The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)
A survey is given of different methods used for the estimation of the net energy lactation and the digestible crude protein content of forages (grass hay, grass silage, maize silage) as well as tuber crops (fodder beet, turnips, raw potatoes), by-products (dried sugarbeet pulp, pressed sugarbeet pulp), compound feeds and raw ingredients for dairy cattle. The following methods are discussed: --methods only based on chemical parameters: crude fibre and cell walls. --methods using rumen fluid from fistulated animals: the two step in vitro digestibility technique, the Hohenheim Futterwert test. --methods using enzyme (cellulase) preparations. --the near infrared reflection spectroscopy. The estimation of the energy value of raw ingredients is discussed more in detail. Formulas for the rapid calculation of the energy value of pulp and tubers are reported. The results obtained at the National Institute for Animal Nutrition in Melle-Gontrode with the two step in vitro digestion technique and a developed cellulase method are illustrated more in detail. PMID:1963769
Cottyn, B G; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems
Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike
The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows is directly related to milk production, thus a good food supply is extremely important to the modern, high producing dairy cow. Intake is critical for improving milk production, health, body condition and the welfare of the animals. Feeding designs can have a major effect on ...
Rioja-lang, Fiona C.
A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082
Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos
A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulting and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains
In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU?1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU?1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha?1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.
Powell, J. Mark
Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure suources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)
In this thesis I summarise and discuss the results of studies regarding motivational aspects on feeding behaviour in dairy cows. Questions addressed concern how feeding duration and rumen fill in cattle influence some behavioural variables reflecting frustrated feeding motivation, such as stereotypies and behaviours related to feed-searching, and also how rumen fill and feeding duration relate to oxytocin and cortisol. We have also investigated if operant conditioning is a useful method to me...
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)
Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129
Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A
Abstract The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins is successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged, or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards indi...
Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years. When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention in soil of C over decades to centuries appears to be similar whether the initial turnover of plant biomasses occurs in the soil, in the digestive tract of ruminants, in an anaerobic reactor or in a combination of the latter two.
Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, JØrgen E
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season. PMID:15922495
Rantavaara, A; Karhula, T; Puurunen, M; Lampinen, K; Taulavuori, T
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season.
Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Karhula, T. [Agrifood Research Finland (MTT), Economic Research, Luutnantintie 13, FIN-00410 Helsinki (Finland); Puurunen, M. [Agrifood Research Finland (MTT), Economic Research, Luutnantintie 13, FIN-00410 Helsinki (Finland); Lampinen, K. [Association of Rural Advisory Centres (ARAC) (Urheilutie 6) PL 251, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland); Taulavuori, T. [Association of Rural Advisory Centres (ARAC) (Urheilutie 6) PL 251, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland)
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season
A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423
Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H
Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)
An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable
Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.
Guilherme Amorim Franchi
Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by universities. Several nutrition conferences are held regularly in the United States that are vital for transferring knowledge to the feed industry and the producers of food; the attendance at such programs has increased about 4-fold over the past 25 yr. More emphasis on animal welfare will direct some of the areas of nutrition research. Challenges ahead include having adequate funding for conducting applied nutrition research and for training of students as scientists and for employment in the feed industry. PMID:16537963
Eastridge, M L
The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015±0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)
The investigation of a high incidence of arthritis in 21 dairy herds disclosed elevated fluorine levels in bone samples. In every herd except one, where herbage and water was contaminated by industrial fall-out, the main source of the fluorine was from mineral supplements. In a few herds, purchased cake or grain balancers contributed to the abnormal levels. Over 100 cows with arthritis had fluorine levels in the bone of between 2000 and 8000 ppm, or were in herds whose diet contained excess fluorine. Characteristic tooth lesions often confirmed the link between arthritis and fluorosis. Sixteen out of 31 samples of mineral supplement contained dangerous levels of fluorine (3000 to 13000 ppm). Grain balancers contained up to 400 ppm F, and dairy cake had levels as high as 140 ppm F. There was a statistical correlation between a high incidence of damage to peri-articular structures, resulting in debility and loss of production, and elevated bone fluorine.
This manuscript describes the negative impacts of mycotoxins on dairy cattle. Observations were made with respect to overall herd health, production, and reproductive performance of animals in affected herds.Troubleshooting dairy herds in an effortto diagnose the problems associated with the ingestion of mycotoxins is covered, as well as the possible nutritional therapies that may be employed to offset the negative effects of mycotoxins. Feed additives included in the diets of affected herds ...
The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.
Berry, D P; Coffey, M P
Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.
Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical observations, and thereby identify major nutritional and management constraints to productivity, - investigate approaches for improving productivity in dairy cattle by increasing the utilization of basal diets and other locally available fed resources, - monitor the effectiveness of nutritional and management interventions by measuring performance indicators such as body weight, body condition, milk production and reproductive performance (using radioimmunoassay and other clinical observations), - establish whether differences in productivity correlate with selected metabolic indicators in blood, which might thereby prove useful as predictors of nutritional constraints
Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
Shawn S Donkin
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
Shawn S, Donkin.
Few cases of infection with Paramphistomum spp. have been reported from cattle in Canada. During the course of a recent study of bovine fascioliasis both P. microbothrioides and P. liorchis were found in the rumen of dairy cattle slaughtered in a Quebec abattoir. Eggs in feces were distinguished on the basis of their size. Coprological analysis of 932 samples from 601 cows on 17 selected farms in Portneuf County (Quebec) revealed that 34% of the animals were infected with P. microbothrioides ...
Bouvry, M.; Rau, M. E.
In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
In a review of case records of all dairy cattle greater than or equal to 1 year of age admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine in a 4-year-period, abomasal ulcer disease was diagnosed definitively in 42 (2.17%) of cattle. In 5 additional cattle, abomasal ulcers were secondary to lymphosarcoma. The mortality rate for cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease was 50%. For cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss or diffuse peritonitis, the mortality rate was 100%. Concurrent disease conditions were present in 76% of cattle with abomasal ulcer disease. Significant associations were observed between month of diagnosis and abomasal ulcer disease, and between lactation status and ulcer disease; however, no association between age and ulcer disease was observed. In 71% of all cattle with confirmed abomasal ulcer disease, at least 1 of the following clinical signs was observed: abdominal pain, melena, or pale mucous membranes. Cattle with ulcers causing severe blood loss typically had tachycardia and were anemic. Cattle with ulcers causing peritonitis had elevated concentrations of leukocytes in the peritoneal fluid. Hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis was a common finding in cattle with each type of abomasal ulcer disease except those with ulcers causing diffuse peritonitis, when metabolic acidosis occasionally occurred. PMID:6884033
Smith, D F; Munson, L; Erb, H N
Full Text Available Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.
This research aimed to (1) evaluate feasibility business study on financial aspect dairy cattle farmers partnership government project in Banyumas Regency, (2) to study and to analyze farm management dairy cattle (cost and revenue) at the fifth year on business study dairy cattle. The study applied survey methode. Sample was collected in two step. The first step, determining location of study using purposive sampling technique. Four subregencies that accepted cows from government in 1998 were...
Hudri Aunurohman; Krismiwati Muatip
Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (<40%, 52 farms), intermediate (ILC) (40-50%, 36 farms) and high (HLC) (>50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production. (author)
Koknaroglu, Hayati [Suleyman Demirel University, Department of Animal Science, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)
Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.
Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project
The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998
The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a “ping” and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 case...
Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Radostits, Otto M.
This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported.
Whiting, T. L.; Smyrl, T.; Spearman, J. G.; Kernatz, S.
A survey was carried out on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle: 24 farms, with a total of 900 animals and distributed in four agro-ecological zones, were visited every 15 days over 18 months. Cows were fed on natural pastures as the only source of feed, and animal performance was dependent on the season and exhibited a dramatic drop in dry spells. Numeric productivity indices integrating productive performance for settler's, multipurpose, crop-livestock integrated and modern farms were 0.56, 0.74, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively. Milk productivity was higher on modem farms (6.7 L/cow per day) than in the other systems, and higher with Holstein-Friesian cows (7.7 L/cow per day) than with indigenous cattle (1.8 L/cow per day) or crossbred animals (3.7 L/cow per day). This paper speculates on the opportunity to improve the genetic potential of indigenous cattle, concomitantly with the efforts to adapt exotic cattle to a mountainous equatorial environment. PMID:17691546
Grimaud, P; Mpairwe, D; Chalimbaud, J; Messad, S; Faye, B
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value of crossbreeding is documented with special emphasis on results from a Danish crossbreeding experiment. This experiment included 1,680 cows from 3 breeds and their crosses. In general, at least 10% heterosis can be expected for total merit, mainly due to increased longevity and improvement of functional traits. A minor part of heterosis for total merit is due to heterosis for production traits. For production, there is evidence of recombination loss using continued crossbreeding programs, which does not seem to be the case for longevity and total merit. However, recombination loss should be investigated more carefully as crossbreeding is becoming more popular. A prerequisite for crossbreeding to be beneficial on a long-term basis is that genetic gain within the parental breeds not be reduced. As long as the crossbred cow population constitutes less than 50% of the whole population, and young bulls can be tested through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits
SØrensen, M K; Norberg, E
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323
Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L
Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Appliby traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.
Case records of abomasal ulcers in adult dairy cattle admitted to the University of Pennsylvania during a 12-year period were reviewed. The only records retrieved were those for cases in which the clinical signs were directly associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 6,385 adult cows admitted during the study period, 69 had clinical ulceration. Twenty-four were bleeding ulcers: 12 nontumor-associated bleeding ulcers and 12 lymphosarcoma-associated bleeding ulcers. Nontumor-associated bleeding ulcers were commonly found in young cows (7 cows less than or equal to 4 years old) that often had concurrent postparturient disease conditions. Lymphosarcoma-associated bleeding ulcers were found more commonly in older cows (10 cows greater than or equal to 6 years old) during all stages of lactation, often without concurrent diseases (8 cows). PMID:6604720
Palmer, J E; Whitlock, R H
The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...
Escherichia coli O157.H7 was found in 10 of 3570 (0.28%) faecal samples from dairy cattle in 5 of 60 herds (8.3%). Several tentative associations with manure handling and feeding management practices on dairy farms were identified. Faecal/urine slurry samples, bulk milk samples, and milk filters from dairy herds were negative for E. coli O157.H7. E. coli O157.H7 was also isolated from 10 of 1412 (0.71%) faecal samples from pastured beef cattle in 4 of 25 (16%) herds. The prevalence of E. coli...
Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Kinsel, M. L.; Tarr, P. I.; Rice, D. H.; Paros, M. G.
Calving complications have an incidence on the economic profitability of dairy herds. In the Walloon Region of Belgium, calving ease data recording is being done on voluntary basis since 2000. This allows now the implementation of a genetic evaluation of Holstein dairy cattle addressing the need of dairy breeders to select bulls in order to reduce frequency of calving problems. Calving ease scores were analyzed using univariate animal linear models, which were fitted with the genetic corr...
Vanderick, Sylvie; Troch, Thibault; Gillon, Alain; Glorieux, Ge?ry; Faux, Pierre; Gengler, Nicolas
This study aimed at better understanding of the characteristics of feeding and breeding practices smallholder farmers adopt in intensifying their dairy production. Use of hired labour for fodder gathering, growing of fodder crops and purchase of feeds increased with increasing intensification, but Bos taurus breeds did not respond to increasing feeding intensification while Bos indicus cattle responded, calving at earlier age and yielding more milk. Overall, first calving occurred at 32 month...
Bebe, B. O.; Udo, H. M. J.; Thorpe, W.
This paper reviews the importance of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows, its associations with disease and reproduction, and strategies for monitoring cows under field conditions during this critical time. Essentially all dairy cattle experience a period of insulin resistance, reduced feed intake, negative energy balance, hypocalcemia, reduced immune function, and bacterial contamination of the uterus soon before, or in the weeks after calving. One-third of dairy cows may be affected by some form of metabolic or infectious disease in early lactation. Routine, proactive actions, observations, or analysis are intended to accurately and efficiently provide early detection of problems, to provide an opportunity for investigation and intervention in order to limit the consequences and costs of health problems and reduced animal performance or welfare. Methods of early detection include monitoring of disease and culling records, feed intake, milk production, body condition, and simple metabolic tests. Methods, strategies, and interpretation of measurement of peripartum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as indicators of aspects of energy status and disease risk are reviewed. High NEFA (> 0.4 mmol/l) in the last 7 to 10 days before expected calving is associated with increased risk of displaced abomasum (DA), retained placenta, culling before 60 days in milk, and less milk production in the first 4 months of lactation. Subclinical ketosis (serum BHB >1200 to 1400 micromol/l) in the first or second week after calving is associated with increased risk of DA, metritis, clinical ketosis, endometritis, prolonged postpartum anovulation, increased severity of mastitis, and lower milk production in early lactation. There are several validated and practical tools for cow-side measurement of ketosis. PMID:20629214
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of offering dry hay of different quality and length on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (104±34 d in milk, body weight of 601±116kg, and parity of 2.38±1.69; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period encompassed 21 d divided into 5 phases: adaptation (d 1 to 14), with ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR); baseline (d 15 to 17), with ad libitum TMR; restricted feeding (d 18), with cows fed for 75% of baseline dry matter intake; challenge (d 19), with 4kg (as-fed) of finely ground wheat mixed into the digesta of each cow via rumen cannula before feeding; and recovery (d 20 to 21), with ad libitum TMR. Cows were assigned to squares by parity and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were 5.2% low-quality hay TMR (CL), 5.2% high-quality hay TMR (CH; both hays were chopped and included in TMR), TMR with 5.2% supplemental long low-quality hay (TMR+L), and TMR with 5.2% supplemental long high-quality hay (TMR+H; both hays were unprocessed and fed separate from TMR).Low-quality hay contained 8.6% crude protein and 67.1% neutral detergent fiber, whereas high-quality hay contained 14.4% crude protein and 56.2% neutral detergent fiber. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Subacute ruminal acidosis challenge decreased weighted average rumen pH from 5.72 to 5.51. Cows fed TMR+L had higher rumen pH compared with CL and TMR+H on d 19. During d 20, cows fed chopped hay had higher rumen pH than cows fed supplemental long hay. Cows fed supplemental long hay had greater dry matter intake during baseline and challenge days compared with when hay was chopped and included in the TMR. Minimal differences among diets were found for TMR particle size selection during the challenge day; however, cows had a greater preference for high-quality long hay during recovery days. Milk production averaged 38.3kg/d and did not differ among treatments. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were also not different among treatments. Milk fatty acid profile was altered by treatment. The TMR+L and CH treatments increased production of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Results of this study indicate that feeding TMR plus supplemental long hay can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of and recovery from periods of low ruminal pH. PMID:25200785
Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J
Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature. PMID:25482927
Connor, E E
Milk yield and milk chemical composition are largely affected by diet quality. Natural zeolite has been successfully used in livestock production as a feed supplement for some types and categories of domestic animals. This experiment was conducted over a period of 15 months involving Domestic Spotted dairy cattle. The test animals were assigned to three groups, each receiving different levels of supplemental zeolite. The control group comprised cows that re...
Ili? Z.; Petrovi? M.P.; Pešev S.; Stojkovi? J.; Ristanovi? B.
A case-control study was made of Norwegian dairy herds with high and low herd levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. A high proportion of the herds had a considerable number of seropositive cows, and environmental and management factors were examined for possible associations with the high serological levels of antibodies. The most important appeared to be: geographical location, red deer (Cervus elaphus) gaining access to the pastures for cattle, the observation of wild birds in the feed storage, and herds sharing common pasture with other herds of cattle. However, diagnostic tests showed that none of the animals in the case herds was infected with M a paratuberculosis. PMID:15143743
Fredriksen, B; Djønne, B; Sigurdardóttir, O; Tharaldsen, J; Nyberg, O; Jarp, J
Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)
Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268
Boichard, D; Brochard, M
Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.
J P.F. Arthur
This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...
Simenew, K.; Wondu, M.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the current status of dairy cattle farms in Ni?de, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions. In the study, representing all provinces, total 95 dairy farms selected by stratified and random sampling method was taken. The data obtained from the surveys in farms, face-to-face was used. The results showed that the large portion of dairy cattle breeders (60% were primary school graduates, the average duration of cattle breeding was 15.2 years, a significant proportion of labor (92% of family labor was used, 54%, 19%, 15%, 6%, 4% and 2% of farms reared only Holstein, Holstein and Simmental, only Brown Swiss, only Simmental, Holstein and Brown Swiss, and Simmental and Brown Swiss respectively, the average number of animals per farm was 33, the number of dairy cows was 13, the average daily milk yield per lactating cow was 16.6 kg. Farmers agreed that the most important problems were the high cost of basic inputs, concentrated feed problem, low cost of products sold, roughage and pasture problem. In addition, according to Likert scale, the most satisfied activities were reared cattle breed (3.95, breeder’s organization services (3.94, milking process (3.76, calving and maintenance duties (3.74 and recording system (3.71. Beside, for the breeders, the worst issues were satisfied that Ministry policies about cattle breeding (1.83, sales price and the market situation of animals (1.96, sales price and the market situation of the milk (2.04, provision of essential inputs such as feed and labor costs (2.06, credit and financial support (2.08.
Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE).
Ismael, Ahmed; LØvendahl, Peter
A study was conducted to understand the descriptive and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the feces of healthy lactating dairy cattle. Gram-negative enteric bacteria resistant to ampicillin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, and tetracycline were isolated from the feces of 35, 8, 5, and 42% of 213 lactating cattle on 74, 39, 9, 26, and 82% of 23 farms surveyed, respectively. Antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria accounted for 5 (florfenicol...
Sawant, Ashish A.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Straley, Beth A.; Donaldson, Sarah C.; Love, Brenda C.; Knabel, Stephen J.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.
Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome...
S. N. Dehghani,; Yavari, M.; Kafi, M.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected f [...] eed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.
J P.F., Arthur; R.M., Herd.
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963
Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. PMID:24035018
Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J
Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 current linear type traits for Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is defined as a composite trait measuring the cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50-99 were assigned by appraisers fo...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ppm. The overall hourly average ammonia emission was calculated as 56.1 g/h.barn. Ammonia concentrations increased with lower airflow rate while ammonia emissions increased with higher airflow rate. As a result of this study, there is no significant relationship observed between ammonia emission and indoor environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity.
Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment period length did not significantly modify the monensin effects in dairy cow or beef steer studies. Overall, monensin had stronger antimethanogenic effects in beef steers than dairy cows, but the effects in dairy cows could potentially be improved by dietary composition modifications and increasing the monensin dose. PMID:23769353
Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.
Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.
Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace minerals. Furthermore, opportunities for specific modulation of aspects of health, milk production, and reproduction through supplementation strategies for diets of transition dairy cows are attractive because of the known dynamics of energy metabolism, immune function, and oxidative metabolism during this timeframe. PMID:24305870
Overton, T R; Yasui, T
Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.
Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (?) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical ?, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. PMID:25602228
Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B
Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80 %), maize (18 %), bone meal (1 %) and kitchen salt (1 % NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P?>?0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P?0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation. PMID:25339431
Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike
Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria...
Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.
Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.
Kathy J. Soder
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (
E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.
Full Text Available Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID, to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to equal-diameter and variable-pitch screw feeding structure to realize the precise concentrated feed supply, equipment performance test shown that the system speed 60rpm is the most stable when feeding, feeding accuracy not less than 97.5%, to meet the feeding requirements, equipped with the best traveling speed is 0.6m/s, the response time of the system is 0.4s, the recognition rate is 96%; through one-month feeding experiment in the dairy cow farm showed that the milk production was increased, the average daily milk yield of individual cows improve 0.8kg than artificial feeding.
Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information...
Rupp, Rachel; Boichard, Didier
The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4%) in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 ...
Aba, M. A.; Bianchi, C.; Becaluba, M.; Soraci, A. L.; Confalonieri, E. O.; Tapia, O.
A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and ma...
The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)
Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.
Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.
Returned dairy products which are transferred to landfills might add to the environmental pollution. Such products have a high nutritional value for ruminants, but they should be stabilized to enable their use as cattle feed. The purpose of the current study was to examine stabilization of returned dairy products by ensiling in combinations with straw and molasses for animal feeding. Treatments included combinations of milk and cottage cheese with straw and molasses. Results indicate that such products ensile well with straw, and after 3 d of ensiling the pH decreased to around 4.0. It was necessary to supplement cottage cheese with molasses, to supply a carbohydrate source for the lactic acid fermentation. The major fermentation product was lactic acid. Percentage of ammonia N (of total N) was generally higher in the silages made with cottage cheese than in those made with milk; the highest percentage (16%) was measured in the second experiment in the silages prepared with cottage cheese and straw. The study indicates the potential of stabilizing returned dairy products for animal feeding along with straw and molasses. There may also be potential for large dairy farms, or groups of smaller farms, to ensile waste milk with straw for later use as feed. PMID:12741558
Weinberg, Z G; Ashbell, G; Chen, Y
Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP), adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable protein (MP) according to NRC (2001), with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk) were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design wi...
Hugo Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela Santos; Carla Maris Machado Bittar; Paulo Sérgio Correia; Júnio César Martinez
The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.
Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter
Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C; the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C; the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R. Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001. Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001, took more sips (p<0.001 and spent more time drinking (p<0.001 from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows’ preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.
José Daniel Cazale
Leptin is thought to play a critical role in regulating energy metabolism throughout mammalian life. In growing dairy cattle, plasma leptin has been proposed as a partial mediator of the effects of nutrition on reproductive and mammary development. However, the developmental stage at which the plane of nutrition increases plasma leptin has not been well defined. Further, it is unknown whether the onset of puberty is affected by plasma leptin concentration in dairy cattle. To investigate these questions, two studies were performed. In the first study, neonatal calves were fed a milk replacer at levels supporting an average daily gain of 570 g/d (L) or 1210 g/d (H). Weekly blood samples were obtained until slaughter at 105 kg of body weight. Plasma leptin and adiposity remained constant in the L calves, but started to increase by the third week of age in the H calves. In the second study, 3- to 5-mo-old heifers were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either calcium salts of palm fat or conjugated linoleic acids at levels sustaining an average daily gain of approximately 1.0 kg/d. Blood samples were obtained until the third postpubertal luteal phase. The fat source had no effects on growth parameters, body composition, age at puberty, or plasma leptin. Therefore, plasma leptin was reanalyzed as a function of age from start of treatment until slaughter. The plasma concentration of leptin remained nearly constant at 2.3 ng/ml until 1 yr of age, when a rise in plasma leptin became obvious. Puberty occurred with equal frequency either around 1 yr of age when plasma leptin was nearly constant or later when leptin was rising rapidly. We conclude that plasma leptin is regulated by nutrition in early postnatal life, but that a sudden increase in plasma leptin is not required for the onset of puberty in dairy cattle. PMID:14594240
Block, S S; Smith, J M; Ehrhardt, R A; Diaz, M C; Rhoads, R P; Van Amburgh, M E; Boisclair, Y R
Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350. Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.
Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of futureher than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs
Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.
Full Text Available Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome. Vulvoplasty or caslick operation was performed under local analgesia. Two third of vulva lips were apposed and the distal third was left open for ease of urination. The vulva lips had an angle of 30° from the vertical plane in 10 (37.0% cows and an angle of 45° degree in 17 (62.9% cases. The vulvoplasty was healed very well in 24 (88.8% cases and required another attempt in 3 (11.11% cases. Caslick operation described in this study helped to improve fertility and reduce repeat breeder syndrome in Holstein dairy cows treated. Artificial insemination is advised for cows with caslick operation and a week prior to delivery the vaginal fissure should be reopened manually for ease of normal parturition.
S. N. Dehghani,
To establish sustainability in the dairy industry, it is important that cows become pregnant at a biologically optimal time and at an economically profitable interval after calving. In this review, the results obtained from Holstein cattle in an experimental herd for dairy research are summarized. First, the effect of age at first calving of heifers on productive and reproductive performance was examined. A reduction in calving age from 25.1 to 21.5 months with the same growth rate during the first 12 months after birth had no negative effects on the heifers' performance. Second, the postpartum follicular dynamics of lactating cows were traced in relation to their fertility, and the emergence and fate of cystic ovarian follicles were examined. The premature initiation of ovarian activity does not always improve the fertility of cows as indicated by the number of days open. Third, the occurrences of anestrous ovulation during the early postpartum period were analyzed with reference to the frequency of reversion to anestrus. The premature onset of estrous activity also did not improve fertility, and relapse back into anestrus after the onset of the estrous cycle often occurred during the breeding period. Fourth, some indices for the occurrence of postpartum reproductive events were evaluated as an indicator of the reproductive performance of lactating cows. The milk yield and percentage of body weight loss could be indicators for reproductive events. Finally, the potency of a pedometry system for the detection of typical and atypical estrous behaviors of heifers and lactating cows was evaluated in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The location of the pedometers and housing conditions for the animals affected the estrus detection of the system. These results represent the reproductive potential of modern high-yielding dairy cattle and provide a baseline to evaluate their reproduction. PMID:21422734
Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1 % (95 % C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5 %). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5 % (25.5 to 44.7 %) and 4.4 % (1.7 to 10.9 %), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430
Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João
Recently, the size of livestock farms in Japan has been expanding and the pollution from farm wastes has become a serious problem in rural areas. Therefore it is necessary to design treatment strategies and improve the recycling of livestock manure for sustainability of agriculture in Japan. The dairy cattle waste management systems were studied at dairy farms in Aomori prefecture and in Hokkaido, Japan. The four farms, typical for the respective regions in Japan, were investigated on the basis of the land and livestock size, housing, overall farm and waste management, type of machinery and a farm labour force. A statistical comparison was made for housing, milking and waste handling systems of dairy farms. One of the waste handling strategies was aerobic slurry treatment and land irrigation of the treated liquid fraction. Such methods began to solve some of waste management problems created since 1967 in grassland farming areas of Hokkaido. The irrigation system supplies water fertiliser and organic material to land as well as shortening the spreading times. It recycles livestock resources, increases the soil fertility and rationalizes the farm management. PMID:12201128
Shima, E; Svoboda, I F; Tsutsumi, S; Ohkubo, H
The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended. PMID:23327323
Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances
Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.
Michael P. Combrink
Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.
Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400). Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%), followed by those that were???6 years old or??0.05). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%). These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region. PMID:23379717
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross- | sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) a [...] nd positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77% (417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucella species, with a variable and generally I: low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% -2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota I: from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis I: eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Massimo, Scacchia; Andrea, Di Provvido; Carla, Ippoliti; Uqbazghi, Kefle; Tesfaalem T, Sebhatu; Annarita, D' Angelo; Fabrizio, De Massis.
In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control. PMID:23718833
Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.The effectiveness of breeding decisions and management changes to improve health and fertility possibly...
Calus, M. P. L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis...
Pollari, F. L.; Wangsuphachart, V. L.; Digiacomo, R. F.; Evermann, J. F.
Milk yield and milk chemical composition are largely affected by the quality of dairy cattle diet. The chemical composition of milk is dependent upon a large number of factors, including breed, diet, care, housing system, stage of lactation, etc. Milk composition is primarily a breed-specific trait. This study was conducted over a period of 15 months, involving Serbian Spotted dairy cattle. The experimental animals were assigned to three groups, each receiv...
?okovi? R.; Ili? Z.; Petrovi? M.P.; Pešev S.; Ristanovi? B.
Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001). National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric) and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The f...
Cassandro, M.; Dal Zotto, R.; Cesarini, F.; Povinelli, M.; Marcomin, D.
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein) dairy cattle. Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk production lower than average, n = 4). From calving (Day 0) until divergence of first follicular wave, ovaries was monitored daily by ultraso...
Berber, R. C. A.; Biavatti, H. A. Z.; Fornazieri, J.; Berber, G. C. M.; Sturaro, L. G. R.; Santos, G. F.; Silva, M. A.
This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of ...
Setiyawan, H.; Si, Santoso; Mukson
Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some of the Cryptosporidium species and all four E. bieneusi genotypes identified in bovine animals in the study areas may have zoonotic potential. PMID:25541482
Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.
A total of 83 dairy cows in Loei Province (Muang) and Nong Bua Lamphu (NBL) Province, northeast Thailand were sampled three times within 6 months in 1998 and their sera were examined for antibodies to Neospora caninum at a dilution of 1:100 in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). In Muang the seroprevalence of N. caninum was 37.5% (June), 60% (August), and 62.5% (November). In NBL the prevalence was 50% (August) and 70% (November). In both areas abortions were observed between 1 and 3 months after the introduction of these cattle from another area. Nine of 14 and seven of 17 calves were descendants of seropositive dams, of which only two calves from Muang and two calves from NBL were positive for N. caninum antibodies. These findings suggest postnatal N. caninum transmission. PMID:11113552
Kashiwazaki, Y; Pholpark, S; Charoenchai, A; Polsar, C; Teeverapanya, S; Pholpark, M
CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits. The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data for both platforms
Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro
A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively....
Uehlinger, Fabienne D.; Greenwood, Spencer J.; O’handley, Ryan; Mcclure, J. Trenton; Coklin, Tatjana; Dixon, Brent R.; Boer, Melvin; Zwiers, Hester; Barkema, Herman W.
Full Text Available Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS; however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm, Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm, and Low (LTDS; ? 490 ppm. Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10 were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05. Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.
Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that offering concentrates to grazing dairy cows increased milk production per cow and decreased CH4 emissions per unit of milk produced. PMID:25173463
Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P
Full Text Available Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products.This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans. The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.
This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whe...
Abd-elall, Amr M. M.; Mohamed, Mohamed E. M.; Awadallah, Maysa A. I.
The objective of this study was to estimate direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle in total and per province using the Tier 2 methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), but adapted for tropical production systems. Dairy and beef cattle in 2010 contributed an estimated 964 Giga gram (Gg) or 72.6% of the total livestock methane emissions in South Africa. Beef cattle in extensive systems were the largest contributor (83.3%), fo...
Du Toit, C. J. L.; Meissner, H. H.; Niekerk, Willem A.
Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.
Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is the drug of choice for Fasciola hepatica control and reports of F. hepatica resistant to this drug from a wide range of geographic regions are very concerning. This study investigated the presence of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in naturally infected Australian beef and dairy cattle herds and evaluated methods of measuring the levels of resistance. Faecal egg count and coproantigen reduction tests (FECRT and CRT, respectively) were conducted on 6 South-eastern Australian beef properties and one dairy property where treatment failure by triclabendazole (TCBZ) was suspected. The CRT was conducted on an additional beef property. On each property 15 animals were treated with an oral preparation of TCBZ at the recommended dose and 15 animals remained as untreated controls. Fluke eggs in faeces were counted and coproantigen levels were measured before treatment and 21 days after treatment and in the untreated control animals. These data were evaluated using three different methods to calculate % reductions compared with controls. Resistance (<90% reduction) was detected on the dairy property using both FEC and CRT, and on 3/6 beef properties using FECRT and 4/7 beef properties using CRT. Using the FECRT, reductions of 6.1-14.1% were observed in dairy cattle and 25.9-65.5% in beef cattle. Using the CRT, reductions of 0.4-7.6% were observed in dairy cattle and 27.0-69.5% in beef cattle. Live flukes were recovered at slaughter following TCBZ treatment of 6 cattle from 3 of the beef properties, confirming the TCBZ resistance status of F. hepatica in these cattle. This is the first report of F. hepatica resistant to TCBZ in cattle in Australia and the results suggest that resistance is widespread in the South-eastern region. The CRT is shown to be a robust alternative to the FECRT for evaluation of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in cattle. PMID:24596668
Brockwell, Yvette M; Elliott, Timothy P; Anderson, Glenn R; Stanton, Rex; Spithill, Terry W; Sangster, Nicholas C
Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.
Bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition occurs in most dairy cattle. The presence of clinical endometritis beyond three weeks post partum depends on the balance between microbes, host immunity, and other environmental or animal factors. The present study tested the hypothesis that clinical endometritis is associated with animal factors, such as retained fetal membranes, assisted calving and twins, as well as fecal contamination of the environment. The association between selected risk factors and the lactational incidence risk of clinical endometritis was examined in 293 animals from four dairy herds. Multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors and quantify their relative risk (RR) and population attributable fraction (PAF) based on the proportion of cows exposed to each factor. The lactational incidence of clinical endometritis was 27% and significant risk factors for clinical endometritis were retained fetal membranes (RR=3.6), assisted calving (RR=1.7), stillbirth (RR=3.1), vulval angle (RR=1.3), primparity (RR=1.8), and male offspring (RR=1.5) but not the cleanliness of the environment or the animal. The highest PAF was associated with male offspring (0.6) so the use of sexed semen has the greatest potential to reduce the incidence of clinical endometritis. The dominant association between retained fetal membranes and clinical endometritis was supported by an expert panel of clinicians. The risk factors for clinical endometritis appear to be associated with trauma of the female genital tract and disruption of the physical barriers to infection rather than fecal contamination. PMID:20207407
Potter, Timothy J; Guitian, Javier; Fishwick, John; Gordon, Patrick J; Sheldon, I Martin
Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...
Arthur, J. P. F.; Herd, R. M.
This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268 ± 54 and 180 ± 42 µg/l, respectively). PMID:24438753
Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M
The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.
Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)
The dairy farming systems of Western Europe are based on a simple feeding system composed of grazed and preserved grass, maize silage and concentrates in variable proportions. There is, nevertheless, a great diversity of feeding strategies between dairy farms. Over 5 years, we studied the direct and delayed effects of four feeding strategies on the lactation and reproduction performances of Holstein and Normande dairy cows. The four feeding strategies (denoted Hh, Hl, Lh and Ll) correspond to...
