WorldWideScience
1

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

2

SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

3

Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their breeding objectives by approximating the amount of energy required for milk production, maintenance, etc. However, variation in actual feed intake is currently not captured in dairy selection objectives, although this could be possible by evaluating traits such as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual and predicted feed (or energy) intake. As feed intake is expensive to accurately measure on large numbers of cows, phenotypes derived from it are obvious candidates for genomic selection provided that: (1) the trait is heritable; (2) the reliability of genomic predictions are acceptable to those using the breeding values; and (3) if breeding values are estimated for heifers, rather than cows then the heifer and cow traits need to be correlated. The accuracy of genomic prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) and RFI has been estimated to be around 0.4 in beef and dairy cattle studies. There are opportunities to increase the accuracy of prediction, for example, pooling data from three research herds (in Australia and Europe) has been shown to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of DMI from 0.33 within country to 0.35 using a three-country reference population. Before including RFI as a selection objective, genetic correlations with other traits need to be estimated. Weak unfavourable genetic correlations between RFI and fertility have been published. This could be because RFI is mathematically similar to the calculation of energy balance and failure to account for mobilisation of body reserves correctly may result in selection for a trait that is similar to selecting for reduced (or negative) energy balance. So, if RFI is to become a selection objective, then including it in an overall multi-trait selection index where the breeding objective is net profit is sensible, as this would allow genetic correlations with other traits to be properly accounted for. If genetic parameters are accurately estimated then RFI is a logical breeding objective. If there is uncertainty in these, then DMI may be preferable. PMID:24128704

Pryce, J E; Wales, W J; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Hayes, B J

2014-01-01

4

Efficiency of feed nitrogen conversion in dairy cattle herds  

OpenAIRE

To evaluate the effect of feasible strategies to mitigate dairy herd’s environmental impact in a homogeneous area, the actual level of N excretion and conversion efficiency was determined in fifteen farms located in the North-West of Italy. Main factors affecting N efficiency (feeds consumption and composition, live weight, productions, milk urea and reproductive indexes) were recorded for cows (C), heifers (H, 12-24 months) and young heifers (YH, 6-12 months). N requirements, retention...

Carla Lazzaroni; Davide Biagini

2010-01-01

5

International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems

Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike

2013-01-01

6

Feeding behavior and management factors during the transition period in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research has focused specifically on the relationships among feeding behavior, management strategy, and optimal intake by the transition cow. Most information must be extrapolated from studies of cattle at other stages of lactation. The transition period can be divided into two distinct phases: 5 to 7 d prepartum, characterized by a 30% reduction in DMI, and 0 to 21 d postpartum, during which time intake should increase rapidly. Feed restriction can reduce number of daily meals by 50%, but when feed is offered for ad libitum consumption, with consistent time of feeding, access can be limited to 8 h daily with no adverse effects on performance of midlactation cows. Sequence of offering feeds may affect intake, but relative degradabilities of dietary protein and starch need to be considered. During early lactation, increased feeding frequency of a total mixed diet may most improve intake when dietary fermentability is moderate to high and management quality is poor. High-producing dairy cows achieve greater intake by increasing meal size and spending less time eating and ruminating per unit of intake. Control of feed intake and meal patterns may differ by parity and should be considered when grouping cattle. Daily exercise of tied dairy cows may not affect intake. Grouping strategy and group feeding behavior influence cow productivity and profitability. Competition for feed and space can be reduced by fenceline feeding vs bunks. Optimum intake during the transition period will occur only if feeding management accommodates normal feeding behavior of dairy cows. PMID:8582871

Grant, R J; Albright, J L

1995-09-01

7

Invited review: strategies for promoting productivity and health of dairy cattle by feeding nonforage fiber sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fiber byproducts are generated by several industries, and the supplies of some of these nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) are increasing. Although NFFS generally have limited utility in nonruminant diets, dairy cattle nutritionists can use these products to partially replace both forages and concentrates in lactation diets. Research has shown that production responses vary, but under certain conditions, NFFS-based diets can maintain or improve performance of dairy cattle. Traditional dietary formulation strategies are not ideal when formulating diets to contain large concentrations of NFFS. When feeding high levels of NFFS (?15% inclusion rates, dry matter basis), less physically effective fiber is required; however, determining if this requirement has been met can be challenging, mainly because of the lack of a broadly applicable method for quantifying effective fiber in the field. Nutritionists must also be conscious of the nutrient variation that exists among many NFFS. Strategies to reduce risks associated with this variability include purchasing feed from a sole supplier who demonstrates product consistency and combining multiple NFFS at lower inclusion rates. A targeted approach whereby nonforage fiber primarily replaces some forage fiber for higher-producing cows but partially replaces some starch for lower-producing cows can optimize nutrient utilization without sacrificing animal health. In summary, the judicious use of NFFS represents an opportunity to improve the productivity and health of cattle in all stages of lactation while potentially controlling feed costs. PMID:22916877

Bradford, B J; Mullins, C R

2012-09-01

8

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

9

The effects of feed area design on the social behaviour of dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows is directly related to milk production, thus a good food supply is extremely important to the modern, high producing dairy cow. Intake is critical for improving milk production, health, body condition and the welfare of the animals. Feeding designs can have a major effect on ...

Rioja-lang, Fiona C.

2009-01-01

10

Availability of fallout /sup 137/Cs to dairy cattle from different types of feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolism of fallout /sup 137/Cs contained in dairy cattle feeds was studied with high-producing diary cows. The transfer coefficient (/sup 137/Cs secreted daily per liter of milk as a percentage of total daily /sup 137/Cs intake) for individual cows ranged from 0.25 to 0.72 and was found to be closely related to the crude fiber content of the diet. The correlation coefficient between transfer coefficient and crude fiber intake for five cows was -0.66. The average percentage of dietary /sup 137/Cs found in milk, urine, and feces of three cows was 7.4, 13.5, and 81.5. Reports from the literature utilizing tracer doses of radioactive cesium have found about 1.0% of the dose per liter of milk and approximately equal amounts excreted in urine and feces. The results reported here suggest that fallout /sup 137/Cs in dairy cattle feeds is considerably less available than suggested by studies with tracers.

Stewart, H.F.; Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

1965-01-01

11

Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082

Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos

2012-10-01

12

The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulting and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

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Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU?1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU?1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha?1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.

Powell, J. Mark

2014-11-01

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Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure suources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

15

Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

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Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins is successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged, or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards indi...

Fink-gremmels, Johanna

2008-01-01

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Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years. When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention in soil of C over decades to centuries appears to be similar whether the initial turnover of plant biomasses occurs in the soil, in the digestive tract of ruminants, in an anaerobic reactor or in a combination of the latter two.

Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, JØrgen E

2013-01-01

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Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and amended soil: effects of cattle feeding, manure type and dairy management  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, we studied the effect of cattle diet on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from dairy cattle subjected to 6 different feeding regimes consisting of 3 different roughage types and 2 levels of crude protein concentrates. In addition, the rate of survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure-amended soil as a function of manure type (manure vs. slurry) and dairy farm management (organic vs. conventional) was determined. The roughage type affected significantly the decline ra...

Franz, E.; Diepeningen, A. D.; Visser, A. A.; Blok, W. J.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2005-01-01

19

Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season

20

Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)

21

Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements may increase n-3 content in milk fat without adversely affecting milk fat yield; however, preferential esterification of DHA into plasma phospholipid may limit its incorporation into milk fat. PMID:22916931

Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

2012-09-01

22

Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period. PMID:22959942

Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-11-01

23

Selection for body weight in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementation of such a selection strategy is hindered by limited knowledge on procedures for data recording and genetic evaluation. The aim of this thesis was to study the possibilities and economic relevan...

Koenen, E. P. C.

2001-01-01

24

Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

25

Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.

Guilherme Amorim Franchi

2014-04-01

26

Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015±0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)

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Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Yea-Sacc® (Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed additive for cattle for fattening, goats for fattening, dairy cows, dairy sheep, dairy goats and buffaloes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yea-Sacc® is an additive based on a live preparation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intended for use as a zootechnical additive. It is produced in a powder (Yea-Sacc® and in a prills (Yea-Sacc® TS form. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the production strain has been established, safety for the target species, consumer and the environment is presumed. Both formulations are non-irritant to skin, Yea-Sacc® TS is non-irritant to the eye whilst Yea-Sacc® is a moderate irritant. In the absence of data both formulations should be considered skin sensitisers. As both forms are highly proteinaceous, they should be considered as potential respiratory sensitisers. Yea-Sacc® TS is designed to reduce dustiness and no significant exposure of users is to be expected for this form. In the absence of data on the dusting potential of Yea-Sacc®, it would be prudent to treat it as a respiratory sensitiser. Based on the results of four trials Yea-Sacc® was shown to have the potential to increase milk production in dairy cows when supplied at a minimum dose of 5 x 107 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor species used for milk production can be presumed when used at the same minimum dose. Yea-Sacc® was also shown to have a potential to improve the production of cattle raised for fattening at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor ruminant species reared for meat production can be presumed at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

2014-05-01

28

International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.

Berry, D P; Coffey, M P

2014-01-01

29

Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

Anna Sandrucci

2010-01-01

30

National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

Anneke Anggraeni

1999-05-01

31

Socio-Economic Evaluation of Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs) with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti district. Descri...

Alice Turinawe; Johnny Mugisha; Jolly Kabirizibi

2012-01-01

32

STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

E. SZÜCS

2013-07-01

33

Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.

E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.

2013-07-01

34

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S, Donkin.

2008-07-01

35

Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

Shawn S Donkin

2008-07-01

36

Socio-Economic Evaluation of Improved Forage Technologies in Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farming Systems in Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti district. Descriptive statistics, partial budget analysis, probit model, and Ordinary Least Squares were used to analyze data. Results indicated that farmers using IFT had significantly (p<0.01 higher gross margins than those using local feeding methods. Probit model results indicated that profitability of technology influenced the decision to use IFT when interacted with improved cattle breed.  The decision to use IFTs had a positive significant (p<0.1 relationship with profitability of dairy cattle enterprises. Policies targeting efficient dissemination of IFTs are recommended to improve profitability.

Alice Turinawe

2012-01-01

37

Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

38

Dairy cattle management: survey on dairy cattle lactation trend in Sabah  

OpenAIRE

A survey was conducted to obtain information on Sabah dairy cattle lactation length and lactation yield to identify the lactation trend. In the study, 18 farms with 2 types of husbandry practice namely feedlot and grazing were visited. Dairy livestock has became established part of the livestock industry with Friesian-Sahiwal crossbreed, imported from Australia and New Zealand with heredity of 62.5% Friesian 37.5% Sahiwal and 50% Friesian 50% Sahiwal respectively.Local born cattle are refe...

Boniface, Bonaventure; Silip, Jupikely James; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid

2007-01-01

39

Cellulase and Dairy Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.

H.H. Azzaz

2010-01-01

40

Abomasal ulcer disease in adult dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a review of case records of all dairy cattle greater than or equal to 1 year of age admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine in a 4-year-period, abomasal ulcer disease was diagnosed definitively in 42 (2.17%) of cattle. In 5 additional cattle, abomasal ulcers were secondary to lymphosarcoma. The mortality rate for cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease was 50%. For cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss or diffuse peritonitis, the mortality rate was 100%. Concurrent disease conditions were present in 76% of cattle with abomasal ulcer disease. Significant associations were observed between month of diagnosis and abomasal ulcer disease, and between lactation status and ulcer disease; however, no association between age and ulcer disease was observed. In 71% of all cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease, at least 1 of the following clinical signs was observed: abdominal pain, melena, or pale mucous membranes. Cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss typically had tachycardia and were anemic. Cattle with ulcers causing peritonitis had elevated concentrations of leukocytes in the peritoneal fluid. Hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis was a common finding in cattle with each type of abomasal ulcer disease except those with ulcers causing diffuse peritonitis, when metabolic acidosis occasionally occurred. PMID:6884033

Smith, D F; Munson, L; Erb, H N

1983-07-01

41

Dairy cattle production in Europe  

OpenAIRE

The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Overall EU dairy production continues to follow a trend towards increased intensification on a smaller number of larger, more specialised production units. In this paper we highlight the main charact...

Arendonk, J. A. M.; Bijma, P.

2003-01-01

42

THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA  

OpenAIRE

The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine the relationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results of the Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated with sharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relation...

Gayatri, S.; Dizon, J. T.; Rebancos, C. M.; Querijero, N. J. V. B.

2011-01-01

43

Selection for longevity in dairy cattle.  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with several aspects of longevity of dairy cattle. When breeding organizations want to implement longevity in their breeding programs they have to make several decisions. This thesis aims to give tools to make those decisions.Chapter 2 gives an overview of the literature containing estimates of heritabilities of longevity traits and correlations between longevity and conformation traits. The results of Chapters 3 and 4 of this thesis are included as well. There are many diff...

Vollema, A. R.

1998-01-01

44

Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

45

Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

46

Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B?, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B? and B? were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in ?-helix and ?-sheet height among the combinations, the ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet height was changed quadratically; 3) in the in situ 48-h residue samples, amide I and amide II peak area intensities were increased linearly and the ratio of amide I to II peak area was decreased linearly from 4.28 to 2.63; ?-helix and ?-sheet height of rumen residues were similar among 5 feed combinations; and 4) the ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet height in original feed combinations was strongly correlation with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but the ratio of amide I to II area had no significant correlation with all items that were tested; no correlation was found between the ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet height of the in situ rumen residues and protein chemical and nutrient profiles. In conclusion, by integration of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat DDGS, feed quality in combined feeds was improved and more optimized. Adding wheat DDGS increased linearly CP, truly digestible CP, rumen-degradable protein, rumen-undegradable protein, DVE, and OEB values in combined feeds. The molecular spectral differences of protein molecular structures (amide I and II area intensities, the ratio of amide I to amide II, and the ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet height among feed combinations) were detected among the combinations. This may partially explain the biological differences in protein chemical profiles and protein utilization and availability in dairy cattle. In the original combined feeds, protein ?-helix-to-?-sheet ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but in in situ 48-h residue samples, protein amide I-to-II ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles. This study may provide an insight into how to more efficiently use hulless barley grain (high energy and high degradation rate) and wheat DDGS (high metabolizable protein and low degradation rate) in beef and dairy production systems. PMID:22612970

Zhang, X; Yu, P

2012-06-01

47

Factors affecting fertilisation and early embryo quality in single- and superovulated dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (>70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances. PMID:20003858

Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele R; Wiltbank, Milo C

2010-01-01

48

Paramphistomum spp. in Dairy Cattle in Québec  

Science.gov (United States)

Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides and 1% with P. liorchis. Based on data from one herd there appears to be significant seasonal variation in egg passage for P. microbothrioides. Furthermore, old cows exhibited a higher prevalence of infection. PMID:17422453

Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.

1984-01-01

49

Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323

Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

2014-04-01

50

Acute recumbency and marginal phosphorus deficiency in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of a mixing error at a local feed mill, a diet marginally deficient in phosphorus, compared with recommendation from the National Research Council, was fed to a high-producing dairy herd for 5 months. Two mature cows in early lactation became recumbent. Serum phosphorus concentration in 1 cow was low (1.8 mg/dl), but was not measured in the other cow. Ten other high-producing, first-lactation cows in the herd developed severe lameness. Results of analysis of rib bone samples from the recumbent cows were consistent with changes associated with demineralization. Bone ash, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations were lower than published ranges for healthy cattle. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations in 8 unaffected cows were normal. For 6 unaffected cows, mean serum hydroxyproline concentration was higher during the period that the phosphorus-deficient diet was fed than when an adequate diet was fed. Moderate (15%) restrictions in dietary phosphorus intake, compared with National Research Council recommendations, can possibly result in health problems in high-producing dairy cattle. PMID:8617630

Gerloff, B J; Swensen, E P

1996-03-01

51

DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

2014-10-01

52

Characteristics of feeding and breeding practices for intensification of smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at better understanding of the characteristics of feeding and breeding practices smallholder farmers adopt in intensifying their dairy production. Use of hired labour for fodder gathering, growing of fodder crops and purchase of feeds increased with increasing intensification, but Bos taurus breeds did not respond to increasing feeding intensification while Bos indicus cattle responded, calving at earlier age and yielding more milk. Overall, first calving occurred at 32 month...

Bebe, B. O.; Udo, H. M. J.; Thorpe, W.

2008-01-01

53

Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

2007-07-01

54

Bleeding abomasal ulcers in adult dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case records of abomasal ulcers in adult dairy cattle admitted to the University of Pennsylvania during a 12-year period were reviewed. The only records retrieved were those for cases in which the clinical signs were directly associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 6,385 adult cows admitted during the study period, 69 had clinical ulceration. Twenty-four were bleeding ulcers: 12 nontumor-associated bleeding ulcers and 12 lymphosarcoma-associated bleeding ulcers. Nontumor-associated bleeding ulcers were commonly found in young cows (7 cows less than or equal to 4 years old) that often had concurrent postparturient disease conditions. Lymphosarcoma-associated bleeding ulcers were found more commonly in older cows (10 cows greater than or equal to 6 years old) during all stages of lactation, often without concurrent diseases (8 cows). PMID:6604720

Palmer, J E; Whitlock, R H

1983-08-15

55

Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

56

The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157.H7 in dairy and beef cattle in Washington State.  

OpenAIRE

Escherichia coli O157.H7 was found in 10 of 3570 (0.28%) faecal samples from dairy cattle in 5 of 60 herds (8.3%). Several tentative associations with manure handling and feeding management practices on dairy farms were identified. Faecal/urine slurry samples, bulk milk samples, and milk filters from dairy herds were negative for E. coli O157.H7. E. coli O157.H7 was also isolated from 10 of 1412 (0.71%) faecal samples from pastured beef cattle in 4 of 25 (16%) herds. The prevalence of E. coli...

Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Kinsel, M. L.; Tarr, P. I.; Rice, D. H.; Paros, M. G.

1994-01-01

57

Invited review: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production: challenges and possibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature. PMID:25482927

Connor, E E

2015-03-01

58

Feeding lactating dairy cattle long hay separate from the total mixed ration can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of low rumen pH.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate effects of offering dry hay of different quality and length on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (104 ± 34 d in milk, body weight of 601 ± 116 kg, and parity of 2.38 ± 1.69; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period encompassed 21 d divided into 5 phases: adaptation (d 1 to 14), with ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR); baseline (d 15 to 17), with ad libitum TMR; restricted feeding (d 18), with cows fed for 75% of baseline dry matter intake; challenge (d 19), with 4 kg (as-fed) of finely ground wheat mixed into the digesta of each cow via rumen cannula before feeding; and recovery (d 20 to 21), with ad libitum TMR. Cows were assigned to squares by parity and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were 5.2% low-quality hay TMR (CL), 5.2% high-quality hay TMR (CH; both hays were chopped and included in TMR), TMR with 5.2% supplemental long low-quality hay (TMR+L), and TMR with 5.2% supplemental long high-quality hay (TMR+H; both hays were unprocessed and fed separate from TMR).Low-quality hay contained 8.6% crude protein and 67.1% neutral detergent fiber, whereas high-quality hay contained 14.4% crude protein and 56.2% neutral detergent fiber. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Subacute ruminal acidosis challenge decreased weighted average rumen pH from 5.72 to 5.51. Cows fed TMR+L had higher rumen pH compared with CL and TMR+H on d 19. During d 20, cows fed chopped hay had higher rumen pH than cows fed supplemental long hay. Cows fed supplemental long hay had greater dry matter intake during baseline and challenge days compared with when hay was chopped and included in the TMR. Minimal differences among diets were found for TMR particle size selection during the challenge day; however, cows had a greater preference for high-quality long hay during recovery days. Milk production averaged 38.3 kg/d and did not differ among treatments. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were also not different among treatments. Milk fatty acid profile was altered by treatment. The TMR+L and CH treatments increased production of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Results of this study indicate that feeding TMR plus supplemental long hay can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of and recovery from periods of low ruminal pH. PMID:25200785

Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

2014-11-01

59

Epidemiology of Haemophilus somnus infection in dairy cattle in Quebec.  

OpenAIRE

Serological studies on Haemophilus somnus infection were carried out on 1795 cattle from 231 dairy herds in the province of Quebec. An epidemiological investigation was done in each of the dairy operations. Seroreactivity rate and mean log2 titer for all the sera were 55.4% and 4.1620 respectively. Cattle from eastern regions of Quebec demonstrated the lowest prevalence of H. somnus agglutinins. The percentage of seroreactor animals was 60.3 in herds of 100 cattle or more in comparison to 53....

