentration may have mediated depressed feed intake of dairy cattle fed the high fat diets. PMID:11064219

Choi, B R; Palmquist, D L; Allen, M S

2000-10-01

13

Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

2006-12-01

14

Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

1999-07-01

15

Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season.

Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: aino.rantavaara@stuk.fi; Karhula, T. [Agrifood Research Finland (MTT), Economic Research, Luutnantintie 13, FIN-00410 Helsinki (Finland); Puurunen, M. [Agrifood Research Finland (MTT), Economic Research, Luutnantintie 13, FIN-00410 Helsinki (Finland); Lampinen, K. [Association of Rural Advisory Centres (ARAC) (Urheilutie 6) PL 251, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland); Taulavuori, T. [Association of Rural Advisory Centres (ARAC) (Urheilutie 6) PL 251, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland)

2005-07-01

16

Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season

2003-09-15

17

Feeding of dairy cattle in the forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423

Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H

1999-10-01

18

Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)

2006-12-01

19

Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period. PMID:22959942

Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-11-01

20

Mycotoxin Contaminating Maize and Grass Silages for Dairy Cattle Feeding: Current State and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silages may represent 50-80 % of the total amount of diet for dairy cows during the winter. There is overwhelming evidence of contamination of maize and grass silages with fungi and associated trichothecenes, fumonisins, zearalenone, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A as well as some emerging mycotoxins (agroclavine, andrastin A, beauvericin, enniatins, festuclavine, fusaric acid, mevinolin, mycophenolic acid, roquefortins, T2/HT2 toxins). From year to year, multi contaminations often occurred with sea...

Tangni, Emmanuel Kossi; Pussemier, Luc; Hove, Franc?ois

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy cattle feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. vasinfectum (Atk) Sny. & Hans., found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require plant parasitic nematodes to cause disease. This makes it a threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is grown on heavy alkaline soil and currently is not affected by Fusarium wilt. In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live cottonseed were imported into California for dairy cattle feed. Thirteen F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum isolates and four isolates of a Fusarium spp. that resembled F. oxysporum were isolated from the imported cottonseed. The isolates, designated by an AuSeed prefix, formed four vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) all of which were incompatible with tester isolates for 18 VCGs found in the USA. Isolate AuSeed14 was vegetatively compatible with the four reference isolates of Australian biotype VCG01111. Phylogenetic analyses based on EF-1?, PHO, BT, Mat1-1, and Mat1-2 gene sequences separated the 17 seed isolates into three lineages (race A, race 3, and Fusarium spp.) with AuSeed14 clustering into race 3 lineage or race A lineage depending on the genes analyzed. Indel analysis of the EF-1? gene sequences revealed a close evolutionary relationship among AuSeed14, Australian biotype reference isolates, and the four Fusarium spp. isolates. The Australian seed isolates and the four Australian biotype reference isolates caused disease with root-dip inoculation, but not with stem-puncture inoculation. Thus, they were a vascular incompetent pathotype. In contrast, USA race A lineage isolates readily colonized vascular tissue and formed a vascular competent pathotype when introduced directly into xylem vessels. The AuSeed14 isolate was as pathogenic as the Australian biotype, and it or related isolates could cause a severe Fusarium wilt problem in USA cotton fields if they become established. PMID:22004096

Liu, Jinggao; Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S

2011-11-01

22

Soil ingestion by dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

Darwin, R.

1990-02-15

23

Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina) and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a h...

Chiara Penati; Alberto Tamburini; Massimo Timini; Anna Sandrucci

2010-01-01

24

Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015±0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)

1993-03-01

25

ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

26

International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered. PMID:24731627

Berry, D P; Coffey, M P; Pryce, J E; de Haas, Y; Løvendahl, P; Krattenmacher, N; Crowley, J J; Wang, Z; Spurlock, D; Weigel, K; Macdonald, K; Veerkamp, R F

2014-06-01

27

International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.

Berry, D P; Coffey, M P

2014-01-01

28

Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

Anna Sandrucci

2010-01-01

29

Socio-Economic Evaluation of Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs) with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti distric...

2012-01-01

30

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (for Microcomputers).  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle' computer program includes all requirements for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A and D. Dry matter intake and energy concentration assumptions have been made more consistent from table to tabl...

L. Browne

1988-01-01

31

Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical observations, and thereby identify major nutritional and management constraints to productivity, - investigate approaches for improving productivity in dairy cattle by increasing the utilization of basal diets and other locally available fed resources, - monitor the effectiveness of nutritional and management interventions by measuring performance indicators such as body weight, body condition, milk production and reproductive performance (using radioimmunoassay and other clinical observations), - establish whether differences in productivity correlate with selected metabolic indicators in blood, which might thereby prove useful as predictors of nutritional constraints

1999-07-01

32

STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

E. SZÜCS

2013-07-01

33

[Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770

Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

1995-09-01

34

Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.

E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.

35

Socio-Economic Evaluation of Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti district. Descriptive statistics, partial budget analysis, probit model, and Ordinary Least Squares were used to analyze data. Results indicated that farmers using IFT had significantly (p<0.01 higher gross margins than those using local feeding methods. Probit model results indicated that profitability of technology influenced the decision to use IFT when interacted with improved cattle breed.  The decision to use IFTs had a positive significant (p<0.1 relationship with profitability of dairy cattle enterprises. Policies targeting efficient dissemination of IFTs are recommended to improve profitability.

Alice Turinawe

2012-01-01

36

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S Donkin

2008-07-01

37

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S, Donkin.

38

Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Québec  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides ...

Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

1984-01-01

39

Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

1990-01-01

40

Deuterium oxide dilution can be used to determine the net energy content of feeds for dairy cattle and goats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores a technique for measuring the energy (NEL) value of feeds without respiration calorimetry or slaughter. The objectives were to compare results obtained from goats with those from cows, and to describe factors which limited the precision of these ...

Brown, Dan L.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the O...

Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

2010-01-01

42

Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

43

Thermophilic methane production from dairy cattle waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane production from waste of dairy cattle fed diets containing 72% roughage (dry matter basis) was investigated in anaerobic reactors at 60{sup 0}C with retention times (RT) set at 3, 6 and 9 days. Influent concentrations of volatile solids (VS) were increased in steps of 2% from 4 to 14% VS or until the reactor failed due to excess substrate. Gas production was measured and samples of effluent taken for six consecutive days after allowing three volume turnovers for each increment of VS. The maximum concentration of VS in the substrate for highest volumetric fermentation efficiency was 8-10, 10-12 and 12 for RT of 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively. Destruction of VS for these and lower substrate concentrations was 19-24, 26-27 and 30-33% for 3-, 6-and 9-day RT reactors, respectively. The corresponding methane production rates were 0.09-0.12, 0.11-0.14 and 0.11-0.16 liters/day/g of VS in substrate. The gas contained 51-56% methane with the rest mainly carbon dioxide. Increasing the percentage of feed VS beyond the values indicated resulted in greatly decreased VS destruction and methane production. (author).

Wohlt, J.E. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Animal Science); Frobish, R.A. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA)); Davis, C.L.; Mackie, R.I. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Animal Sciences); Bryant, M.P. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Animal Sciences Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Microbiology)

1990-01-01

44

Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy cattle using RFI for milk production. PMID:22038990

Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

2012-05-01

45

Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions and maintain the genetic vaiability in the breed.

Thomasen, Jørn Rind

2013-01-01

46

International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Higher reliabilities from larger genotype files promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be exchanged across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) to account for correlated residuals originating from the use of foreign evaluations, or by multi-trait analysis of ...

VanRaden Paul M; Sullivan Peter G

2010-01-01

47

Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

2010-05-01

48

Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (<40%, 52 farms), intermediate (ILC) (40-50%, 36 farms) and high (HLC) (>50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production. (author)

Koknaroglu, Hayati [Suleyman Demirel University, Department of Animal Science, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

2010-05-15

49

Soil ingestion by dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral ...

R. Darwin

1990-01-01

50

Transmission of Salmonella mbandaka to cattle from contaminated feed.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salmonella mbandaka was isolated from cattle on three dairy farms. The duration of infection was less than four weeks and none of the animals became clinically ill. The animals had all consumed a diet containing a vegetable fat supplement contaminated with S. mbandaka and this was shown to be the source of the infections. It is significant that a feed containing purely vegetable components was incriminated.

Jones, P. W.; Collins, P.; Brown, G. T.; Aitken, M.

1982-01-01

51

Mycotoxicoses in dairy cattle - a case history review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This manuscript describes the negative impacts of mycotoxins on dairy cattle. Observations were made with respect to overall herd health, production, and reproductive performance of animals in affected herds.Troubleshooting dairy herds in an effortto diagnose the problems associated with the ingestion of mycotoxins is covered, as well as the possible nutritional therapies that may be employed to offset the negative effects of mycotoxins. Feed additives included in the diets of affected herds were utilized to improve digestive tract integrity, reproductive performance, immune system function, and milk production. Depending on the level of severity of a mycotoxin poisoning, it is possible in some cases to offset the deleterious effects of mycotoxins with the use of nutritional therapy.

Randall Asher

2008-09-01

52

Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Barns in Summer Season  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ...

Ercan Simsek; Ilker Kilic; Erkan Yaslioglu; Ismet Arici

2012-01-01

53

The place of Sanga cattle in dairy production in Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle: 24 farms, with a total of 900 animals and distributed in four agro-ecological zones, were visited every 15 days over 18 months. Cows were fed on natural pastures as the only source of feed, and animal performance was dependent on the season and exhibited a dramatic drop in dry spells. Numeric productivity indices integrating productive performance for settler's, multipurpose, crop-livestock integrated and modern farms were 0.56, 0.74, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively. Milk productivity was higher on modem farms (6.7 L/cow per day) than in the other systems, and higher with Holstein-Friesian cows (7.7 L/cow per day) than with indigenous cattle (1.8 L/cow per day) or crossbred animals (3.7 L/cow per day). This paper speculates on the opportunity to improve the genetic potential of indigenous cattle, concomitantly with the efforts to adapt exotic cattle to a mountainous equatorial environment. PMID:17691546

Grimaud, P; Mpairwe, D; Chalimbaud, J; Messad, S; Faye, B

2007-04-01

54

Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323

Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

2014-04-01

55

Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value of crossbreeding is documented with special emphasis on results from a Danish crossbreeding experiment. This experiment included 1,680 cows from 3 breeds and their crosses. In general, at least 10% heterosis can be expected for total merit, mainly due to increased longevity and improvement of functional traits. A minor part of heterosis for total merit is due to heterosis for production traits. For production, there is evidence of recombination loss using continued crossbreeding programs, which does not seem to be the case for longevity and total merit. However, recombination loss should be investigated more carefully as crossbreeding is becoming more popular. A prerequisite for crossbreeding to be beneficial on a long-term basis is that genetic gain within the parental breeds not be reduced. As long as the crossbred cow population constitutes less than 50% of the whole population, and young bulls can be tested through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits

Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E

2008-01-01

56

The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157.H7 in dairy and beef cattle in Washington State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157.H7 was found in 10 of 3570 (0.28%) faecal samples from dairy cattle in 5 of 60 herds (8.3%). Several tentative associations with manure handling and feeding management practices on dairy farms were identified. Faecal/urine slurry samples, bulk milk samples, and milk filters from dairy herds were negative for E. coli O157.H7. E. coli O157.H7 was also isolated from 10 of 1412 (0.71%) faecal samples from pastured beef cattle in 4 of 25 (16%) herds. The prevalence of E. coli O157.H7 excretion in feedlot beef cattle was 2 of 600 (0.33%). The identification of cattle management practices associated with colonization of cattle by E. coli O157.H7 suggests the possibility that human E. coli O157.H7 exposure may be reduced by cattle management procedures. PMID:7925659

Hancock, D D; Besser, T E; Kinsel, M L; Tarr, P I; Rice, D H; Paros, M G

1994-10-01

57

Quality and Yield of Chihuahua Cheese Produced from Dairy Cattle Supplemented with Enriched Apple Byproduct  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF) enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control) of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2). Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis) in 2 periods of 20 days...

2011-01-01

58

Marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)

2007-01-01

59

Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l(-1). The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l(-1) and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l(-1). One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l(-1) of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R(2) = 0.98). PMID:24479959

Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

2014-05-01

60

The Mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the ...

Macciotta, Nicolo? Pietro Paolo; Dimauro, Corrado; Rassu, Salvatore Pier Giacomo; Steri, Roberto; Pulina, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the ...

Macciotta, Niccolo? P. P.; Corrado Dimauro; Rassu, Salvatore P. G.; Roberto Steri; Giuseppe Pulina

2011-01-01

62

Genotype by environment interaction in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G × Efrom reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems. Methods applied to deal with G × E (controlledexperiments and large data modeling were discussed. A G × E was confirmed essentially when high differences betweenproduction environments and/or genotypes (genetically distant genotypes were observed. Environmental effects wereaggregated in most studies and identification of the components of the environment was largely unresolved, with only a fewstudies based on more definite-descriptors of environment. The implications of G × E on breeding decisions are discussed.Breeders should select genotypes on production traits within environmental conditions comparable to where candidate animalsare intended to perform.

Hammami H.

2009-01-01

63

Inbreeding and Genetic Trend of Dairy Cattle in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre: A Short Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success (or failure of a breeding centre can be assessed through the genetic trend of trait(s included in the breeding objective and the inbreeding trend. Through continuous genetic evaluation and structured mating program, positive genetic trend while maintaining inbreeding on the reasonable level will be achieved. Inbreeding level of a population is an important aspect in animal breeding as this may lead to a deteriorating phenomenon called inbreeding depression. This information will guide the animal breeder on how the mating system of their animals will be designed. Inbreeding level of a dairy cow population generally is maintained to be less than 10%. The trend of additive genetic (breeding value and inbreeding of dairy cattle population in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul Sapi Perah, BBPTU was examined. The pedigree data consisted of 450 animals and 861 records were analyzed. The study included two traits namely milk yield (MY and calving interval (CI. The pedigree data were collected from 1977 to 1990. The breeding value (EBV of animals was estimated using DMU computer package applying repeatability animal model and the coefficient of inbreeding was computed with SECATEURS. The study showed zero inbreeding level of the population based on the pedigree available without any single inbred animal. The population showed no genetic progress over years during the period of 1977-1990 based on linear regression of EBVs on the year of birth. This indicated that during the period of 1977 and 1990 the genetic improvement program in BBPTU was unsuccessful. The inbreeding level of zero could mean that the designed mating system was successful. However, no genetic progress and no inbreeding trend could mean that no selection program has been introduced in the breeding centre. (Animal Production 12(3: 144-149 (2010Key Words: genetic trend, inbreeding trend, BBPTU Baturraden, dairy cattle

Agus Susanto

2010-09-01

64

The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157.H7 in dairy and beef cattle in Washington State.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli O157.H7 was found in 10 of 3570 (0.28%) faecal samples from dairy cattle in 5 of 60 herds (8.3%). Several tentative associations with manure handling and feeding management practices on dairy farms were identified. Faecal/urine slurry samples, bulk milk samples, and milk filters from dairy herds were negative for E. coli O157.H7. E. coli O157.H7 was also isolated from 10 of 1412 (0.71%) faecal samples from pastured beef cattle in 4 of 25 (16%) herds. The prevalence of E. coli...

Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Kinsel, M. L.; Tarr, P. I.; Rice, D. H.; Paros, M. G.

1994-01-01

65

Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

2013-02-01

66

Extruded pea (Pisum sativum) as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy) and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was...

Giulio Cozzi; Aziza Boukha; Barbara Contiero; Flaviana Gottardo

2010-01-01

67

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E) and blood selenium (Se) concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle ...

Sivertsen T; Øvernes G; Østerås O; Nymoen U; Lunder T

2005-01-01

68

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E) and blood selenium (Se) concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle ...

Sivertsen T; Øvernes G; Østerås O; Nymoen U; Lunder T

2006-01-01

69

Epidemiology of trace elements deficiencies in Belgian beef and dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium (Se), iodine (I), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) deficiencies in cattle have been reported in Europe. These deficiencies are often associated with diseases. The aim of the study was to assess trace element status in Belgian cattle herds showing pathologies and to compare them to healthy cattle herds. Eighty-two beef herds with pathologies, 11 healthy beef herds, 65 dairy herds with pathologies and 20 healthy dairy herds were studied during barn period. Blood and/or milk samples were taken in healthy animals. Plasma Zn, Cu, inorganic I (PII) and activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes (GPX) were assayed. In milk, I concentration was measured. Data about pathologies and nutrition in the herds were collected. According to defined thresholds, it appeared that a large proportion of deficient herds belonged to "sick" group of herds. This conclusion was supported by the mean value of trace elements and by the fact that a majority of individual values of trace elements was below the threshold. Dairy herds had mean values of trace elements higher than beef herds. More concentrates and minerals were used in healthy herds versus "sick" herds. These feed supplements were also used more often in dairy herds, compared to beef herds. Trace elements deficiencies are present in cattle herds in Belgium and are linked to diseases. Nutrition plays a major role in the trace elements status. PMID:19398059

Guyot, Hugues; Saegerman, Claude; Lebreton, Pascal; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

2009-01-01

70

Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy) by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management) indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and desi...

Silvana Mattiello; Christine Klotz; Daniela Baroli; Michela Minero; Valentina Ferrante; Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

71

Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feeding cattle manure (CM) for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO), bakery by-products (BBP) and tallow (TW) was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1) control: CM and MO; 2) LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3) HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4) LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5) HTW: CM, BBP and high level ...

2010-01-01

72

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F. Arthur

2008-07-01

73

Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

1996-12-10

74

Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe recent findings from the sequencing analysis of the cattle genome and to illustrate how this new information can be applied increase feed efficiency of cattle.

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

75

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected f [...] eed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

Arthur, J P.F.; Herd, R.M..

76

Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe ...

2012-01-01

77

Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk ?3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was e...

Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

2012-01-01

78

Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE).

Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter

2012-01-01

79

Antimicrobial-Resistant Enteric Bacteria from Dairy Cattle?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted to understand the descriptive and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the feces of healthy lactating dairy cattle. Gram-negative enteric bacteria resistant to ampicillin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, and tetracycline were isolated from the feces of 35, 8, 5, and 42% of 213 lactating cattle on 74, 39, 9, 26, and 82% of 23 farms surveyed, respectively. Antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria accounted for 5 (florfenicol...

2007-01-01

80

International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Higher reliabilities from larger genotype files promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be exchanged across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE to account for correlated residuals originating from the use of foreign evaluations, or by multi-trait analysis of genotypes for countries that use the same reference animals. Methods Traditional MACE assumes independent residuals because each daughter is measured in only one country. Genomic MACE could account for residual correlations using daughter equivalents from genomic data as a fraction of the total in each country and proportions of bulls shared. MACE methods developed to combine separate within-country genomic evaluations were compared to direct, multi-country analysis of combined genotypes using simulated genomic and phenotypic data for 8,193 bulls in nine countries. Results Reliabilities for young bulls were much higher for across-country than within-country genomic evaluations as measured by squared correlations of estimated with true breeding values. Gains in reliability from genomic MACE were similar to those of multi-trait evaluation of genotypes but required less computation. Sharing of reference genotypes among countries created large residual correlations, especially for young bulls, that are accounted for in genomic MACE. Conclusions International genomic evaluations can be computed either by modifying MACE to account for residual correlations across countries or by multi-trait evaluation of combined genotype files. The gains in reliability justify the increased computation but require more cooperation than in previous breeding programs.

Sullivan Peter G

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine the relationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results of the Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated with sharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationship was found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, there were significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health as performance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the only significant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significant relationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly related factors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to access services, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. This study also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraging greater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education for empowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

S. Gayatri

2011-06-01

82

Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

M. M. Hossain

2014-05-01

83

An evaluation of improved dairy feed adoption in Nicaragua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis evaluates the adoption of three dry season improved dairy feeding technologies in Nicaragua using a technology stage model. Nicaragua's dairy productivity is one of the lowest in Central America and the feeding system is almost exclusively based on pasture. The adoption of improved dairy feed technologies is important in order to increase productivity and maintain the health of the herd during the dry season when pastures are depleted. The study uses field data collected from dair...

