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Sample records for dairy cattle feed

  1. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.; Kadarmideen, Haja

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  2. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, ?-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed genes, co-expressed genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.

  3. Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

  4. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

  5. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, Jos M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Danil L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences. PMID:19489452

  6. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E; de Haas, Yvette; Lvendahl, Peter; Krattenmacher, Nina; Crowley, J J; Wang, Zhiquan; Spurlock, Diane; Macdonald, K; Veerkamp, Roel F; Weigel, K

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data ...

  7. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems

  8. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  9. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hglund, Johanna

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500 (AROS, Denmark). Blood samples will be collected for genotyping as well as plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, ?-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.

  10. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05) to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9%) of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  11. The effects of feed area design on the social behaviour of dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rioja-Lang, Fiona C

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows is directly related to milk production, thus a good food supply is extremely important to the modern, high producing dairy cow. Intake is critical for improving milk production, health, body condition and the welfare of the animals. Feeding designs can have a major effect on ...

  12. Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

    2000-01-01

    Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

  13. Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos

    2012-10-01

    A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082

  14. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette; Nalubwama, Sylvia; Odhong, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping...... strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years....... Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05) to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as...

  15. The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

  16. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.

  17. Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

  18. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, Jrgen E; Mller, Henrik Bjarne; Srensen, Peter; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2013-01-01

    Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed...... treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C...

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  2. Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk

    OpenAIRE

    Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins is successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged, or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards indi...

  3. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  4. Costs and practicability of clean feeding of dairy cattle during radioactive contamination of grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season

  5. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene; Forkman, Bjrn

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... the assessment of pain in dairy cattle under productionconditions....

  6. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene; Forkman, Bjrn

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... to be applied for the assessment of pain in dairy cattle under production conditions....

  7. Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 11.3 days to 92.4 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 0.19) and control groups (0.42 0.16). (author)

  8. Effect of ensiling a total mixed ration on feed quality for cattle in smallholder dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bretschneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ensiling a total mixed ration (TMR on chemical composition, fermentation and sensory characteristics. Whole-plant corn (WPC was ensiled alone, as a control, or in combination with other available local feeds. Ensiled feedstuffs were manually mixed and packed into mini-silos. Thereafter, they were stored and allowed to ferment for 75 days. Mould growth was not observed. Color was scored as good for both silage treatments, whereas odor was scored as moderate for TMR silage and good for WPC silage. The pattern and rate of decrease of pH during the storage was not different between silage treatments. However, mean pH values were different (P < 0.01; 3.81 vs. 4.38 between WPC- and TMR-silages, respectively. Relative to WPC silage, the concentration of dry matter (DM (36.58 vs. 64.25 %; P = 0.001, crude protein (9.89 vs. 18.15 %; P = 0.005 and metabolizable energy (P = 0.03; 2.51 vs. 2.80 Mcal/kg DM was higher for TMR silage, as expected. Furthermore, the neutral detergent fibre content decreased along the storage but at a different rate (P = 0.04 for each silage treatment. The rate of decrease, expressed as percentage/day, was -0.16 and -0.05 for WPC- and TMR- silage, respectively. Overall, TMR silage had adequate attributes to cope with dairy cow requirements. It is suggested that the ensiling of TMR, composed by locally available feedstuffs, is a simple and low cost technology that could aid smallholder dairy to improve their net daily income.

  9. International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, D P; Coffey, M P; Pryce, J E; de Haas, Y; Lvendahl, P; Krattenmacher, N; Crowley, J J; Wang, Z; Spurlock, D; Weigel, K; Macdonald, K; Veerkamp, R F

    2014-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the cu...

  10. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  11. Water metabolism of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M R

    1992-01-01

    Lactating dairy cows metabolize large amounts of water and are affected rapidly by water deprivation. Total body water, half-life of body water, size of component pools, and exchanges among them have been quantitated in several studies. The data underscore the dynamic nature of water metabolism in lactating cows. Water is lost in milk, urine, feces, and various forms of evaporation. Sources of water include drinking, feed, and metabolic (oxidation) water. Factors that have been shown to influence drinking behavior include eating pattern, water temperature, whether water is given in a trough or water bowl, flow rates into water bowls, animal dominance if water bowls are shared, and stray voltage. Important environmental factors modulating water consumption of dairy cattle are DMI, nature of the diet, milk production, temperature, and humidity. Equations have been proposed to predict water consumption based on measures of some of these variables. Water is of paramount importance both physiologically and nutritionally; therefore, it is not surprising that its metabolism indirectly may affect many feeding and management decisions. Ample water of acceptable quality must be provided to maximize milk production. PMID:1541739

  12. Mycotoxin Contaminating Maize and Grass Silages for Dairy Cattle Feeding: Current State and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    TANGNI, Emmanuel Kossi; Pussemier, Luc; van Hove, Franois

    2013-01-01

    Silages may represent 50-80 % of the total amount of diet for dairy cows during the winter. There is overwhelming evidence of contamination of maize and grass silages with fungi and associated trichothecenes, fumonisins, zearalenone, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A as well as some emerging mycotoxins (agroclavine, andrastin A, beauvericin, enniatins, festuclavine, fusaric acid, mevinolin, mycophenolic acid, roquefortins, T2/HT2 toxins). From year to year, multi contaminations often occurred with sea...

  13. Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, Jrgen E; Mller, Henrik Bjarne; Srensen, Peter; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2013-01-01

    Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed...

  14. Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

  15. Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.0150.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Yea-Sacc (Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed additive for cattle for fattening, goats for fattening, dairy cows, dairy sheep, dairy goats and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yea-Sacc is an additive based on a live preparation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intended for use as a zootechnical additive. It is produced in a powder (Yea-Sacc and in a prills (Yea-Sacc TS form. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the production strain has been established, safety for the target species, consumer and the environment is presumed. Both formulations are non-irritant to skin, Yea-Sacc TS is non-irritant to the eye whilst Yea-Sacc is a moderate irritant. In the absence of data both formulations should be considered skin sensitisers. As both forms are highly proteinaceous, they should be considered as potential respiratory sensitisers. Yea-Sacc TS is designed to reduce dustiness and no significant exposure of users is to be expected for this form. In the absence of data on the dusting potential of Yea-Sacc, it would be prudent to treat it as a respiratory sensitiser. Based on the results of four trials Yea-Sacc was shown to have the potential to increase milk production in dairy cows when supplied at a minimum dose of 5 x 107 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor species used for milk production can be presumed when used at the same minimum dose. Yea-Sacc was also shown to have a potential to improve the production of cattle raised for fattening at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor ruminant species reared for meat production can be presumed at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed.

  17. International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, D P; Coffey, M P

    2014-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.

  18. Determination of Boron Level in Feeds Used in Cattle Nutrition in Regions of Central Anatolia and Mediterranean of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SERBESTER, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, samples of forage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, silage of common vetch with triticale, wheat straw), feed ingredient (barley grain, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran, corn meal, corn bran, corn gluten meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dried digestible grain solubilty), and concentrate feed (calf grower feed, heifer feed, dairy cattle feed and beef cattle feed) were collected from various feed mills and dairy cattle farms in the Central Anatolia and M...

  19. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.55.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.41.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.89.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.0917.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.916.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.51.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  20. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical observations, and thereby identify major nutritional and management constraints to productivity, - investigate approaches for improving productivity in dairy cattle by increasing the utilization of basal diets and other locally available fed resources, - monitor the effectiveness of nutritional and management interventions by measuring performance indicators such as body weight, body condition, milk production and reproductive performance (using radioimmunoassay and other clinical observations), - establish whether differences in productivity correlate with selected metabolic indicators in blood, which might thereby prove useful as predictors of nutritional constraints

  1. Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Amorim Franchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.