Sanfac?on, D.; Higgins, R.

1983-01-01

60

Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ?10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not affected by treatments. Thus, if adequate particle size is maintained when WCGF increases in the diet, DMI and milk yield increase while maintaining production efficiency and ruminal pH. PMID:22916927

Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

2012-09-01

61

Parasitic infections in dairy cattle around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

In northern Vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. In the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around Hanoi. A total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. Furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. Coproscopical examination indicated a high prevalence of nematode eggs (Cooperia spp., Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum spp.) in animals (n=176) between 3 and 24 months (66%) and in adult cows (n=90; 54%). In these age groups the prevalence of Fasciola was 28% and 39%, respectively, and for Paramphistomum the prevalence was 78% and 82%, respectively. Fifty percent of the calves younger than 3 months (n=68) were positive for Giardia, and none for Cryptosporidium. Most Giardia isolates were identified as the non-zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage E on the beta-giardin gene. The blood samples were examined with commercially available Svanovir((R))Elisa's for the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina specific antibodies, and a prevalence of 28% and 54% was found, respectively. In the milk samples Neospora caninum specific antibodies (Svanovir((R))Elisa) were detected in 30% of the lactating animals. The present study demonstrates that parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Hanoi although animals are mainly kept confined, and indicates that further research on the economic impact of these infections is needed. PMID:18328629

Geurden, T; Somers, R; Thanh, N T G; Vien, L V; Nga, V T; Giang, H H; Dorny, P; Giao, H K; Vercruysse, J

2008-05-31

62

Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition  

OpenAIRE

Feeding cattle manure (CM) for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO), bakery by-products (BBP) and tallow (TW) was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1) control: CM and MO; 2) LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3) HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4) LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5) HTW: CM, BBP and high level ...

Germán Mendoza; Mario Cobos; Ricardo Bárcena; Ignacio Domínguez; Sergio Segundo González; Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodríguez; José Luis Bórquez

2010-01-01

63

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). PMID:25623969

Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

2015-03-01

64

Feed intake and production in dairy breeds dependent on the ration  

OpenAIRE

Selection applied to populations of dairy cattle has produced a genetic increase in milk production. This will be increased further in the Netherlands by the introduction of Holstein Friesians. In general the high yielding cow is not capable of taking in enough nutrients to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. However the knowledge of the variation in feed intake between animals is limited. It requires detailed observations on each cow.The variation in feed intake and pr...

Korver, S.

1984-01-01

65

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F. Arthur

2008-07-01

66

Factors affecting the herd level of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case-control study was made of Norwegian dairy herds with high and low herd levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. A high proportion of the herds had a considerable number of seropositive cows, and environmental and management factors were examined for possible associations with the high serological levels of antibodies. The most important appeared to be: geographical location, red deer (Cervus elaphus) gaining access to the pastures for cattle, the observation of wild birds in the feed storage, and herds sharing common pasture with other herds of cattle. However, diagnostic tests showed that none of the animals in the case herds was infected with M a paratuberculosis. PMID:15143743

Fredriksen, B; Djønne, B; Sigurdardóttir, O; Tharaldsen, J; Nyberg, O; Jarp, J

2004-04-24

67

Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

68

Increasing prevalence of Coxiella burnetii seropositive Danish dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study based on bulk tank milk samples from 120 randomly selected dairy cattle herds was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii seropositive dairy herds, to describe the geographical distribution, and to identify risk factors. Using the CHEKIT Q-fever Antibody ELISA Test Kit (IDEXX), the study revealed a prevalence of 79.2% seropositive herds, 18.3% seronegative herds, and 2.5% serointermediate herds based on the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Multifactorial logistic regression showed statistically significant associations (P?150 cows had 17.9 times higher odds of testing positive compared to herds significantly related to the occurrence of seropositive dairy herds (P?=?0.06). The results indicate an increased prevalence of seropositive dairy herds since the previous survey in 2008 and an adverse impact of increasing herd size and cattle density on the risk of seropositivity. PMID:25056416

Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman

2014-01-01

69

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected f [...] eed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F., Arthur; R.M., Herd.

2008-07-01

70

Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE).

Ismael, Ahmed; LØvendahl, Peter

2012-01-01

71

Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25778438

Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart Hp; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle

2015-12-01

72

Antimicrobial-Resistant Enteric Bacteria from Dairy Cattle?  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted to understand the descriptive and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the feces of healthy lactating dairy cattle. Gram-negative enteric bacteria resistant to ampicillin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, and tetracycline were isolated from the feces of 35, 8, 5, and 42% of 213 lactating cattle on 74, 39, 9, 26, and 82% of 23 farms surveyed, respectively. Antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria accounted for 5 (florfenicol...

Sawant, Ashish A.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Straley, Beth A.; Donaldson, Sarah C.; Love, Brenda C.; Knabel, Stephen J.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

2006-01-01

73

Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue. PMID:25387024

Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

2013-01-01

74

Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P?>?0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P?cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation. PMID:25339431

Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

2015-01-01

75

Explorative research into quality of slurry manure from dairy farms with different feeding strategies  

OpenAIRE

To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield on undisturbed plots under cages were studied for a grass monoculture and a grass/clover mixture. The bio-a...

Reijs, J. W.; Meijer, W. H.; Bakker, E. J.; Lantinga, E. A.

2003-01-01

76

Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (?) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical ?, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. PMID:25602228

Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

2014-11-01

77

Design and Experiment on Self-propelled Precise Feeding Equipment for Dairy Cow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID, to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to equal-diameter and variable-pitch screw feeding structure to realize the precise concentrated feed supply, equipment performance test shown that the system speed 60rpm is the most stable when feeding, feeding accuracy not less than 97.5%, to meet the feeding requirements, equipped with the best traveling speed is 0.6m/s, the response time of the system is 0.4s, the recognition rate is 96%; through one-month feeding experiment in the dairy cow farm showed that the milk production was increased, the average daily milk yield of individual cows improve 0.8kg than artificial feeding.

Hewei Meng

2013-04-01

78

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 1...

Karimuribo, E. D.; Swai, E. S.; Kambarage, D. M.

2012-01-01

79

Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

Kathy J. Soder

2013-07-01

80

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (

E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.

2010-12-01

81

Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle  

OpenAIRE

The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4%) in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 ...

Aba, M. A.; Bianchi, C.; Becaluba, M.; Soraci, A. L.; Confalonieri, E. O.; Tapia, O.

2006-01-01

82

Genomic variation in dairy cattle - Identification and use  

OpenAIRE

The development of molecular techniques has offered possibilities to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Studies in dairy cattle have mainly focused on milk production traits. This thesis first gives an overview of the main identified QTL for milk production traits. Subsequently, a study to detect QTL affecting 27 conformation traits and functional traits was performed. A granddaughter design consisting of 20 Holstein-Friesian grandsires and 833 sons was analyzed by multi-marker regressio...

Schrooten, C.

2004-01-01

83

Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

84

Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.

Seongwon Seo

2012-01-01

85

Evaluate Bussines Study of Dairy Cattle on Financial Aspect at Dairy Cattle Farmers Partnership Project In Banyumas Regency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed to (1 evaluate feasibility business study on financial aspect dairy cattle farmers partnership government project in Banyumas Regency, (2 to study and to analyze farm management dairy cattle (cost and revenue at the fifth year on business study dairy cattle. The study applied survey methode. Sample was collected in two step. The first step, determining location of study using purposive sampling technique. Four subregencies that accepted cows from government in 1998 were chosin as the location. The Second step determining responders of study using purposive sampling technique by collecting all breeders on the locations that accepted the government support in the form of cows in 1998. Result of this research indicated on breeders that accepted the support in form of one cows and two cows was assumed feasible as reflected by Net Present Value (NPV > 0 ; Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C ratio > 1 ; Internal Rate of Return (IRR > I (Social discount rate. At the fifth year, revenue were in form of one cow Rp 6.456.000,00 and two cows Rp 10.545.000,00. Profit received as one cow Rp 2.997.160,00 and two cows Rp 5.418.700,00. (Animal Production 6(2: 76-85 (2004 Key Words: Feasibility study, Farmer income, Farmer profitability

Hudri Aunurohman

2004-05-01

86

Quality and Yield of Chihuahua Cheese Produced from Dairy Cattle Supplemented with Enriched Apple Byproduct  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.

A. Muro-Reyes

2011-01-01

87

Genomic dairy cattle breeding : risk and opportunities for cow welfare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.

Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter

2010-01-01

88

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7% of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45% of reported young stock deaths (dairy development project training course (RR = 0.47, P = 0.012). Farms located in Iringa urban district and Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21% for Iringa urban and 34% for Pangani). Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses. PMID:21526740

Swai, E S; Karimuribo, E D; Kambarage, D M

2010-12-01

89

Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle.
The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. ...

Watermeyer, J. C.; Schans, T. J.; Karzis, J.; Du Preez, E.; Donkin, E. F.; Petzer, I. M.; Reenen, R.

2010-01-01

90

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

M. Umar

2011-09-01

91

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge. PMID:23031138

Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

2013-03-01

92

Determining the heritable component of dairy cattle foot lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lameness and hoof health affect dairy cows as an animal welfare issue, in decreased milk production, and in premature culling. Selection schemes for dairy cattle focus on sire contribution to milk production, with little consideration of the cow's physical structure or disease probability. On 3 commercial California dairies, 6 phenotypic binary hoof traits that contribute to lameness were recorded: white line disease, sole ulcer, other claw horn lesions, foot rot (interdigital phlegmon), foot warts (digital dermatitis), and other lesions. Monthly lactation records were collected from December 2006 to April 2009 with weekly observations of hoof lesions for lame and dry cows. In addition to hoof lesion information, data on cows (n=5,043) included parentage, birth date, freshening date, lactation number, and date of lameness diagnosis. The prevalence of hoof lesions ranged from a low of 2.2% (foot rot) to a high of 17.1% (foot warts). The farm environment increased the odds ratio depending upon the lesion. Lameness was more common in early lactation and as lactation number increased. Using a threshold model, heritabilities and repeatabilities were estimated for each binary trait. The heritability for risk varied by lesion, with the higher estimates being 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.67) for digital dermatitis and 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.63) for sole ulcer. Including terms to account for cow productivity on either a 305-d mature-equivalent basis or a per-lactation basis had minimal effect on the heritability estimates, suggesting that selection for hoof health is not correlated with response to selection for greater milk production and that improvement could be made for both traits. The genetic component lends support for further genetic studies to identify loci contributing to some of the lesion phenotypes such as foot warts or sole ulcers, 2 of the top 3 causes of lameness in dairy cattle. PMID:23063151

Oberbauer, A M; Berry, S L; Belanger, J M; McGoldrick, R M; Pinos-Rodriquez, J M; Famula, T R

2013-01-01

93

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

Che Hashim Hassan

2012-01-01

94

Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production. However, the livestock system is also credited for the fact that the use of manure reduces the amount of artificial fertilizer being used. Consequently, a manure handling system was set up as a subsystem to the cattle system. This method allowed a comparison between different fodder crops on an equal basis. Furthermore, the crop-specific contribution from changes in soil C was estimated based on estimated amounts of C input to the soil.

Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

2014-01-01

95

Malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five cases of postparturient vulvovaginitis and metritis in cattle caused by Clostridium septicum (malignant edema) are described in the current report. The diagnosis was established based on detection of C. septicum by culture and fluorescent antibody test. All animals were Holsteins, and 4 were primiparous (the parity of 1 animal was not reported). All animals developed clinical signs 1-3 days after calving, consisting of swelling of perineal and perivulvar areas, fever, and depression. Perineal, perivulvar, and perivaginal gelatinous and often hemorrhagic edema was consistently observed on gross examination. Longitudinal vulvar, vaginal, cervical, and uterine body tears, covered by fibrinous exudates, were also present. Microscopically, vulvar, vaginal, and uterine mucosae were multifocally necrotic and ulcerated. Large Gram-positive rods, some with subterminal spores, were present within the edematous subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Clostridium septicum was demonstrated by culture and/or fluorescent antibody test in tissues of most animals. These cases of malignant edema were considered to be produced by C. septicum and predisposed by the trauma occurring during parturition. PMID:19901305

Odani, Jenee S; Blanchard, Patricia C; Adaska, John M; Moeller, Robert B; Uzal, Francisco A

2009-11-01

96

Neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. A long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for N. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. A total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. The percentage of abortions in seropositive cows was 3 times higher than in their seronegative counterparts (21.6 and 7.3%, respectively). No statistically significant association was found between the antibody level of positive during pregnancy and the proportion of aborting cows. However, 41.2% of the dams with antibody titers of 1:12,800 aborted. The risk of abortion for such dams was 2.7 times higher than for other seropositive cows which had lower titers of antibodies (p=0.0072). In the follow-up examinations of the seropositive cows during several pregnancies, the overall percent of abortions observed was significantly higher than in seronegative individuals (49.3 and 16.9%, respectively; pabortion observed was 5 to 1 (17.4 and 3.5%) in seropositive and seronegative dams, respectively (pabortions was observed in seropositive cows both in summer and winter in comparison with spring and autumn. It was found that in seropositive cows, an increased number of pregnancies, which was directly related to the age of the dam, has been associated with an increased number of abortions. PMID:24986462

Mazuz, Monica L; Fish, Leah; Reznikov, Dror; Wolkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovitz, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Golenser, Jacob; Shkap, Varda

2014-09-15

97

Spatial and time distribution of dairy cattle excreta in an intensive pasture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined distribution of feces and urine from 36 lactating dairy cattle (Bos taurus) managed in a rotationally grazed 0.74-ha endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)-white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pasture. Cows were observed for 24 h five times from July 1997 to April 1998, and for 13.5 h in September 1997. During each 24-h observation period, the first grazing period (12 h) used 54% of the paddock and the second grazing period (8 h) used the entire paddock. Times and locations of all defecations and urinations from a subgroup of eight cows, observed while in the pasture, feed area, milking parlor, or in transit were recorded during the observation periods listed above and another time in May 1997. On pasture, all defecations and urinations were surveyed and mapped for all 36 cows. Feces and urine from six observation periods covered an estimated 10% of the paddock area in one year. Within 30 m of the water tank, concentrations of feces and urine from three warm-season observations were significantly greater than concentrations during three cool-season observations. Percentages of defecations and urinations on the pasture, feeding, and milking areas were highly correlated (r > 0.90) with time spent in those areas. Pasture-based systems could reduce manure handling and storage requirements proportional to the time cattle are on pastures. Manure on the pasture was evenly distributed, except around the water tank during warm-weather grazings. Results indicate that pasture-based dairy systems may require smaller, less-expensive manure management systems compared with confinement dairy farms. PMID:11790030

White, S L; Sheffield, R E; Washburn, S P; King, L D; Green, J T

2001-01-01

98

GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.

Martino Cassandro

2007-06-01

99

Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

M.A. Aba

2006-01-01

100

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

OpenAIRE

Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC) cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) hay, and concentrate feeding consists of po...

Umar, M.; Arifin, M.; Purnomoadi, A.

2011-01-01

101

FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

102

Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has long been known that season of the year has major impacts on dairy animal performance measures including growth, reproduction, and lactation. Additionally, as average production per cow has doubled, the metabolic heat output per animal has increased substantially rendering animals more susceptible to heat stress. This, in turn, has altered cooling and housing requirements for cattle. Substantial progress has been made in the last quarter-century in delineating the mechanisms by which thermal stress and photoperiod influence performance of dairy animals. Acclimation to thermal stress is now identified as a homeorhetic process under endocrine control. The process of acclimation occurs in 2 phases (acute and chronic) and involves changes in secretion rate of hormones as well as receptor populations in target tissues. The time required to complete both phases is weeks rather than days. The opportunity may exist to modify endocrine status of animals and improve their resistance to heat and cold stress. New estimates of genotype x environment interactions support use of recently available molecular and genomics tools to identify the genetic basis of heat-stress sensitivity and tolerance. Improved understanding of environmental effects on nutrient requirements has resulted in diets for dairy animals during different weather conditions. Demonstration that estrus behavior is adversely affected by heat stress has led to increased use of timed insemination schemes during the warm summer months to improve conception rates by discarding the need to detect estrus. Studies evaluating the effects of heat stress on embryonic survival support use of cooling during the immediate postbreeding period and use of embryo transfer to improve pregnancy rates. Successful cooling strategies for lactating dairy cows are based on maximizing available routes of heat exchange, convection, conduction, radiation, and evaporation. Areas in dairy operations in which cooling systems have been used to enhance cow comfort, improve milk production, reproductive efficiency, and profit include both housing and milking facilities. Currently, air movement (fans), wetting (soaking) the cow's body surface, high pressure mist (evaporation) to cool the air in the cows' environment, and facilities designed to minimize the transfer of solar radiation are used for heat abatement. Finally, improved understanding of photoperiod effects on cattle has allowed producers to maximize beneficial effects of photoperiod length while minimizing negative effects. PMID:16537957

Collier, R J; Dahl, G E; VanBaale, M J

2006-04-01

103

Waste management systems of dairy cattle farms in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the size of livestock farms in Japan has been expanding and the pollution from farm wastes has become a serious problem in rural areas. Therefore it is necessary to design treatment strategies and improve the recycling of livestock manure for sustainability of agriculture in Japan. The dairy cattle waste management systems were studied at dairy farms in Aomori prefecture and in Hokkaido, Japan. The four farms, typical for the respective regions in Japan, were investigated on the basis of the land and livestock size, housing, overall farm and waste management, type of machinery and a farm labour force. A statistical comparison was made for housing, milking and waste handling systems of dairy farms. One of the waste handling strategies was aerobic slurry treatment and land irrigation of the treated liquid fraction. Such methods began to solve some of waste management problems created since 1967 in grassland farming areas of Hokkaido. The irrigation system supplies water fertiliser and organic material to land as well as shortening the spreading times. It recycles livestock resources, increases the soil fertility and rationalizes the farm management. PMID:12201128

Shima, E; Svoboda, I F; Tsutsumi, S; Ohkubo, H

2002-01-01

104

Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in Portuguese dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1% (95% C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5%). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5% (25.5 to 44.7%) and 4.4% (1.7 to 10.9%), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430

Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João

2015-01-01

105

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

Michael P. Combrink

2012-12-01

106

Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China?s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. PMID:25262083

Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

2014-11-01

107

Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.

Ferna?ndez, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

2009-01-01

108

Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices  

OpenAIRE

A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and households with land and without income from agricultural labour (Class 110;11 farms). Information on the types of feeds given to cattle, amounts of feed offered and refused, and chest girth measure...

Marjuki; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M. N. M.

2000-01-01

109

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (?12 months old were due to tick-borne diseases, mainly East Coast Fever (ECF and anaplasmosis. Disease events including ECF were reported to occur in all months of the year. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models indicated that, in both regions, death rate and risk was higher in young stock less than 12 months than in older animals (relative risk RR=4.92, P <0.001 for Iringa; RR = 5.03 P = 0.005 for Tanga. In the Tanga region reported mortality rates were significantly higher for male animals (RR = 3.66, P = 0.001 and F2 compared with F1 animals (RR=3.04, P=0.003. In the Iringa region, reported mortality rates were lower for cattle on farms where the owner had attended a dairy development project training course (RR = 0.47, P = 0.012. Farms located in Iringa urban district and Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21 % for Iringa urban and 34 % for Pangani. Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses.

E.D. Karimuribo

2012-05-01

110

Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results ...

Mugunieri, G. L.; Matete, G. O.

2010-01-01

111

Economic feed utilization for dairy buffalo under intensive agricultural system  

OpenAIRE

The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly &ldquo...

Soliman, I.

2007-01-01

112

Evaluation of an application for dynamic feeding of dairy cows  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic feeding is an innovative application for concentrate feeding of dairy cows. Daily individual settings are derived from the actual individual milk yield response to concentrate intake. This response is estimated using an adaptive dynamic linear model. Optimal daily individual settings for concentrate supply are directed to achieve the maximum gross margin milk returns minus concentrate costs. This response curve plays a key role in the application. The response curve is derived from a ...

Andre, G.; Bleumer, E. J. B.; Duinkerken, G.

2009-01-01

113

Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits. The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data for both platforms

Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro

114

PREDICTING PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE IN MILK FROM CONCENTRATIONS IN DAIRY FEED  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of perchlorate have been discovered in some U.S. dairy milk supplies. Data were used from a 5-week-long perchlorate dosing experiment to derive an equation to describe the relationship between perchlorate concentrations in feed and appearance in milk. Using USDA Food and Nutrition Survey ...