2013-01-01

84

Effects of feeding roasted safflower seeds (variety IL-111) and fish oil on dry matter intake, performance and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safflower seed has the highest concentration of linoleic acid among 80 oilseeds but little information exists on the effective use of SS for lactation cows. It was hypothesised that a diet supplemented with an Iranian SS variety (IL-111) in combination with fish oil (FO) would result in higher concentrations of trans-18:1 (including vaccenic acid) and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat than feeding an unsupplemented control diet. Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing: (i) Control: (C); (ii) 25 g of roasted SS IL-111 (RSS); (iii) 20 g FO and (iv) 25 g RSS + 10 g FO (RSS + FO) per kilogram of dietary DM on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, milk production and fatty acid profile. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The experiment had four periods of 21 days. Milk Fat percentage was lower (p < 0.01) with FO supplementation and averaged 19.0 and 21.5 g/kg milk with FO and RSS + FO compared with 30.3 and 32.5 g/kg with C and RSS. Feed intake also was lower (p < 0.01) with FO vs. C (23.1 vs. 24.5 kg/day) but feeding RSS resulted in greater feed intake compared with other treatments (26 kg/day). Despite lower feed intake with FO, milk production did not change from controls but feeding RSS + FO resulted in greater milk yield than controls (42.6 vs. 39.3 kg/day). Ruminal pH was greater (p < 0.01) in cows fed FO than other treatments. Supplemental FO alone or in combination with RSS resulted in dramatic increases (p < 0.01) in c9,t11-18:2 in milk fat (12.7 and 13.2 g/day vs. 5.8 and 7.02 with C and RSS). It was surprising to note that 25 g/kg RSS can improve feed intake. PMID:21595757

Alizadeh, A R; Alikhani, M; Ghorbani, G R; Rahmani, H R; Rashidi, L; Loor, J J

2012-06-01

85

Dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: choice of crossbreeding strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strategies for crossbreeding of indigenous and exotic cattle for milk production in the tropics, viz. rotational crossing and formation of a composite breed, have been compared. Genetic considerations suggest that rotational crossing would lead to somewhat better dairy performance, mainly because of more heterozygosity. Predictions based on the performance of adjacent genetic groups as obtained from a comprehensive literature review point in the same direction. Rotational crossbreeding depends on a continuous introduction of bulls of both parental breeds. The herd will consist of 2 (or more) genetic groups, which might be inconvenient for breeding arrangements, but provides more flexibility. The system requires good organisation and is most suitable in large farms. In small scale dairying the composite breed strategy is the most practical approach to dairy cattle breeding in the tropics. PMID:8888529

Syrstad, O

1996-08-01

86

Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Barns in Summer Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ppm. The overall hourly average ammonia emission was calculated as 56.1 g/h.barn. Ammonia concentrations increased with lower airflow rate while ammonia emissions increased with higher airflow rate. As a result of this study, there is no significant relationship observed between ammonia emission and indoor environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity.

Erkan Yaslioglu

2012-01-01

87

Patterns of Genomic Diversity among three Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For each of three Danish dairy cattle breeds, Danish Holstein, Danish Red Dairy Cattle and Danish Jersey Cattle approximately 30 key ancestors were sequenced to a depth of about 10X. These key ancestors were chosen to maximize their contributions to present day populations. The three breeds are compared with respect to differences in amount of sequence variation observed. The observed patterns in and differences between breeds are interpreted in the light of known individual and population histories. Also, patterns of occurrence of short indels are compared. Particular attention is paid to variants that occur in several of the breeds. Regions occurring in multiple breeds and suspected of harboring lethal or sub lethal sequence variants are examined for similarities across breeds in occurrence of sequence variants.

Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

2012-01-01

88

Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace minerals. Furthermore, opportunities for specific modulation of aspects of health, milk production, and reproduction through supplementation strategies for diets of transition dairy cows are attractive because of the known dynamics of energy metabolism, immune function, and oxidative metabolism during this timeframe. PMID:24305870

Overton, T R; Yasui, T

2014-02-01

89

Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLÃ?2.4 (iNDF2.4). The relationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective imp...

Raffrenato, E.; Erasmus, L. J.

2013-01-01

90

The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

Giuseppe Pulina

2011-10-01

91

Release of methane and of carbon dioxide by dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

153 two-days measurements on gaseous exchange of lactating cows were evaluated in order to quantify the release of methane and carbon dioxide by dairy cattle as affected by several parameters of feeding and performance. All animals received nutrients according to requirements with respect to their live-weights (450 kg to 725 kg) and milk yields (7.5 kg/d to 25.7 kg/d) using common dietary ingredients. Methane release averaged at 300 g/head and was particularly depending on the intake of crude fiber and of ether extract (CH{sub 4} (g)=63 + 80xCF (kg) + 11xNfE (kg) + 19xCP (kg) - 195xEE (kg)). Methane formation increased with higher live-weight and with higher milk per kg of milk produced, the relative methane excretion decreases with increasing yield in an asymptotic manner. The yearly emission of 600 kg cow at a milk yield of 5000 kg/year was estimated to account for 108 kg with a further methane release of 8 kg and of 5 kg per further 100 kg of live-weight and per 1000 kg further milk yield per year, respectively. Methods to reduce methane release by ruminants are discussed. Carbon dioxide release averaged at 9.7 kg/d and head and was depending on milk yield (feed intake) as well as on live-weight (CO{sub 2} (kg/d) = 0.2 + 0.14xmilk yield (kg/d) + 0.061x W (kg{sup 0.75})). (orig.).

Kirchgessner, M.; Windisch, W.; Mueller, H.L.; Kreuzer, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Inst. fuer Ernaehrungsphysiologie)

1991-01-01

92

Explorative research into quality of slurry manure from dairy farms with different feeding strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield on undisturbed plots under cages were studied for a grass monoculture and a grass/clover mixture. The bio-a...

2003-01-01

93

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 1...

Swai, E. S.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Kambarage, D. M.

2012-01-01

94

Monitoring of pesticide residues in dairy cattle farms from NW Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consequences of the use of pesticides in agricultural activities for food and feed product safety are subjects of major concern. In the present work, simple and environmentally friendly methodologies were applied to the analysis of soil and cattle feed samples collected in dairy cattle farms from Galicia (NW Spain). This forms part of an integrated study aiming to investigate the global impact of the use of pesticides in such farms. The target compounds were 36 plant protection products belonging to different families. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were the most commonly detected compounds in the analyzed samples; pyrethroid and chloroacetanilide pesticides were also found in some of them, but not so frequently. Detected levels were rarely above the established legal limits. PMID:20721413

Fernandez-Alvarez, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Chao, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Lores, Marta; Dagnac, Thierry

2010-10-01

95

International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

F. Canavesi

2010-04-01

96

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (

E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.

97

Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

Achkari-Begdouri, A.

1989-01-01

98

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental ...

Donkin, Shawn S.

2008-01-01

99

Economic consequences of reproductive performance in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The net economic value of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle was estimated using a stochastic dynamic simulation model. The objective was to compare the economic consequences of reproductive performance scenarios (“average” and “poor”) of a cow having a good reproductive performance and to explore which reproductive factors have an important impact on economic efficiency. A “good” reproductive performance scenario was defined with 1 ovulation rate (POVUi), 0.7 estrus detectio...

Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vos, P. L. A. M.; Weijden, G. C.; Hogeveen, H.

2010-01-01

100

Strategies for reduced antibiotic usage in dairy cattle farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for antibiotic treatments in dairy cattle farms can be reduced by a combined intervention scheme based on: (1) timely clinical inspections, (2) the assessment of animal-based welfare parameters, and (3) the use of predictive laboratory tests. These can provide greater insight into environmental adaptation of dairy cows and define animals at risk of contracting disease. In the long-term, an improved disease control justifies the adoption of such a combined strategy. Many antibiotic treatments for chronic disease cases are often not justified with a cost/benefit analysis, because the repeated drug administration does not give rise to the expected outcome in terms of animal health. In particular, compared with untreated cases, antibiotics may not lead to greater cure rates for some forms of mastitis. Lastly, a substantial reduction of antibiotic usage in dairy farms can be achieved through the proper use of immunomodulators, aimed at increasing immunocompetence and disease resistance of cows. PMID:24508188

Trevisi, Erminio; Zecconi, Alfonso; Cogrossi, Simone; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Grossi, Paolo; Amadori, Massimo

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

102

Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC). A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows), growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls), veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves), growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs) and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does) was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 20...

Gerolamo Xiccato; Stefano Schiavon; Luigi Gallo; Lucia Bailoni; Giovanni Bittante

2010-01-01

103

Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and design; however, in these situations good stockmenship seems to be able to compensate for structural lacks.

Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

104

Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

R. Tocci

2010-04-01

105

Report on anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle wastes to October 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

UK pilot plant and full scale studies using whole dairy and fattening cattle wastes are described, and digesters, gas production, pollution reduction and microbiological experiments are discussed. The results presented indicate that whole dairy wastes give a lower gas production, although the methane content is the same as that for fattening cattle wastes.

1987-01-01

106

Quality and Yield of Chihuahua Cheese Produced from Dairy Cattle Supplemented with Enriched Apple Byproduct  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.

A. Muro-Reyes

2011-01-01

107

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

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Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

M. Umar

2011-09-01

108

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

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This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of catt...

Ferdous Ahmed; Abul Quasem Al-Amin; Gazi Mahabubul Alam; Che Hashim Hassan

2012-01-01

109

Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Versorgung von Milchkuehen mit stabilem Jod auf dem Transfer von I-131 vom Futter in die Milch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015[+-]0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)

Voigt, G.; Probstmeier, G.; Roehrmoser, G.

1993-03-01

110

Polysynovitis after Oligofructose Overload in Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24 h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24 h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

Danscher, A.M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2010-01-01

111

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

Che Hashim Hassan

2012-01-01

112

Measuring reproductive performance in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs

1996-05-01

113

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle in southern China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350. Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.

Zhou Dong-Hui

2012-03-01

114

Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms that differed in size (range 40 to 285 cows) and milk production level (4000 to 9300 kg per cow per year). Different scenarios were employed to estimate costs associated directly with AI and NS as well as potentially extended calving intervals (ECI) due to AI. Results showed that bull maintenance costs for NS were €1440 to €1670 per year ($1,820 to $2,111). Direct AI costs were higher than those for NS for farms with more than 30 cows and ECI constituted a considerable additional burden. In fact, amongst the factors that affected the amount of milk needed to cover total extra AI costs, number of days open was the dominant one. Semen, feed and heifer prices had a very small effect. When, hypothetically, use of NS bulls results in a calving interval of 12 months, AI daughters with a calving interval of 13.5 months have to produce about 705 kg of additional milk in order to cover the extra cost. Their actual milk production, however, exceeds this limit by more than 25%. When real calving intervals are considered (13.0 v. 13.7 months for NS and AI, respectively) AI daughters turn out to produce more than twice the additional amount of milk needed. It was concluded that even under less than average management conditions, AI is more profitable than the best NS scenario. The efficient communication of this message should be a primary concern of the AI industry. PMID:22444295

Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

2007-03-01

115

GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE  

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Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.

Martino Cassandro

2007-06-01

116

Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

M.A. Aba

2006-01-01

117

Treatment of peunomovaginitis in dairy cattle by caslick operation  

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Full Text Available Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome. Vulvoplasty or caslick operation was performed under local analgesia. Two third of vulva lips were apposed and the distal third was left open for ease of urination. The vulva lips had an angle of 30° from the vertical plane in 10 (37.0% cows and an angle of 45° degree in 17 (62.9% cases. The vulvoplasty was healed very well in 24 (88.8% cases and required another attempt in 3 (11.11% cases. Caslick operation described in this study helped to improve fertility and reduce repeat breeder syndrome in Holstein dairy cows treated. Artificial insemination is advised for cows with caslick operation and a week prior to delivery the vaginal fissure should be reopened manually for ease of normal parturition.

S. N. Dehghani,

2011-06-01

118

[Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in Algeria's central northern region].  

Science.gov (United States)

As there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in Algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of Neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of Algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. A serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, confirming that N. caninum is circulating in dairy cattle and underlining the need to introduce systematic serological screening for neosporosis to limit its spread and prevent it from being perpetuated on Algerian farms. PMID:23520748

Achour, K; Ben-Mahdi, M-H; Akkou, M; Teniou, R

2012-12-01

119

Seroprevalence of Neospora Caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora can­inum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and ab­orted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to de­tect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cat­tle are recommended.

Gh Moghaddam

2011-09-01

120

78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins  

Science.gov (United States)

...inclusion in such feeds has not been established for dairy cattle under the food additive regulation for selenium. DATES...573.920(c)(3)) does not provide for use in dairy cattle. For this reason, FDA is revising the...

2013-12-16

 
 
 
 
121

Practical aspects of the fertility of dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish sustainability in the dairy industry, it is important that cows become pregnant at a biologically optimal time and at an economically profitable interval after calving. In this review, the results obtained from Holstein cattle in an experimental herd for dairy research are summarized. First, the effect of age at first calving of heifers on productive and reproductive performance was examined. A reduction in calving age from 25.1 to 21.5 months with the same growth rate during the first 12 months after birth had no negative effects on the heifers' performance. Second, the postpartum follicular dynamics of lactating cows were traced in relation to their fertility, and the emergence and fate of cystic ovarian follicles were examined. The premature initiation of ovarian activity does not always improve the fertility of cows as indicated by the number of days open. Third, the occurrences of anestrous ovulation during the early postpartum period were analyzed with reference to the frequency of reversion to anestrus. The premature onset of estrous activity also did not improve fertility, and relapse back into anestrus after the onset of the estrous cycle often occurred during the breeding period. Fourth, some indices for the occurrence of postpartum reproductive events were evaluated as an indicator of the reproductive performance of lactating cows. The milk yield and percentage of body weight loss could be indicators for reproductive events. Finally, the potency of a pedometry system for the detection of typical and atypical estrous behaviors of heifers and lactating cows was evaluated in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The location of the pedometers and housing conditions for the animals affected the estrus detection of the system. These results represent the reproductive potential of modern high-yielding dairy cattle and provide a baseline to evaluate their reproduction. PMID:21422734

Sakaguchi, Minoru

2011-02-01

122

[Eradication of Prototheca zopfii infection in a dairy cattle herd].  

Science.gov (United States)

Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds. PMID:14560445

Rösler, U; Hensel, A

2003-09-01

123

Waste management systems of dairy cattle farms in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the size of livestock farms in Japan has been expanding and the pollution from farm wastes has become a serious problem in rural areas. Therefore it is necessary to design treatment strategies and improve the recycling of livestock manure for sustainability of agriculture in Japan. The dairy cattle waste management systems were studied at dairy farms in Aomori prefecture and in Hokkaido, Japan. The four farms, typical for the respective regions in Japan, were investigated on the basis of the land and livestock size, housing, overall farm and waste management, type of machinery and a farm labour force. A statistical comparison was made for housing, milking and waste handling systems of dairy farms. One of the waste handling strategies was aerobic slurry treatment and land irrigation of the treated liquid fraction. Such methods began to solve some of waste management problems created since 1967 in grassland farming areas of Hokkaido. The irrigation system supplies water fertiliser and organic material to land as well as shortening the spreading times. It recycles livestock resources, increases the soil fertility and rationalizes the farm management. PMID:12201128

Shima, E; Svoboda, I F; Tsutsumi, S; Ohkubo, H

2002-01-01

124

Feeding strategies for managing heat load in feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-four Bos taurus crossbred steers were used to investigate effects of level and duration of limit-feeding feedlot cattle in a hot environment. Pens (four/treatment) of steers (seven/pen) were fed feedlot finishing diets and randomly assigned to the following treatments: 1) restricted to approximately 75% of feed consumed when offered ad libitum for 21-d duration (RES21); 2) restricted to approximately 75% of ad libitum for 42-d duration (RES42); and 3) feed offered ad libitum (ADLIB). Tympanic temperatures (TT) were measured via thermistors placed in the ear canal and attached to data loggers. Restricting feed intake for both 21- and 42-d reduced tympanic temperature when compared with ADLIB treatment groups under hot environmental conditions. Temperature reductions exceeded 0.5 degrees C (P 0.05) were found among treatments for panting or bunching score. However, different proportions of cattle were found to be bunching and panting with ADLIB cattle displaying a greater number of bunched steers that were panting when compared with the other groups. When averaged across diet treatments, dark-colored cattle had the greatest percentage of cattle showing moderate to excessive panting, while light-colored cattle displayed the least panting under thermoneutral climatic conditions. Under hot (mean daily temperature-humidity index >74) conditions, dark-colored cattle tended to bunch more (P = 0.073) and pant more (P < 0.01) than light-colored cattle. Mean TT were 0.2 to 0.6 degrees C (P < 0.05) greater for dark- vs light-colored cattle under hot conditions. Limit-feeding feedlot cattle during early summer is a successful tool for enhancing animal comfort by alleviating the combined effects of high climatic and metabolic heat load. PMID:12350014

Mader, T L; Holt, S M; Hahn, G L; Davis, M S; Spiers, D E

2002-09-01

125

The Effect of Using Monensin on Haptoglobin Serum Level in Dairy Cattle  

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The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant) were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90,...

2011-01-01

126

Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400. Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%, followed by those that were???6 years old or?P?>?0.05. Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%. These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.

Zhou Dong-Hui

2013-02-01

127

Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea  

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Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

Massimo Scacchia

2013-04-01

128

Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle  

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This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP ...

Petzer, Inge-marie; Donkin, Edward Francis; Du Preez, E.; Karzis, Joanne; Schans, Theodorus J.; Watermeyer, Johanna C.; Reenen, R.

2008-01-01

129

Experiment and research on mesophlic anaerobic digester with dairy cattle manure in northern China. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To treat animal wastes with the technology of anaerobic digestion can reduce environmental pollution and generate energy -- biogas, as well as produce a quick-acting, toxic-free fertilizer. The temperature in Northern China is comparatively low, to obtain a high biogas productivity, quick digestion of animal wastes in short period of time and high energy output in mesophilic fermentation poses a question. The answer is to create favorable conditions and environment for methanelization, i.e., rational process for biogas fermentation and advanced engineering system. The Gold Star Dairy Farm is located in the southern suburbs of Beijing. The 336 dairy cattle of the farm produce 10 tons of manure dairy, equivalent to 3600 tons of manure annually. A 300 cu m mesophilic digester system was established and started operation in the summer of 1984. In the two years of operation, the digester treats 6 ton manure and produces 180-200 cu m biogas eachday. Apart from heating and cooking for a canteen, the biogas produced can generate 150 kWh electricity, which is utilized for milking and refrigeration of milk products. In addition, the biogas effluent can be used as fertilizer for farm land and feed for fish raising.

Tang, W.; Wang, M.

1987-01-01

130

Estimation of genotype × environment interaction for yield, health and fertility in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.The effectiveness of breeding decisions and management changes to improve health and fertility possibly...

Calus, M. P. L.

2006-01-01

131

Modelling and estimation of genotype by environment interactions for production traits in French dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Genotype by environment interactions are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of dairy cattle. However, this is often questioned, especially when environment or herd management is wide-ranging. The aim of this study was to assess genotype by environment interactions for production traits (milk, protein, fat yields and fat and protein contents) in French dairy cattle using an original approach to characterize the environments. Methods

Huquet Bérénice; Leclerc Hélène; Ducrocq Vincent

2012-01-01

132

Characterization of Treponema phagedenis-Like Spirochetes Isolated from Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis Lesions in Dairy Cattle  

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Four spirochete strains were isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Iowa dairy cattle and compared with two previously described spirochete strains isolated from dairy cattle in California. These six strains shared an identical 16S ribosomal DNA sequence that was 98% similar to Treponema phagedenis and 99% similar to the uncultivated PDD spirochete sequence DDLK-4. The whole-cell protein profiles resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of...