Delaby, Luc; Faverdin, Philippe; Michel, Guillaume; Disenhaus, Catherine; Peyraud, Jean Louis
Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs
Literature data on utilization of dietary N were analyzed by using meta-analytic procedures for growing milk-fed dairy calves and weaned dairy heifers. The objective was to statistically assess N utilization and excretion in growing dairy cattle when dietary N was altered in otherwise balanced rations at various stages of growth. Studies meeting the selection criteria included data from 16 published papers encompassing 94 distinct observations made on 217 animals. Of these, 6 studied calves were fed milk or milk protein-based milk replacer [milk-fed; 30 to 81 kg of body weight (BW)] with 37 different dietary treatments, and 10 experiments studied heifers receiving diets based on forage, concentrates, or a combination of forage and concentrates (weaned; 56 to 472 kg of BW) with 57 different dietary treatments. Mixed model and fixed effect regression analyses were used to evaluate responses to additional dietary N. True digestibility of dietary N was 100.4% for milk-fed calves and 96.4% for weaned heifers, with corresponding basal fecal N excretion values of 3.05 and 6.51 g of N/kg of dry matter intake. Urinary N (g of N/kg of BW(0.75)) was consistently greater for milk-fed calves, but the response to increasing N intake was parallel to the response for weaned heifers. Whether using a mixed model approach or a fixed effect approach to account for metabolizable energy intake, BW, and dry matter intake, milk-fed calves retained more N per kilogram of BW(0.75) than weaned heifers. However, marginal efficiency of N utilization responded as a continuous function of BW, as opposed to a bimodal response associated with diet type. Gross N efficiency (GNE) responded quadratically to N intake and was greater for milk-fed calves than for weaned heifers. Linear and quadratic coefficients of this function did not differ between diet types, indicating that the response in gross N efficiency to additional N intake was not different between diet groups; rather, the absolute level obtainable differed. Dietary CP concentrations of 18.9% for milk-fed calves and 14.2% for weaned heifers were found to maximize GNE; 22.5% MJ of crude protein/MJ of ME was found to maximize GNE for both groups. Equations are discussed relative to the requirements to replace basal N losses and efficiency of N utilization. PMID:18349245
Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J
Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle.
The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin.
There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253. There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583 between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456. Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414 and composite (R2 = 0.262 milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008 and udder half samples (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054 and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R2 = -0.379.
Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection differential in sires was 3.12 units of phenotypic standard deviation. Dams in first generation were randomly chosen. Data of progenies of 38 selected bulls were recorded in growing, pregnant and lactati...
Korver, S.; Eekelen, E. A. M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G. J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab
Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).
Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintater fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase
Cattle waste was mixed with green maize and wheat bhoosa in the ratio of 2:2:1 respectively, on a fresh weight basis. The premix was enriched with urea (0, 0.5 and 1%) and molasses (0, 1 and 2%) prior to ensiling in miniature silos. The urea adversely affected the wastage characteristics, while molasses had a beneficial effect on the fermentation process. For nutritional studies, the wastage was prepared in stainless steel tower silos. Cattle waste, green oat and wheat bhoosa (2:2:1) were enriched with urea (0.5%) and molasses (5%). After fermentation for 2 months the wastage was fed to sheep by replacing oat hay at three levels-0, 50 and 100%. The digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, cell contents, hemicellulose and soluble ash decreased with increasing levels of wastage in the diet. The nitrogen balance was found to be reduced with increased level of wastage in the ration.
Jakhmola, R.C.; Kamra, D.N.; Singh, R.; Pathak, N.N.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of rearing calves by restricted suckling (RS) compared to artificial rearing (AR) in dual purpose and dairy breed cattle in Mexico, milked once or three times a day, respectively. The following parameters were recorded during the first eight weeks after calving: social, abnormal and general behaviours and weight gain of Zebu crossbred and dairy calves; and milk yield, milk composition and udder health in the Zebu crossbred dams and udder h...
Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extract...
Hr, Shahbazkia; Jafari Dehkordi, A.; Ronagh, N.
Small dairy cattle populations are challenged because of the low reliabilities of genomic predictions. We have demonstrated that low reliabilities of genomic predictions sets limitations for moving towards more genetic efficient breeding schemes with more intensive use of young bulls without progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces that increase reliabilities of genomic predictions.
Thomasen, JØrn Rind; Egger-Danner, C
Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.
Cheryl M.E. McCrindle
Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124
Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M
The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly. PMID:24698359
Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S
Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth – death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.
In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance. PMID:22843215
Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition. PMID:23031687
Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.
Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne; Moyes, Kasey
Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprev...
Elbers, A. R.; Loeffen, W. L. A.; Quak, J.; Boer-luijtze, E. A.; Spek, A. N.; Bouwstra, R. J.; Maas, H. A.; Spierenburg, M. A. H.; Kluijver, E. P.; Schaik, G.; Poel, W. H. M.
Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.
Full Text Available n this research the status of dairy cattle husbandry in Tekirda? and it’s share in the Agriculture of Tekirda? was investigated. This research was conducted in the content of determining several animal science and morphometric traits of dairy cattle enterprises in Tekirda? province. The research material was consisted of data obtained from operations determined according to the registration data of provincial agricultural directory sampled in the villages where has the relatively more quantitatively and qualitatively intensified dairy cattle farms of the distiches of central of Tekirda?, Malkara, Muratl?, ?arköy, Çerkezköy, Marmara Ere?lisi. This study was completed with 267 breeders in Tekirda?. Questionnaire included many question in order to determine the general structure of farms, Status of Education of farmers, number of Animals of operations, level of feeding, conditions of barns, sort of milking practises, quality of milk obtained, status of breeding organizations and expectation of farmer regarding support measures to animal husbandry in Tekirda?. Data obtained showed that %59, %29, % 11 and %1 of farmers graduated elementary school, university, middle school and illiteracy respectively. 75 % of enter prises has number of animal of (1-15 head, where as %25 and %5 has (15-40 and 40-100 animals. 96 % of farmer had neither cooling tank nor fixed or milking in parlour. In addition investigation aimed to determine the morphometric trait of total 98 head of animal (67 female and 31 male aged 30 month for female and 10 months for male raised in five different location as villages of central district of Tekirda? and districts of Muratl? , Çerkezköy , ?arköy ,Marmara .Ere?lisi. The average wither height of females (30 month age was 138,71 ± 1,44, the average rump height was 144,28 ± 2,03, the average chest girth was 166,71 ± 3,71 and the average body length was 149,14 ± 2,19 investigated in Tekirda? (center.
The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)
The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences between the treatments. There was a linear effect of heating time on the DVE and a cubic effect on the OEB value. Our results showed that heating changed chemical profiles, protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio, and protein subfractions; decreased rumen-degradable protein and rumen-degradable dry matter; and increased potential nutrient supply to dairy cattle. The protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio had a significant positive correlation with total intestinally absorbed protein supply and negative correlation with degraded protein balance.
Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D
Effect of subclinical Trypanosoma evansi infection on the milk yield of newly introduced Holstein Friesian dairy cattle were investigated. Five hundred pregnant heifers were introduced in Loei Province, northeast Thailand and a total of 168 blood samples were collected at 20 farms during 6 visits over 2 years. Trypanosomes were found in cattle in June and November 1996, after which the parasite was rarely seen. On the other hand, the infection prevalences by antigen-detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) were around 40% from the first sampling through October 1997; then, antigenemic cattle decreased to 20% by June 1998. Milk yields of the cattle with detectable parasitaemia in June and November 1996 were significantly lower than those of the non-infected cattle by Student's t-test. Similarly, the milk yields of Ag-ELISA positive cattle were lower than those of negative cattle at every sampling and significant differences were observed during the first year and in February, 1998 (tested by 2-way ANOVA; T. evansi status and herd as factors). This study suggested that subclinical trypanosomosis caused decrease in milk yield of newly introduced dairy. PMID:10532320
Pholpark, S; Pholpark, M; Polsar, C; Charoenchai, A; Paengpassa, Y; Kashiwazaki, Y
Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)
Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality® protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.
Ana Luiza Mendonça Pinto
Background: The objective of this study was to obtain baseline antimicrobial susceptibility data on E. coli isolated from feces of US dairy cows to the 4th generation cephalosporins (4-GC) cefquinome and cefepime. Cefquinome is licensed for therapeutic use in cattle and swine in Europe, and cefepime...
Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P
R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.
Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.
Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.
...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed include: (i) The entire...otherwise effectively excluded from animal feed; (iv) Mechanically separated...Cattle materials prohibited in animal feed do not include: (A)...
The occurrence of mycotoxins in 140 maize silages, 120 grass silages and 30 wheat silages produced in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2004 was determined using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) multi-method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 ?g kg(-1) in 72% of maize and 10% of wheat silages. Average DON concentrations were 854 and 621 ?g kg(-1), respectively, and maximum concentrations 3142 and 1165 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Zearalenone was detected above the LOQ of 25 ?g kg(-1) in 49% of maize and 6% of grass silages. Average zearalenone concentrations were 174 and 93 ?g kg(-1), respectively, and maximum concentrations 943 and 308 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The incidences and average concentrations of DON and zearalenone in maize silage were highest in 2004. The incidence of other mycotoxins was low: fumonisin B1 and 15-acetyl-DON were detected in 1.4 and 5% of maize silages, respectively, and roquefortin C in 0.8% of grass silages. None of the silages contained aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, T2-toxin, HT2-toxin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, ergotamine, penicillinic acid, or mycophenolic acid. This study demonstrates that maize silage is an important source of DON and zearalenone in the diet of dairy cattle. Since the carryover of these mycotoxins into milk is negligible, their occurrence in feed is not considered to be of significant concern with respect to the safety of dairy products for consumers. Potential implications for animal health are discussed. PMID:24784536
Driehuis, F; Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Te Giffel, M C
The objectives were to predict aminoa cid (AA) profiles of intestinally delivered protein in California high group (i.e., lactating but not yet confirmed to be in calf) dairy cattle fed contemporary rations using three metabolic models of dairy cows. This was done in order to predict limiting AA in dairy rations to determine if there was enough consistency in the nutrient profiles of these rations to support a common ruminally protected (RP) AA package to supplement similar rations. Nutrient ...
Swanepoel, Nadia; Robinson, P. H.; Erasmus, L. J.
Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......
The diets fed to growing animals are very important to ensure that young animals have the proper nutrients available for growth. When feeding dairy heifers, a farmer’s goal is to feed a very digestible diet that will provide nutrients to keep dairy heifers healthy and allow them to grow faster, while spending less money on feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding heifers diets containing dry or ensiled forage (haylage) improved digestibility. Our hypothesis was tha...
Full Text Available This study investigated the role of dairy cooperatives as an information source in solving problems at dairy cattle production in the district of Osmaniye, Turkey. Local animal husbandry activities were investigated by collecting data using a questionnaire with owners of 112 dairy farms. The results showed that 31.3% of farmers were members of dairy cooperatives. Only 8.7% of farmers used cooperatives as a main source when they need information about solving their problems and getting information about new technologies. Most respondents (94.6% evaluated the timeliness of advisory services provided by cooperative as poor. Almost 90 (89.3% of farmers wanted better access to improved dairy technologies through cooperatives. The most significant problems in adopting innovations related to dairy cattle production were lack of access to relevant knowledge and financial problems in applying these innovations. It was also found that the farmers preferred veterinarians and other farmers as sources of knowledge and that the role of the cooperatives as knowledge sources was quite low.
Dilek Bostan Budak
Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children. PMID:23941354
Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee
Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multidisciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favorable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low-producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian, and one southern European countries. Data were also collected on feeding, body condition score (BCS) and weight change, parasitism, and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay, and Venezuela, globulin levels were high in > 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Vietnam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay, 49% of cows had high globulin levels at two to three months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela, high beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation, whereas change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were low in only small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and, hence, did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over winter had high BHB and low albumin values, suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries a majority of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. PMID:10081792
Whitaker, D A; Goodger, W J; Garcia, M; Perera, B M; Wittwer, F
Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and inffor early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)
Perchlorate has been detected in U.S. milk samples from many different states. Applying data from a recently reported 9-week experiment in which 16 Holstein dairy cows were administered perchlorate allowed us to derive an equation for the dose-response relationship between perchlorate concentrations in feed/drinking water and its appearance in milk. Examination of background concentrations of perchlorate in the total mixed ration (TMR) fed in addition to the variable dose supplied to treated cows as a ruminal infusate revealed that cows receive significant and variable exposure to perchlorate from the TMR. Weekly examination of the TMR disclosed that a change in ingredients midway through the experiment caused a significant (78%) change in TMR perchlorate concentration. Analyses of the ingredients comprising the TMR revealed that 41.9% of the perchlorate came from corn silage, 22.9% came from alfalfa hay and 11.7% was supplied by sudan grass. Finally, USDA Food and Nutrition Survey data on fluid milk consumption were used to predict potential human exposure from milk that contained concentrations of perchlorate observed in our previous dosing study. The study suggests that reducing perchlorate concentration in dairy feed may reduce perchlorate concentrations in milk as well as the potential to reduce human exposure to perchlorate in milk. PMID:17892259
Rice, Clifford P; Baldwin Vi, Ransom L; Abbott, Linda C; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Capuco, Anthony V; Le, Anh; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Bannerman, Douglas D; Hare, William R; Paape, Max J; McCarty, Gregory W; Kauf, Adam C; Sadeghi, Ali M; Starr, James L; McConnell, Laura L; Van Tassell, Curtis P
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.
A. O. Rini
Full Text Available A study was conducted on 440 dairy cattle in six organized dairy farms in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India using tuberculin skin testing (TST to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. An overall animal prevalence of 14.31% (63 of 440 animals and a farm prevalence of 16.67% (1 of 6 farms were recorded in 6 dairy farms by the TST. Of the six dairy farms studied, one of the farms showed prevalence of 34.42% (63/183. There were also marked differences in the prevalence of the disease within the breeds (pure bred and their crosses and the different age groups. The findings were also corroborated with isolation of the organism and IFN-ã assay. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in one farm under study signifies potential health risk. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 408-413
Recent improvement in technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. The goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for feed intake. Weaning weight (WWT), postweaning BW gain (PGN), subcutaneous fat depth (SQF), and feed intake data were accumulated by the American Angus Association from a variety of cooperators and augmented with data collected for routine genetic evaluation of Angus cattle. The feed intake data were standardized (SFI, mean 0 and variance 1) within contemporary groups. Numbers of animals with observed phenotypes were 18,169, 7,107, 4,976, and 4,215 for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. The 4-generation pedigree for animals with records contained 45,120 individuals. (Co)variance components were estimated with ASREML, fitting a 4-trait animal model with fixed contemporary groups for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI. Heritability estimates were 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.04, and 0.42 ± 0.05 for direct genetic effects on WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. Genetic correlations of WWT and PGN with SFI were 0.40 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.10, respectively, and indicate their value as indicator traits in predicting EPD for feed intake. The genetic correlation of SQF and SFI was not different from 0. For all animals with a recorded feed intake phenotype, accuracy of their EPD for feed intake ranged from 0.16 to 0.64 with a mean of 0.26. However, 9,075 animals had an accuracy that was equal to or exceeded 0.2 for their feed intake EPD. Postanalysis calculation of measures of efficiency EPD was pursued. This work demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a national cattle evaluation for feed intake using indicator traits to reduce opportunity for selection bias, increase accuracy of the evaluation for a substantial number of animals, and ultimately facilitate calculation of selection indexes including feed intake. PMID:21764839
MacNeil, M D; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Northcutt, S L
In modern high-yielding dairy herds fertility is of major economic importance. In order to gain maximum profit, calving intervals should not exceed 365 days. The achievement of a 365-day calving interval requires an early resumption of ovarian activity, an excellent oestrus detection, and a high first-service conception rate. Especially the inability to detect oestrus and to mate the cows by 60 to 80 days after calving is a common problem among dairy farmers nowadays. In this article a review is given about the occurrence, causes, treatment and prevention of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cows. PMID:10077812
Opsomer, G; de Kruif, A
This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC), 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC) and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA). Pr...
Isbandi; Mukson; Setiadi, A.; Sudjadmogo; Santosa, S. I.
Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis
Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.
Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.
Amr M.M. Abd-Elall
This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies. PMID:20391378
Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during...
Parnell, Calvin B.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Saqib Mukhtar; Faulkner, William B.; Md Saidul Borhan; Russell McGee
Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.
Yahya Tuncay Tuna
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. [...
Claudia C., Tozato; Michele, Lunardi; Alice F., Alfieri; Rodrigo A.A., Otonel; Giovana W., Di Santis; Brígida K. de, Alcântara; Selwyn A., Headley; Amauri A., Alfieri.
Full Text Available Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10 included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14 included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7 included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.
Z. Bani Ismail
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the risk factors associated to the summer mastitis in 27 dairy cattle from Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso. From the 408 dairy cows evaluated, 62 animals (15.19% were positive to mastitis with 13.32% of prevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed more influence on mastitis occurrence due to the use of the milking machine OR: 20.64 (p: 0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle
R. R. Lima
Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Tw...
Doran P; Carson J; Costello E; Sj, More
Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz ...
Saeid Hosseinzadeh; Mojtaba Kafi; Mostafa Pour-Teimouri
The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production traits. PMID:21755686
Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W
In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.The investigations described in this thesis were directed towards the economic optimization of the policy for replacement and insemination of dairy cows. The following three items were treated:1. The evaluation of techniques to determine the optimum policy of insemi...
Arendonk, J. A. M.
Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weter weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)
Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with...
Yeruham, I.; Perl, S.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resis...