115

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some of the Cryptosporidium species and all four E. bieneusi genotypes identified in bovine animals in the study areas may have zoonotic potential. PMID:25541482

Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

2015-01-30

116

Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a genomic breeding scheme in a small dairy cattle population that was intermediate in terms of using both young bulls (YB) and progeny-tested bulls (PB). This scheme was compared with a conventional progeny testing program without use of genomic information and, as the extreme case, a juvenile scheme with genomic information, where all bulls were used before progeny information was available. The population structure, cost, and breeding plan parameters were chosen to reflect the Danish Jersey cattle population, being representative for a small dairy cattle population. The population consisted of 68,000 registered cows. Annually, 1,500 bull dams were screened to produce the 500 genotyped bull calves from which 60 YB were selected to be progeny tested. Two unfavorably correlated traits were included in the breeding goal, a production trait (h(2)=0.30) and a functional trait (h(2)=0.04). An increase in reliability of 5 percentage points for each trait was used in the default genomic scenario. A deterministic approach was used to model the different breeding programs, where the primary evaluation criterion was annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG). Discounted profit was used as an indicator of the economic outcome. We investigated the effect of varying the following parameters: (1) increase in reliability due to genomic information, (2) number of genotyped bull calves, (3) proportion of bull dam sires that are young bulls, and (4) proportion of cow sires that are young bulls. The genomic breeding scheme was both genetically and economically superior to the conventional breeding scheme, even in a small dairy cattle population where genomic information causes a relatively low increase in reliability of breeding values. Assuming low reliabilities of genomic predictions, the optimal breeding scheme according to AMGG was characterized by mixed use of YB and PB as bull sires. Exclusive use of YB for production cows increased AMGG up to 3 percentage points. The results from this study supported our hypothesis that strong interaction effects exist. The strongest interaction effects were obtained between increased reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values and more intensive use of YB. The juvenile scheme was genetically inferior when the increase in reliability was low (5 percentage points), but became genetically superior at higher reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values. The juvenile scheme was always superior according to discounted profit because of the shorter generation interval and minimizing costs for housing and feeding waiting bulls. PMID:24239076

Thomasen, J R; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; Sørensen, A C

2014-01-01

117

Food Security and Dairy Cow Feeding: The Necessity for a Paradigm Shift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products.This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans. The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.

Wilhelm Knaus

2013-09-01

118

Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. PMID:22612932

Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

2012-06-01

119

Eimeriosis in dairy cattle farms in Morogoro municipality of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidial oocysts were detected in 35% of 445 cattle in four medium-scale and 20 small-scale dairy farms in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. The highest prevalence (56%) was observed in animals aged between 5 and 18 months, whereas lower prevalences were observed in calves (29%) aged between 12 days and 4 months and adults (30%). No coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 12 days old. The oocyst output was high in calves, followed by weaners; adults had the lowest oocyst output. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in diarrhoeic animals than in non-diarrhoeic animals, and more so in young calves. Eimeria species infecting the animals included Eimeria bovis (68%) and Eimeria zuernii (57%), Eimeria ellipsoidalis (25%), Eimeria cylindrica (23%), Eimeria auburnensis (22%), Eimeria alabamensis (12%) and Eimeria subspherica (5%). Mixed infections involving two or three species were common. Our findings indicate that eimeriosis is common in cattle in Morogoro municipality. PMID:9234443

Chibunda, R T; Muhairwa, A P; Kambarage, D M; Mtambo, M M; Kusiluka, L J; Kazwala, R R

1997-08-01

120

Resource selection by sympatric free-ranging dairy cattle and brown bears  

OpenAIRE

Livestock depredation is an important factor that contributes to low public acceptance of large carnivores, and is often used as an incentive to reduce large carnivore populations. In central Sweden, brown bears (Ursus arctos) coexist with a traditional cattle husbandry system that allows daytime free-ranging of dairy cattle. Despite a growing brown bear population, depredation on cattle remained stable during the last decade, and among the lowest rates reported worldwide. Nevertheless, major...

Steyaert, S. M. J. G.; Stoen, O. G.; Elfstro?m, M.; Karlsson, J.; Lammeren, R. J. A.; Bokdam, J.; Zedrosser, A.

2011-01-01

121

Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

G.L. Mugunieri

2010-09-01

122

A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

2004-09-15

123

Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding cattle manure (CM for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO, bakery by-products (BBP and tallow (TW was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1 control: CM and MO; 2 LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3 HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4 LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5 HTW: CM, BBP and high level of TW. Ensiling CM with BBP had the lowest silage losses. Silages were part of diets, which were fed to lambs fitted with ruminal cannulas. Nutrient intake and N balance did not differ in lambs across all experimental diets, but the NDF digestion of diets with BBP and TW was lower than with MO or BBP. Ensiling CM with BBP offered less silage losses as compared to MO.

Germán Mendoza

2010-02-01

124

Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.  

OpenAIRE

Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection differential in sires was 3.12 units of phenotypic standard deviation. Dams in first generation were randomly chosen. Data of progenies of 38 selected bulls were recorded in growing, pregnant and lactati...

Korver, S.; Eekelen, E. A. M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G. J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

1991-01-01

125

Distribution of indole in tissues of dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs

126

Invited review: Genomic selection in dairy cattle: progress and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technology called genomic selection is revolutionizing dairy cattle breeding. Genomic selection refers to selection decisions based on genomic breeding values (GEBV). The GEBV are calculated as the sum of the effects of dense genetic markers, or haplotypes of these markers, across the entire genome, thereby potentially capturing all the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to variation in a trait. The QTL effects, inferred from either haplotypes or individual single nucleotide polymorphism markers, are first estimated in a large reference population with phenotypic information. In subsequent generations, only marker information is required to calculate GEBV. The reliability of GEBV predicted in this way has already been evaluated in experiments in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and the Netherlands. These experiments used reference populations of between 650 and 4,500 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian bulls, genotyped for approximately 50,000 genome-wide markers. Reliabilities of GEBV for young bulls without progeny test results in the reference population were between 20 and 67%. The reliability achieved depended on the heritability of the trait evaluated, the number of bulls in the reference population, the statistical method used to estimate the single nucleotide polymorphism effects in the reference population, and the method used to calculate the reliability. A common finding in 3 countries (United States, New Zealand, and Australia) was that a straightforward BLUP method for estimating the marker effects gave reliabilities of GEBV almost as high as more complex methods. The BLUP method is attractive because the only prior information required is the additive genetic variance of the trait. All countries included a polygenic effect (parent average breeding value) in their GEBV calculation. This inclusion is recommended to capture any genetic variance not associated with the markers, and to put some selection pressure on low-frequency QTL that may not be captured by the markers. The reliabilities of GEBV achieved were significantly greater than the reliability of parental average breeding values, the current criteria for selection of bull calves to enter progeny test teams. The increase in reliability is sufficiently high that at least 2 dairy breeding companies are already marketing bull teams for commercial use based on their GEBV only, at 2 yr of age. This strategy should at least double the rate of genetic gain in the dairy industry. Many challenges with genomic selection and its implementation remain, including increasing the accuracy of GEBV, integrating genomic information into national and international genetic evaluations, and managing long-term genetic gain. PMID:19164653

Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Chamberlain, A J; Goddard, M E

2009-02-01

127

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintater fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

128

Diagnosis of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

129

Sustainable dairy cattle selection in the genomic era.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic selection offers considerable flexibility to increase genetic trends in dairy cattle breeding. It is also an opportunity for more sustainable breeding, in terms of breeding goal and genetic variability. With a shorter generation interval, there is a big risk of increasing inbreeding if semen dissemination policy of elite bulls is not changed. However, using a large number of young bulls as service bulls and bull sires is a solution for both maximizing genetic trend while reducing inbreeding trend. Female genotyping is a key challenge for within-herd selection but, more importantly, for selection of new traits and for replacement of current reference populations based upon progeny-tested bulls. Genomic selection also opens new avenues for more customized breeding across herds or production systems. A big challenge is to reduce the dependency of genomic predictions on relationship between candidates and the reference population. A strong effort is presently dedicated to integrating genome sequence information into predictions, to improve their accuracy and persistency. In the longer term, further customization of selection will be possible by accounting for G × E interactions. Important developments are also necessary to decrease loss of favourable alleles through genetic drift. PMID:25736218

Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V; Fritz, S

2015-04-01

130

Genetic tools to improve reproduction traits in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertility is a major concern in the dairy cattle industry and has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 20 years. Surprisingly, most of these studies focused on rough female phenotypes and, despite their important role in reproductive success, male- and embryo-related traits have been poorly investigated. In recent years, the rapid and important evolution of technologies in genetic research has led to the development of genomic selection. The generalisation of this method in combination with the achievements of the AI industry have led to the constitution of large databases of genotyping and sequencing data, as well as refined phenotypes and pedigree records. These resources offer unprecedented opportunities in terms of fundamental and applied research. Here we present five such examples with a focus on reproduction-related traits: (1) detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male fertility and semen quality traits; (2) detection of QTL for refined phenotypes associated with female fertility; (3) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by depletion of homozygous haplotypes; (4) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by mining whole-genome sequencing data; and (5) the contribution of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism chips, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to increasing the power of QTL detection methods and to the identification of causal variants. PMID:25472040

Capitan, A; Michot, P; Baur, A; Saintilan, R; Hozé, C; Valour, D; Guillaume, F; Boichon, D; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Schibler, L; Fritz, S

2014-12-01

131

Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

2015-02-01

132

Effect of nutrient composition of feeds on digestibility of organic matter by cattle: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of nutrient availability, calculated as TDN for 106 different feedstuffs generated from various published equations, were compared with TDN for similar feeds listed in the 1961 text by F. B. Morrison titled Feeds and Feeding. Incomplete analysis of carbohydrate fractions limited accuracy of evaluations. Although published equations may satisfactorily rank feeds in energy value, the absolute values, correlations, and SE of the estimates revealed that most equations were inaccurate. Across all feeds and forages, TDN was related most closely to crude fiber (R(2) = 0.68) within data sets from Morrison's text and from the NRC publications concerning Nutrient Requirements for Dairy and for Beef Cattle in 1989 and 2000, respectively. Within the latter data set, of the total variation, ADF accounted for 65% of the variation in TDN across all feeds, 62% of the variation in TDN for concentrate feeds, but only 41% of the variation in TDN of forages. Within the 2001 publication for dairy cattle from the NRC, ADF content was related most closely to TDN for all feeds, but nonfiber carbohydrate was most closely related to TDN of forages (R(2) = 0.81 and 0.69, respectively). To separate true from apparent digestibility of nutrients, fecal excretions of components (i.e., CP, fat, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract) were regressed against concentrations of these nutrients in feedstuffs and summed to estimate fecal loss. Metabolic fecal loss of OM (MFOM), the difference between true and apparent OM digestibility, was correlated closely with crude fiber content of feedstuffs (R(2) = 0.86) and increased from 7 to 25 g/100 g of diet as dietary crude fiber concentration increased. This may explain why most TDN equations are based on crude fiber or ADF. Whether dietary NDF similarly increases metabolic OM excretion is not certain, but when humans were fed NDF-enriched diets, fecal excretion of nonfiber carbohydrate increased markedly. The impact of crude fiber on nutrient availability of feeds appears to be related more closely to its adverse effect on apparent digestibility of other nutrients than to the amount of energy that fiber itself contributes. Refinements to laboratory methods for measuring fiber digestibility that match apparent in vivo digestibility coefficients for fiber by ruminants is needed, and the origin, composition, and cost of replacing MFOM need additional research. PMID:20081083

Owens, F N; Sapienza, D A; Hassen, A T

2010-04-01

133

Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.

Masson Luke

2011-06-01

134

Ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings and outdoor concrete yards in Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.

Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

2010-09-01

135

Haemophilus somnus: a comparison among three serological tests and a serological survey in beef and dairy cattle.  

OpenAIRE

Serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Haemophilus somnus were carried out in herds of beef and dairy cattle using three different techniques: agglutination, complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. The agglutination test appeared to detect more seroreactors than the complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests. Results of the three tests indicated that there were more positive reactors in beef cattle and dairy cattle from infected herds than in d...

Sanfac?on, D.; Higgins, R.; Mittal, K. R.; L Archeve?que, G.

1983-01-01

136

Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124

Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

2014-06-01

137

Salmonella enterica Serotype Cerro Among Dairy Cattle in New York: An Emerging Pathogen?  

OpenAIRE

The focus of this study was Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro, a potentially emerging pathogen of cattle. Our objectives were to document the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Cerro among a sample of New York dairy herds, to describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of the isolates, and to elucidate the status of this serotype as a bovine pathogen. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 l...

Cummings, Kevin J.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Elton, Mara; Rodriguez-rivera, Lorraine D.; Siler, Julie D.; Wright, Emily M.; Gro?hn, Yrjo T.; Wiedmann, Martin

2010-01-01

138

When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategyIn dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The aim was to establish the relationship between various oestrus characteristics and ovulation time in order to investigate whether these oestrus characteristics could predict ovulation time and to study the consequence...

Roelofs, J. B.

2005-01-01

139

Temperature-humidity index values and their significance on the daily production of dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study were to determine the microclimatic conditions in stables in three climactic regions (East, Mediterranean, and Central) of Croatia as well as to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) values on the daily production of dairy cattle. With that purpose, 1675686 test-day records collected from January 2005 until April 2010 were extracted from HPA (Croatian Agricultural Agency) database. For estimation of the effect of THI on daily production of dairy ...

Pero Miji?; Vesna Gantner; Krešimir Kuterovac; Drago Soli?; Ranko Gantner

2011-01-01

140

Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extract...

Hr, Shahbazkia; Jafari Dehkordi, A.; Ronagh, N.

2011-01-01

141

Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach  

OpenAIRE

Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both clinical and subclinical. The impact of specific foot disorders on welfare was assessed by simulating the incidence and duration of foot disorders and the pain associated with them. Pain assessm...

Bruijnis, M. R. N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E. N.

2012-01-01

142

USE OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR GENETIC EVALUATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW  

OpenAIRE

The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation o...

Khan, G. Bilal And M. S.

2009-01-01

143

Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk  

OpenAIRE

Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Surv...

Eko Hendarto; Sri Mastuti

1999-01-01

144

Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy  

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Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

Cheryl M.E. McCrindle

2013-04-01

145

The use of radioselenium uptake for the detection of selenium deficiency on dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-eight dairy cattle were used in this experiment. The blood was collected from the jugular vein by vacutainer tubes which contained EDTA as anticoagulant. For detecting the selenium status in the cows, the GSH-Px of all blood samples were analyzed and percentage of 75Se uptake were also analyzed. The activity of 75Se used in this experiment was 6 muCi/ml sample. The result of this experiment shows that percentage uptake of 75Se is higher in deficient dairy cattle compared to normal ones. (author)

146

Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small dairy cattle populations are challenged because of the low reliabilities of genomic predictions. We have demonstrated that low reliabilities of genomic predictions sets limitations for moving towards more genetic efficient breeding schemes with more intensive use of young bulls without progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces that increase reliabilities of genomic predictions.

Thomasen, JØrn Rind; Egger-Danner, C

2014-01-01

147

Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly. PMID:24698359

Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

2014-05-01

148

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

149

Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.

Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne; Moyes, Kasey

2013-01-01

150

Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition. PMID:23031687

Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K

2013-03-01

151

Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

2013-03-01

152

Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions.

Pozzato, N.; Capello, K.

2011-01-01

153

Practical application of daughter yield deviations in dairy cattle breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daughter yield deviations (DYDs) of bulls and yield deviations (YDs) of cows, besides estimated breeding values (EBVs), are standard measures of animals' genetic merits in routine genetic evaluations worldwide. In this contribution, we first point out differences and similarities between DYDs and EBVs calculated for milk, fat and protein yields. While the latter measure represents the additive polygenic value of an animal, the former consists of both the additive polygenic and residual components. Then, a summary of DYDs and YDs calculated for the Polish population of dairy cattle is presented. The estimated correlations between DYDs and EBVs are generally high, but vary considerably depending on the minimum number of daughters used for calculation of DYDs and on the accuracy of calculated DYDs. Using DYDs estimated for each production year for 16 452 bulls, we demonstrate how to use DYDs for the validation of genetic trend estimated in the model used for genetic evaluation. Based on genotypic data of 252 bulls, we show that DYDs can be used for the estimation of candidate gene effects. For each of the yield traits, the within-bull genetic trend was relatively high, ranging between 1.39% of genetic standard deviation per production year for milk and 7.67% of genetic standard deviation per production year for fat, both in the 2nd lactation. Out of 8 polymorphisms tested, 5 showed a significant correlation with DYD, with the highest effect attributed to the polymorphism within the leptin receptor gene, whose additive effect was estimated as 247.33 kg of milk at 2nd parity. PMID:18436992

Szyda, Joanna; Ptak, Ewa; Komisarek, Jolanta; Zarnecki, Andrzej

2008-01-01

154

Structural Characteristic of the Dairy Farms That Members of Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out by consulting with dairy farms that were selected by chance from the analyzed farms registered in the Dairy Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne. The farms were selected through Edirne and its counties, thus it was aimed to find accurate results.The survey questions are about the general characteristic features of the farm owners, their educational degrees, their existing breeding status, their practical experiences in breeding cattle, their aims and expectations, the condition of the animal sheds and equipments, distribution and marketing of their products.The rate of literacy in the farms that were members of the Cattle Breeding Association is 100%. The dairy cattle breeding was made for providing subsistence income by 47.4% of the farms and it was made for gaining supplementary budget by the rest of the farms. The rate of working in the farms as owners of the farms and members of their family was 96.5%. Average animal stock 21-30 heads of cattle in 33.3% of the farms.98.2 per cent of the farm areas were in the residential areas, 96.5 per cent of the farms consist of bound-standstill type farms and 3.6% of those consist of free type farms. The rate of the milking with the milking machine was 100 % and in 89.5% of farm the average production of milk per cattle 20-25 liters/day in the farms.

A. R. Onal

2008-05-01

155

An index for beef and veal characteristics in dairy cattle based on carcass traits.  

OpenAIRE

Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows culled from dairy herds. All animals originated from dairy or dual purpose breeds. Heritabilities for carcass traits on veal calves varied from 0.06 to 0.19; for bulls from 0.25 to 0.30, and for cull...

Werf, J. H. J.; Waaij, E. H.; Groen, A. F.; Jong, G.

1998-01-01

156

In Investigation of Structural Properties of Dairy Enterprises and Morphologic Characteristics of Black and White Cattle in Tekirdag Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n this research the status of dairy cattle husbandry in Tekirda? and it’s share in the Agriculture of Tekirda? was investigated. This research was conducted in the content of determining several animal science and morphometric traits of dairy cattle enterprises in Tekirda? province. The research material was consisted of data obtained from operations determined according to the registration data of provincial agricultural directory sampled in the villages where has the relatively more quantitatively and qualitatively intensified dairy cattle farms of the distiches of central of Tekirda?, Malkara, Muratl?, ?arköy, Çerkezköy, Marmara Ere?lisi. This study was completed with 267 breeders in Tekirda?. Questionnaire included many question in order to determine the general structure of farms, Status of Education of farmers, number of Animals of operations, level of feeding, conditions of barns, sort of milking practises, quality of milk obtained, status of breeding organizations and expectation of farmer regarding support measures to animal husbandry in Tekirda?. Data obtained showed that %59, %29, % 11 and %1 of farmers graduated elementary school, university, middle school and illiteracy respectively. 75 % of enter prises has number of animal of (1-15 head, where as %25 and %5 has (15-40 and 40-100 animals. 96 % of farmer had neither cooling tank nor fixed or milking in parlour. In addition investigation aimed to determine the morphometric trait of total 98 head of animal (67 female and 31 male aged 30 month for female and 10 months for male raised in five different location as villages of central district of Tekirda? and districts of Muratl? , Çerkezköy , ?arköy ,Marmara .Ere?lisi. The average wither height of females (30 month age was 138,71 ± 1,44, the average rump height was 144,28 ± 2,03, the average chest girth was 166,71 ± 3,71 and the average body length was 149,14 ± 2,19 investigated in Tekirda? (center.