Trott, Darren J.; Moeller, Michelle R.; Zuerner, Richard L.; Goff, Jesse P.; Waters, W. Ray; Alt, David P.; Walker, Richard L.; Wannemuehler, Michael J.

2003-01-01

133

Dairy Handbook (Production).  

Science.gov (United States)

The handbook provides information concerned with milk production, including breeding, calf rearing, feeding, health care, and equipment practices used in raising cattle, buffaloes, and goats. The handbook gives the workers and dairy farmers a basic unders...

1979-01-01

134

Residues of tritium-labeled morantel in lactating dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl-3H2]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 ?g/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound

1987-01-01

135

Anaerobic digestion of cellulose-dairy cattle manure mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stressing the dual purpose of waste treatment and fuel production, this study assessed the optimum mixture of dairy cattle manure and cellulosic wastes to provide good methane yields and reasonable destruction of volatile solids. Researchers measured the methane yields per unit of volatile solids destroyed for several loading concentrations and 4, 8, and 16-day retention times. Mixtures of cellulose and manure with 41-54% of the volatile solids as added cellulose yielded the optimum efficiency regardless of retention time. Observation of the stochastic daily methane yields obtained from fermenters that received additional energy as added cellulose (over 1% additional solids) led investigators to conclude that (1) stochastic behavior was inherent to the microbial system and (2) the methane yields fit a second-order autoregressive time series model, supporting the hypothesis that population dynamics may provide variable daily performance from high-performance fermenters fed seimicontinously.

Robbins, J.E.; Armold, M.T.; Weiel, J.E.

1983-01-01

136

Genetic evaluation of reproductive performance in Canadian dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.

F. Miglior

2010-04-01

137

Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individualsâ?? genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

138

Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

2014-04-01

139

Modelling the effects of genetic line and feeding system on methane emissions from dairy systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy cattle make a significant contribution to global methane emissions. Milking cows in the UK make up about a fifth of the total cattle population, with Holstein-Friesian cows being the most common breed. Investigating ways to minimise methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) produced by dairy cows from enteric fermentation and manure, has gained importance in recent years due its role in climate change. Currently, GHG emissions from UK dairy farming are predicted using the In...

Bell, Matthew

2011-01-01

140

Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. PMID:22612932

Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle in farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively....

Uehlinger, Fabienne D.; Greenwood, Spencer J.; O’handley, Ryan; Mcclure, J. Trenton; Coklin, Tatjana; Dixon, Brent R.; Boer, Melvin; Zwiers, Hester; Barkema, Herman W.

2011-01-01

142

Eimeriosis in dairy cattle farms in Morogoro municipality of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidial oocysts were detected in 35% of 445 cattle in four medium-scale and 20 small-scale dairy farms in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. The highest prevalence (56%) was observed in animals aged between 5 and 18 months, whereas lower prevalences were observed in calves (29%) aged between 12 days and 4 months and adults (30%). No coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 12 days old. The oocyst output was high in calves, followed by weaners; adults had the lowest oocyst output. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in diarrhoeic animals than in non-diarrhoeic animals, and more so in young calves. Eimeria species infecting the animals included Eimeria bovis (68%) and Eimeria zuernii (57%), Eimeria ellipsoidalis (25%), Eimeria cylindrica (23%), Eimeria auburnensis (22%), Eimeria alabamensis (12%) and Eimeria subspherica (5%). Mixed infections involving two or three species were common. Our findings indicate that eimeriosis is common in cattle in Morogoro municipality. PMID:9234443

Chibunda, R T; Muhairwa, A P; Kambarage, D M; Mtambo, M M; Kusiluka, L J; Kazwala, R R

1997-08-01

143

Evaluation of an application for dynamic feeding of dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dynamic feeding is an innovative application for concentrate feeding of dairy cows. Daily individual settings are derived from the actual individual milk yield response to concentrate intake. This response is estimated using an adaptive dynamic linear model. Optimal daily individual settings for concentrate supply are directed to achieve the maximum gross margin milk returns minus concentrate costs. This response curve plays a key role in the application. The response curve is derived from a ...

Andre, G.; Bleumer, E. J. B.; Duinkerken, G.

2009-01-01

144

Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial Holstein dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 blood serum samples (60 in each season) and 24 diet samples (12 in each season) were collected in the summer and winter. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the summer, the mean concentrations of Cu and Fe in serum samples were lower and higher than the critical level, respectively (P?dairy cattle (P?dairy cattle in different daily milk yield groups. It can be concluded that Holstein dairy cattle reared under semi-industrial dairy farming were deficient in serum Cu concentrations, especially in summer. Further, high level of Fe in blood serum might be due to feeding of cattle with diet containing excess quantity of Fe. PMID:21667325

Noaman, Vahid; Rasti, Mohsen; Ranjbari, Ahmad Reza; Shirvani, Edris

2012-03-01

145

Effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on treatment technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences in biodegradability can affect the treatment of slurry before its use in spraying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on different biological treatment technologies. This research involved monthly sampling (number/composition) for 1 year of 24 swine farms (16%), cattle farms (38%), and mixed swine and cattle farms (46%). The results obtained showed differences in feeding (3 l water kg(-1) food for cattle and 5 l water kg(-1) food for swine) and assimilation (0.6 kg food kg (-1) milk produced and 3 kg kg(-1) weight gain), which may influence the generation of slurry (57 l animal(-1)d(-1) in cattle and 31 l animal(-1) d(-1) in swine) and its composition. In addition, the composition of swine slurry [23 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1), 3 g total nitrogen (TN) l(-1)] is significantly different (P 0] and cattle slurry (COD N(-1) = 16, BOD5 COD(-1) = 0.6, S index slurries. Suitability of anaerobic and aerobic treatment was assessed based on the findings. PMID:23524995

Villamar, Cristina-Alejandra; Rodríguez, Diana-Catalina; López, Daniela; Peñuela, Gustavo; Vidal, Gladys

2013-08-01

146

Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the ...

Mcfadden, A. M. J.; Heath, D. D.; Morley, P. C. M.; Dorny, P.

2011-01-01

147

Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

G.L. Mugunieri

2010-09-01

148

USE OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR GENETIC EVALUATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in the developed production set ups and explores the possibility of using test-day model for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Pakistan. Different options within test-model approach are also discussed.

G. BILAL AND M. S. KHAN1

2009-02-01

149

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

Arthur, J. P. F.; Herd, R. M.

2008-01-01

150

A study on the prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in farmed dairy cattle in Himachal Pradesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted on 440 dairy cattle in six organized dairy farms in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India using tuberculin skin testing (TST) to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. An overall animal prevalence of 14.31% (63 of 440 animals) and a farm prevalence of 16.67% (1 of 6 farms) were recorded in 6 dairy farms by the TST. Of the six dairy farms studied, one of the farms showed prevalence of 34.42% (63/183). There were also marked differences in the prevalence of the di...

Aneesh Thakur; Mandeep Sharma; Katoch, Vipin C.; Prasenjit Dhar; Katoch, R. C.

2010-01-01

151

Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System  

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Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

I. Soliman

2010-02-01

152

The impact of feeding line on dairy production revenue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.

Vesna O?i?

2012-12-01

153

The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268 ± 54 and 180 ± 42 µg/l, respectively). PMID:24438753

Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

2014-04-01

154

Distribution of indole in tissues of dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of /sup 14/C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs.

Eisele, G.R.

1986-08-01

155

Distribution of indole in tissues of dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of "1"4C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs

1986-01-01

156

Economic evaluation of breeding strategies for improvement of dairy cattle in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost-benefit analysis using net present value (NPV) as the economic evaluation criterion was used to investigate the economic merits of four breeding strategies used for genetic improvement of dairy cattle in Kenya. The breeding strategies were evaluated over a 25-year period. The costs involved in setting up and running each strategy were obtained from large-scale dairy cattle farms, and government and private institutions involved in genetic improvement of dairy cattle. Only benefits from genetic improvement were considered. The impact on NPV due to changes in genetic and economic parameters was investigated. The ranking of the breeding strategies greatly differed with genetic ranking. Among the local selection programs, a strategy utilizing young bulls, sons of local bulls, was more profitable than one utilizing old progeny tested bulls. Continuous semen importation was not an economically viable alternative. The strategy utilizing young bulls progeny of imported bulls (PIB) was only viable if imports were from countries which are >2.00 SD in genetic merit above the local dairy cattle population. The ranking of strategies was not sensitive to changes in genetic parameters but to economic parameters. The use of local semen from young bulls progeny of local proven bulls is recommended. Alternatively, PIB can be utilized but the semen will have to be imported from countries which are >2.00 SD above the local dairy cattle population or the cost of imported semen should be < or = US$40 per straw. PMID:20383606

Okeno, Tobias O; Kosgey, Isaac S; Kahi, Alexander K

2010-08-01

157

Response, Effectiveness and Accuracy of Different Selection Methods and Intensities In Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1 to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2 to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods and intensities, (3 to study the best lactation period for selection in dairy cattle. Some conclusion can be drawn: (1 the estimated repeatability of milk production was considered low, the opposite was true for heritability estimate, (2 the selection response and its effectiveness increased when the number of animals maintained in the population decreased, (3 the selection accuracy increased along with the increased of number of record included, (4 the highest selection accuracy was obtained from individual selection with three records whilst the family selection resulted in the lowest selection accuracy. It was also concluded that selection in dairy cattle can be done as early as the first lactation and the accuracy will be increased if combined with the information from relatives. (Animal Production 11(1: 66-70 (2009 Key Words: dairy cattle, effectiveness selection method

SA Santosa

2009-01-01

158

Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

1987-09-01

159

Dictyocaulus viviparus seroprevalence and epidemiology in Costa Rican dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional serological survey of Dictyocaulus viviparus was carried out to determine the prevalence of lungworm infections in 28 dairy cattle farms distributed in five selected areas from Costa Rica. The influence of area, farm, host (breed, age and lactation number) and ecological factors (altitude and life zones) on the presence of lungworm infection was analyzed. A sub-sample of 924 sera collected between September 1998 and July 1999 was processed by ELISA (Ceditest). A total of 162 (17.5%) animals from 26 (93.0%) farms showed antibodies against D. viviparus. The overall seroprevalence detected among areas was Poás 25.0%, Cartago 24.3%, Tilarán 22.0%, Alfaro Ruiz 12.0% and San Carlos 12.1%. Using analysis of variance no significant influence of area and host factors on D. viviparus infections was determined, whereas the variable farm within area was highly significant (p<0.001). However, altitude and life zones showed significant association to seropositive animals, when a Chi-square test was applied. In altitudes of 1000-2000 m (p<0.001) and life zones of Lower Montane moist forest and Montane moist forest (p<0.001) D. viviparus infections in bovines were significantly higher. The results obtained in this study indicate a high D. viviparus seroprevalence in the analyzed farms and that the factors farm, altitude and life zones were significantly related to lungworm infections. PMID:18439761

Jiménez, A E; Fernández, A; Dolz, G; Vargas, B; Epe, C; Schnieder, T

2008-07-01

160

Diagnosis of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

1996-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

Anna Nudda

2010-01-01

162

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

1998-11-09

163

A Research on Development of Appropr?ate Cold Da?ry Barn Models to Dairy Cattle Production in Bursa Region  

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Full Text Available In this study, applicability of cold barns was investigated in Bursa conditions. Observations, surveysand questionnaires were carried out in 33 commercial dairy farms, which have minimum 20 cattle. Loose,tie-stall and free-stall barns are used in this farms and their percentage is 15 %, 42 % and 43 %, respectively.Feed delivery and manure hauling were performed manually in 48,5 and 51,5 percent of observed barns,respectively. It is concluded that producers are careful in feeding and animal handling without any properconsideration for housing. Additionally, it was observed that some producers to use labor efficientlydepending increase on stock density converted tie-stall barns to freestall barns.Ventilation capacity is not adequate at moisture control in winter season for 69 % of dairies, and attemperature control in summer season for 71 % of dairies. According to assessments, literature reviewed, andsurveillance results it is determined that cold dairy barns could be used in Bursa.In this study, for the purpose of model development for new enterprises or renovation of existingfacilities cold free-stall barns with 20, 50, 103, and 198 dairy cattle were designed according to capacitydistribution in region and appropriate layout planning. Based on unit price for 2003, construction costs percattle were calculated as 4.180.579.140 TL ($ 2875, 3.053.408.690 TL ($ 2100, 2.254.000.140 TL ($ 1550and 1.965.116.180 TL ($ 1350, respectively.

E.Yaslioglu

2005-05-01

164

A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating dairy cows fed discontinuously. The model structure considers input of up to three different feeds fed independently at any time during the day. Feeds are described by their nitrogen (N), carbohydra...

Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P. H.; Tamminga, S.

2008-01-01

165

Sero-prevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in South Australian beef and dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey for Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti was carried out in beef and dairy cattle in South Australia. Serum samples of dairy cattle (n=133) from 9 properties and tank milk samples from a further 122 dairy herds were tested. An additional 810 sera from beef cattle from 51 properties were also tested. Testing at the individual animal level by IDEXX NEOSPORA X2 Ab test ELISA revealed a low prevalence of N. caninum antibodies of only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.6-3.7%) sera positive, as did the milk testing that showed 2.5% (95% CI; 1.4-3.6%) of tank milks being positive. At the herd level, 29.4% (95% CI; 16.9-41.9%) of beef, and 44.4% (95% CI; 12.0-76.9%) of dairy cattle herds showed serum antibodies. The highest within-herd prevalence in beef was 20% and 25%in dairy, which explains the low herd prevalence in dairy detected by bulk milk testing. Testing for B. besnoiti antibodies by PrioCHECK(®) Besnoitia Ab 2.0 ELISA initially identified 18.4% (95% CI: 15.8-21.0%) of 869 individual cattle sera as positive by ELISA at the manufacturer's suggested cut-off threshold (15 PP). Additional tests by immunoblot and IFAT, however, could not confirm any of the ELISA results. The use of a higher (40 PP) threshold in the ELISA is suggested to improve specificity. There is thus no evidence of B. besnoiti infection in South Australian cattle. PMID:22138306

Nasir, Amar; Lanyon, Sasha R; Schares, Gereon; Anderson, Malcolm L; Reichel, Michael P

2012-05-25

166

Ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings and outdoor concrete yards in Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.

Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

2010-09-01

167

Haemophilus somnus: a comparison among three serological tests and a serological survey in beef and dairy cattle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Haemophilus somnus were carried out in herds of beef and dairy cattle using three different techniques: agglutination, complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. The agglutination test appeared to detect more seroreactors than the complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests. Results of the three tests indicated that there were more positive reactors in beef cattle and dairy cattle from infected herds than in d...

Sanfac?on, D.; Higgins, R.; Mittal, K. R.; L Archeve?que, G.

1983-01-01

168

Evaluation of protein fractionation systems used in formulating rations for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production efficiency decreases when diets are not properly balanced for protein. Sensitivity analyses of the protein fractionation schemes used by the National Research Council Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle (NRC) and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were conducted to assess the influence of the uncertainty in feed inputs and the assumptions underlying the CNCPS scheme on metabolizable protein and amino acid predictions. Monte Carlo techniques were used. Two lactating dairy cow diets with low and high protein content were developed for the analysis. A feed database provided by a commercial laboratory and published sources were used to obtain the distributions and correlations of the input variables. Spreadsheet versions of the models were used. Both models behaved similarly when variation in protein fractionation was taken into account. The maximal impact of variation on metabolizable protein from rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) was 2.5 (CNCPS) and 3.0 (NRC) kg/d of allowable milk for the low protein diet, and 3.5 (CNCPS) and 3.9 (NRC) kg/d of allowable milk for the high protein diet. The RUP flows were sensitive to ruminal degradation rates of the B protein fraction in NRC and of the B2 protein fraction in the CNCPS for protein supplements, energy concentrates, and forages. Absorbed Met and Lys flows were also sensitive to intestinal digestibility of RUP, and the CNCPS model was sensitive to acid detergent insoluble crude protein and its assumption of complete unavailability. Neither the intestinal digestibility of the RUP nor the protein degradation rates are routinely measured. Approaches need to be developed to account for their variability. Research is needed to provide better methods for measuring pool sizes and ruminal digestion rates for protein fractionation systems. PMID:17183120

Lanzas, C; Tedeschi, L O; Seo, S; Fox, D G

2007-01-01

169

Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis  

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From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL), we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed) reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (%)) and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some ...

Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W.

2004-01-01

170

When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategyIn dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The aim was to establish the relationship between various oestrus characteristics and ovulation time in order to investigate whether these oestrus characteristics could predict ovulation time and to stu...

Roelofs, J. B.

2005-01-01

171

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extract...

2011-01-01

172

Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both clinical and subclinical. The impact of specific foot disorders on welfare was assessed by simulating the incidence and duration of foot disorders and the pain associated with them. Pain assessment was b...

Bruijnis, M. R. N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E. N.

2012-01-01

173

First investigation on economic sustainability of dairy cattle breeding in Apulia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally the dairy cattle breeding in Apulia is mostly concentrated in the “Murgia barese-tarantina”. The most represented breeds in the Apulian dairy cattle population are Italian Brown (IB and Italian Friesian (IF. The figures plotted in Fig. 1 show the general upward trend of the two breeds recorded for the period 1965–2001 in Taranto's province, representing more than 50% of the above husbandry area. Even though during the last ten years the IB upward slope have stopped with an almost steady-state, the total number of cows in the herds now stands at 17213. Notwithstanding milk quotas regime since 1984.........

A. Sorrentino

2011-03-01

174

The use of radioselenium uptake for the detection of selenium deficiency on dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-eight dairy cattle were used in this experiment. The blood was collected from the jugular vein by vacutainer tubes which contained EDTA as anticoagulant. For detecting the selenium status in the cows, the GSH-Px of all blood samples were analyzed and percentage of "7"5Se uptake were also analyzed. The activity of "7"5Se used in this experiment was 6 muCi/ml sample. The result of this experiment shows that percentage uptake of "7"5Se is higher in deficient dairy cattle compared to normal ones. (author)

1984-10-01

175

Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

Cheryl M.E. McCrindle

2013-04-01

176

Options for the control of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subclinical impact of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) on the sustainability of the US dairy industry is only now being fully recognized. Findings of recent longitudinal studies conducted in Michigan dairy herds were consistent with the results of previous studies in showing that within-herd prevalence of BLV-infected cattle was negatively associated with milk production and cow longevity. Risk factors relating to routes of hematogenous transmission such as the use of shared hypodermic needles, shared reproductive examination sleeves, and natural breeding were associated with BLV within-herd prevalence. Few US dairy producers know the prevalence of BLV-infected cattle in their herds or are aware of the insidious economic impact of BLV or the options for BLV control. As an increasing number of countries eradicate BLV from their cattle populations, restrictions on the movement of US cattle and cattle products will likely increase. Veterinarians should be aware of recent developments for screening serum and milk samples for antibodies against BLV and the results of research regarding the economic impact of BLV so they can advise their dairy clients of available alternatives for monitoring and controlling BLV infection. PMID:24697767

Bartlett, Paul C; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Byrem, Todd M; Norby, Bo; Grooms, Daniel L; Swenson, Cheryl L; Zalucha, Jessica; Erskine, Ronald J

2014-04-15

177

Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly. PMID:24698359

Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

2014-05-01

178

The Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Bangladesh waste contributes in emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aminoglycosides are one of the categories of antibiotics most frequently used in treating several cattle diseases at the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF), Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh. Untreated veterinary clinical healthcare waste (VCHW) of diseased cattle at CCBDF which directly disposed to surrounding may contribute to the antibiotic resistant bacteria pollution (ARB) pollution. The investigation an...

Sohel Ahmed; Ibrahim Hossain, M.; Tareq Hossan; Rokibul Islam, K. M.; orhan Uddin; Badier Rahman, M.; Anwar Hossain, M.