  2. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SZCS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

  3. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (Pfeeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (Pfeeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region. PMID:24216152

  4. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded to the treatment. Six behaviours were found to be significantly different between the pain and non-pain group and robust enough to be included in the pain scale: attention towards the surroundings head position, ears position, facial expressions, response to approach and back position (a seventh, piloerection, was also significant but seemed difficult to use as it changed rapidly; p?dairy cattle under production conditions.

  5. Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.M.; Islam, M S; Kamal, A. H. M.; A.K.M.A. Rahman; Cho, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF) in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% an...

  6. Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.

  7. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken into consideration as their effects in brain lesions. There was a correlation between contaminant found in animal feeds and pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues of dairy cattle.

  8. Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shawn S, Donkin.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

  10. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

  11. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,

  12. Thermophilic methane production from dairy cattle waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlt, J.E. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Animal Science); Frobish, R.A. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA)); Davis, C.L.; Mackie, R.I. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Animal Sciences); Bryant, M.P. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Animal Sciences Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Microbiology)

    1990-01-01

    Methane production from waste of dairy cattle fed diets containing 72% roughage (dry matter basis) was investigated in anaerobic reactors at 60{sup 0}C with retention times (RT) set at 3, 6 and 9 days. Influent concentrations of volatile solids (VS) were increased in steps of 2% from 4 to 14% VS or until the reactor failed due to excess substrate. Gas production was measured and samples of effluent taken for six consecutive days after allowing three volume turnovers for each increment of VS. The maximum concentration of VS in the substrate for highest volumetric fermentation efficiency was 8-10, 10-12 and 12 for RT of 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively. Destruction of VS for these and lower substrate concentrations was 19-24, 26-27 and 30-33% for 3-, 6-and 9-day RT reactors, respectively. The corresponding methane production rates were 0.09-0.12, 0.11-0.14 and 0.11-0.16 liters/day/g of VS in substrate. The gas contained 51-56% methane with the rest mainly carbon dioxide. Increasing the percentage of feed VS beyond the values indicated resulted in greatly decreased VS destruction and methane production. (author).

  13. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4MJ and 250g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5MJ and 630g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest that in forage-based dairy production systems, wheat bran and sugar beet pulp could replace common cereal grains in mid-lactation dairy cows without impairing performance, while strongly increasing human-edible feed conversion efficiency and net food production index. PMID:26709167

  14. The influence of housing on claw lameness in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Navis, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains an important issue because of economic losses and the negative effects on animal welfare. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the effects of housing parameters on claw lameness in dairy cattle. The Cow Comfort Scoring system of van Eerdenburg was used assessing housing parameters and cow comfort on 14 Dutch commercial dairy farms. The 14 farms were visited once between March and July 2011. A total of 1626 lactating dairy cows were individually sco...

  15. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  16. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was 1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...

  17. Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

  18. Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koknaroglu, Hayati [Suleyman Demirel University, Department of Animal Science, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (<40%, 52 farms), intermediate (ILC) (40-50%, 36 farms) and high (HLC) (>50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production. (author)

  19. Transmission of Salmonella mbandaka to cattle from contaminated feed.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, P. W.; P. Collins(European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland); Brown, G T; Aitken, M

    1982-01-01

    Salmonella mbandaka was isolated from cattle on three dairy farms. The duration of infection was less than four weeks and none of the animals became clinically ill. The animals had all consumed a diet containing a vegetable fat supplement contaminated with S. mbandaka and this was shown to be the source of the infections. It is significant that a feed containing purely vegetable components was incriminated.

  20. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  1. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.59.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.29.0%, 85.58.0% and 86.55.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.65.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.85.8% and 54.14.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance distance test classified 70.46.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.93.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  2. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Radeski; Aleksandar Janevski; Vlatko Ilieski

    2015-01-01

    The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP) described in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for da...

  3. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323

  4. Effects of corn silage particle size, supplemental hay, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen pH, feed preference, and milk fat profile of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared with d 17 for cows fed SH. Under the conditions of these experiments, cows selected for shorter particles compared with longer particles, despite the rumen challenge. However, when feeding a 50:50 F:C diet, feeding long corn silage TMR or supplementing the diet with grass hay increased rumen pH, acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, and rate of recovery from SARA. PMID:25958273

  5. Diquat poisoning of dairy cattle by topical application.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J. G.; Kernatz, S

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported.

  6. Marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)

  7. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 19002010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    resulted in an increased GHG emission per kg milk than in the preceding and following periods (2.23; 1.38; 1.94; 1.20 kg CO2-eq. per kg ECM in the respective periods). It is concluded that the biological and technical development has made it possible to reduce the environmental load of dairy production......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and...... emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 representing a...

  8. Detection of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in a dairy feed component by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, P G

    1996-11-01

    A dairy feed that contained barley malt screenings caused hyperthermia in dairy cattle. The feed was suspected of containing ergot and was subsequently analyzed to determine the ricinoleate component, a special and prominent feature of oil-rich ergot tissue. Triglyceride oil was extracted by organic solvents from the dairy feed, and the oil was saponified to release fatty acids. Ricinoleate, as a methyl ester, was selectively resolved from other fatty acids by silica gel chromatography and was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which demonstrated the presence of the methyl ricinoleate molecule and proved that the feed contained ergot. The methodology may be refined to monitor for ergot in powdered dairy feed more routinely. PMID:8961105

  9. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or inferiority that will transmit to its offspring. PMID:25529426

  10. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  11. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  12. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  13. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions. PMID:20821700

  14. Characteristics of feeding and breeding practices for intensification of smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands

    OpenAIRE

    B O Bebe; Udo, H. M. J.; Thorpe, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at better understanding of the characteristics of feeding and breeding practices smallholder farmers adopt in intensifying their dairy production. Use of hired labour for fodder gathering, growing of fodder crops and purchase of feeds increased with increasing intensification, but Bos taurus breeds did not respond to increasing feeding intensification while Bos indicus cattle responded, calving at earlier age and yielding more milk. Overall, first calving occurred at 32 month...

  15. Design and Experiment on Self-propelled Precise Feeding Equipment for Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Hewei Meng; Zhenjiang Gao; Xiaoling Luo; Za Kan; Hai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID,to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to e...

  16. The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Arney, David R; Waran, Natalie K; Handel, Ian G; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-12-01

    Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 outdoor lactating dairy cows; experiment 2 (E2), 120 housed lactating dairy cows; experiment 3 (E3), 18 housed dairy calves; and experiment 4 (E4), 22 housed dairy bulls] from which a subset of individuals were permanently removed (E1, n=7; E2, n=5; E3, n=9; E4, n=18). Associations between individuals were established using near-neighbor scores (based upon identities and distances between animals recorded before removal) in E1, E2, and E3. Behavioral recordings were taken for 3 to 5 d, before and after removal on a sample of cattle in all 4 experiments (E1, n=20; E2, n=20; E3, n=9; E4, n=4). In 2 experiments with relatively large groups of dairy cows, E1 and E2, the responses of cows that did and did not associate with the removed cows were compared. An increase in time that both nonassociates and associates spent eating was observed after conspecific removal in E1. In E2, this increase was restricted to cows that had not associated with the removed cows. A reduction in ruminating in remaining cattle was observed in E3 and eating in E4. Immunoglobulin A concentrations increased after separation in both E3 and E4 cattle, but did not differ significantly between associates and nonassociates in E2. Blood and milk cortisol concentrations were not affected by conspecific removal. These findings suggest that some animals had affected feeding behavior and IgA concentrations after removal of conspecifics. PMID:26454304

  17. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  18. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  19. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmn, Luca T; Montao, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). PMID:25623969

  20. Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Germn Mendoza; Mario Cobos; Ricardo Brcena; Ignacio Domnguez; Sergio Segundo Gonzlez; Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodrguez; Jos Luis Brquez

    2010-01-01

    Feeding cattle manure (CM) for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO), bakery by-products (BBP) and tallow (TW) was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1) control: CM and MO; 2) LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3) HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4) LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5) HTW: CM, BBP and high level ...