E.K. Gurcan

2007-09-01

157

Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

158

Development of a model for the prediction of feed intake by dairy cows: 1. Prediction of feed intake  

OpenAIRE

A study was undertaken to develop a model for the prediction of dry matter intake by lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows. To estimate the model parameters, a calibration dataset was compiled with the data from 32 feeding experiments conducted at 9 different sites. The database contained weekly information on 1507 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows regarding their diet composition and feed analysis, together with their individual voluntary feed intake, milk yield (MY), milk composition,...

Zom, R. L. G.; Andre?, G.; Vuuren, A. M.

2012-01-01

159

Radioactivity of feed and tissues of cattle fed this feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between radioactivity of feed and the muscles and internal organs of the animals fed this feed. The studies were carried out on 47 Simental bulls fed for the period of body gains from 160 to 450 kg. It was found that the radioactivity of the skeletal muscles, heart and tongue, as well as internal organs was lower by 56.7, 64.1 and 64.7 per cent respectively in regards to a daily ration of feed. The radioactivity of muscles and internal organs of the bulls under study was 11.5-16.9 of the acceptable radioactivity of muscles (600 Bq/kg-1). (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

160

Bovine Nutritional Needs: Digestibility of Dry and Ensiled Forages when Feeding Young Dairy Heifers  

OpenAIRE

The diets fed to growing animals are very important to ensure that young animals have the proper nutrients available for growth. When feeding dairy heifers, a farmer’s goal is to feed a very digestible diet that will provide nutrients to keep dairy heifers healthy and allow them to grow faster, while spending less money on feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding heifers diets containing dry or ensiled forage (haylage) improved digestibility. Our hypothesis was tha...

Shirley Nigaglioni

2012-01-01

161

Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

1979-01-01

162

Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.

2011-08-01

163

Heat-induced Protein Structure and Subfractions in Relation to Protein Degradation Kinetics and Intestinal Availability in Dairy Cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences between the treatments. There was a linear effect of heating time on the DVE and a cubic effect on the OEB value. Our results showed that heating changed chemical profiles, protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio, and protein subfractions; decreased rumen-degradable protein and rumen-degradable dry matter; and increased potential nutrient supply to dairy cattle. The protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio had a significant positive correlation with total intestinally absorbed protein supply and negative correlation with degraded protein balance.

Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D

2009-01-01

164

Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

Marcella Avondo

2010-01-01

165

Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children. PMID:23941354

Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee

2015-01-01

166

Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...

167

Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

168

Neospora caninum and Leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in Ontario  

OpenAIRE

No significant association existed between Neospora caninum titer and serostatus to Leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in Ontario. Leptospira titer increased with parity. Amongst herds not vaccinated against Leptospira, the proportions of herds with ? 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.

Peregrine, Andrew S.; Martin, S. Wayne; Hopwood, Douglas A.; Duffield, Todd F.; Mcewen, Beverly; Hobson, Jamie C.; Hietala, Sharon K.

2006-01-01

169

IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM FECES OF US DAIRY CATTLE TO CEPHALOSPORINS  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The objective of this study was to obtain baseline antimicrobial susceptibility data on E. coli isolated from feces of US dairy cows to the 4th generation cephalosporins (4-GC) cefquinome and cefepime. Cefquinome is licensed for therapeutic use in cattle and swine in Europe, and cefepime...

170

Toxic effects in dairy cattle following the ingestion of a large volume of canola oil.  

OpenAIRE

The clinical and laboratory findings of a group of 9 dairy cattle that accidentally ingested large volumes of canola oil are described. Four of the animals died, and 3 were necropsied. No specific cause of death was found, although a number of theories are advanced. This is the first report of such an occurrence.

Clark, C.; Radostits, O.; Petrie, L.; Allen, A.

2001-01-01

171

Overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits  

Science.gov (United States)

For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focused on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate fo...

172

Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products? : How can dairy products contribute to a healthy and sustainable diet?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a growing problem in the Western world. Dairy products comprise a food group containing a high amount of saturated fat, which has been linked to an increase in CVD risk. However, a recent metaanalysis including 611.430 subjects failed to find any association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. Consequently, there is less focus on the consumption of saturated fatty acid. However, many attempts have been made to prevent and reduce complications from CVD and T2DM and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid (FA) uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders, due to agonist ctivities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products (represented by cheese and butter) from cows fed green feed would affect the human concentration of plasma PA differently as compared to dairy products from cows fed conventional feed, and, further to examine the health effects of PA. A second objective was to examine the health effects of dairy products (represented by butter) produced from milk delivered from mountain-pasture grazing cows. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies where risk markers of CVD and T2DM were assessed. We found that it is possible to increase human plasma PA concentration after four weeks of intervention with butter and cheese containing even a traditional content of PA, which agrees with observational studies. No significant difference in plasma PA concentration between treatment groups was found; therefore, investigating any effect of PA on metabolic parameters was not possible. However, considering the strong correlation between plasma PA at baseline and total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), it may be suggested that PA have a specific LDL-C rising effects. We found no health beneficial effect on CVD and T2DM risk markers of butter delivered from mountain-pasture grazing, which had, among other differences, increased PA content compared to butter from conventionally fed cows. As no other study has been published regarding the health of milk delivered from grazing cattle, we cannot compare our findings directly with other studies and further evidence is needed. During the past few years climate change has been recognized as the major environmental problem facing the world. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high nutritional value. In addition, when discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food sector, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE by creating dietary scenarios with different quantities of dairy products. This was evaluated on the basis of one theoretical study based on national intake data and carbon footprint data of 71 widely consumed food items. Furthermore, an index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items. Our dietary scenarios

Werner, Louise Bruun

2013-01-01

173

Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated

174

Role of Cooperatives as an Information Source of Dairy Cattle Farmers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the role of dairy cooperatives as an information source in solving problems at dairy cattle production in the district of Osmaniye, Turkey. Local animal husbandry activities were investigated by collecting data using a questionnaire with owners of 112 dairy farms. The results showed that 31.3% of farmers were members of dairy cooperatives. Only 8.7% of farmers used cooperatives as a main source when they need information about solving their problems and getting information about new technologies. Most respondents (94.6% evaluated the timeliness of advisory services provided by cooperative as poor. Almost 90 (89.3% of farmers wanted better access to improved dairy technologies through cooperatives. The most significant problems in adopting innovations related to dairy cattle production were lack of access to relevant knowledge and financial problems in applying these innovations. It was also found that the farmers preferred veterinarians and other farmers as sources of knowledge and that the role of the cooperatives as knowledge sources was quite low.

Dilek Bostan Budak

2012-01-01

175

Comparison of E. coli O157 and Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx) prevalence between Ohio, USA and Norwegian dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental and food contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) pose a threat to public health worldwide, with notable geographic differences in incidence of human disease caused by these organisms. The prevalence of E. coli O157 and total stx-positive specimens collected from mature dairy cattle in Ohio and Norwegian dairy farms was compared using identical laboratory methods in a cross-sectional survey. E. coli O157 was isolated from 5/750 (0.66%) of Ohio dairy cows from 4/50 (8%) different herds, whereas E. coli O157 was not isolated from any (0/680) cattle present in 50 Norwegian dairy herds. In contrast, at least one stx-positive faecal sample was identified by PCR on all (50/50) Norwegian farms but only on 70% (35/50) of Ohio farms. Average animal stx prevalence on Ohio farms was also lower; 14% vs. 61% in Ohio and Norwegian herds, respectively. Livestock feed contamination with generic E. coli was uncommon in Norway, 1/50 feeds testing positive, whereas 19/50 (38%) of feeds collected from Ohio farms were contaminated, some as high as 10(5) CFU/g. Despite extreme differences in on-farm management practices between countries, stx appear to be widely disseminated in cattle in both countries, while the human pathogenic O157 serotype is less widely disseminated in Norway than it is in Ohio. Geographic distribution differences of human pathogenic STEC serogroups in the bovine reservoir, as opposed to specific farm management practices affecting on farm STEC prevalence, may be an important defining factor influencing the incidence of human illnesses associated in different areas of the world. PMID:16504323

LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Hancock, Dale; Wasteson, Yngvild; Skjerve, Eystein; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

2006-05-25

176

Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)

177

Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and inffor early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

178

A longitudinal study of feed contamination by European starling excreta in Ohio dairy farms (2007-2008).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:24881798

Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

2014-08-01

179

Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields  

Science.gov (United States)

Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

2014-05-01

180

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA  

OpenAIRE

This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC), 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC) and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA). Pr...

Isbandi; Mukson; Setiadi, A.; Sudjadmogo; Santosa, S. I.

2012-01-01

181

Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.

Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

2009-06-01

182

Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is 1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8) in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets without the need to increase their content in peNDF above the threshold that leads to lower DM intake. The latter would require strategies that modulate the fermentability characteristics of the diet and promote absorption and metabolic capacity of ruminal epithelia of dairy cows. PMID:22365188

Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

2012-03-01

183

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

OpenAIRE

In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID) and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY) traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correl...

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

2004-01-01

184

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

2004-01-01

185

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associated abortion in dairy cattle from central Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 904 sera from dairy cattle in 11 provinces of central Thailand were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum employing the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Fifty four (6%) cattle were positive in IFAT, titres of 1:200 (16 cattle), 1:400 (9 cattle), 1:800 (14 cattle), 1:1600 (7 cattle), 1:3200 (6 cattle) and two positives. No significant difference was observed among the provinces. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test was 4% (2 out of 50) in positive sera, 2.9% (2 out of 69) in negative sera for anti-Neospora antibodies and 3.4% (4 out of 119) in total. The results of the IFAT were not associated with the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in bovine sera. Furthermore, the cause of abortions experienced in neighbouring three areas in the northeast, where pregnant heifers were newly introduced into small-scale farms from the central region, was investigated. The positive rates for anti-N. caninum antibody were 12, 28 and 44% at a cut-off titre of 1:200, and cattle were suspected to be infected after the introduction. In the area with the highest rate, seven out of eight aborting cattle were positive for antibodies to N. caninum while other two areas had similar abortion rates in both negative and positive cattle. However, in the latter two areas, positive rates for Trypanosoma evansi antigen along with parasitaemic animals were observed by an antigen-detection ELISA, but not for the former area. Considering the endemic diseases of the areas, Neospora was presumed to be responsible for the abortions in the former area while the examination results pointed out T. evansi as the most probable cause in the latter two areas. This is the first report of Neospora-associated abortion in Southeast Asia. PMID:10489202

Suteeraparp, P; Pholpark, S; Pholpark, M; Charoenchai, A; Chompoochan, T; Yamane, I; Kashiwazaki, Y

1999-09-15

186

Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weter weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

187

Factors affecting beef cattle producer perspectives on feed efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish the basis for implementation of a producer education program, a social assessment of the willingness and barriers to adoption of a measure of feed efficiency in beef cattle [residual feed intake (RFI)] was conducted. A 35-question mailed survey was sent to 1,888 producers acquired from the stratified random sample of the Idaho Cattle Association member list (n = 488), Red Angus Association of America member list (n = 2,208), and Red Angus Association of America bull buyer list (n = 5,325). The adjusted response rate for the survey was 49.9%. Of the survey respondents, 58.7% were commercial cow/calf producers and 41.3% were seedstock producers or operated a combination seedstock/commercial operation. Commercial operations had an average of 223 ± 17 cows and 13 ± 3 bulls, whereas seedstock herds (including combination herds) had slightly fewer cows (206 ± 24) and more bulls (23 ± 6). Both commercial and seedstock operators indicated that calving ease/birth weight was the most important trait used to evaluate genetic merit of breeding bulls. Only 3.8 and 4.8% of commercial and seedstock producers indicated that feed efficiency was the most important characteristic used for bull selection. Binary logistic regression models were used to predict willingness of seedstock producers to begin collecting data for the calculation of RFI on their bulls, or to predict willingness of commercial producers to begin selecting bulls based on RFI data. In response, 49.1% of commercial producers and 43.6% of seedstock producers indicated they were willing to adopt RFI as a measure of feed efficiency. These data indicate that feed efficiency was one of the traits that producers consider important; those who perceive feed efficiency as important tended to be actively involved in data collection on their herds, underpinning the notion that objective assessment was valued and used by some. Additional data collection in a future social assessment will continue to elaborate the proportion of producers who perceive feed efficiency as an increasingly important decision and management tool for beef production. PMID:20622178

Wulfhorst, J D; Ahola, J K; Kane, S L; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

2010-11-01

188

Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite  

OpenAIRE

High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...

Sumantri, I.; Murti, T. W.; Poel, A. F. B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

2012-01-01

189

Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

1980-05-16

190

The Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Bangladesh waste contributes in emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Aminoglycosides are one of the categories of antibiotics most frequently used in treating several cattle diseases at the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF), Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh. Untreated veterinary clinical healthcare waste (VCHW) of diseased cattle at CCBDF which directly disposed to surrounding may contribute to the antibiotic resistant bacteria pollution (ARB) pollution. The investigation analyses the role of VCHW of CCBDF in spreading ARB. Here we studied?1) veterinary ...

Sohel Ahmed; Anwar Hossain, M.; Badier Rahman, M.; orhan Uddin; Rokibul Islam, K. M.; Tareq Hossan; Ibrahim Hossain, M.

2013-01-01

191

An outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on an Irish dairy farm, following the consumption of raw milk  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five ...

Doran P; Carson J; Costello E; Sj, More

2009-01-01

192

PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz ...

Saeid Hosseinzadeh; Mojtaba Kafi; Mostafa Pour-Teimouri

2013-01-01

193

Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.The investigations described in this thesis were directed towards the economic optimization of the policy for replacement and insemination of dairy cows. The following three items were treated:1. The evaluation of techniques to determine the optimum policy of insemi...

Arendonk, J. A. M.

1985-01-01

194

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...

Del Rosario Gonza?lez-de-la-vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-ramirez, Vicente; Va?zquez-chagoya?n, Juan Carlos; Villa-godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

2011-01-01

195

Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle  

OpenAIRE

Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...

Maillard, R.; Grimard, B.; Chastant-maillard, S.; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-taussat, M.; Boulouis, H. -j

2006-01-01

196

Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

Sraïri, MT.

2001-01-01

197

Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.  

OpenAIRE

In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative genetic variation can not be distinguished. Developments in molecular genetics, however, have resulted in the identification of polymorphic sites in the genome, which are called genetic markers. Geneti...

Bink, M. C. A. M.

1998-01-01

198

Estimation of genotype × environment interaction for yield, health and fertility in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.The effectiveness of breeding decisions and management changes to improve health and fertility possibly interact through genotype × environment interaction (G×E). G×E is a phenomenon in which different genotypes respond differently to changes in an environment. It can consist of the following effects: heterogeneous genetic variances across environments, genetic corr...

Calus, M. P. L.

2006-01-01

199

Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

A granddaughter design was used to locate quantitative trait loci determining conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle. In this granddaughter design, consisting of 20 Holstein Friesian grandsires and 833 sons, genotypes were determined for 277 microsatellite markers covering the whole genome. Breeding values for 27 traits, regarding conformation (18), fertility (2), birth (4), workability (2), and udder health (1), were evaluated in an across-family analysis using multimarker regres...

Schrooten, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Coppieters, W.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2000-01-01

200

Profit Analysis of Small Holder Dairy Cattle Farm on Group and Individual System in Banyumas Regency  

OpenAIRE

This research is aimed to study production, technical and the profit of group and individual system on smallholder dairy cattle farm. The research has been conducted in Banyumas Regency. Data collection was done by surveying about 80 farmers, Unit Output Price Cobb-Douglas Profit Function estimation employed Ordinary Leas Square (OLS) method. The different of variable from the result of profit estimation. Profit function analysis on group system showed that manpower pay, animal age, lactation...

Sri Mastuti; Rahayu Widiyanti

2002-01-01

201

Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

Krnjaja Vesna

2013-01-01

202

Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), notably of methane (CH4), by domestic animals and possible ways of abatement have been the subject of many international studies in recent years. From all emission sources of CH4, agriculture is by far the most important source in The Netherlands. Several techniques to measure CH4 losses from farm animals exist. Most widely used among them are respiration calorimetric chambers and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. Also, there are several ways to express CH4 losses. The most widely used way is to express it as % of GEI. A less popular, but for dairy cows interesting way to express CH4 losses is as gram (or litre) per kg desired product, hence g CH4/kg of milk. Some years ago a series of research projects on the subject of CH4 losses from ruminants in The Netherlands were started, coordinated by the ROB-Agro research programme committee (www.robklimaat.nl). In a 2000 study the role that animal nutrition could play to alleviate the loss of CH4 from ruminant animals, notably from dairy cows, has been reviewed. Several Rob-Agro studies have been performed since and evaluated the effect of nutrition and feed additives on CH4 emission. Simultaneously, a research project, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board of Feedstuffs and the ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), started at the end of 2002 aiming at the quantification of CH4 emission by dairy cows by applying an integrative modelling approach. The model developed was recently used to deliver estimates for the national emission of CH4 by cows. These estimates were used in the Dutch national inventory of emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J. [Group Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bannink, A.; Zom, R. [Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

2007-02-15

203

System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.

Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

204

Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

205

Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.

Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.

2014-01-01

206

Dairy cattle grazing preference among six cultivars of perennial ryegrass  

OpenAIRE

Received for publication September 13, 2005. Six endophyte-free diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars (Abergold, Respect, Agri, Herbie, Barezane, and Barnhem) were examined in an experiment to investigate the selection behavior of grazing Holstein Friesian cows in July and September 2003 and May 2004 and to identify factors related to preference. Three groups of dairy cows (Bos taurus) were allowed to select among these six cultivars that were sown in replicates in a random...

Smit, H. J.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

2006-01-01

207

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the ...

Beauchemin, K. A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder; Rode, L. M.

2008-01-01

208

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

209

Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) rece...

Yasuo Fushimi; Mitsuhiro Takagi; Seiichi Uno; Emiko Kokushi; Masayuki Nakamura; Hiroshi Hasunuma; Urara Shinya; Eisaburo Deguchi; Johanna Fink-Gremmels

2014-01-01

210

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

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Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

Østerås O

2005-12-01

211

Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

Sivertsen T

2006-12-01

212

The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols  

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Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

Yudi Sastro

2011-05-01

213

The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

214

Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”), such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased...

Paul Boettcher

2010-01-01

215

Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle  

OpenAIRE

Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defens...

Joanna Szyda; Tomasz Strabel; Katarzyna Wojdak-Maksymiec; Kinga Mikolajczyk

2012-01-01

216

Detection and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from 40 dairy cattle herds in Quebec, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle are considered a Campylobacter reservoir in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis. Currently, very little data on the prevalence of Campylobacter in dairy herds are available in the Province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter associated with management practices in 40 dairy cattle herds as well as to characterize the bacterial genetic diversity. Fecal samples from 797 lactating cows of 40 dairy farms, water provided to animals, milk from bulk tank, and fecal matters from pens were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter. Management information was collected using a short survey and the geographical positioning was mapped for each farm. Bacterial genetic characterization was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-typing. In total, 29 farms (72.5%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. and 20 (50%) of them were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. In animals, 27.6% of the fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. C. hyointestinalis was the most prevalent species (19.3%) in herds, followed by C. jejuni (6.5%). No Campylobacter were recovered from water or milk samples. Component-fed ration systems and the lack of biosecurity measures were associated with an increased prevalence of C. jejuni on the studied farms. Campylobacter-positive farms were scattered throughout the region, and bacterial genetic heterogeneity was observed between farms and inside the herds. This study is the first one to characterize C. jejuni isolates from dairy herds in the Province of Quebec. These observations may be useful in order to elaborate risk-mitigation strategies. PMID:24617502

Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Loubier, Catherine B; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Dubuc, Jocelyn

2014-05-01

217

Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly test days were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System, which represents 97% of all Norwegian dairy cows. Besides veterinary treatments, these records also included information on daily milk yield at monthly test days. The data were stratified by parity groups (1, 2, and 3 and higher and time to conception periods (43-93 DIM and >93 DIM. The sample was selected using the following selection criteria: conception later than 42 DIM, calving season July to September, no records of veterinary treatment and the level of energy fed as concentrates between 8.69 and 12.83 MJ. The shape of the lactation curves were parameterized using a modified Wilmink-model in a mixed model analysis. Differences in the parameters of the lactation curves with different conception times were evaluated using confidence intervals. Results Lactation curves characterized by a low intercept and a steep ascending slope and a steep descending slope were associated with early conception across all parities. The peak milk yield was not associated with time of conception. Conclusions A practical application of the study results is the use of the shape of the lactation curve in future herd management. Groups of cows with impaired reproductive performance may be identified due to an unfavorable shape of the lactation curve. Monitoring lactation curves and adjusting the feeding strategy to adjust yield therefore may be useful for the improvement of reproductive performance at herd level.