Valentina Bianchini; Mario Luini; Laura Borella; Antonio Parisi; Romie Jonas; Sonja Kittl; Peter Kuhnert
The aim of the study was to quantify the ammonia concentrations from the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns and to compare it with threshold limits recommended in our country and in other countries. The significance of interactions between ammonia concentration and air temperature, relative humidity and air flow velocity was also determined. Two measurements were done in each barn, in the morning and in the evening of the same day. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant ...
Silvana Popescu; Cristin Borda; Cristina Iuliana El Mahdy; Eva Andrea Diugan; Carmen Dana Sandru; Marina Spinu; Razvan Stefan
Abstract According to the general approach developed in this paper, dynamic management of genetic variability in selected populations of dairy cattle is carried out for three simultaneous purposes: procreation of young bulls to be further progeny-tested, use of service bulls already selected and approval of recently progeny-tested bulls for use. At each step, the objective is to minimize the average pairwise relationship coefficient in the future population born from programmed mati...
Briend Michèle; Moureaux Sophie; Colleau Jean-Jacques; Bechu Jérôme
A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for fast and easy screening of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle. Species of major mycoplasma strains [Mycoplasma (M.) bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens and M. canadense] in cultured milk samples were detected by this simplified PCR-based method as well as a standard PCR technique. The minimum concentration limit for detecting mycoplasma by the simplified PCR was estimated to...
Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Takehiro; Obayashi, Tetsu; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Ito, Nobuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka; Nagahata, Hajime
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.
Contrary to the majority of European countries, antiparasiticides are on prescription only in Denmark, thus treatment requires a proper diagnosis made by a veterinarian, and therefore relies on adequate diagnostic procedures. This study was performed to obtain information about presence of Eimeria spp. in Danish cattle herds, and secondly to improve awareness and proper diagnosis of these infections. Collection of samples was initiated in October 2010 from dairy herds with ?50 c...
Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M. D.
In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides...
Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.
In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction. PMID:18394682
Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J
Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...
Del Rosario Gonza?lez-de-la-vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-ramirez, Vicente; Va?zquez-chagoya?n, Juan Carlos; Villa-godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.
The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as contributing factors and emphasis is placed on the effects of nutrition and metabolism. Reviewing the experimental work, distinction is made between the research into gas production in the abomasum and hyp...
Winden, Steven; Kuiper, Rogier
The experiment involved observations of 2,514 Holstein-Friesian cows to determine the effects of environmental factors (cow’s age, calving season, weight and sex of calves, housing system) and genetic factors on gestation length in dairy cattle and the correlation between gestation length and other reproductive traits (calving ease, stillbirth rates and placental expulsion). Genetic parameters were estimated based on the sires of calved cows (indirect effect) and the sires of live-born calv...
Nogalski, Zenon; Piwczyn?ski, Dariusz
A granddaughter design was used to locate quantitative trait loci determining conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle. In this granddaughter design, consisting of 20 Holstein Friesian grandsires and 833 sons, genotypes were determined for 277 microsatellite markers covering the whole genome. Breeding values for 27 traits, regarding conformation (18), fertility (2), birth (4), workability (2), and udder health (1), were evaluated in an across-family analysis using multimarker regres...
Schrooten, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Coppieters, W.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
Alternative selection strategies were evaluated for breeding for carcass quality, body weight, and milk traits in dairy cattle. The efficiency of different alternatives was evaluated by comparing predicted genetic responses in individual traits as well as in the aggregate genotype. Particular interest was paid to the loss of response with indices that partially or totally ignored genetic correlations between traits, reflecting selection on single-trait evaluations. Simplified indices gave alm...
Liinamo, A. E.; Arendonk, J. A. M.
Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran) by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. A Signi...
Jamal Gharekhani; Hamidreza Haddadzadeh; Alireza Bahonar
The objective of this study was to apply the processing of technology for rice straw as cattle feed at smallholder beef cattle farms in supporting the integration between beef cattle and paddy. The study was conducted in smallholder beef cattle farmer groups, in Makkawaru Village, Mattirobulu Sub-District, Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. In general, the application of rice straw fermentation technology showed an increase in the quality of rice straw. Quality of crude protein of fe...
Syamsu, Jasmal A.
Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.
Van Tassel CP.
Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The result showed that ROI (20.44% is higher than deposit interest rate (8%. The length of payback period (3 years and 6 months is faster than maximum period that was predicted by the company (5 years. NPV (Rp. 45,565,585.16 and BC Ratio (1.42 have positive and higher value (more than 1, respectively. IRR’s value (38.45% is higher than credit interest rate (18%. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the company is feasible enough to continue the operational project. (Animal Production 7(1: 40-45 (2005 Key Words : Financial analysis, farming company, dairy cattle
To establish the basis for implementation of a producer education program, a social assessment of the willingness and barriers to adoption of a measure of feed efficiency in beef cattle [residual feed intake (RFI)] was conducted. A 35-question mailed survey was sent to 1,888 producers acquired from the stratified random sample of the Idaho Cattle Association member list (n = 488), Red Angus Association of America member list (n = 2,208), and Red Angus Association of America bull buyer list (n = 5,325). The adjusted response rate for the survey was 49.9%. Of the survey respondents, 58.7% were commercial cow/calf producers and 41.3% were seedstock producers or operated a combination seedstock/commercial operation. Commercial operations had an average of 223 ± 17 cows and 13 ± 3 bulls, whereas seedstock herds (including combination herds) had slightly fewer cows (206 ± 24) and more bulls (23 ± 6). Both commercial and seedstock operators indicated that calving ease/birth weight was the most important trait used to evaluate genetic merit of breeding bulls. Only 3.8 and 4.8% of commercial and seedstock producers indicated that feed efficiency was the most important characteristic used for bull selection. Binary logistic regression models were used to predict willingness of seedstock producers to begin collecting data for the calculation of RFI on their bulls, or to predict willingness of commercial producers to begin selecting bulls based on RFI data. In response, 49.1% of commercial producers and 43.6% of seedstock producers indicated they were willing to adopt RFI as a measure of feed efficiency. These data indicate that feed efficiency was one of the traits that producers consider important; those who perceive feed efficiency as important tended to be actively involved in data collection on their herds, underpinning the notion that objective assessment was valued and used by some. Additional data collection in a future social assessment will continue to elaborate the proportion of producers who perceive feed efficiency as an increasingly important decision and management tool for beef production. PMID:20622178
Wulfhorst, J D; Ahola, J K; Kane, S L; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A
High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...
Sumantri, I.; Murti, T. W.; Poel, A. F. B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.
In order to obtain information on the potential transport of ingested Pu and to gain additional information on Pu deposition patterns in ruminants, a series of metabolism studies with dairy cows were conducted. Results are presented on tissue uptake following oral 238Pu administration. (CH)
Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity. Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004. This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37. Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2% had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%, Kitui (9.6%, Thika (3.9%, and Machakos (2.9%. Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities, then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.
Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran) by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary. PMID:25568710
Gharekhani, Jamal; Haddadzadeh, Hamidreza; Bahonar, Alireza
Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053
Genetic parameters and breeding values (EBV) were estimated for milking speed in Brown Swiss cattle. Owner recorded milking speed scores on a 1 to 8 scale (low to high) were collected by the Brown Swiss Association as part of its linear type appraisal program starting in 2004. Data were 6,483 record...
The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.
Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter
Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90, 120, time of parturition and 2 weeks after parturition the blood samples was collected from jugular vein and then serum was separated. In all serum samples the haptoglobin serum level was measured by biochemical kit. The average of serum haptoglobin did not have meaningful difference between two groups on day of zero but in care group there was decrease in serum haptoglobin after the day of 30 and on the day of 30 the difference between two groups was not significant (p = 0.066. On the day of 90 and 120 this difference was significant and it was p = 0.037 and p = 0.04, respectively. On parturition time, haptoglobin serum level increased in two groups and this increase in treatment group was less than control group which was nonsignificant (p = 0.003 and 2 weeks after parturition it was low in treatment group which was not significant (p = 0.586. The changes of serum haptoglobin in control group was not meaningful on different times but in treatment group the serum changes was significant on days of zero and 30 (p = 0.04. The mean serum level of this protein in affected cattle to parturition diseases was greater than healthy carrel in two groups. Final result was that adding monensin to pregnant cattle diet led to decrease of haptoglobin serum level, 4 month before parturition.
This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.
Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.
van der Fels-Klerx, I.
The blood and urine tests for assessing the animal health and metabolic status in high yielding herds are an integral part of herd management. The objective of this study was the testing of different blood and urine parameters in regard to daily fluctuations. This investigation is supposed to include factors that influence blood and urine parameters during the course of the day. Blood and urine samples, were collected in a conventional dairy farm from March 2010 to February 2011. Based on the...
Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted to measure ground reaction forces (GRF) of dairy cows (n = 9) performing various locomotory behaviors on a nonslippery rubber-covered concrete floor. The RCOF was determined as the ratio of the ho...
Tol, P. P. J.; Metz, J. H. M.; Noordhuizen-stassen, E. N.; Back, W.; Braam, C. R.
The behavior of groups of housed, lactating dairy cattle was observed over 2 winter housing periods on 20 organic farms and 20 conventional farms in the United Kingdom. Three methods were used: (1) 6 video-clips of 10 min duration were captured of cows feeding at sections of the feed-bunk face during the peak feeding period (0 to 90 min) and continuously observed for aggressive interactions among cows; (2) the proportion of cows at the feed-bunk face was scanned every 15 min for 4.5h to include the peak feeding period (0 to 255 min); and (3) all nonfeeding behaviors were scanned every 15 min for 2.5h after the peak feeding period (120 to 255 min). The latter scans were analyzed post hoc for measures of cow comfort (freestall farms only). Management and health data were collected on each farm. On farms with open-fronted feed-bunk faces, a greater number of aggressive interactions occurred at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding time on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic = 36.3 ± 4.4; conventional = 29.1 ± 3.0). Higher proportions of cows were at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic=0.58 ± 0.04; conventional=0.48 ± 0.03). Housing type (freestall versus straw pen) explained most differences in postfeeding behavior (proportion of ruminating cow in alleyways: freestalls=0.16±0.06 vs. straw-pen=0.08 ± 0.03), with few differences between organic and conventional herds. On freestall farms, the proportions of cows on organic farms lying down postfeeding was smaller than in conventional herds (organic=0.38 ± 0.09 vs. conventional=0.43 ± 0.07). Differences in behavior around peak feeding time could be associated with the reduction in food "quality" on organic farms compared with the energy requirement of the cows, with cows on organic farms being highly motivated to feed. A correlation was observed between farms that had high amounts of lying and farms that had high lameness prevalence (R(2)=55.3), suggesting a complex relationship between comfort and pain. Overall, the behavior of dairy cows on organic farms was not different from that of conventionally reared cows, and the results suggest that most behavioral welfare problems relating to housing could be alleviated by management practices. PMID:21257042
Langford, F M; Rutherford, K M D; Sherwood, L; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B; Haskell, M J
We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...
Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure performed on farm to ensure safer handling of cattle. A questionnaire on disbudding-related opinions and practices was sent to 1,000 Finnish dairy producers (response rate: 45%). Attitudes toward disbudding were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale and attitudes to cattle pain scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Principal components analysis was used to assess the loadings, which were further tested for differences between producer gender and housing systems with Mann-Whitney U-tests, and between herd milk yield, herd size, and age and work experience of producers with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Four main factors were identified: factor I ("taking disbudding pain seriously"), factor II ("sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases"), factor III ("ready to medicate calves myself"), and factor IV ("pro horns"). Female producers took disbudding pain more seriously, were more sensitive to pain caused to cattle by diseases, and were more ready to medicate disbudded calves than male producers. Producers with tie-stalls favored horns over producers with freestalls. Male producers with tie-stalls were sensitive to cattle pain and preferred horns over male producers with freestalls. Female producers with freestalls were more ready to medicate calves, but did not prefer horns more than female producers with tie-stalls. Taking disbudding seriously correlated with sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases. Producers with low-milk-yielding herds were less willing to medicate calves and more willing to keep cattle with horns than producers with higher-yielding herds. Older producers were more sensitive to cattle pain than middle-aged and younger producers. No effect was established for taking disbudding pain seriously: the pro-horn factor was associated with work experience, age, and herd size. Women rated pain higher and were more positive toward pain medication for animals than men. Maintaining horns are more important for producers with tie-stalls than for those with freestalls. PMID:24054284
Wikman, I; Hokkanen, A-H; Pastell, M; Kauppinen, T; Valros, A; Hänninen, L
Cattle with high feed efficiencies (designated “efficient”) produce less methane gas than those with low feed efficiencies (designated “inefficient”); however, the role of the methane producers in such difference is unknown. This study investigated whether the structures and populations of methanogens in the rumen were associated with differences in cattle feed efficiencies by using culture-independent methods. Two 16S rRNA libraries were constructed using ?800-bp amplicons generate...
Zhou, Mi; Hernandez-sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo
Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage
This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. All calves received the MIX diet in wk 9 to 11 and, subsequently, a novel total mixed ration (TMR; containing 40.5% corn silage, 22.0% haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of feed sorting in the weeks after transition to a common ration. PMID:23684036
Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Full Text Available Repeat breeding (RB, defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both herd and individual cow level. The effects of risk factors on the herd frequency of RB were studied by logistic regression. A generalised linear mixed model with logit link, and accounting for herd-level variation by including a random effect of herd, was used to study the individual animal risk for RB. The total percentage of RB animals was 10.1% and the median proportion of RB animals in the herds studied was 7.5%. The proportion of RB cows in herds increased with decreased herd sizes with decreased average days from calving to first AI, with increased herd incidence of clinical mastitis, with decreased reproductive disorders, and increased other diseases treated by a veterinarian. On animal level, the risk factors were milk yield, lactation number, difficult calving or dystocia, season at first service, days in milk at first service and veterinary treatment for reproductive disorders before the first service. Cows being an RB animal in the previous lactation had a higher risk of becoming an RB animal also in the present lactation. In conclusion our results show that the repeat breeding syndrome is a multifactorial problem involving a number of extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic factors coupled to the individual animal.
Full Text Available Over the years, role and strength of dairy goat is increasing in Barani Tract of Punjab. The bread and butter needs of poor and small household are largely depends on livestock specifically on the dairy goats. The 80 percent livestock management activities are mostly depends upon women; therefore under the experimentation of feed supplementation mainly women's were included as research partners. The women perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feed supplement were collected by using a well structured questionnaire. A total of 62 women's were included in the sample size. Results indicated that 95.08% women's had shown their complete satisfaction from the feed supplements given to dairy goats. A large majority of the respondents (98.31 were in view that the given feed supplements had increased their milk productivity. Overall, 82.69 % sample women had pointed out that their knowledge about goat management has increased with this experimentation. Both empirical and experimental data shows a significant increase in milk yield i.e 520 ml and 562 ml respectively. The marginal rate of returns from milk was about 246.38 % that also revealed economic significance of the feed supplementation intervention to the dairy goats. The sustainability of feed supplementation has serious problem, about 67.27 percent respondents were in view that feed supplementation to dairy goat will not sustain due to resources poorness, availability and relatively importance of goat in household economy.
M. Azeem Khan
Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission. PMID:24893024
Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to quantify the ammonia concentrations from the air of dairy cattle tie-stall barns and to compare it with threshold limits recommended in our country and in other countries. The significance of interactions between ammonia concentration and air temperature, relative humidity and air flow velocity was also determined. Two measurements were done in each barn, in the morning and in the evening of the same day. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated significant differences between the two measurements only for the ammonia concentrations in the air (p=0.003. In 20% of the investigated cattle barns the ammonia concentration was bellow 10 ppm, in 20% of these it varied from 11 and 26 ppm while in 60% of these, it exceeded 26 ppm. There was a significantly positive correlation between relative humidity and ammonia concentration in all barns, both for the morning (r=0.57, p=0.008 and for the evening (r=0.64, p=0.002 measurements. Assuming an ammonia threshold limit of 26 ppm, 60% of the dairy cattle barns in this study exceeded this recommended limit, indicating a need for improved housing conditions in the future.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288
Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud
Full Text Available Productivity of ruminant animals during the dry season, on smallholder farms in Kenya, is constraint by low availability and poor quality of the feeds (crop residues. The current study was conducted on smallholder farms in Nakuru, Koibatek and Trans Nzoia Districts in 2003 over 2-year period preceded by a 6 - week feed survey. The objective of the feed survey was to inventorize feed resources available on smallholder resource - poor farms and delineate factors limiting their optimization for enhanced dairy production. Other farm bio-data including livestock population (ruminants and poultry and structure per farm were also collected. This paper confines its discussion on both qualitative and quantitative information gathered during the survey with special focus on poultry manure vis a vis litter and compares the results with reports other research works. During the survey, composite samples of feed resources being utilized at farm level (including poultry manure were collected for dry matter (DM determination and proximate analysis at the National Animal Husbandry Research Centre (NAHRC/Naivasha/Kenya. Results obtained, strongly indicated that, poultry manure has great potential for use during the dry season as a source of rumen degradable protein or non-protein nitrogen (NPN in ruminant nutrition. Though heterogeneity was observed in the many reports reviewed and compared with the current study, the general consensus was that poultry manure/litter contains high level of crude protein (15 to 38%, fiber (11 - 52%, and rich in minerals (Ca: 0.81 - 6.13%; P: 0.56 - 3.92; K: 0.73 - 5.17, dry matter (61 - 95%. It is because of these nutrients that poultry manure has been deliberately mixed into ruminant livestock diets. Its Organic matter digestibility (OMD ranges from 60 to 65, crude protein (CP - 69.9, crude fibre (CF - 29.9 and nitrogen-free extract (NFE - 71.4%. Past research studies recorded in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD of 76.1 and 72.7%, respectively. Other reports also showed that, beef cattle fed poultry manure based diets recorded body weight gains ranging from 0.91 to 1.31 kg/d. Dairy goats supplemented with poultry manure registered 10.15% higher milk production compared to those on barley based diets (621 and 558 kg, respectively. Based on the available research information, it is conclude in this study that poultry manure can be successfully included in ruminant diets. The constraint, as revealed in the current study is that smallholder farmers do not own large chicken flock sizes (majority own less 30 birds to guarantee sufficient supply of manure for ruminant feeding. It is this particular factor that is being attributed to the low poultry manure reported in the current study (regular users - 19%; occasional users - 17% and none users - 64%. Where available, poultry manure is very cheap. Since it is cheaply available (not readily at farm level, poultry manure offers a cost effective option for meeting dairy cattle protein requirements. However, some precaution must be taken to minimize nitrogen loss (which occurs in the form of NH3, N2O and N2 and accumulation of pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli.
Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ? 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management...
Alizadeh, A.; Mahmoodi, M.; Ghazikhani Shad, A.
In a feeding experiment 3 x 12 dairy cows (German Simmental x Red Holstein Friesian) were used to investigate the influence of different amounts of fodder beets on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. The fodder beets (variety Kyros) were fed in exchange for concentrate. The amounts of fodder beets were either 22 kg cow-1 d-1 or 44 kg cow-1 d-1 or zero (control group). All groups received 4 kg hay cow-1 d-1, grass silage ad libitum, and concentrate corresponding to the milk yield. In order to balance the rations the concentrate was either rich in protein or rich in energy. Feeding 22 kg or 44 kg fodder beets increased forage intake (including fodder beets) significantly. However, the total feed intake diminished on average from 18.3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (control group) to 17.2 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (fodder beet groups). In each treatment the intake of hay was 3.3 kg DM cow-1 d-1. However, the intake of grass silage offered ad libitum was significantly suppressed by the fodder beets. Considering the different amounts of concentrate the quantity of suppression of grass silage by feeding fodder beets was calculated at -0.8 kg DM of grass silage per kg DM of fodder beet intake. The milk yield decreased linearly with increasing fodder beets on average up to 4 kg cow-1 d-1. However, the milk composition was scarcely influenced. The fat content increased a little, the mean alterations of the protein and lactose content were below 0.1 percentage points. Therefore, the change in daily excretion of milk fat, protein or lactose were similar to the change in milk yield. In conclusion, feeding fodder beets in combination to grass silage causes a positive effect on forage intake (including fodder beets). However, the amount of concentrate should not be reduced equivalently to the energy contents of the added fodder beets. PMID:9065309
Birkenmaier, F; Schwarz, F J; Müller, H L; Kirchgessner, M
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than nulliparous 100D animals, whereas 100D parous animals tended to spend 7.6±4.5 fewer minutes per day feeding than 80D parous animals. The 2 treatments were not different in the number of lying bouts or lying-bout duration; lying time was longer for 100D on d -33, -29, and -26 and shorter on d -7, -5, and 0 than 80D. The interaction between treatment, parity, and social rank was associated with lying and feeding times. In summary, animals in the 80D treatment had a lower number of displacements from the feed bunk and spent more time lying down near parturition than 100D animals, and 80D nulliparous animals had reduced daily feeding time compared with 100D nulliparous animals. Although these results showed some potential behavior benefits of a prepartum stocking density of 80% compared with 100%, observed changes were small. However, greater stocking density cannot be recommended; more research is needed to evaluate the effects of stocking densities greater than 100% and with other breeds of cattle besides Jersey. PMID:25465554
Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I
Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.
Calvin B. Parnell
Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.
The study objective was to assess the effects of limit feeding dairy heifers on behavior patterns and feeding motivation. Ten Holstein heifers (291.6±39.2d of age, weighing 324.2±61.2kg; mean ± SD) were exposed to each of 2 dietary treatments, in a random order, over 2 successive 26-d treatment periods (14-d adaptation period and a 12-d data collection period) using a crossover design: (1) a high-forage total mixed ration (TMR), provided ad libitum (CON) and (2) a low-forage TMR, limit-fed at 2.05% body weight (LF). Heifers were fed daily at 1100h and motivation to access a low-nutritive feedstuff (straw) was assessed using a push-door apparatus at 2 time points: 3h after feed delivery (1400h) and 21h after feed delivery (0800h). The amount of weight pushed, weight pushed as percentage of body weight, and latency to access the push door were recorded on 3 different days for each heifer at each time point on each treatment. When fed CON, heifers had greater dry matter intake (12.9 vs. 7.2kg/d), greater feeding time (209.3 vs. 82.4min/d), greater ruminating time (452.2 vs. 318.3min/d), and slower rates of intake (0.06 vs. 0.09kg of dry matter/min) than when fed LF. Heifers fed LF pushed more weight as a percentage of body weight at 3h (4.5 vs. 1.9%) and 21h (9.3 vs. 2.8%) after feed delivery. At both 3 and 21h after feed delivery, latency to access the door was shorter for the LF heifers compared with the CON heifers (65 vs. 145 s). These results indicate that, in addition to decreasing feeding time, limit feeding increases motivation of heifers to access a low-nutritive feedstuff, possibly due to lack of satiety resulting from lack of physical fill or insufficient time spent foraging. PMID:25497811
Greter, A M; Miller-Cushon, E K; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J
Full Text Available Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF cross bred cows (n=8 at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC and plasma biochemistry were performed on survived animals (n=6. The needle biopsy samples were subjected to culture and identification of the organism by Gram staining. Results: Two cows were died before instituting the treatment in this clinical incident. The carcasses were seen with typical bloated appearance immediately after death, laying one side with affected leg stuck out. Post-mortem of the carcasses were not been carried out. Pertinent findings of the CBC were a relative neutrophilia whilst a normal total leucocyte count and lowered Hb. Plasma biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in the mean activity of aspartate aminotransferase while alanine aminotransferase levels were within limits. Gram's staining of the inoculated culture revealed the presence of small gram-positive rods with sub terminal spores. Clinical treatment of the cases was performed with administration of heavy dose of crystalline penicillin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Clinical recoveries of the cases were good and cessation of spread within the herd confining itself as a sporadic clinical incident. Conclusion: Sporadic Clostridiosis (BQ of eight cross bred dairy cows was dealt in the present case study by including the details of its alterations in hematological parameters, Plasma biochemical parameters, observation of characteristic clinical signs of the disease and employment of empirical treatment with Penicillin. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 767-770
Umar Nazir Zahid
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.
Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. PMID:25475653
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to N. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immunofluorescence tests (IFAT 1:200). Association between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity in cattle was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. The true herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum was 95 % (83.3-99.1), while the individual-level true seroprevalence was 21.6 % (19.2-24.2). Several reproductive abnormalities were significantly associated with seropositivity to N. caninum: occurrence of repeated estrus (p=0.02; OR=3.84; 95 % CI=1.239-11.893), repeated miscarriages (p=0.001; OR=2.54; 95 % CI=1.423-5.402), and temporary anestrus (p=0.001; OR=3.44; 95 % CI=1.976-5.994). Furthermore, loose dogs (p=0.041; OR=2.20; 95 % CI=1.033-4.672) when fed raw meat (p=0.001; OR=1.91; 95 % CI=1.443-2.519) are risk factors for N. caninum infection. We observed that seropositivity to N. caninum in cattle increases risk of miscarriage by almost twice throughout the reproductive life of cows (p=0.004; OR=1.978; 95 % CI=1.249-3.131). Serologic evidence in this study indicates that N. caninum infection is widely distributed among dairy herds and significantly associated with reproductive disorders, especially miscarriage, repeated estrus, and temporary anestrus. PMID:23212838
Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Daher, Débora Oliveira; Lopes, Edna; Barbieri, Jonata Mello; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos
Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.
Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran. PMID:25568676
Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa
Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship training sessions. In conclusion, cattle handling skills are considered important by Minnesota dairy producers to ensure worker safety and cow flow. Limited availability of time, language barrier, and a perceived lack of training materials were considered challenges during the training of workers on farms. PMID:24835968
Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (P<0.05) higher oxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. PMID:25446230
Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta
The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were teste...
Ambrose, Divakar J.; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.
The overall aim of the present thesis was to improve milk production and milking routines in Burkina Faso. There is a long tradition of keeping livestock in Burkina Faso and there are large numbers of cattle in the country. However, Burkina Faso today depends on the import of meat and milk, and the domestic production is greatly in need of improvement. The first in this thesis study was a survey that aimed to investigate the current situation in dairy farming and milk processing in periurban ...
Full Text Available In this study, Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 prevelance causing Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR in dairy cattle that showed respiratory system symptoms and that were located in Iskilip, Corum situated in Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey were studied. For this purpose, owned by small family enterprises and not vaccinated, 5200 animals over 1 year old were scanned and nasal swap and blood samples were taken from 250 animals showing respiratory system disease symptoms and having body temperature above normal. Total 250 nasal swap samples and blood samples from the same cattle were tested, respectively against antigen and antibody presence for BHV-1 by ELISA kits obtained commercially. For the sampled cattle, BHV-1 antigen prevelance was detected as 0.8% (2/250. During the serological part of the study, for the same sampled animals, BHV-1 specific antibody prevelance was detected as 21.2% (53/250. Consequently, BHV-1 infection presence/extensity was detected in cattle owned by family enterprises in Iskilip vicinity and it was agreed that serious precautions should be taken to control the infection.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.
Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.
Glycerol can alleviate the symptoms of ketosis when delivered as an oral drench. The addition of glycerol to the diet would eliminate the need for restraining cows for drenching yet deliver a glucogenic substrate, alleviate the fatty liver-ketosis complex, and improve lactational performance. For this study, 21 multiparous and 9 primiparous Holstein cows blocked by parity and expected calving date were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol from 14 d prepartum to 21 d in milk (DIM). Treatments (kg/d dry matter basis) were 0.86 of cornstarch (control), 0.43 cornstarch + 0.43 glycerol (LG), or 0.86 glycerol (HG), topdressed and hand-mixed into the upper one-third of the daily ration. All cows were fed a common diet from 22 to 70 DIM. Prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) was greater for cows fed the control diet compared with LG or HG (13.3, 10.8, and 11.3 +/- 0.50 kg/d, respectively). Prepartum plasma glucose, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and ruminal profiles were not affected by treatments. Rumen fluid collected postpartum from cows fed LG and HG had greater total volatile fatty acids, greater molar proportions of propionate, and a decreased ratio of acetate to propionate. Furthermore, concentrations of butyrate tended to be greater in rumens of cows fed LG and HG. Postpartum concentrations of glucose in plasma were greatest for cows fed the control diet relative to LG and HG (66.0 vs. 63.1 and 58.4 mg/dL, respectively) and decreased sharply at 21 DIM, after treatments ended, for cows fed HG (diet x day interaction). Body weight and condition loss, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, and liver lipids during the first 21 DIM were similar among treatments. Postpartum DMI was not affected by treatments; however, a tendency was observed for a diet x day interaction for body weight, as cows fed LG gained more body weight from 21 to 70 DIM relative to cows fed HG. Yield of energy-corrected milk during the first 70 DIM tended to be greatest for cows fed the control diet. The LG and HG diets decreased urea nitrogen concentrations in milk relative to controls. Based upon prepartum DMI and concentrations of glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood postpartum, feeding glycerol to dairy cows at the levels used in this experiment increased indicators used to gauge the degree of ketosis in dairy cattle. PMID:15545383
DeFrain, J M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Jardon, P W
In a tropical ranch of animal production, which was divided by fire lines into 20 equal grazing paddocks of one mile square each, a grazing experiment was conducted as controlled rotational grazing with forty-five (45) cross-bred Sudanese improved Baggara cattle which were divided into four feeding systems (groups). A drop in condition scores of the farm cattle stock herd was treated during dry summer by supplementary feeding with four types of supplements to investigate the changes in averag...
Abu Bakr Omer Ismail; Yousif Rizggalla Sulaiman; Faisal Awad Ahmed; Hafiz Abdalla Mohamed Ali
The aims of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of measuring bovine urinary zearalenone (ZEN) concentrations by using a commercially available ELISA method in cattle kept under different feeding conditions to monitor the natural contamination of feeds at the farm level, and to investigate the effects of supplementation of a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) product in the feed based on urinary ZEN concentration. First, Japanese Black cattle herds kept for breeding (4 herds) and fattening (4 herds) purposes were provided with similar feeding conditions. Then, urinary samples from 5 cows in each herd were collected and analyzed. Second, dairy cows from 1 herd fed with total mixed rations (TMR) were selected. After thorough mixing of the MA (40 g/d) with TMR, the supplemented TMR was fed according to the following schedule: with MA for 2 wk, without MA for 3 wk; then with MA for 2 wk and without MA for 6 wk. Urine samples were collected from cows (n = 6 to 7) and examined before and after each interval. Zearalenone concentrations were measured by the ELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The concentration of ZEN and its metabolites was expressed after creatinine (Crea) correction [ZEN or metabolites (pg/mL)/Crea (mg/dL); pg/mg of Crea]. In the first experiment, the urinary concentrations of ZEN and its metabolites were variable in all herds, and significant differences were observed between herds. In 1 fattening herd, in particular, urinary ZEN concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) than in the other 3 herds. This might reflect significant natural ZEN contamination of the feed at the farm level. In Exp. 2, urinary ZEN concentrations displayed peculiar trends after supplementation with MA. After 2 wk of supplementation, a significant decrease of ZEN (P < 0.05) was observed. Zearalenone concentrations remained at a reduced amount during 3 wk without MA supplementation and 2 wk with MA supplementation. When MA was not added to the feed for the next 6 wk, the concentrations increased to the original quantity. These findings indicate the usefulness of measuring concentrations of urinary ZEN and its metabolites not only for monitoring the natural ZEN contamination of cattle feed at the farm level but also for in vivo evaluation of MA function after supplementing feeds with MA. PMID:20852083
Takagi, M; Uno, S; Kokushi, E; Shiga, S; Mukai, S; Kuriyagawa, T; Takagaki, K; Hasunuma, H; Matsumoto, D; Okamoto, K; Shahada, F; Chenga, T; Deguchi, E; Fink-Gremmels, J
This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH), King Grass (KG), Corn stover (CS), Elephan Grass (EG), Rice Straw (RS), Soja Straw (SS), Corn Straw (CST), Glyricidea (Gli), and Caliandra (Cal). The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. Th...
Bp, Widyobroto; Sps, Budhi
Full Text Available Sejumlah penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menyelidiki faedah pemecahan batang alfalfa pada saat dipanen di daerah prairi terhadap lama pengeringan, sifat-sifat nutrisi pada saat disimpan dan nilai nutrisi pakan. Alfalfa pada awal pertumbuhan bunga dipanen menggunakan salah satu dari dua mesin. : mesin convensional, (CONV atau dengan mesin pemecah batang yang mempunyai empat tingkat pemecahan (LIGHT : ringan,LIGHT + : agak berat, SEVERE : berat dan SEVERE+ : sangat berat. Selama pengeringan, perlakuan LIGHT + s.d. SEVERE+ mencapai kadar Bahan Kering (BK 45 % dan 80% dalam waktu masing-masing hanya sekitar 2 jam dan 9-11 jam, dibanding CONV, yang mencapai kadar BK tersebut berturut-turut dlm waktu 6 dan 54 jam. Padet sapi pedaging mengonsumsi BK silase 13 % lebih banyak dan memperoleh pertambahan bobot badan harian 22.7% lebih berat (P<0.05 jika batang alfalfa dipecah pada saat dipanen(SEVERE, dibanding tidak (CONV , pada awal pertumbuhan selama 21 hari. Sapi perah Holstein betina awal laktasi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung silase dan hay dari alfalfa yang batangnya dipecah pada saat dipanen memproduksi susu dengan kandungan gizi yang sama disbanding batang. Namun demikian, kelompok sapi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung alfalfa yang terpecah batangnya memberikan bobot hidup yang lebih berat dan nilai kondisi tubuh yang lebih baik (P<0.05 pada saat akhir penelitian laktasi selama 14 minggu. (Animal Production 3(2: 83-90 (2001 Key Words : Alfalfa, maceration, wilting time, silage, hay, dairy, beef.
Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.
Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the difference between returns from milk and feed costs (defined as the economic efficiency). In these two definitions of efficiency the relationship between feed intake and milk production is very impo...
Oldenbroek, J. K.