  1. Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Canali; Valentina Ferrante; Michela Minero; Daniela Baroli; Christine Klotz; Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy) by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management) indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and desi...

  2. Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

  3. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bnkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica, IBGE. Paran state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paran. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on soil surface and is less demanding on machinery and fuel. Besides that, it represents an economic and environmental costly technique. Among interviewed milk producers, 77.2% adopted no-tillage technique and 75.9% made use of plot rotation. Other practices were less used by milk producers, such as agroecology system (12.6% of sample; 20.2% informed to adopt technique to reduce water consumption, such as the collection of roof water and the construction of cisterns. Finally, 12.6% of producers adopted energy saving practices. We concluded that practices adopted by great number of producers can be more related to economic and quality variables, with an indirect effect on environmental factors. It means that, although practices can help to reduce negative environmental impact, there are still many possibilities to increase environmental sustainable competitiveness in dairy cattle in Paran.

  4. A comparison of two animal welfare protocols for dairy cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    For the scoring of cow comfort more options are possible. In this study two scoring systems are compared, being the cow comfort score system [20] and the Welfare Quality assessment protocol for dairy cattle [21]. These scoring systems are developed to score the welfare of dairy cows. The study was performed in the northern part of Greece during February and March 2010 by two investigators combined with another study. A random sample of eight farms were visited, the size of the farms differe...

  5. Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    K. Simenew; M. Wondu

    2013-01-01

    This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...

  6. Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Seongwon Seo; Woonsu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe ...

  7. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the...... predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  8. Mycoplasma bovis infections in Swiss dairy cattle: a clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michle

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203

  9. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Brochard, Mickael

    2012-01-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and meta...

  10. Treatment of peunomovaginitis in dairy cattle by caslick operation

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dehghani,; Yavari, M.; M. KAFI

    2011-01-01

    Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome...

  11. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 19002010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 representing a local-based production, (B) 1950 representing a period with emerging mechanization and introduction of new technologies and a more global market, (C) 1980 representing a period with heavy use of external resources like fertilizer and feed protein and (D) 2010 today with focus on balancing production and risk of environmental damage. In A, B and C, other livestock such as pigs and hens also played a role, whilethe dairy farm in 2010 only had cattle. In 1920 and 1950 the farm was based on 78 dairy cows producing typically 18003400 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow annually and fed primarily on pasture and hay, only to a limited extent supplemented with imported protein. In 1980 the herd size had increased to 20 dairy cows producing 5000 kg ECM each, and feeding was with silage instead of hay, but still included grazing and there was a larger proportion of imported feed. In 2010 the herd had increased to 134 dairy cows producing 9000 kg ECM per cow and fed indoors all year. During this period net energy used for milk and meat in % of total intake and land use per 1000 kg of milk has steadily decreased as a consequence of higher milk yield per cow and higher yields of forage per ha. In opposition, the utilization of N in the herd, while increasing from 1920 to 1950 and to 2010 showed a drop in the 1980 system, where also the environmental N surplus per ha farmland was highest (40; 65; 226; 148 kg N per ha farmland in the respective periods). The lower N efficiency in 1980 also resulted in an increased GHG emission per kg milk than in the preceding and following periods (2.23; 1.38; 1.94; 1.20 kg CO2-eq. per kg ECM in the respective periods). It is concluded that the biological and technical development has made it possible to reduce the environmental load of dairy production significantly, but that this requires a strong focus on nitrogen management at the farm level and production efficiency in the herd.

  12. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cssio Jos da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; Jos Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  13. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine the relationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results of the Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated with sharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationship was found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, there were significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health as performance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the only significant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significant relationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly related factors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to access services, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. This study also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraging greater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education for empowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  14. High partial feed conversion efficiency appears to be a persistent trait associated with reduction in selected measures of methane emissions in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States enteric methane (CH4) contributes approximately 21% of all anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Alongside dietary manipulations, exploiting among-animal variation in feed conversion efficiency (FCE) may offer possible CH4 mitigation strategies. This experiment was designed to evaluate t...

  15. FEATURES OF REPRODUCTION PROCESS IN DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpak N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the economic essence and general rules of the reproductive process in dairy cattle breeding. We have analyzed a modern condition of subsector: change in the numbers of livestock, breed and numerical structure of evaluation dates cattle, the volume of generation of raw milk, the profitability of its production and realization. We have also analyzed the balance of resources and use of milk, level of consumption and dynamics of imports dairy products in Russia. Reduction of volumes of raw milk has resulted into a deficiency of food of its own production, an increase in of import deliveries of milk and of dairy products. As a result of the conducted research we revealed some tendencies, that have a negative impact on the reproductive processes of in dairy cattle breeding: a long period of reproduction, disparity of prices on milk and the products industrial organizations, the destruction of permanent integration ties, high degree of deterioration of the equipment, strengthening of the process technological degradation, non-observance of technology of feeding and livestock, poor use of the genetic potential of animals, monopoly processing and trade organizations, weak susceptibility subsector to innovative technologies. Perfection of reproductive process in the subsector assumes growth of solvency of economic subjects at the expense of reduce the level of disparity in prices, optimization of interbranch of mutual relations, development of cooperation and of agroindustrial integration

  16. Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

  17. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzato, N.; Capello, K.; Comin, A.; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Sren Saxmose; Vicenzoni, G.; Arrigoni, N.

    2011-01-01

    used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of...

  18. Genomic Selection and its Effects on Dairy Cattle Breeding Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of high-throughput assays for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has led to the genotyping of thousands of dairy cattle, mostly progeny tested bulls in artificial insemination programs or young bulls that are candidates for such programs, using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip...

  19. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle excluding dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smink, W. [Feed Innovation Services FIS, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    The methane production in The Netherlands from 1990 to 2002 was calculated via the IPCC-GPG Tier 2 (Good Practice Guidance) method. In this calculation no nutritional mechanistic approach can be used to decrease the methane production. Therefore, the calculation of the methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows is recently carried out with dynamic modelling. Another model has been used which is based on a rumen model. The input for the intake of feed in the model for dairy cows in milk and in calf is based on the intake figures of the requirement of energy (i.e. VEM or feed unit of lactation) system. In order to be in line with the dairy cows, the calculation of methane production of the other cattle categories should be also be based on the VEM system. The goal of the study is to calculate the methane production from enteric fermentation in all cattle categories excluding dairy cows, based on the VEM system.

  20. Recycled poultry bedding as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Darrell L; Poore, Matthew H; Capucille, Dawn J; Rogers, Glenn M

    2002-07-01

    Since the 1950s, recycled poultry bedding has been used as an economical feedstuff for beef cattle. It has been extensively studied at several experiment stations around the world with regard to its safety and nutritional aspects. It will continue to be closely scrutinized as the public increases its awareness of agricultural issues. As this study was being prepared, the news media was "spotlighting" bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Currently, in the United States there is a ban on incorporation of mammalian-derived protein feeds into ruminant diets. This has led to a requirement of beef cattle producers signing affidavits indicating that they had met this obligation. Some poultry companies use ruminant meat and bone meal in broiler diets when least-cost formulation indicates that it is economically desirable. This then poses the question of whether feeding RPB to beef cattle should be permitted if the birds had been fed ruminant meat and bone meal. It also raises the question of whether cattle grazing pastures fertilized with RPB are exposed to ruminant meat and bone meal. Because of the importance of pasture fertilization as a waste disposal solution for the poultry industry, it seems that the issue will be quickly resolved by omitting the ruminant meat and bone meal from poultry diets should concerns increase. Use of RPB, like many byproduct feeds, requires a higher level of management expertise than traditional feeds. Despite the potential problems discussed in this study, an informed beef cattle producer can gain a financially competitive edge by using RPB. A simple processing method, deep-stacking under polyethylene sheeting, can produce a safe product that will provide a complete diet when blended with an energy source and supplemented with some long-stem fiber. The diets can be used for both brood cows and stocker calves for extended periods of time, and the practice of feeding RPB is safe for both cattle and consumers [45]. Economic parameters will influence the future use of RPB; however, the general public's perception and acceptance will ultimately determine its long-term use. PMID:12235660

  1. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace minerals. Furthermore, opportunities for specific modulation of aspects of health, milk production, and reproduction through supplementation strategies for diets of transition dairy cows are attractive because of the known dynamics of energy metabolism, immune function, and oxidative metabolism during this timeframe. PMID:24305870

  2. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem with serious economic consequences. On average, foot disorders cost 53 per cow per year, of which indirect cost factors are the main cause. Subclinical foot disorders, which are the foot disor...