Toft Nils

2011-02-01

218

Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than nulliparous 100D animals, whereas 100D parous animals tended to spend 7.6±4.5 fewer minutes per day feeding than 80D parous animals. The 2 treatments were not different in the number of lying bouts or lying-bout duration; lying time was longer for 100D on d -33, -29, and -26 and shorter on d -7, -5, and 0 than 80D. The interaction between treatment, parity, and social rank was associated with lying and feeding times. In summary, animals in the 80D treatment had a lower number of displacements from the feed bunk and spent more time lying down near parturition than 100D animals, and 80D nulliparous animals had reduced daily feeding time compared with 100D nulliparous animals. Although these results showed some potential behavior benefits of a prepartum stocking density of 80% compared with 100%, observed changes were small. However, greater stocking density cannot be recommended; more research is needed to evaluate the effects of stocking densities greater than 100% and with other breeds of cattle besides Jersey. PMID:25465554

Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

2015-01-01

219

Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller's Grains with Solubles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (pFeeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (pfeeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

2015-04-01

220

Prevalence of bovine parvovirus infection in Ontario dairy cattle.  

OpenAIRE

Studies were conducted to determine prevalence and dynamics of bovine parvovirus (BPV) infection. Dairy cows from 29 randomly selected herds in southwestern Ontario were tested twice, one year apart, for the presence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against BPV. Fifty-one percent of 1141 cows tested had BPV-HI titers > 1:32. One year later, the seroprevalence was 83% in 1131 cows from the same farms. The herd mean seroprevalence was 49% and 86% for the year-1 and year-2 samples,...

Sandals, W. C.; Povey, R. C.; Meek, A. H.

1995-01-01

221

Variation of delta(9)-desaturase activity in dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

The endogenous production of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), particularly some monounsaturated FA (%MONO) and nearly all conjugated linoleic acids, is regulated by the 9-desaturase activity. The aims of this study were to assess the variation of this enzymatic activity within lactation, across dairy breeds, and to estimate its genetic parameters. The ratios of C14:1 cis-9 to C14:0, C16:1 cis-9 to C16:0, and C18:1 cis to C18:0 were calculated from FA contents predicted b...

Soyeurt, He?le?ne; Dehareng, Fre?de?ric; Mayeres, Patrick; Bertozzi, Carlo; Gengler, Nicolas

2008-01-01

222

Short communication: limit feeding affects behavior patterns and feeding motivation of dairy heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study objective was to assess the effects of limit feeding dairy heifers on behavior patterns and feeding motivation. Ten Holstein heifers (291.6±39.2d of age, weighing 324.2±61.2kg; mean ± SD) were exposed to each of 2 dietary treatments, in a random order, over 2 successive 26-d treatment periods (14-d adaptation period and a 12-d data collection period) using a crossover design: (1) a high-forage total mixed ration (TMR), provided ad libitum (CON) and (2) a low-forage TMR, limit-fed at 2.05% body weight (LF). Heifers were fed daily at 1100h and motivation to access a low-nutritive feedstuff (straw) was assessed using a push-door apparatus at 2 time points: 3h after feed delivery (1400h) and 21h after feed delivery (0800h). The amount of weight pushed, weight pushed as percentage of body weight, and latency to access the push door were recorded on 3 different days for each heifer at each time point on each treatment. When fed CON, heifers had greater dry matter intake (12.9 vs. 7.2kg/d), greater feeding time (209.3 vs. 82.4min/d), greater ruminating time (452.2 vs. 318.3min/d), and slower rates of intake (0.06 vs. 0.09kg of dry matter/min) than when fed LF. Heifers fed LF pushed more weight as a percentage of body weight at 3h (4.5 vs. 1.9%) and 21h (9.3 vs. 2.8%) after feed delivery. At both 3 and 21h after feed delivery, latency to access the door was shorter for the LF heifers compared with the CON heifers (65 vs. 145 s). These results indicate that, in addition to decreasing feeding time, limit feeding increases motivation of heifers to access a low-nutritive feedstuff, possibly due to lack of satiety resulting from lack of physical fill or insufficient time spent foraging. PMID:25497811

Greter, A M; Miller-Cushon, E K; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

2015-02-01

223

Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

Flaviana Gottardo

2010-04-01

224

Short communication: lying behavior of lactating dairy cows is influenced by lameness especially around feeding time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lameness is considered one of the most common welfare and productive problems in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in lying behavior between moderately lame and nonlame lactating cows under commercial conditions. Data were collected from 10 free-stall commercial herds, which were feeding on exactly the same ration once daily. All lactating cows were scored for lameness according to a 1 to 5 locomotion scoring system. Only cows with a lameness score between 1 and 4 were considered in the study. In each herd, between 10 and 15 lame cows (scored as 3 or 4) were chosen, and for each lame cow, a nonlame cow (scored as 1) within the same parity and similar days in milk was also selected. Pendant data loggers were then placed on the right hind leg of each cow for 10 d to record lying behavior at 1-min intervals. In addition, the time of feed delivery was recorded in each herd on a daily basis. Total daily lying time, daily number of lying bouts, lying bout duration, laterality (side of recumbence), and lying behavior around feed delivery time were evaluated using a mixed-effects model that accounted for the fixed effects of lameness, days in milk, parity, and the interaction between parity and lameness, plus the random effects of herd. Total daily lying time (721±24.2 min/d) tended to increase with days in milk, but it was not affected by lameness or parity. Likewise, no differences were found in the number of lying bouts (9.6±0.49/d) or laterality (47±2.6% of time lying on the right side). However, the mean bout duration was longer in lame (89.3±3.89 min) compared with nonlame (80.7±3.90 min) cows. It is interesting that lame cows stood up 13 min later than nonlame cows relative to the time when the ration was delivered. In addition, lame cows lay down 19 min earlier than nonlame ones after the feed was delivered, which implies that nonlame cows spent more time standing, and probably eating, than did lame cows. It was concluded that lame cows have longer lying bouts than nonlame animals, and that lying behavior around feed delivery time may be an effective proxy to identify moderately lame cows. PMID:22939795

Yunta, C; Guasch, I; Bach, A

2012-11-01

225

Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus cattle qualification; there was <1 per cent chance this assistant would be involved with Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature. PMID:23887976

Higgins, H M; Huxley, J N; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

2013-09-14

226

Disposition of ampicillin trihydrate in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the disposition of ampicillin in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle. Ampicillin trihydrate was administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (n = 6, total of 3 doses) or every 12 h (n = 6, total of 5 doses) for 3 days. Concentrations of ampicillin were measured in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk using HPLC with ultraviolet absorption. Quantifiable ampicillin concentrations were found in plasma, milk, and lochial fluid of all cattle within 30 min, 4 h, and 4 h of administration of ampicillin trihydrate, respectively. There was no significant effect of dosing interval (every 12 vs. every 24 h) and no significant interactions between dosing interval and sampling site on the pharmacokinetic variable measured or calculated. Median peak ampicillin concentration at steady-state was significantly higher in lochial fluid (5.27 ?g/mL after q 24 h dosing) than other body fluids or tissues and significantly higher in plasma (3.11 ?g/mL) compared to milk (0.49 ?g/mL) or endometrial tissue (1.55 ?g/mL). Ampicillin trihydrate administered once daily by the i.m. route at the label dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight achieves therapeutic concentrations in the milk, lochial fluid, and endometrial tissue of healthy postpartum dairy cattle. PMID:25376083

Credille, B C; Giguère, S; Vickroy, T W; Fishman, H J; Jones, A L; Mason, M E; DiPietro, R O; Ensley, D T

2014-11-01

227

Function Analysis of Milk Yield on Small Holder Dairy Cattle in Sumbang Banyumas Region  

OpenAIRE

A survey on smallholder dairy cow had conducted in Banyumas region from November 8th 1999 up to February 8th 2000. Forty six respondents were involved in this study (as samples). Cobb - Douglas analysis was applied in this survey. From the study can be concluded that a small holder owned 3.02 heads of dairy cow (2.2 ST), 1.44 heads of lactating cow with 9.77 L/day milk production on average. The benefit of the backyard farming was RP.70.603,225 per month on average. Feeding was the biggest i...

siswadi; yusuf subagyo; Triana yuni astuti

2001-01-01

228

Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

Abdolahad Shadparvar

2010-01-01

229

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations  

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Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.

Calvin B. Parnell

2011-08-01

230

Black Quarter in crossbred dairy cattle- A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF cross bred cows (n=8 at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC and plasma biochemistry were performed on survived animals (n=6. The needle biopsy samples were subjected to culture and identification of the organism by Gram staining. Results: Two cows were died before instituting the treatment in this clinical incident. The carcasses were seen with typical bloated appearance immediately after death, laying one side with affected leg stuck out. Post-mortem of the carcasses were not been carried out. Pertinent findings of the CBC were a relative neutrophilia whilst a normal total leucocyte count and lowered Hb. Plasma biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in the mean activity of aspartate aminotransferase while alanine aminotransferase levels were within limits. Gram's staining of the inoculated culture revealed the presence of small gram-positive rods with sub terminal spores. Clinical treatment of the cases was performed with administration of heavy dose of crystalline penicillin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Clinical recoveries of the cases were good and cessation of spread within the herd confining itself as a sporadic clinical incident. Conclusion: Sporadic Clostridiosis (BQ of eight cross bred dairy cows was dealt in the present case study by including the details of its alterations in hematological parameters, Plasma biochemical parameters, observation of characteristic clinical signs of the disease and employment of empirical treatment with Penicillin. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 767-770

Umar Nazir Zahid

231

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

HR Shahbazkia

2011-12-01

232

Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

R.C.A Berber

2013-11-01

233

Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia  

OpenAIRE

Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in...

Konosonoka, I. H.; Jemeljanovs, A.; Osmane, B.; Ikauniece, D.; Gulbe, G.

2012-01-01

234

Feed intake and energy utilization in dairy cows of different breeds.  

OpenAIRE

Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the difference between returns from milk and feed costs (defined as the economic efficiency). In these two definitions of efficiency the relationship between feed intake and milk production is very impo...

Oldenbroek, J. K.

1988-01-01

235

Effect of Difference Tropical Fibrous Feeds on Feed Intake and Digestibility in Swamps Buffaloes Compared to Ongole Cattle  

OpenAIRE

This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH), King Grass (KG), Corn stover (CS), Elephan Grass (EG), Rice Straw (RS), Soja Straw (SS), Corn Straw (CST), Glyricidea (Gli), and Caliandra (Cal). The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. Th...

Bp, Widyobroto; Sps, Budhi

2010-01-01

236

Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition. PMID:24393175

White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

2014-03-01

237

Improving Carcass Quality of Indigenous Cattle of West Sumatera Fed Local Feed Resources  

OpenAIRE

Lack of adequate nutrition all year round is one of the major causes of the low productivity of ruminants. An operational policy announced by the Indonesian government to achieve the target to be self sufficient on meat demand 2010 is to develop feed and ration for beef industry based on agricultural and industrial-wastes besides exploiting biodiversity that has not been fully implemented by the farmers. A feeding trial with 12 Pesisir cattle, indigenous cattle of West Sumatera weighed 120-15...

Ningrat, R. W. S.; Khasrad

2010-01-01

238

Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part I: morphometric analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION – The study of the morphometric parameters of milk fat globules can aid in increasing our knowledge of the relationship between the number and dimensions of globules and the chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of milk and its by-products. It is well-known that the fat globules secreted from the mammary cell are of heterogeneous dimensions, and at present the process of their synthesis in the cell is not yet entirely clear (Keenan, 2001. The few studies previously carried out on livestock mainly concern dairy cattle....

P. Verità

2011-03-01

239

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011  

OpenAIRE

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respective...

Schimmer, B.; Schotten, N.; Engelen, E.; Hautvast, J. L. A.; Schneeberger, P. M.; Duijnhoven, Y. T. H. P.

2014-01-01

240

Gaseous emissions from a deep litter farming system for dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Gaseous emissions (NH3, CH4, N2O, odor) were measured from a deep litter farming system for dairy cattle in the Netherlands (barn and outdoor manure storage). On average, 13.9 kg NH3 per cow were emitted from the barn on a yearly basis. In addition, the outdoor manure storage emitted 7.9 kg NH3 per cow per year. The emission of CH4 from the barn (enteric fermentation + deep litter) was, on average, 1.3 kg day¿ 1 per cow. Emissions from the manure heap 2 weeks after being placed into the fiel...

Mosquera, J.; Hol, J. M. G.; Monteny, G. J.

2006-01-01

241

Precision in the measurement of dairy feed fractions based on particle size.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research note is to evaluate the variability of the physical measurements obtained by a separator of feeds  for dairy cows based on particle size. Fresh samples of total mixed ration (TMR) and corn silage were collected from four  dairy units and were immediately fractionated using a particle separator (NASCO®, Pennsylvania State University) com-  posed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm) and a collector on the bottom. Repeatability expressed as standar...

Mauro Spanghero

2010-01-01

242

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.

Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.

2014-02-01

243

Studies on the utilization of non-protein nitrogen and agricultural by-products as feed for native cattle in the Republic of Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)

244

Effect of Difference Tropical Fibrous Feeds on Feed Intake and Digestibility in Swamps Buffaloes Compared to Ongole Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH, King Grass (KG, Corn stover (CS, Elephan Grass (EG, Rice Straw (RS, Soja Straw (SS, Corn Straw (CST, Glyricidea (Gli, and Caliandra (Cal. The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. The results showed that DM and OM intakes were significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin ranged from the lowest (Gli of 29.55 g DMI/kg0.75 to the highest (CS of 94.88 g/kg0.75. OM intake of buffaloes was higher than that of ongole cattle supported by organic matter (OM digestibility data (61.51 vs 59.51. The digestibility of nutrient was significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. OM digestibility of SS were lowest while the highest were CST of 54.56 and 71.66% respectively. Digestibility of CP was also significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. The lowest Digestible Crude Protein was CST and the highest was PH of 44.10 and 67.99% respectively. The digestibility of NDF and ADF were significantly influenced by feed stuffs. The lowest NDF and ADF digestibilities were Cal of 40.84 and 33.19% and the highest digestibility of NDF and ADF were CST of 68.53 and 63.57%. It can be concluded that there were an important variation of feed compositions and digestibility of fibrous feeds. Buffalo were better than cattle on capacity of ingestion and utilization of fibrous feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 86-90 (2010Key Words: fibrous feeds, intake, digestibility, ongole cattle, buffaloes

BP Widyobroto

2010-05-01

245

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

2004-08-01

246

Macerated Alfalfa Forage For Beef And Dairy Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sejumlah penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menyelidiki faedah pemecahan batang alfalfa pada saat dipanen di daerah prairi terhadap lama pengeringan, sifat-sifat nutrisi pada saat disimpan dan nilai nutrisi pakan. Alfalfa pada awal pertumbuhan bunga dipanen menggunakan salah satu dari dua mesin. : mesin convensional, (CONV atau dengan mesin pemecah batang yang mempunyai empat tingkat pemecahan (LIGHT : ringan,LIGHT + : agak berat, SEVERE : berat dan SEVERE+ : sangat berat. Selama pengeringan, perlakuan LIGHT + s.d. SEVERE+ mencapai kadar Bahan Kering (BK 45 % dan 80% dalam waktu masing-masing hanya sekitar 2 jam dan 9-11 jam, dibanding CONV, yang mencapai kadar BK tersebut berturut-turut dlm waktu 6 dan 54 jam. Padet sapi pedaging mengonsumsi BK silase 13 % lebih banyak dan memperoleh pertambahan bobot badan harian 22.7% lebih berat (P<0.05 jika batang alfalfa dipecah pada saat dipanen(SEVERE, dibanding tidak (CONV , pada awal pertumbuhan selama 21 hari. Sapi perah Holstein betina awal laktasi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung silase dan hay dari alfalfa yang batangnya dipecah pada saat dipanen memproduksi susu dengan kandungan gizi yang sama disbanding batang. Namun demikian, kelompok sapi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung alfalfa yang terpecah batangnya memberikan bobot hidup yang lebih berat dan nilai kondisi tubuh yang lebih baik (P<0.05 pada saat akhir penelitian laktasi selama 14 minggu. (Animal Production 3(2: 83-90 (2001 Key Words : Alfalfa, maceration, wilting time, silage, hay, dairy, beef.

Suwarno

2001-05-01

247

Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

248

Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

Paul Boettcher

2010-01-01

249

Technical note: A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blood test for pregnancy in dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ruminant trophoblast produces pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) that can be detected in the blood of pregnant animals. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid ELISA PAG-based test for the purpose of pregnancy detection in cattle. Blood was sampled from dairy cattle (539 Holstein cows, 173 Holstein heifers, 73 Guernsey cows, 22 Guernsey heifers, and 12 Jersey heifers) and crossbred beef cattle (145 cows and 46 heifers) that were >or=25 d after insemination (range = 25 to 45 d for dairy and 29 to 56 d for beef). Cattle were examined by ultrasonography for detection of pregnancy within 2 d of blood collection. Whole blood or plasma was incubated in a polystyrene tube coated with a monoclonal PAG antibody for 15 min. The tubes were then washed and subjected to sequential incubations with a biotinylated polyclonal PAG antibody (15 min, followed by wash), a horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin solution (15 min, followed by wash), and a peroxidase substrate. Tubes were visually assessed for color after 15 min (clear solution = PAG negative, not pregnant; blue solution = PAG positive, pregnant). Total assay time was approximately 90 min. The ultrasound examination was used as the standard for pregnancy diagnosis. The sensitivity (99.8 +/- 0.2%), specificity (91.7 +/- 1.4%), and negative predictive value (99.7 +/- 0.3%) for the PAG test used in dairy cattle were similar for different breeds and for cows and heifers. The positive predictive value for the test was greater in dairy heifers than in dairy cows (96.5 +/- 1.4% vs. 90.5 +/- 1.7%, respectively). In beef cattle, the sensitivity (100%), specificity (92.3 +/- 3.0%), positive predictive value (95.0 +/- 2.0%), and negative predictive value (100%) for the PAG test were similar for cows and heifers. The accuracy of the test was not different for dairy and beef cattle. In conclusion, the rapid ELISA pregnancy test based on PAG was highly sensitive and specific for pregnancy detection in dairy and beef cattle. PMID:19620665

Green, J C; Volkmann, D H; Poock, S E; McGrath, M F; Ehrhardt, M; Moseley, A E; Lucy, M C

2009-08-01

250

Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. PMID:25607605

Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Micha?; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

2015-01-01

251

Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. PMID:25607605

Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Micha?; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

2015-01-01

252

Lameness, Activity Time-Budgets, and Estrus Expression in Dairy Cattle  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 ± 1.4 d postpartum) were monitored on a commercial dairy farm for 5 d following estrus synchronization. Overall, lame cows (n = 39) spent proportionately less...

Walker, S. L.; Smith, R. F.; Routly, J. E.; Jones, D. N.; Morris, M. J.; Dobson, H.

2008-01-01

253

Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding  

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Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Deschamps, F.C. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

1995-12-31

254

Radiation-hygiene control of imported foodstuffs and cattle feed  

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Full Text Available The increasingly frequent use of nuclear energy in peacetime, experimental nuclear and thermo-nuclear explosions, as well as accidents in nuclear plants lead to an increased and unequal distribution of radioactive substances in the environment. Mankind is in this way threatened not only by environmental irradiation, but also by consuming contaminated food and water which contain radionuclides whose concentrations are above the level of natural radioactivity. From the aspect of the veterinary profession, the most important task is to organize the protection of domestic animals and their products from radioactive contamination. This work presents the results obtained by measurements of the activity level of 137Cs in products of animal origin and cattle feed, in samples obtained from border crossings in Yugoslavia and partly in Macedonia during the period from 1990 until 1999. Examined import samples were taken from cheese, prok, and corn and the activity level of 137Cs was within the permitted legal levels - less than 1 Bq/kg. However, powdered milk was found to contain an activity level of 137Cs from 1,22-7,27 Bq/kg, and saltwater fish from 1,10-3,30 Bq/kg, so that these products could not be released for sale under the Official Gazette of the FRY, Number 53/91.