Full Text Available Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates. The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli.
Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.
A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)
Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH, King Grass (KG, Corn stover (CS, Elephan Grass (EG, Rice Straw (RS, Soja Straw (SS, Corn Straw (CST, Glyricidea (Gli, and Caliandra (Cal. The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. The results showed that DM and OM intakes were significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin ranged from the lowest (Gli of 29.55 g DMI/kg0.75 to the highest (CS of 94.88 g/kg0.75. OM intake of buffaloes was higher than that of ongole cattle supported by organic matter (OM digestibility data (61.51 vs 59.51. The digestibility of nutrient was significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. OM digestibility of SS were lowest while the highest were CST of 54.56 and 71.66% respectively. Digestibility of CP was also significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. The lowest Digestible Crude Protein was CST and the highest was PH of 44.10 and 67.99% respectively. The digestibility of NDF and ADF were significantly influenced by feed stuffs. The lowest NDF and ADF digestibilities were Cal of 40.84 and 33.19% and the highest digestibility of NDF and ADF were CST of 68.53 and 63.57%. It can be concluded that there were an important variation of feed compositions and digestibility of fibrous feeds. Buffalo were better than cattle on capacity of ingestion and utilization of fibrous feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 86-90 (2010Key Words: fibrous feeds, intake, digestibility, ongole cattle, buffaloes
Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981. The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of “good”. (Animal Production 1(2: 63-74 (1999 Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.
The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs
Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582
Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P
Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.
When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7 wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers. PMID:25483200
Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W
Tail-docking of dairy cattle causes mild to moderate behavior changes and physiological indicators of acute pain, but no studies have investigated the possibility of tail-docking leading to chronic pain. In human amputees, incidence of increased limb surface temperature is associated with phantom l...
Mature dairy cattle were sampled over a two-year period (2001 - 2002) on five farms in New Mexico and Texas. Fecal samples were collected via rectal palpation, cultured for Salmonella, and one isolate from each positive sample serotyped. Three isolates of each serotype, with the exception of Salmo...
This study evaluated different female-selective genotyping strategies to increase the predictive accuracy of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in populations that have a limited number of sires with a large number of progeny. A simulated dairy population was utilized to address the aims of the study. The following selection strategies were used: random selection, two-tailed selection by yield deviations, two-tailed selection by breeding value, top yield deviation selection and top breeding value selection. For comparison, two other strategies, genotyping of sires and pedigree indexes from traditional genetic evaluation, were included in the analysis. Two scenarios were simulated, low heritability (h 2 = 0.10) and medium heritability (h 2 = 0.30). GBVs were estimated using the Bayesian Lasso. The accuracy of predicted GBVs using the two-tailed strategies was better than the accuracy obtained using other strategies (0.50 and 0.63 for the two-tailed selection by yield deviations strategy and 0.48 and 0.63 for the two-tailed selection by breeding values strategy in low- and medium-heritability scenarios, respectively, using 1000 genotyped cows). When 996 genotyped bulls were used as the training population, the sire' strategy led to accuracies of 0.48 and 0.55 for low- and medium-heritability traits, respectively. The Random strategies required larger training populations to outperform the accuracies of the pedigree index; however, selecting females from the top of the yield deviations or breeding values of the population did not improve accuracy relative to that of the pedigree index. Bias was found for all genotyping strategies considered, although the Top strategies produced the most biased predictions. Strategies that involve genotyping cows can be implemented in breeding programs that have a limited number of sires with a reliable progeny test. The results of this study showed that females that exhibited upper and lower extreme values within the distribution of yield deviations may be included as training population to increase reliability in small reference populations. The strategies that selected only the females that had high estimated breeding values or yield deviations produced suboptimal results. PMID:23217224
Jiménez-Montero, J A; González-Recio, O; Alenda, R
The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3 products required for milk production. This review compares studies which manipulated dietary energy source and shows that dietary energy source can affect the balance of the C2/C3 ratio, as indicated by plasma NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose levels. It is shown that glycogenic nutrients increase glucose and insulin concentrations and decrease NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. Extra lipogenic nutrients elevate NEFA and BHBA and decrease plasma glucose concentrations. Lipogenic nutrients generally increase milk fat percentage and decrease milk protein percentage, suggesting a surplus of C2 compounds. The inverse is the case for feeding extra glycogenic nutrients, implying reduced deamination and oxidation of glycogenic amino acids. Feeding extra glycogenic nutrients improved the energy balance (EB), in contrast to ambiguous results of lipogenic nutrients on EB. Moreover, glycogenic feed may reduce the severity of ketosis and fatty liver, but increased the incidence of (sub)clinical acidosis. Since studies are scarce, it seems difficult to draw conclusions on the effects of dietary energy source on reproduction. However, lipogenic nutrients decrease glucose and increase NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. High plasma NEFA and BHBA and low plasma glucose levels are associated with decreased reproductive performance, which might imply the C2/C3 compound balance to be important for reproductive function. PMID:16285910
van Knegsel, Ariëtte T M; van den Brand, Henry; Dijkstra, Jan; Tamminga, Seerp; Kemp, Bas
Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with rep period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise
Alkaline phosphatase prepared from bone and studied in vitro in relation to the effect of fluoride was relatively insensitive to fluoride. Concentrations of fluoride in excess of 10/sup -2/ M were required for inhibition. Experiments with dairy heifers and cows indicated a close correlation between fluoride ingested, fluoride content of the bone, osseous abnormalities, and alkaline bone phosphatase activity. Fluorosis occurred in heifers fed rations containing 66 and 68 ppm of fluoride in contaminated hay and NaF respectively, for a period of 20 months. Additions of about 69 ppm of CaF/sub 2/ to the rations for 20 months caused no detrimental effect to the dairy animals. In an experiment lasting seven years and 108 days, dairy cattle were fed rations containing 12, 27, 49, and 93 ppm of sodium fluoride. When the rations contained 49 or 93 ppm of NaF, osseous abnormalities, excessively high accumulation of fluoride in the bone, and significant increases in alkaline bone phosphatase activity occurred. Results indicated that alkaline bone phosphatase activity was related to abnormal formation.
Miller, G.W.; Shupe, J.L.
Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period
Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil
As a result of a marked decline in dry matter intake (DMI) prior to parturition and a slow rate of increase in DMI relative to milk production after parturition, dairy cattle experience a negative energy balance. Changes in nutritional and metabolic status during the periparturient period predispose dairy cattle to develop hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. The metabolic profile during early lactation includes low concentrations of serum insulin, plasma glucose, and liver glycogen and high concentrations of serum glucagon, adrenaline, growth hormone, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids, and liver triglyceride. Moreover, during late gestation and early lactation, flow of nutrients to fetus and mammary tissues are accorded a high degree of metabolic priority. This priority coincides with lowered responsiveness and sensitivity of extrahepatic tissues to insulin, which presumably plays a key role in development of hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. Hepatic lipidosis and ketosis compromise production, immune function, and fertility. Cows with hepatic lipidosis and ketosis have low tissue responsiveness to insulin owing to ketoacidosis. Insulin has numerous roles in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Insulin is an anabolic hormone and acts to preserve nutrients as well as being a potent feed intake regulator. In addition to the major replacement therapy to alleviate severity of negative energy balance, administration of insulin with concomitant delivery of dextrose increases efficiency of treatment for hepatic lipidosis and ketosis. However, data on use of insulin to prevent these lipid-related metabolic disorders are limited and it should be investigated. PMID:17004039
In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manu...
Soder, Kathy J.; Macadam, Jennifer W.; Hafla, Aimee N.
In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg ± 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazinposition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed restriction and source of dietary fatty acids during the close-up dry period on postcalving reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Thirty-four days before expected calving, pregnant Holstein cows (n = 72; parity 1 to 5) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments were ad libitum (AL) or 24% feed restriction (FR) in combination with 1 of 3 oilseed supplements at 8% of diet dry matter: canola, linola, or flax to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic fatty acids, respectively. After calving, cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained no oilseeds. Measurements of uterus, corpus luteum, and follicles were obtained by ultrasonography twice weekly from 7 +/- 1 d after calving until the first ovulation. Cows (n = 66) were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and pregnancy was determined 32 d later. Feed-restricted cows had lower dry matter intake and lost more body weight prepartum. Energy balance (Mcal/d) was negative in FR cows prepartum but they had a less severe negative energy balance postpartum. The dietary source of fatty acid did not affect energy balance. Cows fed AL had a higher incidence of uterine infections (10/37 vs. 2/35) but tended to have fewer ovarian cysts (2/37 vs. 7/35) than FR cows. Mean (+/-SE) interval from calving to uterine involution did not differ among dietary treatments (26.8 +/- 1.8 d). Interval from calving to first ovulation was longer in cows fed canola than in those fed either linola or flax (34.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 and 21.0 +/- 3.1 d, respectively). A greater percentage of cows fed AL conceived to the first TAI (47.1 vs. 18.8) and tended to have fewer mean days open (157 +/- 10.8 vs. 191 +/- 10.1) than cows fed FR. In summary, FR cows had a lower incidence of uterine infections, but they were less fertile as reflected by a lower percent pregnancy to first TAI and increased days open. Cows fed diets enriched in linoleic or linolenic fatty acids had a lesser incidence of ovarian cysts and ovulated sooner with no effect on energy balance or fertility. PMID:19447988
Colazo, M G; Hayirli, A; Doepel, L; Ambrose, D J
We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...
This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)
The effectiveness of the vaccination of dairy cows combined or not with antibiotics (i.e. oxytetracycline) to control Coxiella burnetii (Cb) shedding at herd level was investigated in 77 Q fever clinically affected herds. In addition to nulliparous heifers' vaccination, one out of the four following medical strategies was randomly assigned to dairy cows in each herd: vaccination (using a phase I vaccine) alone, vaccination combined with oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline alone or nothing. Their effectiveness to reduce Cb load in quarterly samples of bulk tank milk (BTM) and of pooled milk of primiparous (MP) was assessed through logistic hierarchical models. A significant reduction in Cb load was observed in herds where the vaccination of ?80% of dairy cows was implemented; whereas the use of antibiotics was uneffective. Our findings support the interest of a whole vaccination strategy and provide evidence for decreasing the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle herds. PMID:24184019
Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Guatteo, Raphaël; Lehebel, Anne; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François
A neurological syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of moldy beer residues is described. The disease occurred on 1 farm in late June 2001, during winter. Six heifers and 1 cow out of 45 cattle were affected during a 3-week period. The affected animals died spontaneously or were euthanized approximately 2-14 days after the onset of clinical signs. The clinical signs were characterized by flaccid paralysis and gait abnormalities. Clinical signs were more pronounced after exercise and included stiff and unsteady gait, knuckling at the fetlocks of the hind limbs, frequent falling, inability to rise, muscular tremors, especially of the head and the hindquarters, and drooling. Main necropsy findings included degenerative and necrotic changes of the larger medial muscle groups of the hindquarters, i.e., adductor, pectineus, quadriceps femoris, rectus femuris, sartorius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and vastus medialis, and of the forequarters, including pectoralis descendens, pectoralis ascendens, and transversus pectoralis. The main histologic findings consisted of degenerative and necrotic neuronal changes (chromatolysis) of varying severity and extent affecting selected nuclei of the brainstem and neurons of the ventral horns of the spinal cord. Similar microscopic lesions were observed in the neurons of the spinal cord of 1 experimental sheep force-fed for 35 days with 1 kg/day of the same batch of foodstuff that was originally fed to the cattle. Coarse white or gray lumps, interpreted as mycelia, were observed in the beer by-product. Aspergillus clavatus was the dominant fungus isolated. Deaths ceased after the consumption of beer residue was discontinued. Recovery from illness was observed in 1 animal. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions, dosing trial, and mycology. A similar condition caused by consumption of barley by-products, sprouted wheat, corn sprouts, and beetroot screenings contaminated with A. clavatus has been reported in cattle and sheep worldwide. PMID:12661722
Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Corrêa, André Mendes; Bangel, Jorge José; Ferreiro, Laerte
In South African Bonsmara cattle, feed conversion ratio (FCR) is mostly used as a measure of feed efficiency in selection programs but has the disadvantage of being a ratio trait and unfavourably correlated to weight and mature size. Residual feed intake (RFI) overcomes both these disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate RFI as a potential trait in a selection programme by determining its correlations with growth related traits as well as other efficiency traits. Data of 5981 ...
The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC). Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each scr...
Eduardo Rodrigues Carvalho; Milton Luiz Moreira Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; Heather Muse White; Shawn Scott Donkin
Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4 production and milk FA concentration induced by dietary lipid supplements. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to quantify relationships between CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Data from 8 experiments encompassing 30 different dietary treatments and 146 observations were included. Yield of CH4 measured in these experiments was 21.5 ± 2.46 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI) and 13.9 ± 2.30 g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Correlation coefficients were chosen as effect size of the relationship between CH4 yield and individual milk FA concentration (g/100g of FA). Average true correlation coefficients were estimated by a random-effects model. Milk FA concentrations of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C16:0, and C16:0-iso were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Concentrations of trans-6+7+8+9 C18:1, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, cis-12 C18:1, cis-13 C18:1, trans-16+cis-14 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Milk FA concentrations of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0-iso, C14:0, cis-9 C14:1, C15:0, and C16:0 were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Concentrations of C4:0, C18:0, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-9 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Mixed model multiple regression and a stepwise selection procedure of milk FA based on the Bayesian information criterion to predict CH4 yield with milk FA as input (g/100g of FA) resulted in the following prediction equations: CH4 (g/kg of DMI)=23.39 + 9.74 × C16:0-iso - 1.06 × trans-10+11 C18:1 - 1.75 × cis-9,12 C18:2 (R(2) = 0.54), and CH4 (g/kg of FPCM) = 21.13 - 1.38 × C4:0 + 8.53 × C16:0-iso - 0.22 × cis-9 C18:1 - 0.59 × trans-10+11 C18:1 (R(2) = 0.47). This indicated that milk FA profile has a moderate potential for predicting CH4 yield per unit of feed and a slightly lower potential for predicting CH4 yield per unit of milk. PMID:25218750
van Lingen, H J; Crompton, L A; Hendriks, W H; Reynolds, C K; Dijkstra, J
Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.
Aim of the research: To examine indicators and factors of phenotypic and genetic variability of electrical conductivity of cows’ milk in Lithuanian dairy cattle popula¬tion and its relationship with selective traits. Main objectives of the research: 1. To examine the phenotypic variability of electrical conductivity of cows’ milk and to assess the influence of non-genetic factors in Lithuanian dairy cattle population. 2. To assess the phenotypic relationship between electrical conduct...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter d...
Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas
Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002. Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969, but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995. In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.
Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3%, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed. PMID:9850518
Yeruham, I; Perl, S
Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with ?50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637
Schimmer, B; Schotten, N; van Engelen, E; Hautvast, J L A; Schneeberger, P M; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P
Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables. PMID:24572637
Schotten, N.; van Engelen, E.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Schneeberger, P.M.; van Duijnhoven, Y.T.H.P.
Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic prediction across breed
van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.
Daniela Souza Rajão
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. Results The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker and familial (pedigree effects most (on average 77.2% of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. Conclusions Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.
This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates
Ansari-Mahyari, S; SØrensen, A C
Two hundred thirty-two primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to a study to determine the effect of supplementing 0 or 6.25 mg/d of Cr from Cr Met on lactation and reproductive performance. Cows received treatments from 6 wk precalving through 21 wk postpartum. Precalving, treatments were incorporated into a pelleted grain mixture and group-fed. Post-calving, cows received treatments via an individual oral drench once a day after the a.m. milking. Grazed herbage was the primary diet constituent for lactating cattle. Blood was collected from a predetermined group of cows before and immediately after calving. On 4 occasions during the treatment period, milk yield was recorded and samples collected for determination of composition. Chromium supplementation had no effect on yield of milk and milk components and milk composition. Chromium supplementation decreased serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration (0.60 vs. 0.68 mmol/L), with chromium supplementation having the greatest impact on serum NEFA concentrations at 1 wk prepartum. Greater percentages of cows supplemented with Cr were observed to be anestrus by dairy personnel (45.5 vs. 32.0%). However, Cr supplementation tended to increase the percentage of cows pregnant in the first 28 d of the mating season (50.0 vs. 39.2%). Results indicate that Cr Met supplementation of intensely grazed, late-gestation and early-lactation dairy cattle decreased serum NEFA concentrations and tended to increase pregnancy rates in the first 28 d of the mating season. PMID:15545390
Bryan, M A; Socha, M T; Tomlinson, D J
Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield. PMID:25084281
Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M.; Cole, John B.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.
Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. RESULTS: The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44 K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44 K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44 K is limited.
Jensen, Just; Su, Guosheng
The research investigated the use of maize silage (MS) in beef cattle diets during the finishing period by monitoring a sample of 406 commercial farms located in the Po Valley. Farms were selected in order to cover the most diverse rearing situations, in terms of farm size and cattle genotype, in which MS was fed to beef cattle during the finishing period. Each farm was visited to collect information about the feeding regimen and representative samples of total mixed ration (TMR) and MS were ...