  3. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% p...

  4. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  5. Explorative research into quality of slurry manure from dairy farms with different feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Reijs, J.W.; Meijer, W.H.; de Bakker, E.J.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield on undisturbed plots under cages were studied for a grass monoculture and a grass/clover mixture. The bio-a...

  6. Assessment time of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, M. de; Engel, B; Uijl, I.; Schaik, G., van; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, IJ.M., de; Bakkers, E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality (WQ) protocols are increasingly used for assessing welfare of farm animals. These protocols are time consuming (about one day per farm) and, therefore, costly. Our aim was to assess the scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle. Seven trained observers quantified animal-based indicators of the WQ protocol in 181 loose-housed and 13 tied Dutch dairy herds (herd size from 10 to 211 cows). Four assessment methods were used: avoidance ...

  7. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  8. Design and Experiment on Self-propelled Precise Feeding Equipment for Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewei Meng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID,to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to equal-diameter and variable-pitch screw feeding structure to realize the precise concentrated feed supply, equipment performance test shown that the system speed 60rpm is the most stable when feeding, feeding accuracy not less than 97.5%, to meet the feeding requirements, equipped with the best traveling speed is 0.6m/s, the response time of the system is 0.4s, the recognition rate is 96%; through one-month feeding experiment in the dairy cow farm showed that the milk production was increased, the average daily milk yield of individual cows improve 0.8kg than artificial feeding.

  9. International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Canavesi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

  10. Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (

  11. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  12. THE ESTIMATE INDEX OF WELFARE AT DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ?IBRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have described in this paper the impact of closing elements of the shelter over the dairy cattle. After an analysis of animal waist, it is verify the way in which the stand, the limitation bars and the distance between the bars influence the behavior, as a welfare index. Next, the floor impact over the expression mode of the sudden movement and also over the heat manifestation was analyzed.

  13. Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boichard, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information...

  14. Genetic tools to improve reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Michot, Pauline; Baur, Aurlia; Saintilan, Romain; Hoz, Chris; Valour, Damien; Guillaume, Franois; Boichon, D; BARBAT, Anne; Boichard, Didier; Schibler, Laurent; Fritz, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Fertility is a major concern in the dairy cattle industry and has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 20 years. Surprisingly, most of these studies focused on rough female phenotypes and, despite their important role in reproductive success, male- and embryo-related traits have been poorly investigated. In recent years, the rapid and important evolution of technologies in genetic research has led to the development of genomic selection. The generalisation of this method in comb...

  15. Serological and molecular diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    GÜMÜŞSOY, KADİR SEMİH; İÇA, Tuba; ABAY, SEÇİL; AYDIN, FUAT; HIZLISOY, HARUN

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the presence of paratuberculosis was investigated by serological and molecular methods in herds of dairy cattle. Blood, milk, and stool samples of 147 cows aged 2 years old or older with chronic diarrhea were collected. A California mastitis test (CMT) was performed on milk samples. Indirect paratuberculosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for serological investigation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized for molecular identification of Mycobact...

  16. Zinc and copper in dairy cattle feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Goselink, R.M.A.; A.W. Jongbloed

    2011-01-01

    Koper (Cu) en zink (Zn) zijn belangrijke spoorelementen in melkveerantsoenen, aangezien beide mineralen wijdverspreid en essentieel zijn in de stofwisseling. Een overmaat aan Cu en Zn wordt uitgescheiden in de mest, wat leidt tot een stapeling in het milieu. Vanuit het milieu bezien is het dan ook gewenst om de Cu- en Zn-niveaus in voedermiddelen terug te dringen, zodat de excretie via de mest geminimaliseerd wordt zonder daarbij de diergezondheid en dierprestaties te schaden. In deze review ...

  17. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joo Cruz, Reis Filho; Rui da Silva, Verneque; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Paulo Svio, Lopes; Fernanda Santos Silva, Raidan; Fabio Luiz Buranelo, Toral.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d), fat [...] (fat 305-d), protein (protein 305-d), lactose (lactose 305-d), and total solids (TS 305-d) yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM), age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d) and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  18. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  19. Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwon Seo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.

  20. Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and design; however, in these situations good stockmenship seems to be able to compensate for structural lacks.

  1. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    OpenAIRE

    R. Tocci; Rovida, A.; S. Squilloni; S. Gemini; Riccio, F.; Casini, M.; C. Lotti; A. DE MARTINI; G. Lorenzini

    2010-01-01

    One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI), were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A), and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B). We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digest...

  2. Evaluate Bussines Study of Dairy Cattle on Financial Aspect at Dairy Cattle Farmers Partnership Project In Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudri Aunurohman

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to (1 evaluate feasibility business study on financial aspect dairy cattle farmers partnership government project in Banyumas Regency, (2 to study and to analyze farm management dairy cattle (cost and revenue at the fifth year on business study dairy cattle. The study applied survey methode. Sample was collected in two step. The first step, determining location of study using purposive sampling technique. Four subregencies that accepted cows from government in 1998 were chosin as the location. The Second step determining responders of study using purposive sampling technique by collecting all breeders on the locations that accepted the government support in the form of cows in 1998. Result of this research indicated on breeders that accepted the support in form of one cows and two cows was assumed feasible as reflected by Net Present Value (NPV > 0 ; Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C ratio > 1 ; Internal Rate of Return (IRR > I (Social discount rate. At the fifth year, revenue were in form of one cow Rp 6.456.000,00 and two cows Rp 10.545.000,00. Profit received as one cow Rp 2.997.160,00 and two cows Rp 5.418.700,00. (Animal Production 6(2: 76-85 (2004 Key Words: Feasibility study, Farmer income, Farmer profitability

  3. Effects of Essential Oils on Feed Efficiency, Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin ay?ro?lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are secondary compounds obtained from several parts of plants. They play an important role in the protection of the plants as antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, insecticides in nature. Along with the prohibition of the use of antibiotics as feed additives in a lot of countries around the world, scientists have accelerated the search for safer and more natural feed additive. In this respect, essential oils and their active components have come to the fore as an alternative feed ingredient. In this review, effects of essential oils on feed intake, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and its composition in dairy cattle were evaluated.

  4. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette; Kiggundu, Muhammad; Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Halberg, Niels; Githigia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... used by farmers in Kajiado. This study indicated that four major challenges exist for organic dairy cattle management in Kenya, which need to be addressed in future research and development: 1) the use of robust breeds and the breeding strategies; 2) grazing and access to outdoor areas; 3) feeding in...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare...

  5. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from U.S. dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To estimate prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci in feces collected in 2007 from U.S. dairy cattle. Methods and Results: A total of 718 fecal samples from 122 dairy cattle operations from 17 U.S. states were collected and cultured for the presence of enterococci. One ...