2013-01-01

179

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

180

Longitudinal Study of the Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in Cattle on Dairy Farms?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), an accurate and phylogenetically robust characterization method for population studies of Campylobacter, was applied to Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 297) from the fecal samples of cattle from five dairy farms in Cheshire, United Kingdom, collected throughout 2003. The population dynamics of the C. jejuni strains, as identified by the occurrence of sequence types and clonal complexes, demonstrated variations within and between cattle populations over ti...

Kwan, Patrick S. L.; Birtles, Andrew; Bolton, Frederick J.; French, Nigel P.; Robinson, Susan E.; Newbold, Lynne S.; Upton, Mathew; Fox, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011-2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprev...

2012-01-01

182

Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine anaplasmosis (BA) is a hemoparasitic disease of great importance in cattle within the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Control programs for BA require accurate diagnostic assays but validation can be challenging because the true disease status of all animals is frequently not known with certainty. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of assays for detection of Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico using Baye...

Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Urdaz-rodr?guez, Jose H.; Dunbar, Mark D.; Rae, Owen D.; Donovan, Arthur G.; Melendez, Pedro; Dobek, Georgina L.; Alleman, Rick A.

2010-01-01

183

Volatile fatty acids in stored dairy-cattle slurry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content of dairy-cattle liquid manure slurry during its storage in covered concrete tanks, 12.3 x 7.2 x 3.0m deep, were studied. Slurry was stored from January to October (285 days) in two tanks and, similarly, from June to November (146 days). Slurry samples were collected at regular intervals from each of the tanks at two locations at depths of 0.3, 1.0, 1.8 and 2.5 m below the slurry surface. A centrifuged supernatant of the slurry was analysed for VFA. The temperature history of the stored slurry greatly influenced the VFA concentrations. In all four tanks for all VFA except iso-valeric acid, concentrations were significantly lower at the 0.3 m depth than at greater depths after about 50 days of storage. Concentrations increase during storage in all tanks except that in one of the two winter-filled tanks, total VFA concentration decreased at all depths during the last two months of storage, probably due to a shift in microbial activity. The mean concentrations of VFA in all the tanks were substantially in excess of those normally associated with steadily operated methane digesters. Acetic acid was the dominant VFA in every tank, and changes in its concentration set the trend for changes in the concentration of total VFA in the slurry stored in that tank. On a molar basis, concentrations decreased in the order of acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric, iso-butyric and valeric acid in all the four tanks. The last three acids accounted for only 6-8% of the total VFA.

Patni, N.K.; Jui, P.Y.

1985-01-01

184

Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.

Joanna Szyda

2012-01-01

185

Structural Characteristic of the Dairy Farms That Members of Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out by consulting with dairy farms that were selected by chance from the analyzed farms registered in the Dairy Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne. The farms were selected through Edirne and its counties, thus it was aimed to find accurate results.The survey questions are about the general characteristic features of the farm owners, their educational degrees, their existing breeding status, their practical experiences in breeding cattle, their aims and expectations, the condition of the animal sheds and equipments, distribution and marketing of their products.The rate of literacy in the farms that were members of the Cattle Breeding Association is 100%. The dairy cattle breeding was made for providing subsistence income by 47.4% of the farms and it was made for gaining supplementary budget by the rest of the farms. The rate of working in the farms as owners of the farms and members of their family was 96.5%. Average animal stock 21-30 heads of cattle in 33.3% of the farms.98.2 per cent of the farm areas were in the residential areas, 96.5 per cent of the farms consist of bound-standstill type farms and 3.6% of those consist of free type farms. The rate of the milking with the milking machine was 100 % and in 89.5% of farm the average production of milk per cattle 20-25 liters/day in the farms.

A. R. Onal

2008-05-01

186

An index for beef and veal characteristics in dairy cattle based on carcass traits.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows culled from dairy herds. All animals originated from dairy or dual purpose breeds. Heritabilities for carcass traits on veal calves varied from 0.06 to 0.19; for bulls from 0.25 to 0.30, and for cull...

1998-01-01

187

In Investigation of Structural Properties of Dairy Enterprises and Morphologic Characteristics of Black and White Cattle in Tekirdag Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n this research the status of dairy cattle husbandry in Tekirda? and it’s share in the Agriculture of Tekirda? was investigated. This research was conducted in the content of determining several animal science and morphometric traits of dairy cattle enterprises in Tekirda? province. The research material was consisted of data obtained from operations determined according to the registration data of provincial agricultural directory sampled in the villages where has the relatively more quantitatively and qualitatively intensified dairy cattle farms of the distiches of central of Tekirda?, Malkara, Muratl?, ?arköy, Çerkezköy, Marmara Ere?lisi. This study was completed with 267 breeders in Tekirda?. Questionnaire included many question in order to determine the general structure of farms, Status of Education of farmers, number of Animals of operations, level of feeding, conditions of barns, sort of milking practises, quality of milk obtained, status of breeding organizations and expectation of farmer regarding support measures to animal husbandry in Tekirda?. Data obtained showed that %59, %29, % 11 and %1 of farmers graduated elementary school, university, middle school and illiteracy respectively. 75 % of enter prises has number of animal of (1-15 head, where as %25 and %5 has (15-40 and 40-100 animals. 96 % of farmer had neither cooling tank nor fixed or milking in parlour. In addition investigation aimed to determine the morphometric trait of total 98 head of animal (67 female and 31 male aged 30 month for female and 10 months for male raised in five different location as villages of central district of Tekirda? and districts of Muratl? , Çerkezköy , ?arköy ,Marmara .Ere?lisi. The average wither height of females (30 month age was 138,71 ± 1,44, the average rump height was 144,28 ± 2,03, the average chest girth was 166,71 ± 3,71 and the average body length was 149,14 ± 2,19 investigated in Tekirda? (center.

E.K. Gurcan

2007-09-01

188

Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

1999-07-01

189

Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from dairy cattle emissions using a transportable smog chamber  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone continues to be an air pollution problem in the United States, particularly in California, Texas, and across the eastern seaboard. The obvious sources of ozone precursors have been largely controlled over the past several decades, leading to the critical examination of secondary sources. In particular, California has new air quality rules addressing agricultural sources of ozone precursors, including dairy farms. Some recent estimates predict that dairy cattle are second only to on-road vehicles as a leading source of ozone precursor emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley. The objective of this work was to directly measure the ozone formation potential from dairy housing. A transportable "smog" chamber was constructed and validated using organic gases known to be present in dairy emissions. The ozone formation potential of emissions from eight non-lactating dairy cows and their fresh waste was then directly evaluated in the field at a completely enclosed cow corral on the campus of the University of California, Davis. The results demonstrate that the majority of the ozone formation is explained by ethanol (EtOH) in the emissions from the dairy cows, not by acetone as previously thought. Ozone formation potential is generally small, with dairy cattle in California seems to be lower than previously estimated.

Howard, Cody J.; Yang, Wenli; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Malkina, Irina L.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

190

Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

1979-01-01

191

Exposure of farm laborers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbath use at a dairy farm in New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm. PMID:24768913

Doane, M; Sarenbo, S

2014-07-15

192

Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

Martínez-Loperena, R.; Castelán-Ortega, O. A.; González-Ronquillo, M.; Estrada-Flores, J. G.

193

Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

2002-06-01

194

Toxic effects in dairy cattle following the ingestion of a large volume of canola oil.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clinical and laboratory findings of a group of 9 dairy cattle that accidentally ingested large volumes of canola oil are described. Four of the animals died, and 3 were necropsied. No specific cause of death was found, although a number of theories are advanced. This is the first report of such an occurrence.

Clark, C.; Radostits, O.; Petrie, L.; Allen, A.

2001-01-01

195

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Arcobacter Strains of Pig and Dairy Cattle Manure Origin  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of three strains of Arcobacter species cultured from pig and dairy cattle manure tanks. This information will assist in the characterization of features related to host specificities and identify potential pathogenic health risks to humans and animals.

Adam, Zaky; Whiteduck-Leveillee, Kerri; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T.; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T.; Levesque, C. Andre; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R.; Talbot, Guylaine

2014-01-01

196

Neospora caninum and Leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in Ontario  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No significant association existed between Neospora caninum titer and serostatus to Leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in Ontario. Leptospira titer increased with parity. Amongst herds not vaccinated against Leptospira, the proportions of herds with ? 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.

2006-01-01

197

Draft genome sequences of three arcobacter strains of pig and dairy cattle manure origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of three strains of Arcobacter species cultured from pig and dairy cattle manure tanks. This information will assist in the characterization of features related to host specificities and identify potential pathogenic health risks to humans and animals. PMID:24831143

Adam, Zaky; Whiteduck-Leveillee, Kerri; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; Lévesque, C André; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

2014-01-01

198

Characterisation of the Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Swedish Dairy Cattle  

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Repeat breeding (RB), defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied ...

Gustafsson H; Emanuelson U

2002-01-01

199

Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated

2003-03-01

200

Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated.

Anon

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparison between two methods of measurement of milking speed in dairy cattle reared in Trento province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......

M. Cassandro

2011-03-01

202

The potential for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from beef and dairy cattle in Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and the genotypes and species of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in beef and dairy cattle from farms in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, in an effort to determine the potential for zoonotic transmission from these animals. Pooled manure samples were collected from 45 dairy cattle farms and 30 beef cattle farms. The presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy, while nested-PCR and DNA sequencing were used to determine genotypes and species. The overall farm prevalence was very high for both Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and was similar for dairy cattle farms (96 and 64%, respectively) and beef cattle farms (97 and 63%, respectively). However, on dairy cattle farms, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 44% and 6% of total pooled pen manure samples, respectively, with the occurrence of both parasites being generally higher in calves than in older animals. Most Giardia isolates were identified as either the host-adapted genotype G. duodenalis Assemblage E or the zoonotic Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni were the most frequently identified species in dairy cattle, while the non-zoonotic species Cryptosporidium ryanae and Cryptosporidium bovis were also found. On beef cattle farms, 72% and 27% of the total pooled pen manure samples were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, respectively, with no obvious correlation with age. All Giardia isolates in beef cattle were identified as G. duodenalis Assemblage E, while all Cryptosporidium isolates were identified by sequence analysis as C. andersoni, although microscopic analyses, and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, indicated that other Cryptosporidium species were also present. The results of this study indicate that although Giardia and Cryptosporidium were identified in a higher overall percentage of the pooled beef cattle manure samples than in dairy cattle, firmly established zoonotic genotypes and species were much more common in dairy cattle than in beef cattle in this region. Dairy cattle, and especially dairy calves, may, therefore, pose a greater risk of infection to humans than beef cattle. However, these results may also provide evidence of potential zooanthroponotic transmission (human to animal). PMID:20971563

Dixon, Brent; Parrington, Lorna; Cook, Angela; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Kelton, David; Farber, Jeffrey

2011-01-10

203

Role of Cooperatives as an Information Source of Dairy Cattle Farmers  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the role of dairy cooperatives as an information source in solving problems at dairy cattle production in the district of Osmaniye, Turkey. Local animal husbandry activities were investigated by collecting data using a questionnaire with owners of 112 dairy farms. The results showed that 31.3% of farmers were members of dairy cooperatives. Only 8.7% of farmers used cooperatives as a main source when they need information about solving their problems and getting information about new technologies. Most respondents (94.6% evaluated the timeliness of advisory services provided by cooperative as poor. Almost 90 (89.3% of farmers wanted better access to improved dairy technologies through cooperatives. The most significant problems in adopting innovations related to dairy cattle production were lack of access to relevant knowledge and financial problems in applying these innovations. It was also found that the farmers preferred veterinarians and other farmers as sources of knowledge and that the role of the cooperatives as knowledge sources was quite low.

Dilek Bostan Budak

2012-01-01

204

Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using "6"0Co or "1"7"7Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

1979-05-04

205

Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)

1999-07-01

206

Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

2007-09-01

207

GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

A. O. Rini

2013-12-01

208

Inter- and intra-observer reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers for the Qualitative Behaviour Assessment in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is part of the Welfare Quality® protocol for dairy cattle, although its inter- and intra-observer reliability have not been reported. This study evaluated inter- and intra-observer reliability of the QBA for dairy cattle in experienced and inexperienced observers using videos. Eight experienced observers performed the QBA (20 descriptors) twice for 16 video clips (60 s per clip; series 1) showing 4-17 animals. They assessed another 11 video clips showin...

Bokkers, E. A. M.; Vries, M.; Antonissen, I. C. M. A.; Boer, I. J. M.

2012-01-01

209

Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy industry plays an important role in the agricultural economy of China. To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in China, during four consecutive years (from 2006 to 2009), a total of 1315 fecal samples from 22 dairy cattle farms in ten prefectures in Henan Province were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 7.9%, with the highest infection rate (11.3%) in 3 to 11-month-old calves and the lowest infection rate (1.0%) in >2-year-old cows (p<0.01). Cryptosporidium-positive samples (n=104) were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and 25 representative samples were further analyzed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium andersoni were identified. C. andersoni (84/104) was the predominant species and was found in all age groups, whereas C. bovis (20/104) was only detected in 3 to 11-month-old calves. Thus, C. andersoni appears to be the dominant species in weaned dairy calves and heifers in China, in contrast with its common occurrence in adult cattle in other parts of the world. PMID:20884374

Wang, Rongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Zhao, Jinfeng; Lu, Qingbin; Wang, Helei; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

2011-01-01

210

An outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on an Irish dairy farm, following the consumption of raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis

Doran P

2009-06-01

211

Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.

Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

2009-06-01

212

Colostrum and milk as risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections cause major losses to the dairy industry. Transmission of MAP occurs primarily via feces and in utero, but MAP can also be excreted in colostrum and milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether colostrum and milk fed to calves are important risk factors for infection with MAP. A questionnaire was sent to 1,050 farms participating in the Danish control program on paratuberculosis in early 2007. Details on practices regarding colostrum and milk feeding between 1999 and 2006 were obtained from 808 (77%) herds. Nine vaccinated herds were excluded. Information on MAP antibody-ELISA results, date of birth, and herd of birth of 93,994 animals was obtained from the Danish Cattle Database. A 2-level logistic regression model was fitted with a dichotomized ELISA response, with outcome, age, source of colostrum, and milk as fixed effects, and herd as a random effect. Animals fed colostrum from multiple cows had an odds ratio of 1.24 of being ELISA positive compared with animals fed colostrum from their own dam only. Calves suckling with foster cows had an odds ratio of 2.01 of being ELISA positive compared with calves fed milk replacer. Feeding bulk tank milk and pooled milk from cows with high somatic cell counts did not increase the risk of being ELISA positive. Overall, the results of the study suggested that source of milk was not of great importance for the transmission of MAP, but colostrum should be fed only from the dam of that calf.

Nielsen, S. S.; Bjerre, H.

2008-01-01

213

Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of determination. The predicted RFI could be used in the dairy breeding program to increase profitability by selecting animals that are genetically superior in energy efficiency based on RFI, or through routinely measured traits, which are genetically correlated with RFI. PMID:24124653

Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

2013-12-01

214

Combined PCR-oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of dairy cattle-derived Cyclospora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive assay for the detection of Cyclospora species in dairy cattle faecal specimens has been developed. The method utilizes a nested PCR to amplify a 168-bp DNA fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of cattle-derived Cyclospora sp. and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to detect the amplified product. In this study, the OLA technique was compared with conventional gel electrophoresis for the detection of amplified product. In evaluating the PCR-OLA for Cyclospora sp. and non-Cyclospora parasites, A(405) reading value for Cyclospora species was significantly higher than those for non-Cyclospora control. At known concentrations of purified amplicons from cattle-derived Cyclospora sp., the OLA was able to detect more than 0.5 ng of the amplified DNA. Of 168 clinical specimens collected from four dairy cattle farms, 6 were positive by both PCR-gel electrophoresis and the PCR-OLA procedure, and 2 were positive only by PCR-OLA, indicating the PCR-OLA procedure was more sensitive than the common way with gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the PCR-OLA is simple, rapid and suitable in clinical detection of cattle-derived Cyclospora species. PMID:17850971

Xiao, S M; Li, G Q; Zhou, R Q; Li, W H; Yang, J W

2007-11-10

215

Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >...

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

216

Dairy cow monitoring by RFID  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia...

Stevan Stankovski; Gordana Ostojic; Ivana Senk; Marija Rakic-Skokovic; Snezana Trivunovic; Denis Kucevic

2012-01-01

217

Teat papillomatosis associated with bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 9, and 10 in dairy cattle from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. [...

Tozato, Claudia C.; Lunardi, Michele; Alfieri, Alice F.; Otonel, Rodrigo A.A.; Di Santis, Giovana W.; Alcântara, Brígida K. de; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Amauri A..

218

Teat papillomatosis associated with bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 9, and 10 in dairy cattle from Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle.

Tozato, Claudia C.; Lunardi, Michele; Alfieri, Alice F.; Otonel, Rodrigo A.A.; Di Santis, Giovana W.; de Alcantara, Brigida K.; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.

2013-01-01

219

Effect of a soybean hull:soy lecithin:soapstock mixture on ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3% soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7% supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P < .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows. PMID:8389347

Shain, D H; Sindt, M H; Grant, R J; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

1993-05-01

220

The effects on claw health of supplement feeding grazing dairy cows on feed pads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of feeding and management systems on the health and welfare of grazing dairy cows were investigated by comparing the claw health of cows fed grain during milking and pasture silage in the paddock (Control), with cows fed a grain-based partial mixed ration (PMR) on a concrete feed pad. Cows were assessed on three occasions during lactation: (1) early lactation (20-81 days in milk [DIM]) before allocation to feeding treatments; (2) mid-lactation (97-158 DIM) immediately following an intensive feeding experiment, and (3) late lactation (173-243 DIM) several months after return to initial management groups. At the final examination, claw puncture resistance was measured. The results showed that for the most prevalent lesions (white line disease, paintbrush haemorrhage and traumatic bruising), there was no effect of feeding system or amount of supplement on the presence of the moderate to severe forms in early lactation, but cows were more likely to have a particular lesion at the second assessment if it was present in early lactation. Puncture resistance of the claw was not related to presence of a lesion for any of the most prevalent lesion types. It was concluded for this herd that for most indicators of claw health, there was no overall effect of different feeding systems (supplement fed during milking or on a feed pad) or amount of supplement. PMID:24206633

Coombe, Joanne E; Pyman, Michael F; Mansell, Peter D; Auldist, Martin J; Anderson, Garry A; Wales, William J; Malmo, Jakob; Conley, Melanie J; Fisher, Andrew D

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report  

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The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

1980-05-16

222

Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies  

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Full Text Available Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10 included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14 included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7 included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.

Z. Bani Ismail

2007-01-01

223

Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions of feed intake, the increase in prediction error of all models was generally less than when compared with previous period animal data combined with current feed data. Milk yield as a model input in intake predictions can be substantially affected by current dietary factors. Milk yield can be used as model input when formulating rations aiming to sustain a given milk yield, but can generate large errors in estimates of future feed intake and milk production if the economically optimal diet deviates from the current diet. PMID:24508436

Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

2014-04-01

224

Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar  

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Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

2006-12-01

225

Recovery of heat from milk in the dairy cattle plant of Luessow  

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In large cowsheds milk is mostly cooled by a flow cooling system. By installing heat pumps it is possible to use the secondary energy obtained in the cooling process as waste heat to produce hot water by coupling the refrigeration and heating systems. Such a heat recovery plant was built in the dairy cattle plant of Luessow in co-operation with the publicly owned refrigeration engineering works of Potsdam. The working principle is depicted in a circuit diagram and a description is given. At a daily milk production of 14,000 l the heat pump system produced a daily average of 15.5 m (exp 3) of fresh water of a temperature of 50 Cel. The energetic yield is currently equivalent to 210 tons of brown coal briquettes per year. Various developed and tested systems can be used in dairy cattle plants with 400 to 2,000 milk cows.

Broege, M.