Gabriele Burato; Barbara Contiero; Alessandro Mazzenga; Giulio Cozzi
The applications of timed artificial insemination and timed embryo transfer in reproductive management of dairy cattle Aplicação da inseminação artificial e transferência de embrião em tempo fixo no manejo reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras
Fertility of dairy cattle is generally decreasing. Overall estrus detection efficiency in lactating dairy cattle is low, as expression of estrus is often compromised. Consequently, undetected estrus, low AI-submission rates, and long inter-breeding intervals are the main contributors to poor reproductive efficiency. Although failure to become pregnant is the most common reason for culling dairy cattle, pregnancy rates could be improved by increasing the AI-submission rate through increased es...
Divakar Justus Ambrose; Marcos Germán Colazo; John Patrick Kastelic
The associations between herd bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) seroprevalence, along with other infectious and farm management factors with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy calves and heifers, were investigated. Serum samples from 103 dairy cattle herds were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis). A questionnaire was used to record herd management practices. A high occurrence of respiratory disease in unweaned calves was associated with low to moderate and high prevalence of BHV-1 among cows (OR=14.8, p=0.005 and OR=19.2, p=0.002, respectively) and positive BVDV status of a herd (OR=5.1, p=0.02). The presence of BVDV in a herd was related to a high incidence of respiratory disease in heifers 3-16 months old (OR=4.3, p=0.027). Based on the results of multiple correspondence analysis, holding youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, introducing new animals and the activities of on-farm employees may contribute to a higher incidence of BRD. PMID:22100246
Raaperi, K; Bougeard, S; Aleksejev, A; Orro, T; Viltrop, A
A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for fast and easy screening of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle. Species of major mycoplasma strains [Mycoplasma (M.) bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens and M. canadense] in cultured milk samples were detected by this simplified PCR-based method as well as a standard PCR technique. The minimum concentration limit for detecting mycoplasma by the simplified PCR was estimated to be about 2.5 × 103 cfu/mL and was similar to that of the standard PCR. We compared the specificity and sensitivity of the simplified PCR to those of a culture method. Out of 1,685 milk samples cultured in mycoplasma broth, the simplified PCR detected Mycoplasma DNA in 152 that were also positive according to the culture assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the simplified PCR were 98.7% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting mycoplasma in those cultures. The results obtained by the simplified PCR were consistent with ones from standard PCR. This newly developed simplified PCR, which does not require DNA purification, can analyze about 300 cultured samples within 3 h. The results from our study suggest that the simplified PCR can be used for mycoplasma mastitis screening in large-scale dairy farms. PMID:21586880
Iwano, Hidetomo; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Takehiro; Obayashi, Tetsu; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Ito, Nobuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka; Nagahata, Hajime
Full Text Available This study aimed (1 at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC in the feed and urine of cattle and (2 at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS. STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM. In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.
This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815
Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna
Melarsomine hydrochloride can cure Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels at a dose of 0·25 mg/kg, but at that dose relapses occur in cattle. In our study, the efficacy of an intramuscular injection of melarsomine hydrochloride at 0·5 mg/kg was assessed in 3 normal and 3 splenectomized dairy cattle experimentally infected with a stock of T. evansi from Thailand. The animals were monitored for 5 months by haematocrit centrifugation, blood- or cerebrospinal fluid-mouse inoculation, polymerase chain reaction, the card agglutination test (CATT) for T. evansi, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay?T. evansi. Parasitological and DNA tests became and remained negative just after treatment. By the end of the experiment, CATT was negative and ELISA scores were below or very close to the cut-off value. One of the splenectomized cattle died from anaplasmosis during the experiment, but tested negative for surra. It was concluded that the parasites had been cleared from the cattle, and melarsomine hydrochloride at 0·5 mg/kg can be recommended for treatment against T. evansi infection in dairy cattle in Thailand. Further work is necessary to validate the efficacy of the treatment in the event of confirmed CSF-infection. PMID:21767438
Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Vergne, Timothée; Sarataphan, Nachai; Pranee, Rodtian; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn
When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820
Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083
Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter
A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025
Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E
This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n?=?4); necrotizing myocarditis (n?=?3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n?=?3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n?=?2), N. caninum (n?=?2), BVDV (n?=?1), and BoHV-1 (n?=?1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485
Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dairy cows with extruded flaxseed (EF) on milk quality. After a 7-d adaptation period, 40 Holstein dairy cows in midlactation were divided in two experimental groups, based on parity, milk yield and composition, and days in milk. Animals were fed for 28 d a standard total mixed ration containing or not (control) 1.8 kg/cow/d of a supplement based on extruded flaxseed (EF). Milk yield was recorde...
Biagi G.; Fustini M.; Canestrari G.; Palmonari A.; Panciroli N.; Formigoni A.
A longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. Results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of flukes was highest in the traditional system, moderate in the large-scale dairy system and lowest in the small-scale dairy system in most parts of the year. Adults and yearlings had the highest prevalence of flukes in all management systems throughout the year. The proportion of animals excreting amphistome eggs was always higher than that of animals excreting Fasciola eggs in all zones, villages, management systems, farms and age groups. The proportion of animals passing fluke eggs increased gradually from the early dry season and peaked at the end of the dry season and the early part of the rainy season. Strategic treatments against flukes are recommended in adults and yearlings only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Routine treatments of calves/weanlings in large-scale and traditional farms and zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle farms might be unnecessary. For a cost-effective helminth control programme in the area, strategic treatments at the beginning of the dry season (June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended. PMID:15934638
Keyyu, J D; Monrad, J; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A
Full Text Available The aim this work was to associations between calving interval and milk production traits in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle in the period 2003-2009. The basic statistic analysis were analysed using the SAS version 9.1.3. The average length between calving intervals was 413.34 days in population of dairy cows of Slovak Simmental cattle. Correlation between evaluated calving interval and traits of milk production (milk, fat, proteins were lower negative r=-0.00924, r=-0.00539, r=-0.02381and correlation between calving interval and proteins in kg statistically high significant (P<.0001. The analyses by the effect on calving interval was the highest effect of herd-years-season R2= 0.212786, others effects of father R2= 0.028230 and cods of milk groups R2= 0.001353.
One of the strategies to increase the availability of beef cattle feed in small holder livestock farms is to build feed industry of raw material agricultural waste-based. Development of small scale feed mills at the farmers group level is a necessity in supporting their farm. The important thing to consider in feed production not only on the quality aspect, but also the economical aspects need to be considered, which can be affordable by the farmers. The farmer group of Padang Tawang is one o...
A Syamsu, Jasmal; Yusuf, Muhammad; Abdullah, Agustina
This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM.
Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production and health of dairy cattle were mapped in a very large Holstein granddaughter design. The analysis included 1794 sons of 14 sires and 206 genetic markers distributed across all 29 autosomes and flanking an estimated 2497 autosomal cM using Kosambi's mapping function. All families were analyzed jointly with least-squares (LS) and variance components (VC) methods. A total of 6 QTL exceeding approximate experiment-wise significance threshol...
Zhang, Q.; Boichard, D.; Hoeschele, I.; Ernst, C.; Eggen, A.; Murkve, B.; Pfister-genskow, M.; Witte, L. A.; Grignola, F. E.; Uimari, P.; Thaller, G.; Bishop, M. D.
While cattle in general have been identified as a reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, there are limited data regarding the prevalence and clonality of this pathogen in downer dairy cattle and the potential impact to human health that may occur following consumption of meat derived from downer dairy cattle. In the present study, conducted at two slaughter facilities in Wisconsin between May and October of 2001, we established a higher prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal and/or tissue sam...
Byrne, C. M.; Erol, I.; Call, J. E.; Kaspar, C. W.; Buege, D. R.; Hiemke, C. J.; Fedorka-cray, P. J.; Benson, A. K.; Wallace, F. M.; Luchansky, J. B.
Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates. Between d 8 and 17 after breeding, the conceptus secretes interferon-? as a mechanism for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2?) by suppressing the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Flunixin meglumine (FM) has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of 391 heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Heifers in the treatment group (n=197) received 2.2 mg of FM i.m./kg of body weight twice on d 14/15 and 15/16 after insemination, whereas heifers in the control group (n=194) remained untreated. Blood samples from 388 heifers were taken on d 14/15 and 21/22 after artificial insemination and analyzed for progesterone. Pregnancy rates were 58.2 and 54.8% for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Mean progesterone concentrations were not affected by treatment and number of artificial insemination service (first or second artificial insemination service), but were affected by time and time × pregnancy status. In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows. A total of 380 cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows in the treatment group (n=194) received 1.4 mg of carprofen s.c./kg of body weight on d 15 after insemination, whereas cows in the control group (n=186) remained untreated. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were 35.5 and 33.0% in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Neither flunixin meglumine nor carprofen improved conception rates to first service in dairy cattle in the dosage and administration schedule tested. PMID:20965329
von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W
In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of the extreme dairy type were believed to be prone to bovine tuberculosis. This conviction was at the basis of the development of 'the modern Friesian,' a rather robust type of dairy cow that was also valued for its aesthetically pleasing conformation and that became a commercial success. Contrary to the scientists' claims, it was not only for commercial reasons that breeders were reluctant to give up their modern Friesians after World War II, when the introduction of artificial insemination opened up the possibility of breeding more productive types by means of progeny testing. The political economy of breeding did indeed require breeders to protect their breed as a recognisable brand. Yet the moral economy of breeding must also be taken into account: the modern Friesian was also a product of widely shared normative standards of good and responsible farming. PMID:19244844
Full Text Available High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sample or 10 hours after AFB1 ingestion. The steady state of AFM1 concentration observed since the first day of treatment period and AFM1 contamination was still detected until 5 days after AFB1 removed from the diet. The COR in this study was observed 0.1%. AFM1 concentration was highly significantly (P0.05 of levels of AFB1 and bentonite inclusions on the COR, nutrients intake, milk production, and milk composition. IIt is concluded that AFM1 concentration was influenced by AFB1 intake and that transfer of AFB1-feed into AFM1-milk (COR in PFH cow was lower compare to reported COR value for dairy cow in sub tropical region.
For 119 days, 36 cattle, allotted to 6 treatment groups, were fed a balanced growth diet containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% cull onions on a dry-matter basis. Cattle performance was comparable to that associated with barley-base non-onion diet; statistical differences were not observed among treatments. During the first 28 days of the study, reduction in numbers of RBC, hemoglobin concentration, and PCV was observed in all cattle fed onions, but clinical anemia was not seen in any individual animal. After onion feeding was discontinued at 119 days, RBC numbers, hemoglobin concentration, and PCV returned to baseline values within 30 days. Heinz bodies were detected in erythrocytes of all cattle fed onions, and the percentage was proportional to the amount of onions consumed. Addictive onion consumption was prevented by mixing chopped or crushed onions in a total balanced ration. PMID:1607313
Lincoln, S D; Howell, M E; Combs, J J; Hinman, D D
Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.2to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency
After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake. PMID:25547169
Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William
The objective of this study was to examine and compare the effects of monensin, both alone and together with dietary fat, on ruminal bacterial communities in dairy cattle fed the following 3 diets: a control diet, the control diet supplemented with monensin, and the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat. Bacterial communities in the liquid and the adherent fractions of rumen content were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Most sequences were assigned to phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, irrespective of diets and fractions. Prevotella was the most dominant genus, but most sequences could not be classified at the genus level. The proportion of Gram-positive Firmicutes was reduced by 4.5% in response to monensin but increased by 12.8% by combination of monensin and fat, compared with the control diet. Some of the operational taxonomic units in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were also affected by monensin or by the combination of monensin with fat. The proportion of numerous bacteria potentially involved in lipolysis and (or) biohydrogenation was increased by both monensin and fat. The Shannon diversity index was decreased in the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat, compared with the other 2 diet groups. Supplementary fats hinder bacterial attachment to plant particles and then result in decreased bacterial diversity in the rumen. The finding of this study may help in understanding the effect of monensin and fat on ruminant nutrition and the adverse effect of monensin and fat, such as milk fat depression and decreased feed digestibility. PMID:24498983
Kim, M; Eastridge, M L; Yu, Z
Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cows is an area of great importance to ensure the basic needs of people. Dairy cows are also subjected to the action of various factors of influence due to the feeding peculiarities. This research aims to reveal the influence of the dairy cows feeding use of based on conjugated linoleic acid -CLA and a mixture of plant extracts and micro-ZLL supplements. The study was carried out in Agrimat Matca farm, on a herd of 100 cows at the first lactation. The experiment consisted in the administration of 0.20 kg VILOMIL ZLL and 0.13 kg VILOMIX CLA for a period of 24 days. Observations were made on the quantity of daily milk, the milk quality and hygiene and the health of the dairy cows. We observed that at the beginning of the experiment the somatic cell contents was 800000/ml, and at the end of the experiment it decreased to 400000/ml. The quantity of milk increased between 4 and 12.5%, the fat contents decreased by 0.4 to 0.6% while the protein content was not influenced.
Rectal swabs of 198 Holstein × Gir crossbred beef cattle from 34 milk farms in the central west of Brazil were analyzed from August 2010 to February 2011. Strains of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 72.73% (144/198) of the animals, on over 97% of the surveyed properties. The molecular characterization indicated the most common toxin gene stx1 in 70.88% of the animals (202/285), followed by 18.95% (54/285) stx1/sxt2, and 10.18% (29/285) stx2. The presence of STEC in animals together with the probable risk factors based on a questionnaire was evaluated in the owners of the evaluated animals. Results showed that the animal category "calves" and production/technification scale "low" of the farm were related to high STEC prevalence in cattle. The season did not significantly affect the presence of STEC in cattle. The STEC strains are considered a major pathogen, causing severe and potentially lethal diseases in humans such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. This high prevalence of STEC in dairy cattle poses a significant risk to public health, since these microorganisms can contaminate products intended for human consumption, e.g., water, raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, dairy products, and/or products of plant origin. PMID:24510196
Ferreira, Marcos Roberto Alves; Freitas Filho, Edismauro Garcia; Pinto, Jefferson Fernando Naves; Dias, Márcia; Moreira, Cecília Nunes
Yield and quantity of milk components are influenced by nutrition goats. The present study analyzes the factors such as heredity, infection, the number of secreting cells and the temperature who often offers nutritional effects. Proper feeding can improve the economics of production, increased production of milk with a maximum amount of fat and proteins are essential. High protein content in milk increased the price difference is due to people's demand for lowfat dairy products....
Roger Stan; Ramona Iancu; Adrian Enache; Sergiu Laz?r; Alexandra P?durariu
The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.
Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc
Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator. Farmers perceived crossbreeding as success and recommended it. We conclude that farmers can realize income increase with crossbreeding. The complexity of this technology, high initial investment and the need for support services and external production inputs are probable reasons why crossbreeding uptake is low. Improving the availability of semen and/or bulls must be the top priority for breeding service providers to enable farmers to follow a breeding strategy and reach a suitable and sustainable herd performance. Access to investment capital, input supply, strong technical support and market linkages are crucial for successful crossbreeding. PMID:25230246
Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M
The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...
Fels-klerx, I.; Ro?mkens, P.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, L.
Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.
Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.
In a previous paper we have proposed a new concept of a model for the prediction of feed intake by Holstein Friesian dairy cows (Zom et al., 2011). This model predicts feed intake from feed composition and digestibility and the cow's lactation number, stage of lactation and pregnancy. Contrary to many other often used models, this does not include animal performance (milk yield, bodyweight) to predict feed intake. However, BW and MY are highly correlated with DMI. Therefore, the objective of ...
Zom, R. L. G.; Andre?, G.; Vuuren, A. M.
Full Text Available Information on effects of weather conditions on milk production of dairy cows is rather scarce. Legislation exists in some countries saying when and how protection should be available for cows on pasture. Producers refer to the extra costs, and are not always convinced of the return of investment. Therefore, (reproduction variables of high producing dairy cows were reviewed in relation to weather conditions in a mild climate. The objective was to understand mechanisms cows are using for acclimatization, which might affect (reproduction, and to propose managing tools. An overall critical dry air temperature seems to be about 16 °C, with cumulative interactions from relative humidity, wind speed, radiation and rain fall. The explanation is related to the cow’s thermoregulatory physiology associated with her heat and energy balance, as a primary need. Modulating factors, such as breed, individual capacity, feed composition and farm management have to be taken into account. The effects have to be considered as important at herd level, especially in a system with year round calving, since production might be below peak production up to six months of the year. Planning of day of calving should avoid peak production during summer, since mild heat stress might counteract the expression of genetic progress for (reproduction. However, since the most important factor seems to be the level of dry air temperature, the effects will be independent of protection or not. Hence, there will be no direct return of investment moneywise, but indirectly as appreciation from society for animal welfare.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.
N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle
Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.
Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0.26), a moderate genetic correlation with FCR (r(g) = 0.40 +/- 0.26), and a negative genetic correlation with RFI (r(g) = -0.59 +/- 0.45). The results indicate that behavior traits may contribute to the variation in the efficiency of growth of beef cattle, and there are potential correlated responses to selection to improve efficiency. Feeding behavior and temperament may need to be included in the definition of beef cattle breeding goals, and approaches such as the culling of unmanageable cattle and the introduction of correct handling facilities or early life provision of appropriate experiences to improve handling will be useful. PMID:17591713
Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S
Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of feeding preferences of ruminants may help to define diet supplementation, achieve an efficient exploitation of natural resources and preserve normal body condition of the animal. Thereafter, such knowledge may enable to improve reproductive and productive performance as well as product quality. Ruminants generally develop preferences for feed that are richer in energy, providing them a high satiety level rapidly (Provenza, 1995. Nevertheless, physical characteristics, accessibility and palatability properties of feed per se can stimulate or depress hedonic behaviour and........
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls in the VAL dataset. Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs were found genome-wide significant. Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P? Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive.
Höglund Johanna K
Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences
Feed sorting of dairy cattle is influenced by dietary forage particle size. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early exposure to rations differing in forage particle size on development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for 8 wk to 1 of 2 mixed rations containing (on a dry-matter basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3- to 4-cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2-mm) grass hay (FN; n=10), both offered ad libitum. Calves received 8L of milk replacer/d (1.2 kg of dry matter/d), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk, to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the CRS diet and were followed for 3 wk. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice per week. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken on d 1 to 4 of wk 9 and 11 for analysis of feed sorting. Sorting of the ration was assessed through analysis of nutrient intake. Actual intake of each nutrient was expressed as a percentage of predicted intake of that nutrient, based on the concentration in the fresh sample. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments after transition to the common CRS ration (3.20 kg/d, standard error=0.25 kg/d). However, feed efficiency was subject to a treatment-by-week interaction, with calves previously fed the FN diet having an initially greater gain-to-feed ratio than those fed the CRS diet [in wk 9, 0.60 vs. 0.47 kg of average daily gain (ADG)/kg of DMI] and similar feed efficiency in the following weeks (in wk 10, 0.43 vs. 0.43 kg of ADG/kg of DMI). A corresponding tendency was observed for ADG and body weight to evolve differently, depending on treatment, with calves previously fed the FN diet having greater ADG initially (in wk 9, 1.60 vs. 1.32 kg/d) but similar ADG to those fed the CRS diet in the following weeks (in wk 10, 1.39 vs. 1.33 kg/d and in wk 11, 1.32 vs. 1.31 kg/d). Calves previously fed the FN diet consumed less neutral detergent fiber as a percentage of predicted intake and tended to consume less acid detergent fiber and more nonfiber carbohydrates, as a percentage of predicted intakes, than calves previously fed the CRS diet. Given the nutrient compositions of hay and concentrate, this indicates that calves previously fed the FN diet were sorting for concentrate. These results indicate that the pattern and extent of feed sorting may be affected by early experience with rations differing in forage particle size. PMID:23522673
Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Bach, A; DeVries, T J
This study was conducted to investigate the feeding efficiency of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and the intermediateegret (Ardea intermedia) in relation to the stage of rice culture during two breeding seasons, 2006 and 2007, in Asan city,Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. Cattle egrets caught mainly small invertebrate prey (insects and spiders, 98.4%)during all stages of rice cultivation, and had a higher prey capture rate in the plowing stage (14.98 prey/min) than inother stages (2.82-3.51 ...
Yu-Seong Choi*; Sun-Sook Kim; Jeong-Chil Yoo
We looked for possible associations of SNPs in genes related to protein turnover, with growth, feed efficiency and carcass traits in feedlot Nellore cattle. Purebred Nellore bulls and steers (N = 290; 378 ± 42 kg body weight, 23 months ± 42 days old) were evaluated for daily feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), gross feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, partial efficiency of growth, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound backfat, rump fat, and ribeye area. Genotypes were obtained for SNPs in the growth hormone receptor (GHR-1 and GHR-2); calpain (CAPN4751); calpastatin (UoGCAST); ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2I (UBE2I-1 and UBE2I-2); R3H domain containing 1 (R3HDM1-1, -2, -3, and -4), ring finger protein 19 (RNF19); proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 13 (PSMD13); ribosomal protein, large, P2 (RPLP2); and isoleucine-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (IARS2) genes. Allelic substitution, additive and dominant effects were tested and molecular breeding values were computed. CAPN4751, GHR-1 and -2, IARS2, R3HDM1-4, and UoGCAST were found to be normally segregating polymorphisms. Additive and dominance effects were observed on BWG, feed efficiency and carcass traits, although dominant effects predominated. Significant allelic substitution effects were observed for CAPN4751, GHR-1 and -2, and UoGCAST on BWG, gross feed efficiency, RFI, and carcass traits, under single- or multiple-marker analyses. Correlations between molecular breeding values and phenotypes were low, excepted for RFI, based on allelic substitution estimates obtained by stepwise linear regression. We conclude that SNPs in genes related to protein turnover are related to economically important traits in Nellore cattle. PMID:24065648
Gomes, R C; Silva, S L; Carvalho, M E; Rezende, F M; Pinto, L F B; Santana, M H A; Stella, T R; Meirelles, F V; Rossi Júnior, P; Leme, P R; Ferraz, J B S
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4 pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.
Studies performed by the Brazilian Nuclear Corporation (NUCLEBRAS), in collaboration with the Geological Survey Company of Brazil (CPRM), identified high levels of natural uranium in the districts of Pedra and Venturosa, in the rural region of the state of Pernambuco (PE) - Brazil, where the maximum value found in rocks was 22,000 mg x kg-1. The raising of dairy cattle is one of the principal activities in these districts and adjacent areas. 226Ra is released by weathering of rocks rich in uranium, entering the soil and water from where it is transferred to plants, animals and humans. The aim of this research was to determine 226Ra concentrations in the milk produced in farms located in the two districts and nearby areas. The methodology used to determine and quantify 226Ra was based on the 222Rn emanation classical technique. The results of 226Ra in milk samples varied from 4 to 500 mBq x l-1. The consequences of the 226Ra intake on human health are discussed. (author)
The experiment involved observations of 2,514 Holstein-Friesian cows to determine the effects of environmental factors (cow's age, calving season, weight and sex of calves, housing system) and genetic factors on gestation length in dairy cattle and the correlation between gestation length and other reproductive traits (calving ease, stillbirth rates and placental expulsion). Genetic parameters were estimated based on the sires of calved cows (indirect effect) and the sires of live-born calves (direct effect). The following factors were found to contribute to prolonged gestation: increasing cow's age, male fetuses and growing fetus weight. Optimal gestation length was determined in the range of 275-277 days based on calving ease and stillbirth rates. The heritability of gestation length was estimated at 0.201-0.210 by the direct effect and 0.055-0.073 by the indirect effect. The resulting genetic correlations suggest that the efforts to optimize (prolong) gestation length could exert an adverse influence on the breeding value of bulls by increasing perinatal mortality and calving difficulty. The standard errors of the investigated parameters were relatively high, suggesting that any attempts to modify gestation length for the purpose of improving calving ease and reducing stillbirth rates should be introduced with great caution. PMID:25049473
Nogalski, Zenon; Piwczy?ski, Dariusz
The aim of this study was to use survival analysis to assess the relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity of Canadian dairy cattle. Data consisted of 1,702,857; 67,470; and 33,190 Holstein, Ayrshire, and Jersey cows, respectively. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving to culling, death, or censoring; adjusted for the effect of milk yield. The reproduction traits included calving traits (calving ease, calf size, and calf survival) and female fertility traits (number of services, days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open). The statistical model was a Weibull proportional hazards model and included the fixed effects of stage of lactation, season of production, the annual change in herd size, and type of milk recording supervision, age at first calving, effects of milk, fat, and protein yields calculated as within herd-year-parity deviations for each reproduction trait. Herd-year-season of calving and sire were included as random effects. Analysis was performed separately for each reproductive trait. Significant associations between reproduction traits and longevity were observed in all breeds. Increased risk of culling was observed for cows that required hard pull, calved small calves, or dead calves. Moreover, cows that require more services per conception, a longer interval between first service to conception, an interval between calving to first service greater than 90 d, and increased days open were at greater risk of being culled. PMID:18349259
Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kistemaker, G J; Sullivan, P; Van Doormaal, B J
Full Text Available Samples of soil, forage and blood serum of cattle in six villages Ganderbal district of kashmir were collected and analysed for different macro and micro mineral contents to establish the mineral correlation among soil, forage and animals. The macro and micro mineral contents in soils of Ganderbal district were higher than their respective critical levels except Mn. Similarly, in forage except for zinc all the mineral values were above critical level. The study also revealed the serum mineral values above the critical levels. The soil and forage (r=0.558 and forage and serum (r=0.463 showed significant positive correlations while, non-significant (P<0.05 positive correlation (r=0.08 between soil and serum for Cu was observed. The correlation for Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese observed between soil-forage, Forage-serum as well as soil-serum was non-sgnificant. Based on present study, supplementation of calcium, phosphorous, copper and zinc in the diet of cattle under existing feeding practices in Ganderbal district of Kashmir is imperative for better health and productivity. However, further, studies should elucidate the bioavailability and strategic dietary supplementation of minerals for livestock [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 550-553
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a significant human pathogen that resides in healthy cattle. It is thought that a reduction in the prevalence and numbers of EHEC in cattle will reduce the load of EHEC entering the food chain. To this end, an intervention strategy involving the addition of chitosan microparticles (CM) to feed in order to reduce the carriage of this pathogen in cattle was evaluated. Experiments with individual Holstein calves and a crossover study found tha...
Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Kang, Min Young; Kang, Jihun; Baumler, David J.; Kaspar, Charles W.
Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.
Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2), also named HRMT1L1, belongs to the Bovine Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) genes which are involved in the immune response. To explore the variability of the PRMT2 gene and resistance to mastitis in cows, splice variant (SV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this study. A SV (PRMT2-SV) lacking exon 7 (98-bp) of the PRMT2 gene was found in healthy and mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues. Two of four SNPs were significantly associated with bovine milk yield and protein content. Further, we estimated the relative expression of PRMT2-SV in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that expression of the PRMT2-SV mRNA was significantly upregulated 4.02-fold (pPRMT2-SV may play an important role in mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. The SNPs may be used as a possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese Holstein cattle. PMID:24502989
Li, Zhixiong; Zhai, Mengxing; Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Ru, Caixia; Song, Ailong; Liu, Xiaolin
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330
Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E
Full Text Available Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP, adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP and metabolizable protein (MP according to NRC (2001, with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5 to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5 to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05. Milk protein content decreased (p O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB, adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína metabolizável (PM (NRC, 2001 com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5% . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001. O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5 para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5 para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05 pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p < 0,01 pelo maior fornecimento de uréia (U-17,5; enquanto maior produção de proteína do leite (p < 0,01 foi observada para o tratamento SBCS-17,5. Para vacas produzindo em torno de 29 kg d-1, aumentar o teor de PB para 17,5%, por meio do maior fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão, acima das recomendações do NRC (2001 para PDR e PM, resultou em aumentos na produção de leite, leite corrigido para gordura e de proteína do leite.
The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production and health in a dairy herd. Because of indirect effects between traits, the phenotypic levels of (related) traits can change as a result of genetic changes. Economic values for milk production and b...
Nielsen, H. M.; Groen, A. F.; Ostergaard, S.; Berg, P.
Full Text Available Gelam putih (M. cajuputi Powell in Central Kalimantan, has not been exploited well. In vitro test conducted to evaluate the potential of gelam leaves as cattle feed. The measured variables were NH3, volatile fatty acids (VFA, dry matter Digestibility (DMD and organic matter Digestibility (DMO. Completely randomized design was made with 5 different treatments and 4 replications, in order to get 20 experimental units. Data were analyzed by analysis of Variance (ANOVA Followed by Duncan's multiple range test with a significance level of 5%. The results showed that the giving 100% of gelam leaves produced NH3 dan VFA for about 4.01 and 151.25 mM, also DMD and DMO by 58.35 and 52.38%. These results were significant (p<0.05, higher than the grass field, so it can be concluded that the waste of gelam leaves, potentially be used as cattle feed.
Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327
Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N
Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.3±0.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studs were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs
New approaches to limit expenses associated with input, without compromising profit, are needed in the beef industry. Residual feed intake (RFI) is an efficiency trait that measures variation in feed intake beyond maintenance, growth, and body composition. The addition of feeding behavior analysis to standard RFI tests may provide an approach to more readily identify feed-efficient cattle. The current study analyzes 7 feeding behaviors (BVFREQ: bunk visit frequency, BVDUR: bunk visit duration, FBFREQ: feed bout frequency, FBDUR: feed bout duration, MFREQ: meal frequency, MDUR: meal duration, and AMINT: average meal intake) and their relationships with RFI, ADG, and DMI in Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle. Three cohorts of yearling Wagyu animals were studied using a standard 70-d RFI test, and data from divergent ( ± 0.5 SD from population RFI mean) subsets of animals were analyzed for feeding behaviors [n = 58, bulls on high-concentrate diet (C1); n = 36, bulls on a lower-concentrate diet (C2); n = 34, heifers on a lower-concentrate diet (C3)]. The following behaviors were correlated with ADG: BVFREQ (r = 0.32, P = 0.01; C1 bulls), BVDUR (r = 0.42, P = 0.01, C2 bulls), FBFREQ (r = 0.37, P DMI for all cases except for MFREQ for C3 and AMINT for C2. Residual feed intake was positively correlated with MDUR across all cohorts (r = 0.31, P = 0.02; r = 0.38, P = 0.02; r = 0.54, P ? 0.01, respectively). For C2 bulls and C3 heifers, RFI was positively correlated with behavior frequency categories (BVFREQ; r = 0.44, P = 0.01; r = 0.60, P ? 0.01, respectively, and FBFREQ r = 0.46, P ? 0.01; r = 0.60, P ? 0.01, respectively). Bunk visit frequency and FBFREQ were highly correlated with RFI status (high or low) in C2 bulls and C3 heifers. Behavior duration categories (BVDUR, FBDUR, and MDUR) were most correlated with efficiency status in C1 bulls. However, behavior frequency categories (BVFREQ and FBFREQ), as well as MDUR, were most correlated with efficiency status in C2 bulls and C3 heifers. Inclusion of meal duration measurements when evaluating RFI provides an additional tool in understanding the drivers of variation in this important trait in Wagyu cattle. The present study provides new insights into feed intake patterns of a beef breed for which there are few reports of feeding behavior. PMID:24948647
McGee, M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial feedlot cattle was monitored throughout the feeding period by repeated bacteriologic culture of feces. Fecal pats (n = 10) in 20 feedlot pens were sampled at 2-weeks interval beginning at entry into the feedlot and continuing until slaughter. The least-squares mean C. jejuni prevalence increased from 1.6% at the first sampling to 61.3% at the final sampling just prior to slaughter. Diverse C. jejuni pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrores...
Besser, Thomas E.; Lejeune, Jeffrey T.; Rice, Daniel H.; Berg, Janice; Stilborn, R. P.; Kaya, Katherine; Bae, Wonki; Hancock, Dale D.
Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (“Chief”) and his son Walkway Chief Mark (“Mark”), each accounting for ?7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (?7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (?13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million hig...
Larkin, Dm; Daetwyler, Hd; Hernandez, Ag; Wright, Cl; Hetrick, La; Boucek, L.; Bachman, Sl; Brand; Akraiko, Tv; Cohen-zinder, M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Im; Harkin, Tt; Mccaque, Je; Hayes, Bj
A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1), Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4) and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalen...
Amira M Elhassan, M. A. Fadol And A. M. El-hussein
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC. Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS to yield long (>19 mm, medium (8 mm, short (1.18 mm, and fine particles (19 mm and reduced (P1.18 mm and fine particles (0.05 the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm. Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol. Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol. There was no response (P>0.05 of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Feeding prepartum glycerol to transition dairy cows increases the preference for the long-stem forage particles of the diet. The alternative methodology proposed in this study is more reliable than the standard methodology to determine feed sorting.
Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho
Rising milk yield is mostly considered as a reason for increasing problems in animal health. Especially breeding for high yield is subject to criticism. However, the heritability of most diseases is low making management and feeding more important. Organic farming regulations considerably limit management aspects including ratio of concentrates in the feeding ration, as well as allowable feedstuffs and medication. These restrictions limit feeding according to dairy cow requirement and migh...
In two lactation studies reported in this dissertation, it was hypothesized that feeding 35% brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS) and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis) would result in increased dry matter intake (DMI) around peak lactation compared with feeding conventional corn silage (CCS), causing longer peak milk production, and that feeding dairy cows in early lactation a 16% crude protein diet with fair quality alfalfa hay (FAH) in BMR-based diets would maintain milk production, reduce uri...
Holt, Michael Shane
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.
Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase in the annual genetic gain of 2.1% when used on the best CD and 2.7% when used on all heifers, but only the latter was statistically significant. The increased annual genetic gain was caused by a larger contribution from the CD to the BD. Use of sexed semen together with MOET on BD increased the annual genetic gain by 1.8–2.5% compared with schemes without sexed semen and MOET on all BD. Performing MOET on all BD enables selection of offspring with high Mendelian deviations, which increase the annual genetic gain. Use of sexed semen decreased the genetic lag between the sires and the CD by 12–14% when used on the best CD and by 6% when used to all