  6. Reproductive Characteristics of Holstein Cattle Reared in a Private Dairy Cattle Enterprise in Ayd?n

    OpenAIRE

    TRKYILMAZ, Mehmet Kenan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive performance and the factors influencing reproductive performance of Holstein cattle reared in a private dairy cattle enterprise. Over 10 years, 480 records on reproduction were analysed with the least squares technique. Mean days open, services per conception, gestation period and calving interval were 114.5 1.7 days, 2.01 0.04, 278.7 0.3 days and 394.9 1.9 days, respectively. The effect of the lactation number on the gestation...

  7. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 14.57 kg and 167 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  8. Ethological aspects on water supply for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Daniel Cazale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C; the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C; the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R. Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001. Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001, took more sips (p<0.001 and spent more time drinking (p<0.001 from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.

  9. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organisations were established to meet the demand for breeding cattle from abroad. In 1904, the Dutch Herd Book Organisation was reorganised, aiming its breeding policy at three well-defined types of ca...

  10. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all ...

  11. Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hashim Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

  12. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare. Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47%) to control ticks, while all incidences of diseases were treated by a veterinarian. Most of the cattle housing flooring were made of concrete (87%) with only one farmer regularly using bedding for the cows. Cows were mainly fed fresh Napier grass (60%) in Kiambu while natural grasses (43%) was the main feed used by farmers in Kajiado. This study indicated that four major challenges exist for organic dairy cattle management in Kenya, which need to be addressed in future research and development: 1) the use of robust breeds and the breeding strategies; 2) grazing and access to outdoor areas; 3) feeding in terms of stability and self sufficiency of enough nutritious feed; and 4) the handling of diseases and pests using poisons, chemical medicines, along with the development of viable alternative disease handling strategies

  13. Fine mapping of female fertility qtl in french dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ben jemaa, Slim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to map finely female fertility (FF) QTL in the three main French dairy cattle breeds Prim'Holstein, Normande and Montbeliarde. The first step consisted in detecting QTL on 78 families in 12 genomic regions. Six FF QTL were found in Prim'Holstein and two in Normande breeds. In the second step of the study, the QTL on bovine chromosomes BTA01, BTA02, BTA03 and BTA21 were mapped on a sub-sample of 41 families and the confidence interval for BTA01 and BTA03 QTL was redu...

  14. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne; Moyes, Kasey

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does...... our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological...... imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a...

  15. Measuring reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs

  16. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and welfare of dairy cows under the intensive conditions of modern automated dairy farms.

  17. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  18. Effect of cattle dung from farms with different feeding strategies on germination and initial root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Bosker, T.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cattle dung from four farms with different feeding strategies was used in a bioassay to determine phytotoxicity. The first farm was an extensive organic farm (ORGE) with young steers grazing on a highly biodiverse sward. Second, an intensive organic farm (ORGI) was included with dairy cattle grazing on a grass/clover sward during daytime and fed low-protein forages indoors. Next, dung from an integrated farm (INT) was used where the feeding strategy aimed at high dung quality by including str...

  19. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  20. Hyperthermic syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of ergots of Claviceps purpurea in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Marcia R S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Barros, Claudio S L

    2003-06-01

    A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to 70% of cattle from those herds were affected. The disease occurred after the introduction of a new batch of feed contaminated with sclerotia of C. purpurea. First clinical signs were observed up to 3 mo after the ration was introduced and consisted of pyrexia, intense salivation and drooling, open-mouth, difficult breathing, in some cases with the tongue protruded, decrease in milk yield, decrease in food intake and weight loss. Affected cattle compulsively sought shade or water ponds. Signs were more pronounced during daytime. The severity of the clinical picture varied according to changes in environmental temperature during the day. There was complete recovery approximately 60 d after feeding with the contaminated ration was discontinued. Abortions occurred during the outbreak and soon after the remission of the clinical signs associated with HS. In one of the herds, reproductive performance and fertility were seriously impaired even after clinical signs of HS completely disappeared. Diagnosis was based on epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the occurrence of HS are briefly discussed. PMID:12776790

  1. Longevity as an Animal Welfare Issue Applied to the Case of Foot Disorders in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    In current dairy farming it is possible to run a profitable farm without having to adapt the system to the needs of dairy cows. In such systems the interests of the farmer and animals often diverge. Consequently, specific animal welfare problems occur. Foot disorders in dairy cattle are an illustrative example resulting from the specific methods of housing and management in current dairy farming. Foot disorders and the resulting lameness are considered the most important welfare problem in da...

  2. Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

  3. FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

  4. [Eradication of Prototheca zopfii infection in a dairy cattle herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rsler, U; Hensel, A

    2003-09-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds. PMID:14560445

  5. Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Simenew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, transition cow program and reproductive performance, immunosuppressant effect of transition period, early predictors of disorders and major abnormalities are discussed in an informative way. Future potential areas of research and possible challenges are also indicated briefly. Finally, it is concluded that despite decades of research in the area of transition cow health and management the high incidence of health disorders around calving continues to negatively affect milk production and reproductive performance; and as recommendation, implementing a transition nutrition program with the help of nutritionists can help dairy herd avoid most of the costly problems and molecular level research studies should get due attention to further understand the situation and devise proper intervention techniques.

  6. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  7. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  8. Seroprevalence of Neospora Caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Moghaddam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and aborted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to detect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cattle are recommended.

  9. Gossypol content of cotton free commercial feed for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ricci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a yellow pigment occurring in all parts of cotton plants, with the highest levels found in seeds, and it exhibits a variety of toxic effects. Few data are available on the content of gossypol in the commercial complementary feed and in feed raw materials. The present study was focused on the investigation of the presence of free gossypol in commercial complementary feed not containing cotton. A total of 50 samples of commercial complementary feed for dairy cows were performed in 29 feed mills both using and not using cotton as feed material. The free gossypol contamination resulted under the detection limit of the technique (4 mg/kg in 12 out of 50 samples analysed and ranged from 4 to 20 mg/kg in 28 samples. In 10 samples the level of free gossypol ranged from 20 to 29.5 mg/kg. Average contamination of samples was 12.29.2 SD mg/kg. No significant difference (P=0.571 was shown in free gossypol concentration between feed produced in cotton free plants and in plants where cotton is used as feed material. Free gossypol content detected in the present study allows considering complementary feed for dairy cows not at risk. On the other hand, the detection of free gossypol in cotton free complementary feed, probably attributable to cross contamination of feed materials upstream of the feed mill, should be further investigated.

  10. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26010136

  11. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qi-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Yin, Ming-Yang; Hu, Ling-Ying; Qin, Si-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors with infection were assessed in dairy cattle from Gansu Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NXHAR), northwest China. In total, 1657 serum samples were collected and assayed by the modified agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 4.83% at a 1:100 cut-off, with titers of 1:100 in 72, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4. Among the risk factors examined, no statistically significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and regions or age of dairy cattle in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. However, numbers of pregnancies of dairy cattle was considered as main risk factor associated with T. gondii infection. Dairy cattle in nulliparity group (8.89%) had 6 times (OR=6.31, 95% CI, 2.69-14.83, Pdairy cattle in 3 or above 3 pregnancies group (1.52%), followed by 1 pregnancy group (4.27%) had nearly 3 times (OR=2.89, 95% CI, 1.11-7.52, P = 0.03) higher risk of being seropositive compared to dairy cattle in 3 or above 3 pregnancies group, although no statistical difference was found between 2 pregnancies group and 3 or above 3 pregnancies group (P = 0.70). The results of this survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in Gansu Province and NXHAR, which enriches the epidemiological data of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in China, and is helpful to strengthen prevention and control of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in these two regions. PMID:26408581

  12. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Massimo, Scacchia; Andrea, Di Provvido; Carla, Ippoliti; Uqbazghi, Kefle; Tesfaalem T, Sebhatu; Annarita, D' Angelo; Fabrizio, De Massis.