1981-10-01

226

Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from dairy cattle farms in Parana, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum samples from 134 dogs from 22 cattle dairy farms in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies (> or = 1:50) to N. caninum were found in 29 (21.6%) of the 134 dogs, and seropositive dogs were found on 14 (63.6%) of the 22 dairy cattle farrms. The antibody titers of dogs were 1:50 (3 dogs), 1:100 (7 dogs), 1:200 (7 dogs), 1:400 (6 dogs), and > or = 1:800 (6 dogs). The low prevalence (9%) in < 1-yr-old dogs compared with the 2- to 3-fold higher prevalence in older dogs (17-29%) suggests postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection. PMID:12054023

de Souza, S L P; Guimarães, J S; Ferreira, F; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

2002-04-01

227

Occurrence of Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in Dairy Cattle from N ova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This  study  aimed  to  evaluate  the  occurrence  and  the  risk  factors  associated  to  the summer mastitis in  27  dairy cattle from  Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso.  From the 408 dairy  cows  evaluated,  62  animals  (15.19%  were  positive  to  mastitis  with  13.32%  of prevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed more influence on mastitis occurrence  due to the use  of  the  milking machine  OR:  20.64  (p: 0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle

R. R. Lima

2013-11-01

228

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle from farms in China  

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Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under acce...

2012-01-01

229

Feasibility of a genetic evaluation for milk fatty acids in dairy cattle  

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Recent development of equations based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry for the prediction of milk fatty acid (FA) contents allows their measurement on a large scale during performance recording. The objective was to show that a genetic evaluation for milk FA in dairy cattle is feasible in the Walloon region of Belgium and to report first results. Estimated breeding values (EBV) and associated reliabilities (REL) were computed using a multi-trait test-day animal model similar to the one used...

Soyeurt, He?le?ne; Arnould, Vale?rie; Vanderick, Sylvie; Gengler, Nicolas

2010-01-01

230

Effects of insemination-ovulation interval on fertilization rates and embryo characteristics in dairy cattle  

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The objective of this study was to examine effects of the interval between insemination and ovulation on fertilization and embryo characteristics (quality scored as good, fair, poor and degenerate; morphology; number of cell cycles and accessory sperm number) in dairy cattle. Time of ovulation was assessed by ultrasonography (every 4 h). Cows were artificially inseminated once between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h after ovulation. In total 122 oocytes/embryos were recovered 7 d after ovulati...

Roelofs, J. B.; Graat, E. A. M.; Mullaart, E.; Soede, N. M.; Voskamp-harkema, W.; Kemp, B.

2006-01-01

231

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

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Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...

Del Rosario Gonza?lez-de-la-vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-ramirez, Vicente; Va?zquez-chagoya?n, Juan Carlos; Villa-godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

2011-01-01

232

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

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Abstract Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein populati...

Jensen Just; Su Guosheng; Madsen Per

2012-01-01

233

Accounting for genomic pre-selection in national BLUP evaluations in dairy cattle  

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Abstract Background In future Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluations of dairy cattle, genomic selection of young sires will cause evaluation biases and loss of accuracy once the selected ones get progeny. Methods To avoid such bias in the estimation of breeding values, we propose to include information on all genotyped bulls, including the culled ones, in BLUP evaluations. Estimated breeding values based on genomic information were converted into gen...

Patry Clotilde; Ducrocq Vincent

2011-01-01

234

Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates.  

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IntroductionNicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In the MOET nucleus breeding schemes, selection was within a closed nucleus herd using short generation intervals and mainly sib information. Juga and Maki-Tanila (1987) simulated MOET nucleus schemes and found that predi...

Meuwissen, T. H. E.

1990-01-01

235

Naphthalene distribution in tissues of laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle  

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Previous studies showed that higher-order animals can accumulate the entire range of hydrocarbons to which they are exposed through their food source. The purpose of the present studies was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of naphthalene in food-producing animals (laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle) and the retention of this toxicant in consumable products (meats, eggs, and milk).

Eisele, G.R.

1985-04-01

236

Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.  

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In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative genetic variation can not be distinguished. Developments in molecular genetics, however, have resulted in the identification of polymorphic sites in the genome, which are called genetic markers. Geneti...

Bink, M. C. A. M.

1998-01-01

237

Free ventilation with off-centre forced draught systems in dairy cattle farms  

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The trial operation of ventilation systems called 'free ventilation with off-centre supply air modules' in a dairy cattle farm allows the following conclusions to be drawn: Cow shed climate meeting the standards throughout the year, cow shed climate during wintertime only by free ventilation, low and reasonable expenditure on maintenance, repair, cleaning and operation and considerable savings in materials, investment and electricity cost over a basic variant (central pipe system).

Pauls, J.; Petereit, H.H.; Kosbab, H.

1986-01-01

238

Effect of nematode infections on productivity of young and adult cattle on commercial dairy farms.  

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In this study relationships between levels of exposure to gastrointestinal and lung nematode infections and production were investigated on commercial dairy farms in the Netherlands. Little was known about theserelationships, particularly with respect to second-year cattle and adult cows. Knowledge about the effects of different levels of exposure to nematode infection on growth performance and milk production on commercial farms, may lead to estimations of the economic impact of nematode inf...

Ploeger, H. W.

1989-01-01

239

Effects of Therapeutic Ceftiofur Administration to Dairy Cattle on Escherichia coli Dynamics in the Intestinal Tract? †  

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The goal of this study was to follow ceftiofur-treated and untreated cattle in a normally functioning dairy to examine enteric Escherichia coli for changes in antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic diversity. Prior to treatment, all of the bacteria cultured from the cows were susceptible to ceftiofur. Ceftiofur-resistant E. coli was only isolated from treated cows during and immediately following the cessation of treatment, and the 12 blaCMY-2-positive isolates clustered into two genetic ...

2008-01-01

240

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

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Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated us...

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins  

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Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

Krnjaja Vesna

2013-01-01

242

The diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in a vaccinated dairy cattle herd in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that occurs worldwide with substantial economic impact on beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in persistently infected (PI) animals identified in a highly productive, regularly vaccinated, dairy cattle herd presenting with reproductive failure. Serum samples were collected from all animals within the herd (n?=?692) and used to detect the presence of BVDV RNA. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, 29 cows were identified as transiently infected, three animals (two cows and one calf) as persistently infected, and one calf as putative BVDV PI animal. The sequences of 5'UTR and/or N(pro) gene of BVDV used in phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three PI animals were infected by three different BVDV subgenotypes (BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-1d). These results demonstrated that in an open dairy cattle herd, regular vaccination against BVDV by itself is not able to prevent viral circulation in the herd. Furthermore, depending on the frequency of the acquisition of heifers and/or cows for replacement, several BVDV subgenotypes may co-exist simultaneously in the same herd. PMID:23877647

Otonel, Rodrigo A A; Alfieri, Alice F; Dezen, Stelamaris; Lunardi, Michele; Headley, Selwyn A; Alfieri, Amauri A

2014-01-01

243

Financial Analysis of Dairy Cattle Farm on the Farming Company Level  

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Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The result showed that ROI (20.44% is higher than deposit interest rate (8%. The length of payback period (3 years and 6 months is faster than maximum period that was predicted by the company (5 years. NPV (Rp. 45,565,585.16 and BC Ratio (1.42 have positive and higher value (more than 1, respectively. IRR’s value (38.45% is higher than credit interest rate (18%. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the company is feasible enough to continue the operational project. (Animal Production 7(1: 40-45 (2005 Key Words : Financial analysis, farming company, dairy cattle

H Setiyawan

2005-01-01

244

Absorption, distribution, and excretion of plutonium by dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain information on the potential transport of ingested Pu and to gain additional information on Pu deposition patterns in ruminants, a series of metabolism studies with dairy cows were conducted. Results are presented on tissue uptake following oral 238Pu administration. (CH)

1975-06-01

245

The Risk of Mycotoxins Contamination of Dairy Feed and Milk on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity. Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004. This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37. Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2% had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%, Kitui (9.6%, Thika (3.9%, and Machakos (2.9%. Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities, then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.

T.P. Lanyasunya

2005-01-01

246

Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy  

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Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They should be considered as guidelines in the assistance both to public institutions and private enterprises in the evaluation of N excretion at farm level, favouring a more accurate quantification of the excretions, an increase of N retention efficiency and a better knowledge of the requirements of agricultural land. Moreover, a major extension of the agricultural land to be fertilised with manure should be promoted.

Giovanni Bittante

2010-01-01

247

CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...

2012-01-01

248

Prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle of Hamedan province, west of Iran  

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Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.

Jamal Gharekhani

2014-06-01

249

Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.

van der Fels-Klerx, I.

2011-01-01

250

Environmental sampling for evaluating verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157: H7 status in dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe disease in human beings. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacterium. The objective of the current study was to compare environmental sampling (consisting of dust, overshoe, and pooled pat samples) with pooled, individual fecal sampling for determining the cattle herd status under field conditions in naturally infected dairy herds. Thirty-one dairy cattle farms in Sweden, where verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 had been previously detected, were visited. On each farm, dust, overshoe, and pooled pat sampling were performed in each of 3 different age categories: calves, young stock, and adults. In addition, up to 140 individual fecal samples were collected and analyzed as pooled samples. In total, 3,763 individual fecal and 270 environmental samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7. Overshoe sampling, alone or in combination with dust and pooled pat sampling, correctly classified 20 of the 24 (0.83, 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) herds detected with at least 1 positive pool. On 1 farm, a dust sample was positive although all other samples were negative. In 6 of the 31 farms, the bacteria could not be detected in any of the individual fecal samples or in the environmental samples. The results establish that environmental sampling is a reliable method for identifying cattle herds with animals shedding verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7. PMID:23404479

Widgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Erik; Aspan, Anna; Emanuelson, Ulf; Alenius, Stefan; Lindberg, Ann

2013-03-01

251

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle from farms in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers EU369377-84 and GU070730-33. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a distances matrix generated from these sequences confirmed the existence of Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum 'mouse' genotype, C. bovis, C. andersoni, C. hominis, and C. serpentis in cattle. These results represent the first report on the prevalence and genetic identification of Cryptosporidium species, and may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cattle in China. PMID:22437531

Chen, Fu; Huang, Kehe

2012-03-01

252

System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cowsâ?? behavior can be expected to be natural.

Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

253

Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in adult Danish non-dairy cattle sampled at slaughter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A voluntary, risk-based control program for paratuberculosis in dairy herds was started in 2006 in Denmark. The program does not include non-dairy herds, and the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in these herds is unknown. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of MAP infected adult non-dairy cattle in Denmark. Serum samples were collected between October, 2008 and January, 2009 from every 6th animal over 24 months of age, sent to slaughter to Danish slaughterhouses from non-dairy herds. The final sample included 2345 cattle of 13 different breeds, with the largest breed group being crossbreds (of unknown breeds) (30%) and three dairy breeds (Danish Holstein, Danish Jersey and Danish Red Cattle) comprising 27% of the samples. The serum samples were tested using a MAP specific antibody ELISA (IDScreen®) and positives were defined as the sample-to-positive ratio greater than 0.60. Estimation of the breed-specific apparent prevalences, true prevalences (TP), and true prevalences with a random effect of breed was done in a Bayesian analysis. Information about test sensitivity and specificity were based on literature data and expert information. Regardless of the method of analysis, the estimated prevalences showed similar differences between breeds. The dairy breeds Danish Jersey, Danish Holstein and Danish Red Cattle were ranked highest (i.e. with highest prevalence) (TP medians: 13, 10, and 6, respectively). Combined, the dairy breeds had a significantly higher prevalence than the other breeds, median TP (dairy) = 15.7% vs. median TP (non-dairy) = 0.8%. For the individual non-dairy breeds, the median estimates were generally higher, illustrating the problems of ranking groups based on relatively small sample sizes.

Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

2010-01-01

254

The Effect of Using Monensin on Haptoglobin Serum Level in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90, 120, time of parturition and 2 weeks after parturition the blood samples was collected from jugular vein and then serum was separated. In all serum samples the haptoglobin serum level was measured by biochemical kit. The average of serum haptoglobin did not have meaningful difference between two groups on day of zero but in care group there was decrease in serum haptoglobin after the day of 30 and on the day of 30 the difference between two groups was not significant (p = 0.066. On the day of 90 and 120 this difference was significant and it was p = 0.037 and p = 0.04, respectively. On parturition time, haptoglobin serum level increased in two groups and this increase in treatment group was less than control group which was nonsignificant (p = 0.003 and 2 weeks after parturition it was low in treatment group which was not significant (p = 0.586. The changes of serum haptoglobin in control group was not meaningful on different times but in treatment group the serum changes was significant on days of zero and 30 (p = 0.04. The mean serum level of this protein in affected cattle to parturition diseases was greater than healthy carrel in two groups. Final result was that adding monensin to pregnant cattle diet led to decrease of haptoglobin serum level, 4 month before parturition.

M. Gholipour

2011-01-01

255

Relationships between methane emissions of dairy cattle and farm management.  

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Livestock is considered as an important contributor to global methane emissions, predominately due to methanogenesis from ruminants. Moreover, these emissions also represent major losses of energy for dairy cows and therefore are linked to production efficiency. The on-going development of predictive equations (e.g., from milk composition) would allow to relate methane emissions to farm management (e.g., nutrition, environment) on a large scale in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Finally, by ac...

Vanrobays, Marie-laure; Vanlierde, Ame?lie; Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Froidmont, Eric; Dehareng, Fre?de?ric; Soyeurt, He?le?ne; Gengler, Nicolas

2012-01-01

256

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

1995-01-01

257

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970`s. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed.

Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stetson, L.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1995-07-01

258

Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems. Dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major difference between dairy cattle waste and swine, poultry or beef wastes is the considerably smaller fraction which is biodegradable. Thus, methane yields for dairy waste, when compared with beef, swine and poultry waste at identical operating conditions, are much lower, of the order of 50% of beef waste yields. The VS reduction is similarly about half that of beef and a third that of swine and poultry. This assumes the dairy herd is fed a roughage diet. Two temperatures were studied for dairy waste: 35 degrees C and 60 degrees. As with beef, considerable literature reports exist for both these temperatures, but all full scale operations now use 35 degrees C. The simulations lead to the following recommended designs for operation in the mesophilic and thermophilic ranges, respectively: temperatures - 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C; influent VS concentrations - 82.5 and 103 g/litre and detention times - 8 and 6 days. Since dairy waste is only about half as biodegradable as beef waste, considerable differences exist in start-up and recovery techniques. The minimum detention times as determined by these simulations are 8, 6 and 4 days for 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 60 degrees C operation, respectively. (Refs. 10).

Hill, D.T.

1983-04-01

259

Assessing experimental visceral pain in dairy cattle: A pilot, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled study focusing on spinal pain proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have verified the validity of behavioral and physiological methods of pain assessment in cattle. This prospective, blinded, randomized controlled experimental study aimed to validate different methods of pain assessment during acute and chronic (up to 21 d postintervention) conditions in dairy cattle, in response to 3 analgesic treatments for traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and mechanical sensitization were measured as indicators of centralized pain. Proteomics in the CSF were examined to detect specific (to pain intensity) and sensitive (responsive to analgesia) markers. Recordings of spontaneous behavior with video analysis, telemetered motor activity, pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were quantified at regular intervals. Cows were assigned to group 1 (n=4, standard control receiving aspirin), group 2 (n=5, test group receiving preemptive tolfenamic acid), or group 3 (n=3, positive control receiving preemptive multimodal analgesia composed of epidural morphine, plus tolfenamic acid and butorphanol). Rescue analgesia was administered as needed. Generalized estimating equations tested group differences and the influence of rescue analgesia on the measurements. All 3 groups demonstrated a long-term decrease in a CSF protein identified as transthyretin. The decrease in transthyretin expression inversely correlated with the expected level of analgesia (group 1<2<3). Moreover, in group 1, CSF noradrenaline decreased long term, cows were hypersensitive to mechanical stimulation, and they demonstrated signs of discomfort with higher motor activity and "agitation while lying" recorded from video analysis. Decreased "feeding behavior," observer-reported pain scales, electrodermal activity, and plasma cortisol concentration were inconsistent to differentiate pain intensity between groups. In summary, changes in CSF biomarkers and mechanical sensitization reflected modulation of central pain in dairy cows. The spontaneous behavior "agitation while lying" was the only behavioral outcome validated for assessing acute and chronic pain in this visceral pain model. PMID:24534501

Rialland, P; Otis, C; de Courval, M-L; Mulon, P-Y; Harvey, D; Bichot, S; Gauvin, D; Livingston, A; Beaudry, F; Hélie, P; Frank, D; Del Castillo, J R E; Troncy, E

2014-04-01

260

The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

Yudi Sastro

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

1998-11-09

262

Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”), such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased...

Paul Boettcher

2010-01-01

263

Research on the Effect of Utilization CLA and ZLL Nutritional Supplements in Dairy Cows Feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The breeding of dairy cows is an area of great importance to ensure the basic needs of people. Dairy cows are also subjected to the action of various factors of influence due to the feeding peculiarities. This research aims to reveal the influence of the dairy cows feeding use of based on conjugated linoleic acid -CLA and a mixture of plant extracts and micro-ZLL supplements. The study was carried out in Agrimat Matca farm, on a herd of 100 cows at the first lactation. The experiment...

2012-01-01

264

Detection and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from 40 dairy cattle herds in Quebec, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle are considered a Campylobacter reservoir in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis. Currently, very little data on the prevalence of Campylobacter in dairy herds are available in the Province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter associated with management practices in 40 dairy cattle herds as well as to characterize the bacterial genetic diversity. Fecal samples from 797 lactating cows of 40 dairy farms, water provided to animals, milk from bulk tank, and fecal matters from pens were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter. Management information was collected using a short survey and the geographical positioning was mapped for each farm. Bacterial genetic characterization was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-typing. In total, 29 farms (72.5%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. and 20 (50%) of them were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. In animals, 27.6% of the fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. C. hyointestinalis was the most prevalent species (19.3%) in herds, followed by C. jejuni (6.5%). No Campylobacter were recovered from water or milk samples. Component-fed ration systems and the lack of biosecurity measures were associated with an increased prevalence of C. jejuni on the studied farms. Campylobacter-positive farms were scattered throughout the region, and bacterial genetic heterogeneity was observed between farms and inside the herds. This study is the first one to characterize C. jejuni isolates from dairy herds in the Province of Quebec. These observations may be useful in order to elaborate risk-mitigation strategies. PMID:24617502

Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Loubier, Catherine B; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Dubuc, Jocelyn

2014-05-01

265

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

266

Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly test days were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System, which represents 97% of all Norwegian dairy cows. Besides veterinary treatments, these records also included information on daily milk yield at monthly test days. The data were stratified by parity groups (1, 2, and 3 and higher and time to conception periods (43-93 DIM and >93 DIM. The sample was selected using the following selection criteria: conception later than 42 DIM, calving season July to September, no records of veterinary treatment and the level of energy fed as concentrates between 8.69 and 12.83 MJ. The shape of the lactation curves were parameterized using a modified Wilmink-model in a mixed model analysis. Differences in the parameters of the lactation curves with different conception times were evaluated using confidence intervals. Results Lactation curves characterized by a low intercept and a steep ascending slope and a steep descending slope were associated with early conception across all parities. The peak milk yield was not associated with time of conception. Conclusions A practical application of the study results is the use of the shape of the lactation curve in future herd management. Groups of cows with impaired reproductive performance may be identified due to an unfavorable shape of the lactation curve. Monitoring lactation curves and adjusting the feeding strategy to adjust yield therefore may be useful for the improvement of reproductive performance at herd level.