Slavata Branislava

2002-01-01

255

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

Isbandi

2012-09-01

256

Colostrogenesis during an induced lactation in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) is of major importance for the newborn calf because epitheliochorial placentae do not provide transport in utero. The formation of colostrum occurs in the later stages of pregnancy. Our objectives were to induce lactation in non-pregnant dairy cows and (i) to determine the changes of IgG in serum and mammary secretions during the induction process and (ii) to establish ?-lactalbumin (?LA) and prolactin (Prl) alterations to monitor the changing mammary epithelial tight junction status and development pattern. Estradiol-17? (E2) and progesterone (P4) injections in a 1-7 days series were combined with a 3-day injection series (day 21-23) of dexamethasone (DEX). Blood and both front quarter secretion samples were collected daily. Milking started 24 days after the start of the experiment. Results show that the mammary secretory IgG1 was increased at >7 days after the start of steroid injections and depicted a bimodal pattern reaching a high of 16 mg/ml at 21 day compared with 3.2 mg/ml in the serum. There was a small increase in secretory IgG2 that did not correlate with tight junction status, but never reached the serum concentration. The injections of DEX resulted in constriction of tight junctions. Secretory ?LA was immediately increased with steroid injections, dropped precipitously after 7 days and then began a steady increase until the start of milking. Changes in serum ?LA are related to mammary tight junctions while serum Prl gradually increased from 30 to >60 ng/ml after the steroid injections stopped. These results provide insights into the mechanisms and timing of colostrogenesis during an induced lactation protocol. PMID:24828984

Stark, A; Wellnitz, O; Dechow, C; Bruckmaier, R; Baumrucker, C

2015-04-01

257

Chronic stress, hormone profiles and estrus intensity in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to determine if lameness, a model for a natural chronic stressor, affects hormone concentrations in milk prior to estrus and/or the subsequent expression of estrus in the postpartum period. Dairy cows>20 days postpartum were scored for lameness and observed for estrus intensity using a weighted scoring system (>100 points=estrus=Day 0). Increasing lameness score was not associated with daily profiles of milk progesterone (throughout Days -18 to 0), estradiol (Days -6 to 2) or cortisol (Days -18 to 2) around estrus, maximum estradiol values or estradiol concentrations on Day 0. However, post hoc pair wise comparisons revealed that prior to estrus, severely lame cows had lower maximum progesterone concentrations compared to nonlame cows (1.3+/-0.1, 1.2+/-0.2, 0.7+/-0.1 ng/ml milk; P=0.042). Furthermore, severely lame cows expressed behavioral estrus with lower intensity (284+/-128 points, n=9) compared to moderately lame (662+/-310 points, n=9) or nonlame animals (583+/-275 points, n=18; P=0.05 and P=0.02, respectively). Resting concentrations of cortisol (Days 20-80 postpartum) did not vary between days postpartum or lameness score. The incidence of behavioral estrus was not affected by increasing lameness score, as 54.2%, 56.2% and 50.0% periods with low progesterone were associated with spontaneous estrus expression, respectively. Concluding, in this biological model of chronic stress, lameness did not affect the incidence of behavioral estrus but did reduce estrus intensity once ovarian cyclicity had resumed after calving. This reduced intensity of estrus was associated with lower maximum progesterone values prior to estrus but not abnormal daily cortisol or estradiol values in milk. PMID:18206887

Walker, S L; Smith, R F; Jones, D N; Routly, J E; Dobson, H

2008-03-01

258

Function Analysis of Milk Yield on Small Holder Dairy Cattle in Sumbang Banyumas Region  

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Full Text Available A survey on smallholder dairy cow had conducted in Banyumas region from November 8th 1999 up to February 8th 2000. Forty six respondents were involved in this study (as samples. Cobb - Douglas analysis was applied in this survey. From the study can be concluded that a small holder owned 3.02 heads of dairy cow (2.2 ST, 1.44 heads of lactating cow with 9.77 L/day milk production on average. The benefit of the backyard farming was RP.70.603,225 per month on average. Feeding was the biggest influence on benefit because feed cost was 65.81 percent from the production cost. The milk production function , by the equation: Y = 0,8958 X1?·?³³?? X2 0.049 X30.168 X40.608 The four variables can explain 92.4 percent (R²=0,924on the milk production variation .It can be suggested that to improve milk production on dairy cows can be done by intensifying labour, and improving the forage feeding. (Animal Production 3(1: 12-19 (2001

siswadi

2001-01-01

259

Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds  

OpenAIRE

A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and potential milk yield. A set of cow-states was defined by lactation number (1 to 12), calving interval (11 to 16 months), potential milk yield (15 levels) and stage of lactation (months 1 to 16). Act...

Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2001-01-01

260

Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

2015-01-01

261

Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots  

Science.gov (United States)

Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 ?-stigmastanol and epi-5 ?-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

262

Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

263

Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981. The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of “good”. (Animal Production 1(2: 63-74 (1999 Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.

Eko Hendarto

1999-05-01

264

Selection with inbreeding control in simulated young bull schemes for local dairy cattle breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local breeds are rarely subject to modern selection techniques; however, selection programs will be required if local breeds are to remain a viable livelihood option for farmers. Selection in small populations needs to take into account accurate inbreeding control. Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is efficient in controlling inbreeding and maximizes genetic gain. The current paper investigates genetic progress in simulated dairy cattle populations from 500 to 6,000 cows undergoing young bull selection schemes with OCS compared with truncation selection (TS) at an annual inbreeding rate of 0.003. Selection is carried out for a dairy trait with a base heritability of 0.3. A young bull selection scheme was used because of its simplicity in implementation. With TS, annual genetic gain from 0.111 standard deviation units with 500 cows increases rapidly to 0.145 standard deviation units with 4,000 cows. Then, genetic gain increases more slowly up to 6,000 cows. At the same inbreeding rate, OCS produces higher genetic progress than TS. Differences in genetic gain between OCS and TS vary from to 2 to 6.3%. Genetic gain is also improved by increasing the number of years that males can be used as sires of sires. When comparing OCS versus TS at different heritabilities, we observe an advantage of OCS only at high heritability, up to 8% with heritability of 0.9. By increasing the constraint on inbreeding, the difference of genetic gain between the 2 selection methods increases in favor of OCS, and the advantage at the inbreeding rate of 0.001 per generation is 6 times more than at the inbreeding rate of 0.003. Opportunities exist for selection even in dairy cattle populations of a few hundred females. In any case, selection in local breeds will most often require specific investments in infrastructure and manpower, including systems for accurate data recording and selection skills and the presence of artificial insemination and breeders organizations. A cost-benefit analysis is therefore advisable before considering the implementation of selection schemes in local dairy cattle breeds. PMID:24440254

Gandini, G; Stella, A; Del Corvo, M; Jansen, G B

2014-03-01

265

Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI?) or from the current data (REI?). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI?, 0.30 for REI?, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI?: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI?: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI? was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI?: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

2012-06-01

266

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

267

Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow  

Science.gov (United States)

To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

268

Modelling the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status assessed using an indirect bulk tank milk (BTM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dairy farms were considered exposed when the optical density ratio (ODR) exceeded the 0.3 cut-off. Two ensemble-modelling techniques, Random Forests (RF) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT), were used to obtain the spatial distribution of the probability of exposure to Fasciola hepatica using remotely sensed environmental variables (1-km spatial resolution) and interpolated values from meteorological stations as predictors. The median ODRs amounted to 0.31, 0.12, 0.54, 0.25 and 0.44 for Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and southern Sweden, respectively. Using the 0.3 threshold, 571 municipalities were categorized as positive and 429 as negative. RF was seen as capable of predicting the spatial distribution of exposure with an area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.83 (0.96 for BRT). Both models identified rainfall and temperature as the most important factors for probability of exposure. Areas of high and low exposure were identified by both models, with BRT better at discriminating between low-probability and high-probability exposure; this model may therefore be more useful in practise. Given a harmonized sampling strategy, it should be possible to generate robust spatial models for fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe to be used as input for temporal models and for the detection of deviations in baseline probability. Further research is required for model output in areas outside the eco-climatic range investigated. PMID:25826307

Ducheyne, Els; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Rinaldi, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Demeler, Janina; Brandt, Christina; De Waal, Theo; Selemetas, Nikolaos; Höglund, Johan; Kaba, Jaroslaw; Kowalczyk, Slawomir J; Hendrickx, Guy

2015-01-01

269

Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with rep period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

270

Bayesian genetic analysis of milk yield in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic determinism of 305-d milk yield and its genetic parameters were investigated in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population through Bayesian segregation analyses using a Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC method. Data included 49,709 records of 305-d milk yield collected between 1996 and 2003 from 114 dairy herds. The postulated major gene was assumed to be additive biallelic locus with Mendelian transmission probabilities and priors used for variance components were uniform. Gibbs sampling was used to generate a chain of 500,000 samples, which were used to obtain posterior means of genetic parameters. Estimated marginal posterior means ± posterior standard deviations of variance components of milk yield were 402866.28 ± 23629.97, 271256.66 ± 34477.83, 68276.83 ± 233027.62 and 1098855.75 ± 10009.52 for polygenic variance (?2u, permanent environmental variance (?2ne, major gene variance (?2G and error variance (?2e, respectively. The main finding of this paper showed the postulated major locus was not significant, since the 95% highest posterior density regions (HPDs95% of most major gene parameters included 0, and particularly for the major gene variance. Estimated transmission probabilities for the 95% highest posterior density regions (HPDs95% were overlapped. Genetic parameters of 305-d milk yield were very similar under both mixed inheritance and polygenic models. These results indicated that the genetic determinism of milk yield in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population is purely polygenic. Based on 50,000 Gibbs samples, heritability and repeatability estimates using polygenic model were h2 = 0.22 ± 0.012 and r = 0.38 ± 0.006, respectively.

Mohamed Houcine Othmane

2012-06-01

271

Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg ± 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazinposition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

272

Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions  

OpenAIRE

In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manu...

Soder, Kathy J.; Macadam, Jennifer W.; Hafla, Aimee N.

2013-01-01

273

A review of genomic selection - Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selecti [...] on (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by using marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.

E., van Marle-Köster; C., Visser; D.P., Berry.

274

Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries. PMID:18493862

Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

2009-02-01

275

The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

2013-10-18

276

Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed conversion into milk, nutrient excretion in manure and subsequent environment impacts of manure management are highly influenced by the diets that farmers feed their lactating cows (Bos taurus). On confinement-based dairy farms, determinations of diet composition are relatively straightforward because the types, amounts and nutrients contained in stored feeds are often well known. However, on grazing-based dairy farms, diet composition is more difficult to determine because forage intake during grazing must be estimated. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between (1) feed N intake (NI), milk production, milk urea N (MUN), feed N use efficiency (FNUE) and excreted manure N (ExN); and (2) between feed P intake (PI), dung P concentrations (g/kg dry matter (DM)) and excreted manure P (ExP) for grazing-based lactating cows having a very wide range of diets and milk production. An additional objective was to evaluate how well these relationships compare with similar relationships based on more direct measurement of feed-milk-manure on confinement-based dairy farms. Four dairy farms located in southeastern Australia were visited during autumn and spring, and data were collected on feed, milk and dung of 18 cows on each farm. Estimated dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture comprised 12% to 75% of total diet DMI, and the crude protein (CP) concentrations in the total diets ranged from 167 to 248 g/kg. During spring, as diet CP increased FNUE declined. Total diet DMI and NI provided the best predictors of ExN, and PI provided the most accurate prediction of ExP. These results indicated accuracy in the study's indirect estimates of pasture DMI. Likely due to high levels and great variability in dietary CP and P concentrations associated with use of diet supplements, MUN did not appear to be a good indicator of dietary CP, and P in dung was not a good indicator of dietary P. PMID:23031567

Powell, J M; Aarons, S R; Gourley, C J P

2012-10-01

277

Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

278

Dairy farm worker exposure to awkward knee posture during milking and feeding tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Musculoskeletal disorders are common among agricultural workers, particularly among dairy farm workers. Specifically, dairy farm workers have been identified as being at risk for knee osteoarthritis. Physical risk factors that may contribute to knee osteoarthritis include awkward postures of the knee, such as kneeling or squatting. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposure to awkward knee posture among dairy farm workers during milking and feeding tasks in two common types of milking facilities (stanchion and parlor). Twenty-three dairy farm workers performed milking and feeding tasks; 11 worked in a stanchion milking facility, and 12 worked in a parlor milking facility. An electrogoniometer was used to measure knee flexion during 30 min of the milking and feeding tasks. Milking in a stanchion facility results in a greater duration of exposure to awkward posture of the knee compared with milking in a parlor facility. Specifically, the percentage of time in >or=110 degrees knee flexion was significantly greater in the stanchion facility (X = 17.7; SE 4.2) than in the parlor facility (X = 0.05; SE 0.04; p feeding tasks. This study supports previous findings that working in stanchion milking facility results in greater exposure to awkward knee posture compared with working in a parlor milking facility. PMID:20521198

Nonnenmann, M W; Anton, D C; Gerr, F; Yack, H J

2010-08-01

279

Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter d...

Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

2013-01-01

280

Characteristics of peri-urban dairy herds of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)  

OpenAIRE

Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled, and 4% transhumant. In total, they held 4558 dairy cows, of which 32% lactated during the study. The prevalence of mastitis (55%) increased (p 60 cattle) had advanced breeding strategies. Bulls an...

Sidibe, M.; Boly, Hamidou; Lakouetene, T.; Leroy, Pascal; Bosma, R. H.

2004-01-01

281

Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2 are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able to demonstrate that livestock with its detailed records of family structure, genetic, and environmental factors as well as extensive trait recording can be a good model organism for research aspects related to humans.

Komisarek Jolanta

2011-03-01

282

Vaccination using phase I vaccine is effective to control Coxiella burnetii shedding in infected dairy cattle herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of the vaccination of dairy cows combined or not with antibiotics (i.e. oxytetracycline) to control Coxiella burnetii (Cb) shedding at herd level was investigated in 77 Q fever clinically affected herds. In addition to nulliparous heifers' vaccination, one out of the four following medical strategies was randomly assigned to dairy cows in each herd: vaccination (using a phase I vaccine) alone, vaccination combined with oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline alone or nothing. Their effectiveness to reduce Cb load in quarterly samples of bulk tank milk (BTM) and of pooled milk of primiparous (MP) was assessed through logistic hierarchical models. A significant reduction in Cb load was observed in herds where the vaccination of ?80% of dairy cows was implemented; whereas the use of antibiotics was uneffective. Our findings support the interest of a whole vaccination strategy and provide evidence for decreasing the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle herds. PMID:24184019

Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Guatteo, Raphaël; Lehebel, Anne; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François

2014-01-01

283

Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both clinical and subclinical. The impact of specific foot disorders on welfare was assessed by simulating the incidence and duration of foot disorders and the pain associated with them. Pain assessment was based on locomotion scores, with underlying knowledge obtained from scientific literature and experts. The results demonstrated the seriousness of the welfare impact of foot disorders. The negative welfare impact was measured on a scale from 0 to 60, where the maximum outcome represents a cow having very severe pain during the whole year. On average, each cow achieves a welfare impact score of 12, which is 20% of the maximum welfare impact score. This welfare score equals having severe pain for a period of 3 months, indicating a serious impact on welfare. On average, digital dermatitis impacts most on welfare, which is caused by a high incidence of the painful clinical stage, followed by sole hemorrhages (SoH) and interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion (IDHE). The combination of a high incidence and long duration of SoH and IDHE causes this relatively high welfare impact of foot disorders that occur mostly subclinically. On average, over 1 year, 46% of the welfare impact due to foot disorders is caused by clinical foot disorders. The fact that subclinical foot disorders contribute more or less equally to the effects on welfare as clinical ones, indicates that farmers may readily underestimate the welfare impact by a factor two. Modeling welfare impact at cow level, individual cases of foot disorders, stresses the importance of pain intensity, indicating the importance of clinical foot disorders. This study demonstrated the serious welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and pointed out the considerable impact of subclinical foot disorders. Furthermore, the approach of welfare assessment, for example herd v. cow level, influenced the ranking of foot disorders for their impact on animal welfare. Potentially, this leads to different prioritization of specific solution strategies for dairy farmers, for example, focusing on cow comfort, hygiene or preventive medical treatments, foot trimming and/or health monitoring. The findings in this study support in raising awareness about this welfare issue. PMID:22558967

Bruijnis, M R N; Beerda, B; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

2012-06-01

284

Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR beef cattle. PMID:23851991

Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

2013-08-01

285

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

He, M; Armentano, L E

2011-05-01

286

Food Security and Dairy Cow Feeding: The Necessity for a Paradigm Shift  

OpenAIRE

Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This mean...

Wilhelm Knaus

2013-01-01

287

Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, Southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examination of cohorts for GI nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes. The predominant nematodes were Cooperia spp. (51.6%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (35.7%) and Haemonchus placei (10.2%). The worm burden in tracers was mainly composed of Cooperia spp. (83%) in large-scale dairy farms, while O. radiatum was dominant (60.8%) in traditional farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and tracer worm counts were generally low and FEC peaked only in calves and weaners/yearlings. Adults and all age groups in small-scale dairy farms had very low FEC throughout the year. Pasture larval counts, FEC and tracer worm counts peaked towards the end of the rainy season. Based on conditions of the study area, farmers could save substantial amount of money through strategic treatments as opposed to the previous routine of treating the whole herd at least four times a year. Strategic treatments are recommended in calves and weaners only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Strategic treatment of adults and small-scale dairy cattle might be not necessary. Strategic treatments at the end of the rainy/early dry season (May/June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended in the district. An additional treatment against GI nematodes in calves during the mid rainy season (February/March) might be important. PMID:15710529

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Monrad, J; Kassuku, A A

2005-02-28

288

The Use of Rose Bengal Plate Test to Asses Cattle Exposure to Brucella Infection in Traditional and Smallholder Dairy Production Systems of Tanga Region of Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structu...

Emanuel Senyael Swai; Luuk Schoonman

2010-01-01

289

Production level, feed conversion efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency of dairy production systems in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system had the highest milk yield, better feed conversion efficiency, better nitrogen use efficiency, and used lower proportion of grains in the diet. Within a system, different farms had wide variations in feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency, suggesting the need to improve management practices within the system. Among the three systems, SH and CO systems require the most improvements in the management practices. PMID:24510199

Wang, Chong; Liu, Jian-Xin; Makkar, Harinder Paul Singh; Wei, Ning-bo; Xu, Qun-mei

2014-04-01

290

[Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in intra-urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis was conducted in dairy cattle farms in and around the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It reveals the potential economic and health impact of these two major zoonoses in the study area. Three farming systems were included in the study. A total of 1,420 cattle were tested for tuberculosis and 1,689 cattle were tested for brucellosis. The intradermal tuberculin test was used for tuberculosis, and the buffered antigen test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for brucellosis. The overall prevalence rate is estimated to be 6.05% for tuberculosis and 3.61% for brucellosis. The prevalence rates of tuberculosis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou were found to be high. As these two production-linked diseases are zoonotic, they could pose a major risk to human health and contribute significantly to reducing animal production and productivity in the areas covered by the study. Animals should be checked systematically prior to introducing them into dairy herds, with the ultimate goal of eradicating these two zoonoses. PMID:23520747

Boussini, H; Traoré, A; Tamboura, H H; Bessin, R; Boly, H; Ouédraogo, A

2012-12-01

291

Isolation of Coxiella burnetii from dairy cattle and ticks, and some characteristics of the isolates in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coxiella burnetii was isolated from raw milk (36/214, 16.8%) and uterus swab samples (13/61, 21.3%) originating from dairy cattle with reproductive disorders, aborted bovine fetus samples (2/4, 50%), mammary gland samples (4/50, 8%) originating from healthy dairy cattle, and tick samples (4/15, 26.7%) originating from 2 pastures. Fifty-nine strains had various degrees of pathogenicity, high (8; 13.6%), moderate (28; 47.5%) and low (23; 39%), for guinea pigs. The results of isolation suggested a high prevalence of Coxiella infection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Japan. Twelve strains (7, 2 and 3 strains from cattle, ticks and humans, respectively) and the reference Nine Mile strain of phases I and II were propagated in both yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs and Buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell cultures. Protein profiles of these strains were similar to those of the reference strain of phase I. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles of 12 strains were similar to those of the reference strain of phase I and different from those of the reference strain of phase II. The LPS profiles of 12 strains suggested that these strains are associated with an acute form of Q fever. PMID:8577279

Ho, T; Htwe, K K; Yamasaki, N; Zhang, G Q; Ogawa, M; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

1995-01-01

292

Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic prediction across breed

van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

293

Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

Daniela Souza Rajão

2014-02-01

294

Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part II: relationship to fatty acid composition  

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Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002. Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969, but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995. In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.