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross- | sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) a [...] nd positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77% (417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucella species, with a variable and generally I: low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% -2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota I: from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis I: eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  13. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control. PMID:23718833

  14. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairycattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the RoseBengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT.A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% 3.05% of the animals testedin this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generallylow distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was foundin the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regionallevels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicotafrom the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in theMaekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overalllow brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosiseradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible.However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raisetheir awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive publicawareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairymovement control.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China?s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. PMID:25262083

  16. Genetic evaluation of reproductive performance in Canadian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Miglior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.

  17. Residues of tritium-labeled morantel in lactating dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl-3H2]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 ?g/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound

  18. ARTIFICIAL INDUCTION OF LACTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. M. Ecco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researches used the combination of ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone, by itself or in combination, to promote the development of the mammary gland and induction of lactation in cattle. However, only recently with development of new technologies, such as the culture of mammary cells in vitro, molecular mechanisms of the hormones in specific genes was possible to know the functioning of animal physiology and define the function of each hormone in the control of mamogenesis, lactogenesis and galactopoesis. The use of new drugs many of these techniques have reached up to 100% success rate in induction and produced good quantities of milk at a low cost of induction, being a alternative easy application and profitable for the dairy farms. In this sense, the aim of this study was to review the physiology of lactation, as well to evaluate the protocols described in literature

  19. Financial Analysis of Dairy Cattle Farm on the Farming Company Level

    OpenAIRE

    H Setiyawan; SI Santoso; Mukson

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of ...

  20. Response, Effectiveness and Accuracy of Different Selection Methods and Intensities In Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    SA Santosa; ATA Sudewo; Susanto, A.; Iswoyo

    2009-01-01

    A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU) was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1) to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2) to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods an...

  1. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on production and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollari, F L; Wangsuphachart, V L; DiGiacomo, R F; Evermann, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis...

  2. The Genome Response to Artificial Selection: A Case Study in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sebastien; Jaffrzic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean Louis

    2009-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three ...

  3. Economic feed utilization for dairy buffalo under intensive agricultural system

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, I

    2007-01-01

    The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly &ldquo...

  4. Genetic and phenotypic analyses of claw traits in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    HÀggman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Growing public interest in production animal welfare and the considerable costs (e.g. milk loss and involuntary culling) associated with claw disorders and lameness have resulted in a need to study how claw health can be improved in practice. Good claw health is essential for cows in modern dairy farming since herd sizes are increasing and almost all new herds are loose housed, with the cows walking to the milking parlour or to the automatic milking system and to feed. The overall aim of...

  5. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlne; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.76.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.08.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.244.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  6. Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

    2012-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 2.06) and MS (33.3 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. PMID:22612932

  7. Modelling the effects of genetic line and feeding system on methane emissions from dairy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle make a significant contribution to global methane emissions. Milking cows in the UK make up about a fifth of the total cattle population, with Holstein-Friesian cows being the most common breed. Investigating ways to minimise methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) produced by dairy cows from enteric fermentation and manure, has gained importance in recent years due its role in climate change. Currently, GHG emissions from UK dairy farming are predicted using the In...

  8. Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.M., Petzer; E.F., Donkin; E., Du Preez; J., Karzis; T.J., Van Der Schans; J.C., Watermeyer; R., Van Reenen.

    Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant [...] Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h) was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R = 0.253). There was a moderate positive correlation (R = 0.583) between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R = 0.456). Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R = 0.414) and composite (R = 0.262) milk samples. Significant differences (P

  9. Babesiosis and anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.L. Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological situation and the factors involved in the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in the dairy basin of Parnaba, Piau, Brazil. The study was conducted in 22 farms, and collected blood samples from 202 cattle to study serological, molecular and determination of the packed cell volume (PCV. On the farms were applied surveys involving epidemiological aspects. Seroprevalence rates were: Babesia bigemina 52.5%, B. bovis 68.8%, and Anaplasma marginale 89.1%. Of the samples analyzed, 73.3% were reactive for Babesia spp. and A. marginale, showing co-infection. In PCR, B. bigemina and B. bovis were positive in 52.0% and 33.2% respectively, and A. marginale in 76.2%. Of these, 51.5% amplified DNA of Babesia spp. and A. marginale. The semi-intensive management predominated in 68.0% of the farms studied. The clinical history of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, was reported from 73% of the farms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between age groups and for the PCV of positive compared with negative animals. The study indicates that in this region is enzootic instability for babesiosis and enzootic stability for anaplasmosis, reinforcing the fact that in Brazil there are areas of enzootic instability, even in tropical regions of the country. The PCR technique was a valuable tool for the diagnosis of these diseases and may be used to characterize a geographic region.

  10. Optimal age at first calving for U.S. dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifer rearing is a major expense for the US dairy industry that accounts for 15 to 20% of the total cost of producing milk. Selecting for an optimal age at first calving (AFC) in US dairy cattle could reduce these costs while still providing animals with high lifetime yields. Records from 9,502,802...

  11. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires strategies that improved risk awareness amongst producers and consumers. PMID:26745871

  12. Fecal prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonellae in dairy cattle in central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Eguale, Tadesse; Engidawork, Ephrem; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Asrat, Daniel; Alemayehu, Haile; Medhin, Girmay; Roger P. Johnson; Gunn, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Salmonellae are major worldwide zoonotic pathogens infecting a wide range of vertebrate species including humans. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent a common source of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Despite a large number of small-scale dairy farms in Addis Ababa and its surrounding districts, little is known about the status of Salmonella in these farms. Results Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one a...

  13. Food Security and Dairy Cow Feeding: The Necessity for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Knaus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products.This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans. The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.

  14. Epidemiological profile of reproductive loss in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in So Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum-reactive with these titles. Between animals positive to the test, the lowest title observed was 1:25, while the highest obtained was 1:400. Viral neutralization tests demonstrated that 26.8% of the animals had titers greater or equal to 1:256, and among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 38.1% and 55.56% were serum reactive in the range considered, respectively. Between positive animals for serum neutralization technique, the lower titers observed were 1:2, while the highest obtained was equal to or greater than 1:1024. Only 5.56% of the animals studied had titers equal to or greater than 1:200 in the microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of Leptospira spp. Only a single animal with a history of abortion did not presented negative serology (title 1:100. No animal with a history of stillbirth was presented in the reagent test. The prevalent biovar in reactive animals was Pomona (40%, Hardjo (30%, Tarassovi (20% and Wollfi (10%. There werent positive reactions to the tamponated acidified antigen test for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The study suggests the possibility of concurrent infections by other agents causing reproductive failure in dairy cattle.

  15. Confirmation of Fasciola hepatica resistant to triclabendazole in naturally infected Australian beef and dairy cattle?

    OpenAIRE

    Brockwell, Yvette M.; Elliott, Timothy P.; Anderson, Glenn R.; Stanton, Rex; Spithill, Terry W.; Sangster, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Triclabendazole resistant F. hepatica is confirmed in infected Australian cattle.Resistance was observed on four beef properties and one dairy property.Live drug resistant adult flukes were recovered from cattle after treatment.A coproantigen reduction test was used to identify resistance.We describe a method suitable for post-treatment analysis of fluke infection.

  16. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS; however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm, Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm, and Low (LTDS; ? 490 ppm. Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10 were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05. Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.

  17. Resource selection by sympatric free-ranging dairy cattle and brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Steyaert, S. M. J. G.; Stoen, O.G.; Elfström, M.; Karlsson, J; Lammeren, R.J.A., van; Bokdam, J.; Zedrosser, A.

    2011-01-01

    Livestock depredation is an important factor that contributes to low public acceptance of large carnivores, and is often used as an incentive to reduce large carnivore populations. In central Sweden, brown bears (Ursus arctos) coexist with a traditional cattle husbandry system that allows daytime free-ranging of dairy cattle. Despite a growing brown bear population, depredation on cattle remained stable during the last decade, and among the lowest rates reported worldwide. Nevertheless, major...