Toft Nils

2011-02-01

267

Assessment of Feed Supplementation to Dairy Goat: Results of Research and Technology Dissemination Trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the years, role and strength of dairy goat is increasing in Barani Tract of Punjab. The bread and butter needs of poor and small household are largely depends on livestock specifically on the dairy goats. The 80 percent livestock management activities are mostly depends upon women; therefore under the experimentation of feed supplementation mainly women's were included as research partners. The women perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feed supplement were collected by using a well structured questionnaire. A total of 62 women's were included in the sample size. Results indicated that 95.08% women's had shown their complete satisfaction from the feed supplements given to dairy goats. A large majority of the respondents (98.31 were in view that the given feed supplements had increased their milk productivity. Overall, 82.69 % sample women had pointed out that their knowledge about goat management has increased with this experimentation. Both empirical and experimental data shows a significant increase in milk yield i.e 520 ml and 562 ml respectively. The marginal rate of returns from milk was about 246.38 % that also revealed economic significance of the feed supplementation intervention to the dairy goats. The sustainability of feed supplementation has serious problem, about 67.27 percent respondents were in view that feed supplementation to dairy goat will not sustain due to resources poorness, availability and relatively importance of goat in household economy.

M. Azeem Khan

2012-12-01

268

Quantitative trait loci affecting fertility and calving traits in Swedish dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired fertility is the main reason for involuntary culling of dairy cows in Sweden. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing fertility and calving traits in the Swedish dairy cattle population. The traits analyzed were number of inseminations, 56-d nonreturn rate, interval from calving to first insemination, fertility treatments, heat intensity score, stillbirth, and calving performance. A genome scan covering 20 bovine chromosomes was performed using 145 microsatellite markers. The mapping population consisted of 10 sires and their 417 sons in a granddaughter design. Nine of the sires were of the Swedish Red Breed, and one was a Swedish Holstein. Least squares regression was used to map loci affecting the analyzed traits, and permutation tests were used to set significance thresholds. Cofactors were used in the analyses of individual chromosomes to adjust for QTL found on other chromosomes. The use of cofactors increased both the number of QTL found and the significance level. In the initial analysis, we found 13 suggestive QTL that were mapped to chromosomes 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, and 29. When cofactors were included, 30 QTL were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 18, 19, 22, and 25, in addition to the 8 previously mentioned chromosomes. Some of the results from the cofactor analysis may be false positives and require further validation. In conclusion, we were able to map several QTL affecting fertility and calving traits in Swedish dairy cattle. PMID:16899702

Holmberg, M; Andersson-Eklund, L

2006-09-01

269

Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Dairy Cattle in Henan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1–E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern.

Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

2014-01-01

270

Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling  

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Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

Kadarmideen Haja N

2004-09-01

271

Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. PMID:21504844

Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

2011-08-01

272

Survey on Ammonia Concentrations in Dairy Cattle Tie-Stall Barns  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to quantify the ammonia concentrations from the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns and to compare it with threshold limits recommended in our country and in other countries. The significance of interactions between ammonia concentration and air temperature, relative humidity and air flow velocity was also determined. Two measurements were done in each barn, in the morning and in the evening of the same day. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant differences between the two measurements only for the ammonia concentrations in the air (p=0.003. In 20% of the investigated cattle barns the ammonia concentration was bellow 10 ppm, in 20% of these it varied from 11 and 26 ppm while in 60% of these, it exceeded 26 ppm. There was a significantly positive correlation between relative humidity and ammonia concentration in all barns, both for the morning (r=0.57, p=0.008 and for the evening (r=0.64, p=0.002 measurements. Assuming an ammonia threshold limit of 26 ppm, 60% of the dairy cattle barns in this study exceeded this recommended limit, indicating a need for improved housing conditions in the future.

Silvana Popescu

2011-05-01

273

Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Dairy Cattle in Henan, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1-E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern. PMID:24971639

Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

2014-01-01

274

Factors Limiting Use of Poultry Manure as Protein Supplement for Dairy Cattle on Smallholder Farms in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Productivity of ruminant animals during the dry season, on smallholder farms in Kenya, is constraint by low availability and poor quality of the feeds (crop residues. The current study was conducted on smallholder farms in Nakuru, Koibatek and Trans Nzoia Districts in 2003 over 2-year period preceded by a 6 - week feed survey. The objective of the feed survey was to inventorize feed resources available on smallholder resource - poor farms and delineate factors limiting their optimization for enhanced dairy production. Other farm bio-data including livestock population (ruminants and poultry and structure per farm were also collected. This paper confines its discussion on both qualitative and quantitative information gathered during the survey with special focus on poultry manure vis a vis litter and compares the results with reports other research works. During the survey, composite samples of feed resources being utilized at farm level (including poultry manure were collected for dry matter (DM determination and proximate analysis at the National Animal Husbandry Research Centre (NAHRC/Naivasha/Kenya. Results obtained, strongly indicated that, poultry manure has great potential for use during the dry season as a source of rumen degradable protein or non-protein nitrogen (NPN in ruminant nutrition. Though heterogeneity was observed in the many reports reviewed and compared with the current study, the general consensus was that poultry manure/litter contains high level of crude protein (15 to 38%, fiber (11 - 52%, and rich in minerals (Ca: 0.81 - 6.13%; P: 0.56 - 3.92; K: 0.73 - 5.17, dry matter (61 - 95%. It is because of these nutrients that poultry manure has been deliberately mixed into ruminant livestock diets. Its Organic matter digestibility (OMD ranges from 60 to 65, crude protein (CP - 69.9, crude fibre (CF - 29.9 and nitrogen-free extract (NFE - 71.4%. Past research studies recorded in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD of 76.1 and 72.7%, respectively. Other reports also showed that, beef cattle fed poultry manure based diets recorded body weight gains ranging from 0.91 to 1.31 kg/d. Dairy goats supplemented with poultry manure registered 10.15% higher milk production compared to those on barley based diets (621 and 558 kg, respectively. Based on the available research information, it is conclude in this study that poultry manure can be successfully included in ruminant diets. The constraint, as revealed in the current study is that smallholder farmers do not own large chicken flock sizes (majority own less 30 birds to guarantee sufficient supply of manure for ruminant feeding. It is this particular factor that is being attributed to the low poultry manure reported in the current study (regular users - 19%; occasional users - 17% and none users - 64%. Where available, poultry manure is very cheap. Since it is cheaply available (not readily at farm level, poultry manure offers a cost effective option for meeting dairy cattle protein requirements. However, some precaution must be taken to minimize nitrogen loss (which occurs in the form of NH3, N2O and N2 and accumulation of pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli.

T.P. Lanyasunya

2006-01-01

275

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations  

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Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.

Calvin B. Parnell

2011-08-01

276

Function Analysis of Milk Yield on Small Holder Dairy Cattle in Sumbang Banyumas Region  

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A survey on smallholder dairy cow had conducted in Banyumas region from November 8th 1999 up to February 8th 2000. Forty six respondents were involved in this study (as samples). Cobb - Douglas analysis was applied in this survey. From the study can be concluded that a small holder owned 3.02 heads of dairy cow (2.2 ST), 1.44 heads of lactating cow with 9.77 L/day milk production on average. The benefit of the backyard farming was RP.70.603,225 per month on average. Feeding was the biggest i...

2001-01-01

277

[Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis. PMID:24920089

Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

2014-06-12

278

Black Quarter in crossbred dairy cattle- A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF cross bred cows (n=8 at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC and plasma biochemistry were performed on survived animals (n=6. The needle biopsy samples were subjected to culture and identification of the organism by Gram staining. Results: Two cows were died before instituting the treatment in this clinical incident. The carcasses were seen with typical bloated appearance immediately after death, laying one side with affected leg stuck out. Post-mortem of the carcasses were not been carried out. Pertinent findings of the CBC were a relative neutrophilia whilst a normal total leucocyte count and lowered Hb. Plasma biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in the mean activity of aspartate aminotransferase while alanine aminotransferase levels were within limits. Gram's staining of the inoculated culture revealed the presence of small gram-positive rods with sub terminal spores. Clinical treatment of the cases was performed with administration of heavy dose of crystalline penicillin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Clinical recoveries of the cases were good and cessation of spread within the herd confining itself as a sporadic clinical incident. Conclusion: Sporadic Clostridiosis (BQ of eight cross bred dairy cows was dealt in the present case study by including the details of its alterations in hematological parameters, Plasma biochemical parameters, observation of characteristic clinical signs of the disease and employment of empirical treatment with Penicillin. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 767-770

Umar Nazir Zahid

279

Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms  

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Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

Flaviana Gottardo

2010-04-01

280

Prevalence of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in a survey of dairy cattle in Najaf, Iraq  

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Background and Objectives: Dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. VTEC has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VETEC in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in Najaf, Iraq."nMaterials and Methods: 326 fecal samp...

Al-charrakh, A.; Al-muhana, A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring Node of the Physiological Signals for Unrestrained Dairy Cattle Using Wireless Sensor Network  

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A newly developed smart sensor node that can monitor physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle is designed through modular design and its advantages are compact structure and small volume. This sensor node is based on a MSP430F133 micro-controller; the digital sensor includes temperature sensor (DS18B20-America) and vibration-displacement sensor (DN series China); transmission of the digital data uses the nRF903. The results show that this node can collect physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle and then send it to upper network node. This research can provide better hardware platform for further researching the communication protocols of wireless sensor networks.

Zhang, Xihai; Zhang, Changli; Fang, Junlong; Fan, Yongcun

282

Comparative intradermal tuberculin test in dairy cattle in the north of Ecuador and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis  

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We studied the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Mejia canton, the major dairy cattle production area in northern Ecuador. Twenty dairy herds comprising 2,022 cattle were selected. In 2007, each animal was tested using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). In 2008, a follow-up test was performed in the same herds. The true annual incidence was 1.70%, and the true prevalence was 7.41% and 7.13% in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The prevalence was 0.27% and 0.57% in medium-...

2009-01-01

283

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

HR Shahbazkia

2011-12-01

284

Selenium-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and immunity in periparturient dairy cattle.  

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Uncontrolled or impaired immune and inflammatory responses in periparturient dairy cows are associated with increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The progressive development of oxidative stress during the transition from late gestation to peak lactation is thought to be a significant underlying factor leading to dysfunctional immune cell responses. Certain trace minerals, such as selenium (Se), can ameliorate oxidative stress and reduce the severity of several economically important diseases in dairy cattle including mastitis and metritis. Many of the health benefits of Se can be attributed to the antioxidant functions of selenoproteins. Changes in selenoprotein activity as a consequence of Se nutritional status can directly alter a number of critical cellular functions involved in the inflammatory response. A better understanding of how Se can optimize immune cell responses may facilitate the design of nutritional regimes that will reduce health disorders during the periparturient period. PMID:23401850

Sordillo, Lorraine M

2013-01-01

285

Use of contrast sonography to test for tubal patency in dairy cattle.  

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Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography is an accurate first-line method used to test for tubal patency in human gynecology. Tubal pathology occurs in dairy cattle and is a reason for infertility, but easy and accurate methods to test for tubal patency are not available in the living cow. In this study it was thus investigated if contrast sonography (CS) using Echovist-200 as the echo-contrast medium is a feasible procedure to test for tubal patency in dairy cattle. In eight repeat breeder Holstein Frisian cows, all of them being in behavioral estrus, Echovist-200 was given into the uterus and its exit into the abdominal cavity then imaged by transrectal conventional B-mode ultrasound, and used as indicator for tubal patency. Animals were slaughtered one day later and the genital tracts subjected to gross morphology and histology in order to confirm the results of CS. In two cows, CS was prematurely terminated after examination of one oviduct because of rectal bleeding, while CS completely failed in another cow because of poor image quality. In five cows, both oviducts could be examined by CS, respectively. A total of five oviducts were found patent by CS and confirmed by post mortem examination. Two out of five oviducts diagnosed as occluded by CS were morphologically intact and thus misdiagnosed. Of the three non-patent oviducts, two were occluded because of a hydrosalpings, respectively, while the third was inflamed. In conclusion, CS has been shown a feasible procedure to test for tubal patency in dairy cattle. Further studies with more animals are however recommended to warrant this result. PMID:19194061

Kauffold, Johannes; Groeger, Stephan; Bergmann, Karsten; Wehrend, Axel

2009-06-01

286

Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

R.C.A Berber

2013-11-01

287

Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139

Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

2008-11-01

288

Photosensitization in cattle and sheep caused by feeding Ammi majus (greater Ammi; Bishop's-Weed).  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding Ammi majus to cattle and sheep caused photosensitization in both species. It also caused photosensitization in human beings who had dermal contact with the plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. PMID:564649

Dollahite, J W; Younger, R L; Hoffman, G O

1978-01-01

289

PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran  

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Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

Saeid Hosseinzadeh

2014-12-01

290

Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810±378kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship training sessions. In conclusion, cattle handling skills are considered important by Minnesota dairy producers to ensure worker safety and cow flow. Limited availability of time, language barrier, and a perceived lack of training materials were considered challenges during the training of workers on farms. PMID:24835968

Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B

2014-07-01

291

Short communication: Genetic evaluation of milking speed for brown Swiss dairy cattle in the United States  

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Genetic parameters and relative breeding values were estimated for milking speed of US Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Owner-recorded milking-speed scores on a scale of 1 (slow) to 8 (fast) were collected by the Brown Swiss Association as part of its linear type appraisal program starting in 2004. Data were 7,366 records for 6,666 cows in 393 herds. The pedigree file included information for 21,458 animals born in 1985 or later. Six unknown-parent groups that each included 4 birth years were define...

Wiggans, G. R.; Thornton, L. L. M.; Neitzel, R. R.; Gengler, Nicolas

2007-01-01

292

Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part I: morphometric analysis  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION – The study of the morphometric parameters of milk fat globules can aid in increasing our knowledge of the relationship between the number and dimensions of globules and the chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of milk and its by-products. It is well-known that the fat globules secreted from the mammary cell are of heterogeneous dimensions, and at present the process of their synthesis in the cell is not yet entirely clear (Keenan, 2001. The few studies previously carried out on livestock mainly concern dairy cattle....

P. Verità

2011-03-01

293

Control of bovine fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Switzerland with emphasis on pasture management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two dairy cattle farms with fasciolosis as an established herd problem were visited and divided into groups according to the location of the habitats of the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The farms were revisited 4-5 years later and those that had followed the recommended measures were compared to those that had not. Egg shedding and seroprevalence was significantly reduced in cows on farms complying with the control recommendations but was not reduced on farms that had not complied. PMID:19758828

Knubben-Schweizer, G; Rüegg, S; Torgerson, P R; Rapsch, C; Grimm, F; Hässig, M; Deplazes, P; Braun, U

2010-11-01

294

Survival analysis of longevity in dairy cattle on a lactation basis  

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An analysis of longevity in dairy cattle on a lactation basis is proposed. The approach allowed each lactation to have its own baseline hazard function, which gives a better description of the hazard than traditional analyses of the whole length of life. As a consequence, the overall fit of the model to the data was improved and fewer time-dependent variables were needed. Longevity on a lactation basis was defined from one calving to the next instead of from the first calving to culling. Howe...

2003-01-01

295

Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IIa subtypes in pre-weaned calves. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. In this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four Nile River delta provinces in Egypt. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast microscopy was used to screen for Cryptosporidium oocysts in 1974 fecal specimens from animals of different ages on 12 farms. Positive fecal specimens were identified from all studied farms with an overall prevalence of 13.6%. By age group, the infection rates were 12.5% in pre-weaned calves, 10.4% in post-weaned calves, 22.1% in heifers, and 10.7% in adults. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of microscopy-positive fecal specimens revealed the presence of four major Cryptosporidium species. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was most common (30/69 or 43.5%), but Cryptosporidium ryanae (13/69 or 18.8%), Cryptosporidium bovis (7/69 or 10.2%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (7/69 or 10.2%) were also present at much higher frequencies seen in most industrialized nations. Mixed infections were seen in 12/69 (17.4%) of genotyped specimens. In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (193/195 or 99.0%) in post-weaned calves and older animals. Subtyping of C. parvum based on sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene showed the presence of subtypes IIdA20G1 in nine specimens, IIaA15G1R1 in 27 specimens, and a rare subtype IIaA14G1R1r1b in one specimen. The common occurrence of non-C. parvum species and IId subtypes in pre-weaned calves is a distinct feature of cryptosporidiosis transmission in dairy cattle in Egypt. The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in Egypt suggests calves can be potential reservoirs of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24036320

Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua; Feng, Yaoyu

2013-11-01

296

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran  

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Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora can­inum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and ab­orted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to de­tect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to...

Nematollahi, A.; Jaafari, R.; Gh. Moghaddam

2011-01-01

297

Prevalence of Antibodies Against of Neospora caninum in Dairy Cattle in Nuevo Leon, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The goal of the present epidemiological research was the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in order to determine the presence and prevalence of neosporosis in dairy cattle herds at 8 counties from the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A total of 33 herds and 371 animals were included. Detection of Neospora caninum was performed using a commercial kit observed prevalence was 45%. This result allowed the conclusion that animals which are seropositive for the protozoan Neospora caninum do exist in Nuevo Leon. Serological evidence was found in animals at milk-production stage indicating that the presence of emerging diseases in the region is a fact therefore, sanitary measurements should be re-evaluated or reinforced in order to keep the cattle free from pathogens that have a negative impact in the production of food from animal origin used for the human consumption.

G. Hernandez-Vidal

2011-01-01

298

Investigation about Fatty Liver Syndrome Prevalence in Dairy Cattle of Rasht Township Slaughterhouse (Ghilan Province, Iran  

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Full Text Available Fatty liver syndrome or hepatic lipidosis occurs when the received energy by animal is lower than the consumed energy especially during lactation. In this case, body fats will become lipolysis because of negative balance of energy then flow to the liver so, inevitable troubles will appear such as abomasums displacement, placenta remaining, post partum hypocalcaemia and reduction of body immunization, etc. In this study, 96 heads of hybrid and healthy dairy cattle of 3-5 years old with body score of 2 and 3 were used and the blood and liver samples were obtained with the rate of 10 cc and 20 g, respectively in order to investigate fatty liver syndrome. The amount of NEFA, glucose and albumin in serum and the amount of liver cells TAG in liver samples were measured. The results suggest that there is meaningful increase in serum NEFA (1082±432.88 ? Eq L•1 and liver TAG (7.73±1.68% and meaningful decrease in serum glucose (37.20±15.26 mg dL•1 in new-calved cattle (p<0.001. Also, serum albumin in new calved cattle and last months pregnant cattle in which the NEFA serum and liver fat were in highest levels, sowed meaningful decrease (p<0.01.

A. Akhlaghy Kermany

2011-01-01

299

Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition. PMID:24393175

White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

2014-03-01

300

Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations  

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Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

Marisanna Speroni

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

2004-08-01

302

Studies on the utilization of non-protein nitrogen and agricultural by-products as feed for native cattle in the Republic of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)

1986-03-24

303

Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

Paul Boettcher

2010-01-01

304

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

Isbandi

2012-09-01

305

Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia  

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Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in...

2012-01-01

306

Evaluation of PCR and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on milk samples for diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.  

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A study was performed to evaluate the previously described PCR (C. Romero, C. Gamazo, M. Pardo, and I. López-Goñi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:615-617, 1995) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle. Milk samples from 56 Brucella milk culture-positive cattle and from 37 cattle from Brucella-free herds were examined for Brucella DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificities of both tests were 100% when testing the milk s...

Romero, C.; Pardo, M.; Grillo, M. J.; Diaz, R.; Blasco, J. M.; Lopez-gon?i, I.

1995-01-01

307

Cattle-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms, Minnesota, USA  

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The objective of this study was to identify individual cattle-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB), a surrogate for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), on 28 organic and conventional dairy farms. It was found that small organic herds (fewer than 100 cows) were associated with higher odds of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) shedding from 2 (all cattle and all cows) of 3 cattle models, followed by small conventional herds, compared with l...

Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P.; Diez-gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Kaneene, John B.; Ruegg, Pamela L.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bender, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

308

Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

1999-07-01

309

A mating method accounting for inbreeding and multi-trait selection in dairy cattle populations  

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Full Text Available Selection in dairy cattle populations usually takes into account both the breed profiles for many traits and their overall estimated breeding values (EBV. This can result in effective contributions of breeding animals departing substantially from contributions optimised for saving future genetic variability. In this work, we propose a mating method that considers not only inbreeding but also the detailed EBV of progeny or the EBV of sires in reference to acceptance thresholds. Penalties were defined for inbreeding and for inadequate EBV profiles. Relative reductions of penalties yielded by any mating design were expressed on a scale ranging from 0 to 1. A value of 0 represented the average performance of random matings and a value of 1 represented the maximal reduction allowed by a specialized, single-penalty, mating design. The core of the method was an adaptative simulated annealing, where the maximized function was the average of both ratios, under the constraints that both relative penalty reductions should be equal and that the within-herd concentration criterion should be equal to a predefined reasonable value. The method was tested on two French dairy cattle populations originating from the same AI organization. The optimised mating design allowed substantial reductions of penalty: 70% and 64% for the Holstein and the Normandy populations, respectively. Thus, this mating method decreased inbreeding and met various demands from breeders.

de Preaumont Hervé

2009-01-01

310

Performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system treating dairy cattle wastes  

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The performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system in the stabilization of dairy cattle wastes at high solids concentrations has never been evaluated, though the process has been established as a feasible alternative to conventional mesophilic processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludges. In this study, the TPAD system operating at a retention time of 14 days was subjected to varying total solids (TS) concentrations (3.46-14.54%) of dairy cattle wastes. At TS concentrations lower than 12.20%, corresponding to system volatile solids (VS) loadings in the range of 1.87-5.82 g VS/L/day, the system achieved an average VS removal of 40.2%. The maximum VS destruction of 42.6% was achieved at a TS concentration of 10.35%. Methane recovery from the wastes was consistently within 0.21-0.22 L/g VS fed. There was a drop in the system performance with respect to VS removal and methane recovery at TS concentrations higher than 10.35%. volatile fatty acid/alkalinity ratios less than 0.35 in the thermophilic reactor and 0.10 in the mesophilic reactor were found favorable for stable operation of the system. For the entire range of TS concentrations, the indicator organism counts in the biosolids were within the limits specified by USEPA in 40 CFR Part 503 regulations for Class A designation. After digestion, nearly 80-85% of total phosphorus was associated with the biosolids. (Author)

Sung, Shihwu; Santha, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Construction Engineering

2003-04-01

311

Modelling and estimation of genotype by environment interactions for production traits in French dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotype by environment interactions are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of dairy cattle. However, this is often questioned, especially when environment or herd management is wide-ranging. The aim of this study was to assess genotype by environment interactions for production traits (milk, protein, fat yields and fat and protein contents in French dairy cattle using an original approach to characterize the environments. Methods Genetic parameters of production traits were estimated for three breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde using multiple-trait and reaction norm models. Variables derived from Herd Test Day profiles obtained after a test day model evaluation were used to define herd environment. Results Multiple-trait and reaction norm models gave similar results. Genetic correlations were very close to unity for all traits, except between some extreme environments. However, a relatively wide range of heritabilities by trait and breed was found across environments. This was more the case for milk, protein and fat yields than for protein and fat contents. Conclusions No real reranking of animals was observed across environments. However, a significant scale effect exists: the more intensive the herd management for milk yield, the larger the heritability.

Huquet Bérénice

2012-11-01

312

Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

1990-08-01

313

Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding  

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Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (?6,000 kg herd average and intensive (?9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

2013-09-01

314

Heifer fertility in Norwegian dairy cattle: variance components and genetic change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variance components and genetic change were estimated for 56-d nonreturn rate in virgin heifers using first insemination records of a total of 1,632,961 Norwegian Dairy Cattle daughters of 2945 sires. Six univariate mixed linear sire models were compared. The heritabilities varied from 1.2% to 1.4%. All models gave favorable, although different, estimates of genetic change of 56-d nonreturn rate. The method used to validate the genetic trend did not detect bias in any of the models. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability were used to further validate the models. Three models included service sire, but this effect had little influence on the results. Models treating the herd-year effects as random showed smaller prediction error and higher correlation between observed and predicted values than the models treating herd-year effect as fixed. To avoid confounding of environmental and genetic effects, the model including fixed effect of month-year was preferred over a model with only month of first insemination to estimate the genetic change. Female fertility has been successfully included in the total merit index of Norwegian Dairy Cattle for 20 yr. This has resulted in genetic improvement and the chosen model showed annual genetic change of 0.04% for 56-d nonreturn rate in heifers between 1979 and 2000. PMID:12939095

A-Ranberg, I M; Heringstad, B; Klemetsdal, G; Svendsen, M; Steine, T

2003-08-01

315

Genome-wide association study identifies candidate markers for bull fertility in Holstein dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline in the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle has become a challenging problem worldwide. Female fertility is now taken into account in breeding goals while generally less attention is given to male fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study in Holstein bulls to identify genetic variants significantly related to sire conception rate (SCR), a new phenotypic evaluation of bull fertility. The analysis included 1755 sires with SCR data and 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire bovine genome. Associations between SNPs and SCR were analyzed using a mixed linear model that included a random polygenic effect and SNP genotype either as a linear covariate or as a categorical variable. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium. After genome-wide correction, eight SNPs showed significant association with SCR. Some of these SNPs are located close to or in the middle of genes with functions related to male fertility, such as the sperm acrosome reaction, chromatin remodeling during the spermatogenesis, and the meiotic process during male germ cell maturation. Some SNPs showed marked dominance effects, which provide more evidence for the relevance of non-additive effects in traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. The results could contribute to the identification of genes and pathways associated with male fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:22742504

Peñagaricano, F; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

2012-07-01

316

Function Analysis of Milk Yield on Small Holder Dairy Cattle in Sumbang Banyumas Region  

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Full Text Available A survey on smallholder dairy cow had conducted in Banyumas region from November 8th 1999 up to February 8th 2000. Forty six respondents were involved in this study (as samples. Cobb - Douglas analysis was applied in this survey. From the study can be concluded that a small holder owned 3.02 heads of dairy cow (2.2 ST, 1.44 heads of lactating cow with 9.77 L/day milk production on average. The benefit of the backyard farming was RP.70.603,225 per month on average. Feeding was the biggest influence on benefit because feed cost was 65.81 percent from the production cost. The milk production function , by the equation: Y = 0,8958 X1?·?³³?? X2 0.049 X30.168 X40.608 The four variables can explain 92.4 percent (R²=0,924on the milk production variation .It can be suggested that to improve milk production on dairy cows can be done by intensifying labour, and improving the forage feeding. (Animal Production 3(1: 12-19 (2001

siswadi

2001-01-01

317

Dairy cattle welfare / Bienestar animal en bovinos lecheros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumenta [...] r la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that th [...] ere are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) and affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.

Tadich, Néstor.

318

DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE KRASNODAR REGION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????  

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The authors have investigated the consequences of WTO membership for the livestock industries in Rus-sia. The analysis of the implementation of national projects and programs for dairy cattle in the Krasnodar region has been accomplished. The measures to stimulate the development of animal husbandry at the federal, regional and micro level have been proposed

2013-01-01

319

DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE KRASNODAR REGION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have investigated the consequences of WTO membership for the livestock industries in Rus-sia. The analysis of the implementation of national projects and programs for dairy cattle in the Krasnodar region has been accomplished. The measures to stimulate the development of animal husbandry at the federal, regional and micro level have been proposed

Gayduk V. I.

2013-06-01

320

Immune Responses of Dairy Cattle to Parainfluenza-3 Virus in Intranasal Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis-Parainfluenza-3 Virus Vaccines  

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Two hundred and fifty dairy heifers were vaccinated at three to six months of age with an intranasal infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-parainfluenza-3 vaccine. Eighteen additional heifers were tested prior to vaccination and again three to four weeks after vaccination. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity was significantly raised to parainfluenza-3 virus in either group of cattle.

Burroughs, A. L.; Morrill, J. L.; Bostwick, J. L.; Ridley, R. K.; Fryer, H. C.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Study the Importance of Net Energy Efficiency in breeding programs of Holstein Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available Improvement of feed efficiency in dairy farming economically has a great importance. In this study, the genetic parameters of net energy efficiency and its relationships with milk yield, 3.2% fat corrected milk, body weight, gross income and income over feed costs were investigated, by the 2589 monthly records collected from the 723 lactating cows in the 3 herds. The different requirements of energy were estimated, by the National Research Council (NRC models. A general linear model was employed for determining significant factors affecting each trait. The genetic parameters were estimated by a multivariate analysis with the derivative free approach of restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The animal models contained the fixed effects of herd-year-season, parity number and stage of lactation, the regression coefficients of each trait on the dietary levels of rumen undegradable protein and metabolizable energy, and the random effects of animal additive genetic, permanent environment and residuals. The heritability of milk yield, 3.2 percent fat corrected milk, body weight, net energy efficiency, gross income and income over feed cost, were estimates 0.31, 0.32, 0.30, 0.34, 0.24 and 0.29 respectively. The results of this study indicated that the direct selection for net energy efficiency might genetically improve the feed efficiency. It also seems that the selection for fat corrected milk may be effective for the indirect improvement of feed efficiency and economic performance of dairy cows.

A. Naserian

2006-01-01

322

Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis  

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Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

2002-11-11

323

Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

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Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI?) or from the current data (REI?). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI?, 0.30 for REI?, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI?: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI?: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI? was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI?: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-06-01

324

The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cowsâ?? during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period

Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

2014-01-01

325

Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.  

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In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries. PMID:18493862

Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

2009-02-01

326

Biogas generation and use at a dairy-cattle plant; Biogaserzeugung und -verwertung auf einer Milchviehanlage  

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At a dairy-cattle plant of the Lungwitztal agrarian co-operative society in Saxony (approximately 1000 head of cattle), a biogas-fuelled cogeneration plant with an electric power output of 220 kilowatts and a thermal power output of 350 kilowatts went operational in 1995. The article reports the operating experience so far gathered, first data concerning the energy budget (the plant`s own power demand, power fed into the grid, use potential) as well as first results regarding the influence of the mixed substrate used (cattle manure with irregular admixtures of chicken dung, molasses, fatty water) on biogas production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einer Milchviehanlage der Agrargenossenschaft Lungwitztal e.g. in Sachsen (rund 1000 GVE) wurde 1995 ein Biogas-BHKW mit einer Leistung von 220 kW elektrisch und 350 kW thermisch in Betrieb genommen. Es werden die bisherigen Betriebserfahrungen, erste Ergebnisse zur Energiebilanz (Eigenbedarf, Netzeinspeisung, Nutzungspotential) sowie zum Einfluss des eingesetzten Mischsubstrates (Rinderguelle mit unregelmaessigen Zuschlaegen von Huehnerkot, Melasse, Fettwasser) auf die Biogasproduktion vorgestellt. (orig.)

Jaekel, K. [Saechsische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Leipzig (Germany); Eichert, H. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany); Ackermann, J. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany)

1996-12-31

327

Reproductive performance of dairy cows is influenced by prepartum feed restriction and dietary fatty acid source.  

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed restriction and source of dietary fatty acids during the close-up dry period on postcalving reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Thirty-four days before expected calving, pregnant Holstein cows (n = 72; parity 1 to 5) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments were ad libitum (AL) or 24% feed restriction (FR) in combination with 1 of 3 oilseed supplements at 8% of diet dry matter: canola, linola, or flax to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic fatty acids, respectively. After calving, cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained no oilseeds. Measurements of uterus, corpus luteum, and follicles were obtained by ultrasonography twice weekly from 7 +/- 1 d after calving until the first ovulation. Cows (n = 66) were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and pregnancy was determined 32 d later. Feed-restricted cows had lower dry matter intake and lost more body weight prepartum. Energy balance (Mcal/d) was negative in FR cows prepartum but they had a less severe negative energy balance postpartum. The dietary source of fatty acid did not affect energy balance. Cows fed AL had a higher incidence of uterine infections (10/37 vs. 2/35) but tended to have fewer ovarian cysts (2/37 vs. 7/35) than FR cows. Mean (+/-SE) interval from calving to uterine involution did not differ among dietary treatments (26.8 +/- 1.8 d). Interval from calving to first ovulation was longer in cows fed canola than in those fed either linola or flax (34.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 and 21.0 +/- 3.1 d, respectively). A greater percentage of cows fed AL conceived to the first TAI (47.1 vs. 18.8) and tended to have fewer mean days open (157 +/- 10.8 vs. 191 +/- 10.1) than cows fed FR. In summary, FR cows had a lower incidence of uterine infections, but they were less fertile as reflected by a lower percent pregnancy to first TAI and increased days open. Cows fed diets enriched in linoleic or linolenic fatty acids had a lesser incidence of ovarian cysts and ovulated sooner with no effect on energy balance or fertility. PMID:19447988

Colazo, M G; Hayirli, A; Doepel, L; Ambrose, D J

2009-06-01

328

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of host species, including humans. Molecular characterization of these parasites has demonstrated that a number of genotypes and species are common to both humans and animals, and that zoonotic transmission may occur. Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, particularly calves, and these animals are frequently associated with zoonotic transmission. In the present study, a total of 143 faecal samples from adults, heifers and calves were collected from two dairy cattle farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. The prevalence and molecular characteristics of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in these animals were determined in order to investigate the potential for transmission between cattle and humans in this region. Following DNA extractions from faecal samples, nested-PCR protocols were used to amplify fragments of the 16S rRNA gene and the heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) gene for determining the prevalence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. infections, respectively. Genotypes of G. duodenalis, and species of Cryptosporidium, were determined by means of DNA sequencing of amplicons, and subsequent sequence alignment. Cattle on both farms showed a high prevalence of G. duodenalis (42.0%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (27.3%). G. duodenalis infections were more prevalent in calves and heifers than in adults, and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were only observed in calves and heifers. The zoonotic genotype, G. duodenalis Assemblage B was isolated from 24.5% of the cattle tested, while G. duodenalis Assemblage E was found in 17.5% of the cattle tested. The overall prevalence of the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum in the animals tested was found to be 21.7%, while only 1.4% were infected with C. bovis. These findings suggest that there is a potential risk of zoonotic and/or zooanthroponotic transmission of G. duodenalis and C. parvum infections between cattle and humans in eastern Ontario, likely by means of contaminated water or food, or through direct faecal-oral transmission in the case of farmers and veterinary staff. PMID:17964724

Coklin, Tatjana; Farber, Jeffrey; Parrington, Lorna; Dixon, Brent

2007-12-25

329

9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso...disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart...each animal's left ear. (b) Dairy cattle disposed of under this...

2009-01-01

330

Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2 are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able to demonstrate that livestock with its detailed records of family structure, genetic, and environmental factors as well as extensive trait recording can be a good model organism for research aspects related to humans.

Komisarek Jolanta

2011-03-01

331

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo. PMID:23403190

Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

2013-04-01

332

Organic farming of dairy goats in the Veneto region: feeding management and milk quality  

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The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B), time of sampling (ST) and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI), diet...

Silvia Miotello; Valerio Bondesan; Lucia Bailoni

2010-01-01

333

MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE  

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Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

Mardalena

2011-09-01

334

The Use of Rose Bengal Plate Test to Asses Cattle Exposure to Brucella Infection in Traditional and Smallholder Dairy Production Systems of Tanga Region of Tanzania  

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A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structu...

2010-01-01

335

>Estimation of Minimum Ventilation Requirement of Dairy Cattle Barns for Different Outdoor Temperature and its Affects on Indoor Temperature: Bursa Case  

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In the study, 10 different dairy cattle barns with natural ventilation system were investigated in terms of structural aspects. VENTGRAPH software package was used to estimate minimum ventilation requirements for three different outdoor design temperatures (-3, 0 and 1.7°C). Variation in indoor temperatures was also determined according to the above-mentioned conditions. In the investigated dairy cattle barns, on condition that minimum ventilation requirement to be achieved for -3, 0 and 1.7...

Erkan Yaslioglu; Ercan Simsek; •lker Kilic

2007-01-01

336

Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, Southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examination of cohorts for GI nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes. The predominant nematodes were Cooperia spp. (51.6%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (35.7%) and Haemonchus placei (10.2%). The worm burden in tracers was mainly composed of Cooperia spp. (83%) in large-scale dairy farms, while O. radiatum was dominant (60.8%) in traditional farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and tracer worm counts were generally low and FEC peaked only in calves and weaners/yearlings. Adults and all age groups in small-scale dairy farms had very low FEC throughout the year. Pasture larval counts, FEC and tracer worm counts peaked towards the end of the rainy season. Based on conditions of the study area, farmers could save substantial amount of money through strategic treatments as opposed to the previous routine of treating the whole herd at least four times a year. Strategic treatments are recommended in calves and weaners only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Strategic treatment of adults and small-scale dairy cattle might be not necessary. Strategic treatments at the end of the rainy/early dry season (May/June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended in the district. An additional treatment against GI nematodes in calves during the mid rainy season (February/March) might be important. PMID:15710529

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Monrad, J; Kassuku, A A

2005-02-28

337

[Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in intra-urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis was conducted in dairy cattle farms in and around the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It reveals the potential economic and health impact of these two major zoonoses in the study area. Three farming systems were included in the study. A total of 1,420 cattle were tested for tuberculosis and 1,689 cattle were tested for brucellosis. The intradermal tuberculin test was used for tuberculosis, and the buffered antigen test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for brucellosis. The overall prevalence rate is estimated to be 6.05% for tuberculosis and 3.61% for brucellosis. The prevalence rates of tuberculosis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou were found to be high. As these two production-linked diseases are zoonotic, they could pose a major risk to human health and contribute significantly to reducing animal production and productivity in the areas covered by the study. Animals should be checked systematically prior to introducing them into dairy herds, with the ultimate goal of eradicating these two zoonoses. PMID:23520747

Boussini, H; Traoré, A; Tamboura, H H; Bessin, R; Boly, H; Ouédraogo, A

2012-12-01

338

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride duration of feeding on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four trials, each with a randomized complete block design, were conducted with 8,647 beef steers (initial BW = 346 +/- 29.6 kg) in 3 different locations in the United States to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Treatments consisted of feeding ZH (8.33 mg/kg of dietary DM) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, at the end of the feeding period, followed by a 3-d withdrawal period before slaughter. Cattle were weighed on d 0 and 50 before slaughter (in 3 of the 4 studies), and on the day of slaughter. Data from the 4 trials were pooled for statistical analyses. No differences (P > or = 0.78) were detected among treatments for ADG and G:F from the start of the study until the final 50 d on feed. Final BW was greater for the average of the 3 ZH-treated groups (P or = 0.42) for ZH-treated cattle vs. controls. No differences were noted for DMI among the ZH-treated groups for the final 50 d on feed (P = 0.81) or for the overall feeding period (P = 0.31). Feeding ZH for any length of time increased G:F (P < 0.01) for the final 50 d and overall compared with 0-d cattle. In addition, a linear increase with more days of ZH feeding was observed for G:F during the period that ZH was fed (P = 0.01), as well as for the overall feeding period (P = 0.01). The ZH-treated cattle had heavier HCW (P < 0.01), greater dressing percent (P < 0.01), reduced marbling scores (P < 0.01), less 12th-rib fat (P < 0.01), larger LM area (P < 0.01), less KPH (P = 0.01), and a lower USDA yield grade (P < 0.01) than the 0-d cattle, regardless of the duration of ZH feeding. Dressing percent increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increased duration of ZH feeding, whereas 12th-rib fat (P = 0.07), marbling scores (P < 0.01), and USDA calculated yield grade (P = 0.01) decreased linearly with increased duration of ZH feeding. Feeding ZH increased ADG and G:F and decreased overall carcass fatness. In addition, effects of ZH on measures of carcass fatness were enhanced by feeding the product for a greater length of time. PMID:19251916

Elam, N A; Vasconcelos, J T; Hilton, G; VanOverbeke, D L; Lawrence, T E; Montgomery, T H; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Galyean, M L

2009-06-01

339

Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report  

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Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.