P. Verità

2011-03-01

295

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk for humans on dairy cattle farms, the Netherlands, 2010-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with ?50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637

Schimmer, B; Schotten, N; van Engelen, E; Hautvast, J L A; Schneeberger, P M; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

2014-03-01

296

Prevalence of mastitis among dairy cattle in Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Mastitis is a major disease that infects the mammary gland of dairy cattle and adverselyaffects the quantity and quality of milk produced by cows. This study described the socio-economiccharacteristics of herdsmen and examined the prevalence rate of mastitis in White Fulani cows in KanamLocal Government Area (LGA of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Four districts were randomlyselected from the LGA (among 10 districts and twenty herdsmen were randomly selected from each ofthese four districts, making a total of eighty herdsmen. Primary data were collected from the eightyherdsmen using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The resultsshowed that majority of the herdsmen (78% were illiterate and the prevalence rate of mastitis in thestudy area was 64%. Proper health management measures and vigorous enlightenment campaign byveterinary extension workers were recommended.

Charles O. Ebojei

2010-12-01

297

Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain.

Thomasen, JØrn Rind; SØrensen, Anders Christian

298

Diet crude protein content and sources for lactating dairy cattle / Quantidades e formas de proteína dietética para vacas em lactação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB), adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína metabolizável ( [...] PM) (NRC, 2001) com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5%) . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação) foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001). O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5) para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5) para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05) pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p Abstract in english Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP), adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable [...] protein (MP) according to NRC (2001), with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk) were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5) to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5) to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05). Milk protein content decreased (p

Hugo, Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela, Santos; Carla Maris Machado, Bittar; Paulo Sérgio, Correia; Júnio César, Martinez.

2010-02-01

299

The Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Bangladesh waste contributes in emergence and spread of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria  

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Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are one of the categories of antibiotics most frequently used in treating several cattle diseases at the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF, Savar,Dhaka,Bangladesh. Untreated veterinary clinical healthcare waste (VCHW of diseased cattle at CCBDF which directly disposed to surrounding may contribute to the antibiotic resistant bacteria pollution (ARB pollution. The investigation analyses the role of VCHW of CCBDF in spreading ARB. Here we studied?1 veterinary clinical data and antibiotics treatment history; 2 total and resistant bacteria counts in fecal samples of healthy and diseased cattles as well as VCHW of CCBDF; and 3 finally, data analysis to estimate the burden of VCHW of CCBDF in the pollution of environment with aminoglycoside antibiotics resistant bacteria. The results conclusively demonstrate the spread of 3 different aminoglycoside antibiotics, namely genta- mycin, kanamycin and streptomycin resistant bacte- ria in the surrounding environment alarmingly with high significant value (p

Sohel Ahmed

2013-02-01

300

Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

2014-11-01

301

Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed (1 at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC in the feed and urine of cattle and (2 at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS. STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM. In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.

Yasuo Fushimi

2014-11-01

302

Effect of high somatic cell counts on reproductive performance of Chilean dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high linear somatic cell counts (LNSCC > or =4.5) during early lactation on reproductive performance and to estimate their association with the risk of abortion in a population of central-southern Chilean dairy cattle. The analysis included records from a population of 157 farms and considered 1,127,405 test-day records including 101,944 lactations that began between 1997 and 2006. After data edits, the analyses of calving to first service and calving to conception intervals consisted of 88,633 and 70,877 lactations, respectively. Once controlling for significant variables, time to first breeding was 21.8 d longer in cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the first breeding compared with controls. Cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the fertile breeding had an increment in time to conception of 48.7 d and required, on average, 0.49 more services to conceive. The odds of conception at first service in cows with a high LNSCC within 30 d before [after] breeding were 0.85 (0.81 to 0.89; 95% confidence interval ) [0.82 (0.78 to 0.87; 95% confidence interval)] times the odds of conception for cows without a high LNSCC during that period. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that after correction by calving year, lactation number, and milk yield standardized to 305 d, the risk of pregnancy decreased by 44% if a high LNSCC occurred before breeding. Cows registering a high LNSCC during the first 90 d of gestation had an increased risk of abortion, being 1.22 (1.07 to 1.35; 95% confidence interval) times more likely to abort than nonaffected cows. It is concluded that subclinical mastitis, measured as LNSCC >/=4.5, had a significant effect on reproductive performance in Chilean dairy cattle. PMID:19307638

Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Villagomez-Cortes, J A; Risco, C A

2009-04-01

303

In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.

Elwakeel Eman A

2012-03-01

304

Statistical modeling of candidate gene effects on milk production traits in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major objective of dairy cattle genomic research is to identify genes underlying the variability of milk production traits that could be useful in breeding programs. The candidate gene approach provides tools for searching for causative polymorphisms affecting quantitative traits. Genes with a possible effect on milk traits in cattle can be involved in different physiological pathways, such as triglyceride synthesis [acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1)], fat secretion from the mammary epithelial tissue (butyrophilin), or entire-body energy homeostasis regulation (leptin and leptin receptor). In this study, based on data from 252 Black and White bulls from the active Polish dairy population, effects and potential interactions of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the butyrophilin, DGAT1, leptin, and leptin receptor genes were investigated. Additionally, the effect of the number of additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic effects fitted into the model on the estimates of model parameters and model selection was illustrated. Phenotypic records were daughter yield deviations for milk, fat, and protein yields, obtained from a routine national genetic evaluation. Out of all the analyzed polymorphisms, DGAT1 K232A had a much larger effect on milk traits than the other single nucleotide polymorphisms considered. Estimates of the additive genetic effect of K232A expressed as half of the difference between Lys- and Ala-encoding variants were -107.4 kg of milk, 5.4 kg of fat, and -1.6 kg of protein at first parity, as well as -120 kg of milk and 6.8 kg of fat at second parity. In terms of model selection, it was demonstrated that the modified version of Bayesian information criterion selects models with the parameterization reflecting the genetic background of the analyzed trait, while the Bayesian information criterion chooses models that are too highly parameterized. PMID:17517738

Szyda, J; Komisarek, J

2007-06-01

305

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. RESULTS: The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44 K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44 K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44 K is limited.

Jensen, Just; Su, Guosheng

2012-01-01

306

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. Results The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker and familial (pedigree effects most (on average 77.2% of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. Conclusions Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.

Jensen Just

2012-06-01

307

EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE  

OpenAIRE

Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC) cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75%) fed rice straw treated with urine (RU) (ad libitum) were divided into two groups (each four heads) to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and ...

Dartosukarno, S.; Iskandar, F.; Purnomoadi

2012-01-01

308

Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL, we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (% and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some chromosomal regions with a high density of QTL, as well as a substantial number of QTL at single chromosomal locations. To extract the most information from these published records, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain consensus on QTL location and allelic substitution effect of these QTL. This required modification and development of statistical methodologies. The meta-analysis indicated a number of consensus regions, the most striking being two distinct regions affecting milk yield on chromosome 6 at 49 cM and 87 cM explaining 4.2 and 3.6 percent of the genetic variance of milk yield, respectively. The first of these regions (near marker BM143 affects five separate milk production traits (protein yield, protein percent, fat yield, fat percent, as well as milk yield.

Raadsma Herman W

2004-03-01

309

Accuracy of pregnancy specific protein-B test for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of an ELISA for pregnancy specific protein B (PSP-B) for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle. Blood from lactating (>100 d postpartum) dairy cows (n = 738), was collected on Days 28, 30, and 35 (Day 0 = estrus), analyzed with an ELISA for PSP-B, and the cows designated as pregnant, probable, unlikely, or non-pregnant. Immediately after blood collection, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was done for pregnancy diagnosis, and the results used as a criterion standard test for comparison with PSP-B. At Day 28, 46.3% were diagnosed by TRUS as pregnant. The PSP-B sensitivity was 93.9% on Day 28 and similar on Days 30 and 35. The PSP-B specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were all >94% on Day 28 and similar on Days 30 and 35. However, the accuracy was significantly less compared to TRUS (P cows that were probably pregnant or unlikely to be pregnant was 5.6%. At Days 28, 30, and 35, percentages of uncertain samples were 8.5, 4.8, and 3.3%, respectively (P positive results were attributed to low concentrations of PSP-B in pregnant animals and to persistence of pregnant concentrations of PSP-B in females with pregnancy loss, respectively. In conclusion, PSP-B ELISA was a sensitive, specific, and accurate test for pregnancy diagnosis (relative to TRUS) at Days 28, 30, and 35 after breeding. PMID:20580072

Romano, Juan E; Larson, Jamie E

2010-10-01

310

Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

Georges Michel

2009-03-01

311

NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS  

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Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

LAVINIA MOISE

2013-12-01

312

Energy consumption in the cattle feed chain. Survey for the MJA2; Energiegebruik in de veevoerketen. Inventarisatie t.b.v. MJA2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cattle feed used in the Netherlands contributes at least 62 PJ tot the total energy consumption in the Netherlands. More than half of the energy required for the production of cattle feed takes place abroad. On average, transport is responsible for 25%, and cultivation, including the use of fertilizers, contributes 30%. The indirect energy consumption for cattle feed concentrates in the related sectors (dairy industry and meat processing industry) is more than half of the total energy consumption. This implies there are possibilities to improve the energy efficiency through measures in different parts of the cattle feed chain. Energy efficiency measures and projects can be realized as part of the second long-term energy efficiency agreements programme (MJA2), which is carried out by the Dutch agency SenterNovem. [Dutch] In Nederland gebruikt krachtvoer staat voor minimaal 62 PJ aan primaire energie. Ruim de helft van dit energiegebruik vindt buiten Nederland plaats. Transport is gemiddeld voor een kwart van het energiegebruik verantwoordelijk en teelt, inclusief kunstmestgebruik, voor 30%. Sojaschroot is de grondstof met de grootste bijdrage aan het energiebeslag van 18% (2004). Het indirecte energiegebruik via krachtvoer bedraagt voor betreffende sectoren (zuivel, vlees(verwerking)) zo ruim de helft van het totale energiegebruik. Dit betekent dat er veel ruimte is om via ketenmaatregelen aan de totale energie-efficientie te werken. De mogelijkheid om met de zogeheten 'verbredingsthema's' van MJA2 (Tweede Meerjarenafspraken Energie Efficientie) aan de slag te gaan is voor deze sectoren erg interessant, zeker omdat ook een belangrijk deel van de kosten voor rekening van voer komt. Deze inventarisatie, in opdracht van Senternovem, geeft een uitgebreid overzicht van energiegebruik in de veevoer(grondstof)ketens als handreiking naar de verschillende betrokken partijen.

Sevenster, M.N.; Hueting, D.H.

2007-02-15

313

Estimation of milk production from smallholder dairy cattle in the coastal lowlands of Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out on 92 smallholder farms in Kwale district in Coast Province of Kenya to estimate the milk yield. The effect of concentrate feed supplementation on milk yield was also evaluated. Data were collected during a one-year observational longitudinal study. Analysis was done for 371 observations following 63 calving events. The mean annual milk offtake was estimated at 2021 kg/cow. Forty-nine (77.8%) of the lactating cows were supplemented with concentrate feeds at varying rates of 0.5-3.0 kg/cow per day. Supplementary feeding of lactating cows led to a significantly higher mean daily milk yield compared to non-supplemented cows throughout the year (p offtake from supplemented cows (2195 kg/cow) was 18.6% more than offtake from non-supplemented cows, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, supplementary feeding of commercial feed concentrates was a rational management practice. It was also concluded that milk production from smallholder dairy cows in the coastal lowlands of Kenya was comparable to that from similar production systems but lower than national targets. PMID:15563028

Muraguri, G R; McLeod, A; Taylor, N

2004-10-01

314

Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n?=?4); necrotizing myocarditis (n?=?3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n?=?3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n?=?2), N. caninum (n?=?2), BVDV (n?=?1), and BoHV-1 (n?=?1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485

Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

2015-02-01

315

Incidence of post parturient utero-vaginal complications in dairy cattle: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India possesses one of the largest livestock wealth in the world which comprises of 199 million cattle, 105.3 million buffaloes, 140 million goats and 71.5 million sheep. Even though, India is the largest milk producing country in the world, productivity per animal is less than 50 % of the world average. This is mainly due to poor level of nutrition and low genetic potential for milk production and health care. With ever increasing per capita consumption of milk in the country, there is increase in the domestic demand of milk. Hence therefore, crossbreeding is receiving more importance to overcome this gap. Crossbreeding of zebu cattle with exotic bulls of high merit for increasing productivity was initiated as a part of our breeding policy. The present economic condition demands that not only the individual animal be high producer but should be profitable too. However, the improvement of milk production in past few decades has not necessarily resulted in proportionate increase in profits to dairy farmers as animals with high milk production are prone to increased risk of exposure to health disorders.

V. B. Dongre

2011-12-01

316

The Analysis of Application of Technical Management on Various Small Holder Dairy Farm Scale in Garut Regency West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.

Soni Sopiyana

2006-09-01

317

Cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and flukes (Fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes and flukes. The prevalence of GI nematodes in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle was 67%, 44.4% and 37%, respectively, with the highest faecal egg counts in calves. The overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle was 63.8%, 46.2% and 28.4%, respectively. The prevalence of amphistomes was 81.9%, 55.5% and 41.1% in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle, respectively. The high prevalence of flukes in the traditional system was attributed to communal grazing and watering management practices. Stomach flukes recovered in examined cattle at the abattoir were Calicophoron microbothrium and Cotylophoron jacksoni. About 42.1% of infected animals had both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of both GI nematodes and flukes varied greatly among villages and farms. The prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes was higher in adults (58.5%, 75.2%) than in yearlings (36.5%, 51.5%) or calves (24.9%, 47.2%). The variation in the prevalence of both GI nematodes and flukes among management and age groups within systems can be used as an entry point towards rational use of anthelmintics for each management system. More studies on seasonal transmission pattern of all these parasites are required in order to design rational, economic and locally sustainable parasite control programmes. PMID:16362610

Keyyu, J D; Kassuku, A A; Msalilwa, L P; Monrad, J; Kyvsgaard, N C

2006-01-01

318

Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3× system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01?g/mL (10 ppb) within 48h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram-positive mastitis pathogens when used according to label (once per day) in cows milked 3 times per day. PMID:25547305

Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

2015-03-01

319

Mass balance evaluation of alcohol emission from cattle feed  

Science.gov (United States)

Silage on dairy farms has been recognized as an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere, and therefore a contributor to tropospheric ozone. Considering reactivity and likely emission rates, ethanol, 1-propanol, and acetaldehyde probably make the largest contribution t...

320

Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. Results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of flukes was highest in the traditional system, moderate in the large-scale dairy system and lowest in the small-scale dairy system in most parts of the year. Adults and yearlings had the highest prevalence of flukes in all management systems throughout the year. The proportion of animals excreting amphistome eggs was always higher than that of animals excreting Fasciola eggs in all zones, villages, management systems, farms and age groups. The proportion of animals passing fluke eggs increased gradually from the early dry season and peaked at the end of the dry season and the early part of the rainy season. Strategic treatments against flukes are recommended in adults and yearlings only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Routine treatments of calves/weanlings in large-scale and traditional farms and zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle farms might be unnecessary. For a cost-effective helminth control programme in the area, strategic treatments at the beginning of the dry season (June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended. PMID:15934638

Keyyu, J D; Monrad, J; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A

2005-05-01

321

Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM.

Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav

2011-01-01

322

Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni Populations in Dairy Cattle, Wildlife, and the Environment in a Farmland Area? †  

OpenAIRE

We describe a cross-sectional study of the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in a dairy farmland environment, with the aim of elucidating the dynamics of horizontal transmission of C. jejuni genotypes among sources in the area. A collection of 327 C. jejuni isolates from cattle, wildlife, and environmental sources in a 100-km2 area of farmland in northwest England was characterized by multilocus sequence typing. A total of 91 sequence types and 18 clonal complexes were identified...

Kwan, Patrick S. L.; Barrigas, Mishele; Bolton, Frederick J.; French, Nigel P.; Gowland, Peter; Kemp, Richard; Leatherbarrow, Howard; Upton, Mathew; Fox, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

323

Accurate Estimation of Effective Population Size in the Korean Dairy Cattle Based on Linkage Disequilibrium Corrected by Genomic Relationship Matrix  

OpenAIRE

Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the fin...

Shin, Dong-hyun; Cho, Kwang-hyun; Park, Kyoung-do; Lee, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Heebal

2013-01-01

324

East Coast fever immunisation field trial in crossbred dairy cattle in Hanang and Handeni districts in northern Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n?=?167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzania's smallholder dairy sector. PMID:21823051

Lynen, Godelieve; Yrjö-Koskinen, Alma E; Bakuname, Christine; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Mlinga, Nevil; Khama, Isaac; Hanks, James; Taylor, Nick M; James, Andrew D; McKeever, Declan; Peters, Andy R; Rushton, Jonathan

2012-03-01

325

Relationship between Facilities, Conditions, Member Participation, and Founding and Maintenance of Dairy Cattle Farmers Group with Entrepreneurship of Its Member in Banyumas Regency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research was carried out for 12 weeks from May to June 2004 in Kecamatan Ajibarang, Cilongok, Kalibagor, Sokaraja and Purwokerto Timur. Aims of this research were (1 to find out level of entrepreneurship of dairy cattle farmers; (2 to find out relationship between facilities, conditions, member participation, and founding and maintenance of dairy farmers group with entrepreneurship attitude and income rate of its member. A total of 55 respondents (30% of the population was selected using random sampling. Analysis of rank spearmann was applied to observe relationship between factors. Results showed that (1 entrepreneurship of dairy cattle farmers was on moderate category; (2 members entrepreneurship has not significantly related to factors of facilities, conditions, and member participation, but it has a significant relationship to group founding and maintenance. . (Animal Production 7(2: 111-120 (2005Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Dairy cattle, Farmers group

M Nuskhi

2005-05-01

326

Antibiotics, Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 ?g/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter. Environ Health Perspect 123:337–343;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408555 PMID:25633846

McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.

2015-01-01

327

Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.2to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

328

Effect of rubber flooring on dairy cattle stepping behavior and muscle activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2×2 design, cows (n=16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract effects of standing. However, additional work, including measurements of blood flow in the leg, is needed to fully understand the biological implications of these changes. Overall, the rubber flooring tested had little effect on standing behavior. PMID:25648801

Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B

2015-04-01

329

Bovine Nutritional Needs: Digestibility of Dry and Ensiled Forages when Feeding Young Dairy Heifers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diets fed to growing animals are very important to ensure that young animals have the proper nutrients available for growth. When feeding dairy heifers, a farmer’s goal is to feed a very digestible diet that will provide nutrients to keep dairy heifers healthy and allow them to grow faster, while spending less money on feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding heifers diets containing dry or ensiled forage (haylage improved digestibility. Our hypothesis was that incorporating hay into the diet of 16-week-old dairy heifers would provide a more digestible source of nutrients. For this study, 12 heifers were randomly assigned to treatments, with 6 heifers fed hay-based diets and the other 6 heifers fed haylage-based diets. The heifers were housed in individual pens and fed individually on a daily basis for 8 days. Fecal samples were collected during the last 3 days of the feeding period. The fecal collection was achieved by collecting fecal samples from individual heifers every 6 hours over a 3-day period. Digestibility of the diets and nutrients were determined using chromic oxide as an external marker. In order to determine the digestibility of haylage or hay diets fed to the heifers, the percent of chromic oxide in feed was compared to the percent of chromic oxide in feces. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF of the feeds and feces was determined using the Ankom Fiber Analysis System. Data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter digestibility of the diets were similar between treatments (P = 0.19 and was 68.4% for the hay diet and 66.6% for the haylage diet. The NDF digestibility was also similar between diets (P = 0.21 with an NDF digestibility of 68.4% for hay and 66.1% for haylage diets. In summary, feeding dairy heifers hay-based diets did not significantly improve either the dry matter or NDF digestibility of the diets.

Shirley Nigaglioni

2012-01-01

330

Effect of the Different Feed Formulas on Physiological Changes and Milk Production Performance of Holstein-friesian Crossbred Dairy Cows  

OpenAIRE

The effect of 3 different feed formulas on some physiological changes, haematological changes, cortisol levels and milk production performance of Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows were studied during the early period of the first lactation, by Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replications and 3 treatments. Twelve cows were randomly assigned to each of the 3 feed formula groups as follows; (1) Commercial Feed as control group, (2) Cooperative-mixed Feed and (3) Cooperative-mixed Fe...