  18. Epidemiological study of brucellosis and its effect on reproduction failures in dairy cattle in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Sudibyo

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to observe prevalence, distribution and reproduction failure evidence of dairy cattle brucellosis in DKI Jakarta . To determine the group of cattle infected with Bntcella abortus, senim and milk samples were carried out . At the beginning, bulk of milk samples were collected from containers . Futhermore, the blood samples were simple randomly collected on cattle that were suspected positive brucellosis in the milk ring test . Those serum samples were tested ...

  19. Direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, C J L; Meissner, H.H.; Van Niekerk, Willem A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle in total and per province using the Tier 2 methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), but adapted for tropical production systems. Dairy and beef cattle in 2010 contributed an estimated 964 Giga gram (Gg) or 72.6% of the total livestock methane emissions in South Africa. Beef cattle in extensive systems were the largest contributor (83.3%), fo...

  20. Liver transcriptomic profile associated with feed efficiency in Nellore cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandre, Pmela; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel; Fantinato Neto, P.; Ferraz, Jose Bento; Eler, J.P.; Kadarmideen, Haja; Fukumasu, Heidge

    work was to identify biological functions and candidate genes related to feed efficiency in Nellore cattle by analyzing liver transcriptomic profile though differential co-expression approach. Measures of carcass ultrasound and visceral fat weight were used to help us interpret the differential co......The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency traits is very important from productive, economic and environmental perspectives. Network approaches can help us to better understand the biological mechanisms behind that complex trait and direct the selection of superior animals. The aim of this...

  1. USE OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR GENETIC EVALUATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BILAL AND M. S. KHAN1

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in the developed production set ups and explores the possibility of using test-day model for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Pakistan. Different options within test-model approach are also discussed.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafiazar, G; Goonewardene, L; Miglior, F; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Okine, E; Wang, Z

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties and costs of measuring individual feed intake in dairy cattle are the primary factors limiting the genetic study of feed intake and utilisation, and hence the potential of their subsequent industry-wide applications. However, indirect selection based on heritable, easily measurable, and genetically correlated traits, such as conformation traits, may be an alternative approach to improve feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed intake, production, and feed efficiency traits (particularly residual feed intake; RFI) with routinely recorded conformation traits. A total of 496 repeated records from 260 Holstein dairy cows in different lactations (260, 159 and 77 from first, second and third lactation, respectively) were considered in this study. Individual daily feed intake and monthly BW and body condition scores of these animals were recorded from 5 to 305 days in milk within each lactation from June 2007 to July 2013. Milk yield and composition data of all animals within each lactation were retrieved, and the first lactation conformation traits for primiparous animals were extracted from databases. Individual RFI over 301 days was estimated using linear regression of total 301 days actual energy intake on a total of 301 days estimated traits of metabolic BW, milk production energy requirement, and empty BW change. Pair-wise bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among the studied traits. Estimated heritabilities of total intake and production traits ranged from 0.270.07 for lactation actual energy intake to 0.450.08 for average body condition score over 301 days of the lactation period. RFI showed a moderate heritability estimate (0.200.03) and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with lactation 3.5 % fat-corrected milk and average BW over lactation. Among the conformation traits, dairy strength, stature, rear attachment width, chest width and pin width had significant (P<0.05) moderate to strong genetic correlations with RFI. Combinations of these conformation traits could be used as RFI indicators in the dairy genetic improvement programmes to increase the accuracy of the genetic evaluation of feed intake and utilisation included in the index. PMID:26549643

  3. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 1520 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesnt only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  4. Kosovos Public Health Damage from Abusive Use of Antibiotics in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraimi, Zana; Shehi, Agim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Shaip; Agani, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess the state of the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle in Kosovo according to different diagnosis as directed by treatment protocol and to evaluate the methods of their application in dairy cattle. Methods: Weve visited over 80% of dairy farms throughout the territory of Kosovo in 2013. Assessment was carried out through a specific questionnaire, which identifies problems with medical treatment of cattle, the number of cattle treated and untreated, description of dose and type of drugs used, as well as the duration of drugs issuance. Results: In Kosovo for the treatment of sick cows are mainly used beta lactams and sulfonamides. The drugs were not given only to sick cattle by their diagnosis, but they were given to healthy cattle too, as a preventative therapy, mainly through intramuscular route. Conclusion: We conclude that the dairy cattle were not treated correctly as directed by the treatment protocol. In Kosovos general health system there are no rules and procedures on monitoring and recording the expenditures on antibiotics. PMID:26244043

  5. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during the night (0000-0600 h) than the least-efficient animals. In summary, correlations between RFI and feeding behavior were weak. Small differences in feeding behavior were observed between the most- and least-efficient animals but adverse behavioral effects associated with such selection in growing dairy heifers are unlikely. PMID:23489775

  6. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  7. Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germn Mendoza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding cattle manure (CM for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO, bakery by-products (BBP and tallow (TW was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1 control: CM and MO; 2 LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3 HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4 LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5 HTW: CM, BBP and high level of TW. Ensiling CM with BBP had the lowest silage losses. Silages were part of diets, which were fed to lambs fitted with ruminal cannulas. Nutrient intake and N balance did not differ in lambs across all experimental diets, but the NDF digestion of diets with BBP and TW was lower than with MO or BBP. Ensiling CM with BBP offered less silage losses as compared to MO.

  8. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.

  9. The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Crespo, F; Lpez-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268 54 and 180 42 g/l, respectively). PMID:24438753

  10. Distribution of indole in tissues of dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs

  11. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

  12. Response, Effectiveness and Accuracy of Different Selection Methods and Intensities In Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1 to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2 to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods and intensities, (3 to study the best lactation period for selection in dairy cattle. Some conclusion can be drawn: (1 the estimated repeatability of milk production was considered low, the opposite was true for heritability estimate, (2 the selection response and its effectiveness increased when the number of animals maintained in the population decreased, (3 the selection accuracy increased along with the increased of number of record included, (4 the highest selection accuracy was obtained from individual selection with three records whilst the family selection resulted in the lowest selection accuracy. It was also concluded that selection in dairy cattle can be done as early as the first lactation and the accuracy will be increased if combined with the information from relatives. (Animal Production 11(1: 66-70 (2009 Key Words: dairy cattle, effectiveness selection method

  13. Association of oxidative status and insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cattle: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-04-01

    Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle. PMID:26174108

  14. Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

    1987-09-01

    Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.517.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.72.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.17.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.96.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.90.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.00.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.80.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.51.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

  15. Diagnosis of post-partum anoestrus in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

  16. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupov, Z; Krupa, E; Michali?kov, M; Wolfov, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -70.65 and -26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -55.15 and -54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -20.45, -11.30, and -6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210d and from birth to 120d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest of consumers in animal welfare and quality of dairy farm products should probably lead to the incorporation of health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score) into the breeding goal. However, keeping carcass traits in the breeding goal of the Slovak Pinzgau breed does not seem to be relevant to the long-term market situation. PMID:26585480

  17. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adawiah .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 40.39 kg were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets. Milk dry matter of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk fat of cows fed A, B and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05 than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05 than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria. Key Words: Calcium Soap, Organic Mineral, Roasted Soyabeans, Dairy Cattle, Quality Milk

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH4 emissions dominated the CO2-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH4 emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH4 and N2O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO2-eq emissions but tended to grow

  19. Liver transcriptomic profile associated with feed efficiency in Nellore cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandre, Pmela; Kogelman, Lisette

    The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency traits is very important from productive, economic and environmental perspectives. Network approaches can help us to better understand the biological mechanisms behind that complex trait and direct the selection of superior animals. The aim of this work was to identify biological functions and candidate genes related to feed efficiency in Nellore cattle by analyzing liver transcriptomic profile though differential co-expression approach. Measures of carcass ultrasound and visceral fat weight were used to help us interpret the differential co-expression results. It was observed that animals of low FE had higher feed intake, increased deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat and transcriptomic profile related to immune response, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Based on these results and research in humans and mouse we created the hypothesis that the low FE animals are more susceptible to inflammation in the liver. In addition we identified 12 candidate genes for FE regulation.