I. Yeruham

2012-07-01

340

Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

Daniela Souza Rajão

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Mycoplasma bovis infection: epidemiological and clinical survey of dairy cattle farms in Morocco].  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological survey of M bovis infection in dairy cattle was performed in 10 herds of the Gharb's region, by sampling the animals three times with a two-month interval, between November 1985 and May 1986. M bovis was isolated in six herds with calf enzootic bronchopneumonia with a total frequency of 39% during the first visit, then 25 and 13% after two and four months, respectively. The severity of the symptoms seems closely related to the age of the animals: the youngest being the most susceptible. On the other hand, M bovis was isolated in two herds from 11% of cows suffering from clinical and subclinical mastitis. The isolation occurs at any lactation stage and the infection lasted more than four months in 40% of the animals. These results suggest that mycoplasma are important bovine pathogens in Morocco. PMID:3415192

Taoudi, A; Maaroufi, K; Fassi-Fehri, M; Oudar, J

1988-01-01

342

[Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in a dairy cattle herd from Caçapava Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated in a Brazilian dairy farm over the course of 1 year. Cattle of different aged were employed and divided into seven groups: 0-2 months; 2-4 months; 4-6 months; 6- 10 months; 10-16 months; 16-24 months; > 24 months. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 849 animals in six times. These samples were evaluated by centrifugal flotation method using a sucrose solution. Herd occurrence for C. parvum was 0.6%, varied by month of sample collection from 0 to 1.4%. The highest frequency of C. parvum was found in animals 0-2 months old with oocysts in 3 of the 61 samples (4.9%). Herd occurrence for C. andersoni was 0.1%, varied by month of sample collection from 0 to 0.7%. Only one cow was found infected for C. andersoni. PMID:20059856

Cardoso, José Márcio S; Silveira, Fábio L; Araújo, Ana Júlia U S; De Carvalho, José Cláudio C; Kanamura, Hermínia Yohko

2008-09-01

343

Heritability and Repeatability Estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss Crossbred Dairy Cattle Population  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was genetic parameter estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss crossbred dairy population. The performance of Brown Swiss crossbred cattle in Iran was considered across years 1991-2003. Variance component were estimated using animal model (single trait and Derivative-free restricted Maximum Likelihood method for different traits. The estimation of the heritability for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage and milk days were 0.24, 0.163, 0.175 and 0.334, respectively for single models. Repeatability estimation for mentioned traits was 0.41, 0.31, 0.18 and 0.334. The result showed that the additive genetic variance share in milk yield and milk day’s traits and permanent environmental variance in milk and fat yield are high.

A. Gorbani

2011-08-01

344

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and pear waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic co-digestion of pre-treated dairy cattle manure (LCM) with pear waste after a storage period (PLF) was tested at four inclusion levels: 0%, 25%, 75% and 100%. Inclusion levels consisted in the replacement of the volatile solids (VS) from the LCM with the VS from PLF keeping the organic loading rate around 1.1±0.4gSVL(-1)d(-1). The introduction of the co-substrate clearly enhanced methane production rate (MPR) in comparison to single substrate (phase I) as phases II and III, respectively, achieving values 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than phase I. The overall performance was optimized for the mixture 25:75 (LCM:PLF; v:v). Moreover, storage of pear waste did not compromise its use in AD. This fact is important once it can improve waste management from pear production through its valorisation as co-substrate in AD process. PMID:24865319

Dias, T; Fragoso, R; Duarte, E

2014-07-01

345

Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Kampala, Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common pathogens leading to subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cattle in Uganda. Coagulase negative staphylococci can vary between bacterial species in how they cause disease. The aim of the study was to characterize CNS, from cows with SCM in Uganda, at the species level. Findings Quarter milk samples (n?=?166) were collected from 78 animals with SCM. Bacteriological analyses were carried out at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. The most common pathogens found in milk samples from cows with SCM were CNS (31.7%). Two species of CNS were found, S. epidermidis (85%) and S. haemolyticus (15%). Of the CNS isolates, 16/20 (80%) were positive for ?-lactamase production (?+). Conclusions In milk samples from cows with SCM caused by CNS, S. epidermidis was most prevalent, followed by S. haemolyticus.

2014-01-01

346

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables.

Schotten, N.; van Engelen, E.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Schneeberger, P.M.; van Duijnhoven, Y.T.H.P.

2014-01-01

347

Refinement of two female fertility QTL using alternative phenotypes in French Holstein dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting female fertility were mapped in French dairy cattle. Phenotypes were non-return rates at 28, 56, 90 and 282 days after insemination. On chromosome 3, a QTL was significant at 1% for non-return rate at 90 days, suggesting that it affects early fertility events. An analysis of SLC35A3, which causes complex vertebral malformation, excluded this gene from the QTL interval. On chromosome 7, a QTL was almost significant (P = 0.05) for non-return rate at 282 days. This QTL was associated with abortion and stillbirth problems. Use of appropriate phenotypes appeared important for fine-mapping QTL associated with fertility. PMID:17257192

Guillaume, F; Gautier, M; Ben Jemaa, S; Fritz, S; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Druet, T

2007-02-01

348

[Subclinical endometritis in dairy cattle and its effect on fertility--a review of recent publications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced reproductive performance in dairy cattle is often caused by uterine disorders. Beside acute metritis and chronic endometritis recent reports on a negative impact of subclinical endometritis on reproductive performance have been published. Diagnosis of subclinical endometritis can be performed by ultrasonography or cytological examination of the uterus. The cytological examination is based on uterine lavage or the cytobrush-method. Prevalence of subclinical endometritis in different studies ranges from 16 to 90 percent and depends on the diagnostic method and the time postpartum when the examination is performed. Affected cows showed significantly decreased conception rates, prolonged days to first service and days open as well as a reduced number of cows pregnant. Studies on the treatment of subclinical endometritis with prostaglandin F2alpha or analogues, intrauterine antibiotics or proteolytic enzymes showed heterogeneous results and do not allows valid recommendations for veterinary practice. PMID:17555047

Lincke, Annekathrin; Drillich, Marc; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

349

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk for humans on dairy cattle farms, the Netherlands, 2010-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with ?50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637

Schimmer, B; Schotten, N; van Engelen, E; Hautvast, J L A; Schneeberger, P M; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

2014-03-01

350

The Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Bangladesh waste contributes in emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria  

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Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are one of the categories of antibiotics most frequently used in treating several cattle diseases at the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF, Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh. Untreated veterinary clinical healthcare waste (VCHW of diseased cattle at CCBDF which directly disposed to surrounding may contribute to the antibiotic resistant bacteria pollution (ARB pollution. The investigation analyses the role of VCHW of CCBDF in spreading ARB. Here we studied?1 veterinary clinical data and antibiotics treatment history; 2 total and resistant bacteria counts in fecal samples of healthy and diseased cattles as well as VCHW of CCBDF; and 3 finally, data analysis to estimate the burden of VCHW of CCBDF in the pollution of environment with aminoglycoside antibiotics resistant bacteria. The results conclusively demonstrate the spread of 3 different aminoglycoside antibiotics, namely genta- mycin, kanamycin and streptomycin resistant bacte- ria in the surrounding environment alarmingly with high significant value (p

Sohel Ahmed

2013-02-01

351

In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.

Elwakeel Eman A

2012-03-01

352

Across-Family Marker-Assisted Selection Using Selective Genotyping Strategies in Dairy Cattle Breeding Schemes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates

Ansari-Mahyari, S; Sørensen, A C

2008-01-01

353

Johne’s Disease (JD in a High Yielding Holstein Friesian Cattle Dairy Farm in India  

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Full Text Available Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5% were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’ of MAP, 24 (92.3% and 14 (60.8% were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900, 5 (35.7% were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk, reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.

Shoor Vir Singh

2014-01-01

354

Optimising multistage dairy cattle breeding schemes including genomic selection using decorrelated or optimum selection indices  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of the outcomes from multistage breeding schemes is especially important for the introduction of genomic selection in dairy cattle. Decorrelated selection indices can be used for the optimisation of such breeding schemes. However, they decrease the accuracy of estimated breeding values and, therefore, the genetic gain to an unforeseeable extent and have not been applied to breeding schemes with different generation intervals and selection intensities in each selection path. Methods A grid search was applied in order to identify optimum breeding plans to maximise the genetic gain per year in a multistage, multipath dairy cattle breeding program. In this program, different values of the accuracy of estimated genomic breeding values and of their costs per individual were applied, whereby the total breeding costs were restricted. Both decorrelated indices and optimum selection indices were used together with fast multidimensional integration algorithms to produce results. Results In comparison to optimum indices, the genetic gain with decorrelated indices was up to 40% less and the proportion of individuals undergoing genomic selection was different. Additionally, the interaction between selection paths was counter-intuitive and difficult to interpret. Independent of using decorrelated or optimum selection indices, genomic selection replaced traditional progeny testing when maximising the genetic gain per year, as long as the accuracy of estimated genomic breeding values was ? 0.45. Overall breeding costs were mainly generated in the path "dam-sire". Selecting males was still the main source of genetic gain per year. Conclusion Decorrelated selection indices should not be used because of misleading results and the availability of accurate and fast algorithms for exact multidimensional integration. Genomic selection is the method of choice when maximising the genetic gain per year but genotyping females may not allow for a reduction in overall breeding costs. Furthermore, the economic justification of genotyping females remains questionable.

Börner Vinzent

2012-01-01

355

The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased es...

Divakar Justus Ambrose; Marcos Germán Colazo; John Patrick Kastelic

2010-01-01

356

The Feasibility of Feeding High Levels of Whey Silage and Effects on Production in Growing Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage), fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey si...

Zobell, D. R.; Okine, E. K.; Olson, K. C.; Wiedmeier, R. D.; Goonewardene, L. A.; Stonecipher, C.

2004-01-01

357

Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL, we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (% and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some chromosomal regions with a high density of QTL, as well as a substantial number of QTL at single chromosomal locations. To extract the most information from these published records, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain consensus on QTL location and allelic substitution effect of these QTL. This required modification and development of statistical methodologies. The meta-analysis indicated a number of consensus regions, the most striking being two distinct regions affecting milk yield on chromosome 6 at 49 cM and 87 cM explaining 4.2 and 3.6 percent of the genetic variance of milk yield, respectively. The first of these regions (near marker BM143 affects five separate milk production traits (protein yield, protein percent, fat yield, fat percent, as well as milk yield.

Raadsma Herman W

2004-03-01

358

Reproduction and lactational performance of cattle in a smallholder dairy system in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted in two adjacent locations. Nharira (communal) and Lancashire (small-scale commercial) farming areas in Zimbabwe to characterize the breeds and evaluate the reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle under smallholder management. The types of cows identified were Friesian, Jersey and Red Dane, and an indigenous Sanga breed called the Mashona and its crossbreds. Both sectors used more exotic and crossbred cows than indigenous cows. The mean monthly weights of the dairy cows were higher in Lancashire than in Nharira and the calving intervals were longer in Nharira than in Lancashire. The mean age at first calving was higher and the mean total lactation yields were greater in Nharira than in Lancashire, but the mean 305-day lactation yields were not significantly different. The mean lactation lengths were longer for the cows from Nharira. It was concluded that the reproductive and lactation performances were low. The calving intervals were extended, probably owing to suboptimal nutrition and heat stress, particularly during the dry season, and to poor management practices, such as delayed mating due to the poor availability of bulls. PMID:12735703

Masama, E; Kusina, N T; Sibanda, S; Majoni, C

2003-04-01

359

Improving fertility to timed artificial insemination by manipulation of circulating progesterone concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript reviews the effect of progesterone (P4) during timed AI protocols in lactating dairy cows. Circulating P4 is determined by a balance between P4 production, primarily by the corpus luteum (CL), and P4 metabolism, primarily by the liver. In dairy cattle, the volume of luteal tissue is a primary determinant of P4 production; however, inadequate circulating P4 is generally due to high P4 metabolism resulting from extremely elevated liver blood flow. Three sections in this manuscript summarise the role of P4 concentrations before breeding, near the time of breeding and after breeding. During timed AI protocols, elevations in P4 are generally achieved by ovulation, resulting in an accessory CL, or by supplementation with exogenous P4. Elevating P4 before timed AI has been found to decrease double ovulation and increase fertility to the timed AI. Slight elevations in circulating P4 can dramatically reduce fertility, with inadequate luteolysis to the prostaglandin F2? treatment before timed AI being the underlying cause of this problem. After AI, circulating P4 is critical for embryo growth, and for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to improve fertility by elevating P4 after timed AI with marginal elevations in fertility. Thus, previous research has provided substantial insights into mechanisms regulating circulating P4 concentrations and actions. Understanding this prior research can focus future research on P4 manipulation to improve timed AI protocols. PMID:22394964

Wiltbank, Milo C; Souza, Alexandre H; Carvalho, Paulo D; Bender, Robb W; Nascimento, Anibal B

2011-01-01

360

The importance of haplotype lenght and heritability using genomic selection in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated to investigate reliability of GEBV over time. A genome with 5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at distances of 0.1 cM and 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) was simulated, and a Bayesian variable selection model was implemented to predict GEBV. Highest reliabilities were obtained for 10 SNP haplotypes. At optimal haplotype size, reliabilities in generation 1 without phenotypes ranged from 0.80 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.93 for h2 = 0.30, and in the seventh generation without phenotypes ranged from 0.69 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.86 for h2 = 0.30. Reliabilities of GEBV were found sufficiently high to implement dairy selection schemes without progeny testing in which case a data time-lag of two to three generations may be present. Reliabilities were also relatively high for low heritable traits, implying that genomic selection could be especially beneficial to improve the selection on, e.g. health and fertility

Villumsen, T M; Janss, L

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

LAVINIA MOISE

2013-12-01

362

Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.  

Science.gov (United States)

When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756±0.005 and 0.736±0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820

Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

2014-02-01

363

Identification and characterization of a Chinese isolate of Cryptosporidium serpentis from dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium serpentis, a protozoan observed first in snakes, has also been found in lizards and other reptiles. However, there are few reports of the characteristics of C. serpentis isolated from humans and other animals. The present study was undertaken to characterize a C. serpentis isolate from a calf in terms of morphology, host specificity, and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) gene sequences. Oocysts of the isolate measured 6.32 × 5.18 ?m, and they had a length/width shape index of 1.22. A cross-transmission study demonstrated that the isolate was infectious in the stomach of BALB/c mice, but not in New Zealand white rabbits or white leghorn chickens. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA and HSP 70 gene revealed that the isolate was identical to C. serpentis, and it was classified in a monophyletic group of C. serpentis. This study is the first description of the characteristics of a C. serpentis isolate from dairy cattle and may contribute to a better understanding of C. serpentis and investigations of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle. PMID:22782475

Chen, Fu; Qiu, Huiling

2012-10-01

364

Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms.  

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Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

2014-01-01

365

Risk factors for Brucella spp. infection In dairy cattle farms in Asmara, State of Eritrea.  

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A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify risk factors for herd infection by Brucella spp. in dairy cattle in the suburbs of Asmara, Eritrea. Data were collected from 64 herds, randomly selected from a total of 99 herds with a minimum herd size of 9 cows. A questionnaire was used to gather data on management, hygiene and herd structure. Serum samples collected from all pregnant heifers, cows and bulls, were screened for Brucella infection by the Rose Bengal test (RBT), and all RBT-positive sera re-tested with the complement-fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. A seropositive herd was defined as one in which at least one animal tested positive in the CFT. There were 23 (36%) positive herds among the 64 studied. Both multiple logistic and multiple betabinomial regression modeling were used to analyze the data. Mixed-breed herds, compared to single (exotic)-breed herds, were found to be independently associated with increased herd seroprevalence (OR=5.2, 95% confidence interval 1. 4-18.7) in the multiple logistic model with the herd infection status as the dependent variable. The importance of this variable was supported by the multiple betabinomial regression model (OR=3.3, 1.4-7.6) with animal-level prevalence within herd as the outcome variable. Both models also revealed the presence of a negative association between seropositivity and cattle stocking density. PMID:10960712

Omer, M K; Skjerve, E; Woldehiwet, Z; Holstad, G

2000-09-01

366

Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

Courcoul Aurélie

2011-05-01

367

Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.  

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The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day, respectively). Breeds other than Holstein were used more prevalently on farms in clusters 2 and 4. Results indicated extreme variation in animal breed, structure, and feeding strategies among Wisconsin organic dairy farms. Feeding strategies appeared to be major determinants of RHA and IOFC. These findings may serve current organic and transition farmers when considering feeding management changes needed to meet organic pasture rule requirements or dealing with dietary supplementation challenges. PMID:24819131

Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

2014-07-01

368

Subtype analysis of Salmonella isolated from subclinically infected dairy cattle and dairy farm environments reveals the presence of both human- and bovine-associated subtypes.  

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While it is well established that clinically ill livestock represent a reservoir of Salmonella, the importance of subclinical shedders as sources of human salmonellosis is less well defined. The aims of this study were to assess the subtype diversity of Salmonella in healthy dairy cattle and farm environments and to compare the subtypes isolated from these sources with the Salmonella subtypes associated with clinical human cases in the same geographic area. A total of 1349 Salmonella isolates from subclinical dairy cattle and farm environments (46 farms) were initially characterized by traditional or molecular serotyping and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A set of 381 representative isolates was selected for further characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); these isolates represented unique combinations of sampling date, serovar, antimicrobial resistance pattern, farm of origin, and source, to avoid overrepresentation of subtypes that were re-isolated from a given source. These 381 isolates represented 26 Salmonella serovars; the most common serovars were Cerro [(38.8%, 148/381) isolated from 21 farms], Kentucky [16.3%; 10 farms], Typhimurium [9.4%; 7 farms], Newport [7.6%; 8 farms], and Anatum [6.3%; 6 farms]. Among the 381 isolates, 90 (23.6%) were resistant to between 1 and 11 antimicrobial agents, representing 50 different antimicrobial resistance patterns. Overall, 61 XbaI-PFGE types were detected among these 381 isolates, indicating considerable Salmonella diversity on dairy farms. Fourteen PFGE types, representing 12 serovars, exactly matched PFGE types from human isolates, suggesting that subclinically infected dairy cattle could be sources of human disease-associated Salmonella. PMID:24636164

Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Wright, E M; Siler, J D; Elton, M; Cummings, K J; Warnick, L D; Wiedmann, M

2014-06-01

369

The Analysis of Application of Technical Management on Various Small Holder Dairy Farm Scale in Garut Regency West Java  

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Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.

Soni Sopiyana

2006-09-01

370

Geographical distribution modelling for Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cattle farms in northeastern Spain.  

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Maximum entropy ecological niche modelling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographical range and to investigate clusters of infections for Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle farms in Catalonia, northeastern Spain, using the Maxent and SaTScan programs, respectively. The geographical distribution of Neospora and Coxiella with the highest level of probability (P > 0·60) covers central Catalonia and spreads towards northeastern Catalonia which contains a high concentration of dairy cattle farms. The most important environmental factor that contributed to the ecological niche modelling was precipitation of driest month followed by elevation. Significant clusters (P < 0·001) were detected for Neospora and Coxiella infections in the western and eastern regions of Catalonia, respectively. PMID:22370223

Nogareda, C; Jubert, A; Kantzoura, V; Kouam, M K; Feidas, H; Theodoropoulos, G

2013-01-01

371

Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.  

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A longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. Results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of flukes was highest in the traditional system, moderate in the large-scale dairy system and lowest in the small-scale dairy system in most parts of the year. Adults and yearlings had the highest prevalence of flukes in all management systems throughout the year. The proportion of animals excreting amphistome eggs was always higher than that of animals excreting Fasciola eggs in all zones, villages, management systems, farms and age groups. The proportion of animals passing fluke eggs increased gradually from the early dry season and peaked at the end of the dry season and the early part of the rainy season. Strategic treatments against flukes are recommended in adults and yearlings only in traditional and large-scale