Watchara Sirikool; Surachart Teanglum; Choompol Songwicha; Tharadol Jitrajak; Hanchai Umpapol

2010-01-01

331

Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

2014-11-01

332

Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.

N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.

2014-01-01

333

Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

2013-01-01

334

Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter : application to body condition scores in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.

Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc

2012-01-01

335

Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1 the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV, and 2 prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.

Verbyla Klara

2009-11-01

336

Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator. Farmers perceived crossbreeding as success and recommended it. We conclude that farmers can realize income increase with crossbreeding. The complexity of this technology, high initial investment and the need for support services and external production inputs are probable reasons why crossbreeding uptake is low. Improving the availability of semen and/or bulls must be the top priority for breeding service providers to enable farmers to follow a breeding strategy and reach a suitable and sustainable herd performance. Access to investment capital, input supply, strong technical support and market linkages are crucial for successful crossbreeding. PMID:25230246

Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

2015-01-01

337

Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.

2014-02-01

338

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

2011-01-01

339

Do Dairy Cattle Need Protection against Weather in a Temperate Climate? A Review  

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Full Text Available Information on effects of weather conditions on milk production of dairy cows is rather scarce. Legislation exists in some countries saying when and how protection should be available for cows on pasture. Producers refer to the extra costs, and are not always convinced of the return of investment. Therefore, (reproduction variables of high producing dairy cows were reviewed in relation to weather conditions in a mild climate. The objective was to understand mechanisms cows are using for acclimatization, which might affect (reproduction, and to propose managing tools. An overall critical dry air temperature seems to be about 16 °C, with cumulative interactions from relative humidity, wind speed, radiation and rain fall. The explanation is related to the cow’s thermoregulatory physiology associated with her heat and energy balance, as a primary need. Modulating factors, such as breed, individual capacity, feed composition and farm management have to be taken into account. The effects have to be considered as important at herd level, especially in a system with year round calving, since production might be below peak production up to six months of the year. Planning of day of calving should avoid peak production during summer, since mild heat stress might counteract the expression of genetic progress for (reproduction. However, since the most important factor seems to be the level of dry air temperature, the effects will be independent of protection or not. Hence, there will be no direct return of investment moneywise, but indirectly as appreciation from society for animal welfare.

Rony Geers

2014-11-01

340

Prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents in Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease globally and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Other than human leptospirosis, little information is available on leptospirosis in domestic and feral animals in Sri Lanka. Thus, this study attempted to determine the prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents to understand the impact of the disease on public health in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Cattle and rodent samples were collected from the Yatinuwara and Udunuwara divisional secretaries in Kandy. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antileptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test. DNA was extracted from cattle urine and rodent kidney tissue samples, in which polymerase chain reaction was carried out to detect the Leptospira flaB gene. The cattle in 19 (38.8%) of the 49 farms harbored antileptospiral antibodies. Out of 113 cattle serum samples, 23 (20.3%) were positive; 17 (73.9%) and 6 (26.1%) reacted with serogroups Sejroe and Hebdomadis, respectively. Out of the 74 rodent samples, 13 (17.5%) were positive; 8 (61.5%) and 4 (30.8%) had reactions to serogroups Javanica and Icterohaemorrhagiae, respectively. Leptospiral DNA was detected in one cattle urine sample and identified as Leptospira interrogans. This study revealed a high prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle and rodents in Kandy. These animals were infected with a wide array of leptospiral serogroups, which are consistent with the research findings observed in humans in Kandy. Overall, serological data indicate that relative to rodents, cattle may be a more significant reservoir for human transmission and a greater source of potential risk to local agricultural communities. PMID:21284522

Gamage, Chandika D; Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Nwafor-Okoli, Chinyere; Kurukurusuriya, Shanika; Rajapakse, Jayanthe R P V; Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Watanabe, Haruo; Tamashiro, Hiko

2011-08-01

341

Feeding activity of cattle egrets and intermediate egrets at different stages of rice culture in Korea  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to investigate the feeding efficiency of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and the intermediateegret (Ardea intermedia) in relation to the stage of rice culture during two breeding seasons, 2006 and 2007, in Asan city,Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. Cattle egrets caught mainly small invertebrate prey (insects and spiders, 98.4%)during all stages of rice cultivation, and had a higher prey capture rate in the plowing stage (14.98 prey/min) than inother stages (2.82-3.51 ...

Yu-Seong Choi*; Sun-Sook Kim; Jeong-Chil Yoo

2010-01-01

342

Reproductive Performance of Different Crossbred and Indigenous Dairy Cattle Under Small Holder Farming Condition in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

In the study areas records of 100 dairy cows collected from small holder dairy farms out of which were 20 Friesian cross, 19 Sahiwal cross, 29 Sindhi cross, 32 indigenous dairy cows. Those dairy farm were considered to evaluate post partum heat period, dry period, services per conception (SPC), age at first calving, calving to first service, lactation period and calving interval. The average post partum heat period of Friesian cross, Sahiwal cross, Sindhi cross and indigenous dairy cows were ...

Islam, M. N.; Rahman, M. M.; Faruque, S.

2002-01-01

343

Analyzes of genome-wide association follow-up study for calving traits in dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls in the VAL dataset. Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs were found genome-wide significant. Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P? Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive.

Höglund Johanna K

2012-08-01

344

Analyzes of genome-wide association follow-up study for calving traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB) including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL) i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF) (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls) in the VAL dataset Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB) dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls) was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls) though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs) and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs) were found genome-wide significant Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P < 0.05 Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive

Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

345

Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences

346

Metano entérico de bovinos leiteiros em condições tropicais brasileiras Dairy cattle enteric methane measured in Brazilian tropical conditions  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4 pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.

Odo Primavesi

2004-03-01

347

Metano entérico de bovinos leiteiros em condições tropicais brasileiras / Dairy cattle enteric methane measured in Brazilian tropical conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4) pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6), em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da [...] raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã) adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4) emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and [...] dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI) varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.

Odo, Primavesi; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi, Frighetto; Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Magda Aparecida de, Lima; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Pedro Franklin, Barbosa.

2004-03-01

348

Analysis of biological networks and biological pathways associated with residual feed intake in beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, biological networks were reconstructed from genes and metabolites significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. The networks were then used to identify biological pathways associated with RFI. RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, which is independent of body size and growth; therefore selection for RFI is expected to result in cattle that consume less feed without adverse effects on growth rate and mature size. Although several studies have identified genes associated with RFI, the mechanisms of the biological processes are not well understood. In this study, we utilised the results obtained from two association studies, one using 24 genes and one using plasma metabolites to reconstruct biological networks associated with RFI using IPA software (Igenuity Systems). The results pointed to biological processes such as lipid and steroid biosynthesis, protein and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of gene expression through DNA transcription, protein stability and degradation. The major canonical pathways included signaling of growth hormone, Oncostatin M, insulin-like growth factor and AMP activated protein kinase, and cholesterol biosynthesis. This study provides information on potential biological mechanisms, and genes and metabolites involved in feed efficiency in beef cattle. PMID:24373146

Karisa, Brian; Moore, Stephen; Plastow, Graham

2014-04-01

349

EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE  

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Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

S. Dartosukarno

2012-03-01

350

Polymorphisms in lipogenic genes and milk fatty acid composition in Holstein dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing bovine milk fatty acid (FA) composition through selection can decrease saturated FA (SFA) consumption, improve human health and provide a means for manipulating processing properties of milk. Our study determined associations between milk FA composition and genes from triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. The GC dinucleotide allele of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1:g.10433-10434AA >GC was associated with lower palmitic acid (16:0) concentration but higher oleic (18:1 cis-9), linoleic (18:2 cis-9, cis-12) acid concentrations, and elongation index. Accordingly, the GC dinucleotide allele was associated with lower milk fat percentage and SFA concentrations but higher monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations. The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial haplotypes were associated with higher myristoleic acid (14:1 cis-9) concentration and C14 desaturation index. The 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 haplotypes were associated with higher PUFA and linoleic acid concentrations. The results of this study provide information for developing genetic tools to modify milk FA composition in dairy cattle. PMID:25304740

Nafikov, Rafael A; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Korn, Kathleen T; Noack, Kristin; Garrick, Dorian J; Koehler, Kenneth J; Minick-Bormann, Jennifer; Reecy, James M; Spurlock, Diane E; Beitz, Donald C

2014-12-01

351

Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy-five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype family. The most common subtypes were IIaA20G1R1 (27/75), IIaA22G1R1 (16/75), and IIaA18G1R1 (13/75). Subtypes IIaA21G1R1, IIaA23G1R1, IIaA16G1R1 and IIaA19G1R1 were found sporadically. Two samples contained mixed infections with IIaA21G1R1 and IIaA22G1R1. A significant association was found between subtypes and geographic location, whereas there was no relation between subtypes and presence of diarrhea. Three of the subtypes found in this study (IIaA16G1R1, IIaA18G1R1, and IIaA19G1R1) were previously identified in humans. These findings suggest that cattle could play an important role in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis to humans in Buenos Aires province. PMID:24480390

Del Coco, Valeria F; Córdoba, María A; Bilbao, Gladys; de Almeida Castro, Aldana Pinto; Basualdo, Juan A; Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica

2014-04-01

352

Evolution of the genetic variability of eight French dairy cattle breeds assessed by pedigree analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. PMID:22583325

Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E

2012-06-01

353

Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine. PMID:21968538

Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

2011-12-01

354

Profit Analysis of Small Holder Dairy Cattle Farm on Group and Individual System in Banyumas Regency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is aimed to study production, technical and the profit of group and individual system on smallholder dairy cattle farm. The research has been conducted in Banyumas Regency. Data collection was done by surveying about 80 farmers, Unit Output Price Cobb-Douglas Profit Function estimation employed Ordinary Leas Square (OLS method. The different of variable from the result of profit estimation. Profit function analysis on group system showed that manpower pay, animal age, lactation period, lactation month and farmer education have a significant influence on the profit. Whereas, on individual system influence of manpower pay, animal age and lactation month were significant on the profit. Dummy variable showed that group system has more profit than individual system, it was because on group system; (1 has cheaper price on forage and concentrate cost, (2 has higher average of production result, and (3 has higher price of milk per unit. (Animal Production 4(2: 94-100 (2002 Key words : Profit, Group and Individual System

Sri Mastuti

2002-05-01

355

Feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows as measured by time-lapse photography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of feeding behavior of ad libitum-fed lactating dairy cows by time-lapse photography revealed 68% of the total feeding activity occurred between the daylight hours of 0600 and 1800. Cows consumed an average of 12.1 meals/day, each 20.9 min in duration. Only 58% of the total defined meal time actually was spent eating, or 253.6 min/cow per day. Estimated meal size and rate of eating, as well as total daily time spent eating, were greater for cows as compared to animals with lower energy demand. Certain feeding characteristics, such as meal frequency and duration, were variable among animals, suggesting that these behaviors may be characteristics of individual cows. Results by time-lapse photography compared well with direct measurement by weigh-cell apparatus. PMID:7372905

Vasilatos, R; Wangsness, P J

1980-03-01

356

Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3% and 46.3%, respectively and there was no significant difference between'case' and 'control' farms (P > 0.05), hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants, chronic bracken-fern poisoning is more likely to be associated with the syndrome affecting animals in the study area. However, further investigation is required to confirm this observation so that appropriate control strategies can be devised. PMID:18846854

Karimuribo, E D; Swai, E S; Kyakaisho, P K

2008-06-01

357

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm infection and the associated signs in cattle, 42.5% had poor knowledge on the source of worm infection. Small-scale dairy farmers allowed only a 1-day withdraw period for milk regardless of the type of anthelmintic used and there was no milk and slaughter clearance in traditional farms. It was concluded from this study that worm control in Iringa faces serious constrains and that education of farmers and farm hands is not adequate. Moreover, poor quality control and high price of potent anthelmintics, few extension workers, low income and low education among farmers contributed significantly to erratic worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in peri-urban and rural areas. PMID:12732466

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

2003-05-15

358

Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

2013-07-01

359

On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame-  ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con-  cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat-  tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed  that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52  to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for  cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo  farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W  = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In  all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor  (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P  stepping (P  nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance  (P  that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P  criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two  parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable  and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus  less feasible. 

Giuseppe De Rosa

2010-01-01

360

AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING FEED SORTING IN TRANSITION DAIRY COWS FED GLYCEROL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC. Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS to yield long (>19 mm, medium (8 mm, short (1.18 mm, and fine particles (19 mm and reduced (P1.18 mm and fine particles (0.05 the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm. Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol. Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol. There was no response (P>0.05 of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Feeding prepartum glycerol to transition dairy cows increases the preference for the long-stem forage particles of the diet. The alternative methodology proposed in this study is more reliable than the standard methodology to determine feed sorting.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho

2010-12-01

361

Rumen Fermentation and Milk Quality of Dairy Cows Fed Complete Feed Silages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.

K. Komalasari

2014-04-01

362

Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices  

OpenAIRE

Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of ...

Duncan, A. J.; Teufel, N.; Mekonnen, K.; Singh, V. K.; Bitew, A.; Gebremedhin, B.

2013-01-01

363

Model of Small Holders Dairy Cattle Waste Pollution at Several Natural Physical and Economic Social Conditions: A Case Study in the Province of Central Java  

OpenAIRE

Most of dairy farmings in Indonesia are managed in the forms of smallholder farmings that give more attention to productivity rather than ecological concerns. The purpose of this study was to make models of dairy cattle animal waste pollution on clean water quality and degree of smell at several regions with different natural physical and economic social conditions. This study also investigated the waste management that match with the characteristics, behavior, and the attitude of the farmers...

Hs, Alikodra; Soebarinoto Saeni; Sarwanto, D.; Sanim, B.

2004-01-01

364

Relationship between Facilities, Conditions, Member Participation, and Founding and Maintenance of Dairy Cattle Farmers Group with Entrepreneurship of Its Member in Banyumas Regency  

OpenAIRE

Research was carried out for 12 weeks from May to June 2004 in Kecamatan Ajibarang, Cilongok, Kalibagor, Sokaraja and Purwokerto Timur. Aims of this research were (1) to find out level of entrepreneurship of dairy cattle farmers; (2) to find out relationship between facilities, conditions, member participation, and founding and maintenance of dairy farmers group with entrepreneurship attitude and income rate of its member. A total of 55 respondents (30% of the population) was selected using ...

Nuskhi, M.; Lucie Setiana

2005-01-01

365

Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania : clinical communication  

OpenAIRE

A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characteri...

Kyakaisho, P. K.; Swai, E. S.; Karimuribo, E. D.

2012-01-01

366

Effects of a subtropical climate on the fertility of dairy cattle in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.3±0.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studs were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs

367

Soil-plant-animal continuum in relation to macro and micro mineral status of dairy cattle in subtropical hill agro ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to study the soil-plant-animal continuum in subtropical hilly areas. Soil (n = 96), fodder (n = 96), and blood serum samples from dairy cattle (n = 120) were collected from eight districts of Mizoram, a hilly state in India. The samples were digested using diacid mixture (HNO(3):HClO(4); 10:4) and analyzed for macro (Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K) and micro (Cu, Co, Mn, Fe, and Zn) mineral concentrations. The macro and micro mineral concentrations varied among the different districts. The correlation values between fodder and cattle were significant for all the minerals studied except for P and K. The correlation value between fodder and cattle was highly significant (P dairy cattle reared under smallholder production system were deficient in most of the minerals and supplementation of required minerals is essential for optimum production. PMID:19774479

Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Brajendra; Ramesh, T

2010-04-01

368

Comparison of a classical with a highly formularized body condition scoring system for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion of the overall appearance of the cow into the assessment process counteracted these errors and led to a fair predictability of BFT with the flowchart-based BCS. This might be particularly important, if different cattle types and breeds are assessed. PMID:25076185

Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P

2014-12-01

369

Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly...

Toft Nils; Reksen Olav; Østerås Olav; Andersen Fredrik; Gröhn Yrjo T

2011-01-01

370

Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) i...

Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

2013-01-01

371

Estimation of Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for Production Traits and Somatic Cell Count for Jersey Dairy Cattle in Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0....

Edward Missanjo; Venancio Imbayarwo-Chikosi; Tinyiko Halimani

2013-01-01

372

The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle in a seasonally breeding pasture-based system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle is well recognized. But, the effect of lameness on the fertility of seasonally breeding cattle in pasture-based systems is less well characterized. This prospective cohort study of 463 cows on 1 farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand was designed to assess the effect of clinical lameness, as identified by farm staff, on the hazard of conception after the planned start-of-mating date. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying covariates was used. After controlling for the effect of parity, breed, body weight at calving, and calving-to-planned start of mating interval, the daily hazard of conception for cows identified as lame was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86) compared with non-lame cows. Lame cows took 12 d longer to get pregnant compared with their non-lame counterparts. PMID:22032371

Alawneh, J I; Laven, R A; Stevenson, M A

2011-11-01

373

Association between endometritis diagnosis using a novel intravaginal device and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endometritis reduces reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Diagnosis of endometritis is undertaken using a variety of techniques including vaginoscopy, manual examination, cytology and ultrasonography. The current studies compared a novel test device ("metricheck") that is inserted into the vagina with vaginoscopy and then examined the relationship between the metricheck test score at 35 days before the start of the seasonal breeding programme and subsequent reproductive performance. Cows (n = 191; Study 1) with a history of a peripartum disease were examined by both vaginoscopy and the metricheck device and any material viewed within the vagina (using vaginoscopy) or retrieved (by the metricheck device) was scored on a 0 (no material) to 5 (grossly purulent and with an odour) scale. Within each herd the order of examination was randomized with sequentially presented pairs of cows. All cows (n = 2793; Study 2) from nine herds were examined and scored using the metricheck device 35 days before the start of the seasonal breeding programme. All cows were pregnancy tested to determine date of conception. In Study 1, more cows were defined as infected (i.e. score > 1) following metricheck than vaginoscopic examination (60% versus 43%, respectively; P 1) was detected in 21.2% of cows examined in Study 2. The prevalence of endometritis varied among herds, declined with time postpartum (P breeding (P breeding programme (P < 0.01), had a lower first service conception rate (P < 0.01), had lower 56-day and final pregnancy rates (P < 0.05) and took longer to conceive than cows without endometritis (P < 0.05). It is concluded that examination with the metricheck device is more sensitive in detecting endometritis than vaginoscopy. Diagnosis of endometritis with the metricheck device was associated with poorer subsequent reproductive performance. PMID:16630700

McDougall, S; Macaulay, R; Compton, C

2007-05-01

374

Concordance analysis for QTL detection in dairy cattle: a case study of leg morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present availability of sequence data gives new opportunities to narrow down from QTL (quantitative trait locus) regions to causative mutations. Our objective was to decrease the number of candidate causative mutations in a QTL region. For this, a concordance analysis was applied for a leg conformation trait in dairy cattle. Several QTL were detected for which the QTL status (homozygous or heterozygous for the QTL) was inferred for each individual. Subsequently, the inferred QTL status was used in a concordance analysis to reduce the number of candidate mutations. Methods Twenty QTL for rear leg set side view were mapped using Bayes C. Marker effects estimated during QTL mapping were used to infer the QTL status for each individual. Subsequently, polymorphisms present in the QTL regions were extracted from the whole-genome sequences of 71 Holstein bulls. Only polymorphisms for which the status was concordant with the QTL status were kept as candidate causative mutations. Results QTL statuscould be inferred for 15 of the 20 QTL. The number of concordant polymorphisms differed between QTL and depended on the number of QTL statuses that could be inferred and the linkage disequilibrium in the QTL region. For some QTL, the concordance analysis was efficient and narrowed down to a limited number of candidate mutations located in one or two genes, while for other QTL a large number of genes contained concordant polymorphisms. Conclusions For regions for which the concordance analysis could be performed, we were able to reduce the number of candidate mutations. For part of the QTL, the concordant analyses narrowed QTL regions down to a limited number of genes, of which some are known for their role in limb or skeletal development in humans and mice. Mutations in these genes are good candidates for QTN (quantitative trait nucleotides) influencing rear leg set side view.

van den Berg, Irene; Rodrigue<, Sabrina

2014-01-01

375

Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination. PMID:25555228

Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

2015-03-16