  20. Feeding behavior of cattle grazing Brachiaria decumbens and Cynodon spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Matias de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review to assess the feeding behavior of cattle in Brachiaria decumbens pasture and Cynodon spp. The cattle is concentrated today as one of the main activities of the Brazilian. Therefore, it is essential to know the eating habits of these animals. The pasture quality has a direct influence on the feeding behavior of the same. Therefore provide a good pasture is one of the first steps to have a profitable activity. Livestock production (meat and / or milk is directly related to consumption, where the sweet feed has a direct influence on this variable. So we need to provide pasture quality animals, with shading in order to avoid stress caused by heat, so that they have an adequate intake and consequently a satisfactory production.

  1. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  2. Mechanisms for Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairys greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feedplants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued...

  3. Availability Analysis of A Cattle Feed Plant Using Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.

  4. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene; Hjsgaard, Sren

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  5. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, H R; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-10-01

    Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103 39 d in milk) were used in a 4 4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean = 28.8 kg/d), milk production (42.2 kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and ?-C18:3. Body weights (752 kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration. PMID:26277308

  6. 9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE 72.17 Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only,...

  7. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.

  8. Ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings and outdoor concrete yards in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jos; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, Joo; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-09-01

    There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.

  9. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

  10. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne; Moyes, Kasey

    2013-01-01

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.

  11. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Nazira Mammadova; İsmail Keskin

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input...

  12. Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both clinical and subclinical. The impact of specific foot disorders on welfare was assessed by simulating the incidence and duration of foot disorders and the pain associated with them. Pain assessment was b...

  13. Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Fuerst-Waltl; Hermann Schwarzenbacher; Christian Fuerst

    2013-01-01

    Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E) and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra) between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Uppe...

  14. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    OpenAIRE

    Srari, MT.; Farit, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al) database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of...

  15. USE OF TEST-DAY MILK YIELD FOR GENETIC EVALUATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    G. BILAL AND M. S. KHAN1

    2009-01-01

    The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation o...

  16. Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    HR Shahbazkia; A Jafari Dehkordi; N Ronagh

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 C. DNA was extracte...

  17. Haemophilus somnus: a comparison among three serological tests and a serological survey in beef and dairy cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfaon, D; Higgins, R.; Mittal, K.R.; L'Archevque, G.

    1983-01-01

    Serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Haemophilus somnus were carried out in herds of beef and dairy cattle using three different techniques: agglutination, complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. The agglutination test appeared to detect more seroreactors than the complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests. Results of the three tests indicated that there were more positive reactors in beef cattle and dairy cattle from infected herds than in d...

  18. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernndez; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalncia de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  19. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    NAYEBZADEH, Hassan; NOUROLLAHI FARD, Saeid Reza; KHALILI, Mohammad; ZAKIAN, Nader; Taati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The Neospora caninum parasite causes abortion in cattle in virtually all parts of the world with enormous economic consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Lorestan Province, west of Iran. A total of 347 dairy cows were randomly selected. The serum of each case was analyzed for the possibility of the presence of antibody against N. caninum antigen, using the commercial kit: ELISA.  The results of the ELISA...

  20. Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Hendarto; Sri Mastuti

    1999-01-01

    Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Surv...

  1. The use of radioselenium uptake for the detection of selenium deficiency on dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight dairy cattle were used in this experiment. The blood was collected from the jugular vein by vacutainer tubes which contained EDTA as anticoagulant. For detecting the selenium status in the cows, the GSH-Px of all blood samples were analyzed and percentage of 75Se uptake were also analyzed. The activity of 75Se used in this experiment was 6 muCi/ml sample. The result of this experiment shows that percentage uptake of 75Se is higher in deficient dairy cattle compared to normal ones. (author)

  2. Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in d...

  4. Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Cozzi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years organic livestock production has gained interest all over the world due to the increased consumer demand for food that is perceived to be safe, healthy, flavorsome and produced in an environmentally sustainable way. This book completes a trilogy of books by Professor Robert Blair dealing with the nutrition of feeding of farm animals that are produced organically. Through its 7 chapters.....

  5. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124

  6. The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge...... about the behavior of dairy cows during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with...... calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days around calving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface...

  7. Options for the control of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Paul C; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Byrem, Todd M; Norby, Bo; Grooms, Daniel L; Swenson, Cheryl L; Zalucha, Jessica; Erskine, Ronald J

    2014-04-15

    The subclinical impact of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) on the sustainability of the US dairy industry is only now being fully recognized. Findings of recent longitudinal studies conducted in Michigan dairy herds were consistent with the results of previous studies in showing that within-herd prevalence of BLV-infected cattle was negatively associated with milk production and cow longevity. Risk factors relating to routes of hematogenous transmission such as the use of shared hypodermic needles, shared reproductive examination sleeves, and natural breeding were associated with BLV within-herd prevalence. Few US dairy producers know the prevalence of BLV-infected cattle in their herds or are aware of the insidious economic impact of BLV or the options for BLV control. As an increasing number of countries eradicate BLV from their cattle populations, restrictions on the movement of US cattle and cattle products will likely increase. Veterinarians should be aware of recent developments for screening serum and milk samples for antibodies against BLV and the results of research regarding the economic impact of BLV so they can advise their dairy clients of available alternatives for monitoring and controlling BLV infection. PMID:24697767

  8. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  9. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly. PMID:24698359

  10. Clinical Mastitis and Combined Defensin Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szyda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.

  11. The cure rate of individual chlortetracycline spray treatment on digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dotinga, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a worldwide occurring foot disorder in cattle which can cause huge economic losses and welfare problems. In the Netherlands about 21% of dairy cows suffer from this multifactorial disease which affects cattle of all ages. The standard individual treatment for digital dermatitis exists of a topical administration of CTC spray, with the antibiotic chlortetracycline as its active compound. A critical look at antibiotic treatments like CTC spray is taken due to increasing ...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of methods for detecting Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Urdaz-Rodr?guez, Jose H.; Dunbar, Mark D.; Rae, Owen D.; Donovan, Arthur G.; Melendez, Pedro; Dobek, Georgina L.; Alleman, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis (BA) is a hemoparasitic disease of great importance in cattle within the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Control programs for BA require accurate diagnostic assays but validation can be challenging because the true disease status of all animals is frequently not known with certainty. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of assays for detection of Anaplasma marginale infection in lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico using Baye...

  13. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  14. Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years organic livestock production has gained interest all over the world due to the increased consumer demand for food that is perceived to be safe, healthy, flavorsome and produced in an environmentally sustainable way. This book completes a trilogy of books by Professor Robert Blair dealing with the nutrition of feeding of farm animals that are produced organically. Through its 7 chapters.....

  15. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535, heifer (641 and adult (1163 cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (3 years cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%, followed by monsoon (15%, winter (9.44%, and pre-monsoon (7.49% season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season.

  16. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kange'the, Erastus; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Mbae, Cecilia; Mulinge, Erastus; Monda, Joseph; Nyongesa, Concepta; Ambia, Julie; Njehu, Alice

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Faecal samples were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method; 16 % of the samples were also examined using immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. We found that members of dairy households had a dry season cryptosporidiosis prevalence of 4 % and wet season prevalence of 0.3 %, and non-dairy households, a prevalence of 5 and 0 %, respectively. The cattle dry season prevalence was 15 %, and the wet season prevalence, 11 %. The prevalence in people living with HIV was 5 %. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis. We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries. PMID:22878888

  17. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  18. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 11 to 420 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 0.13 to 1.91 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  19. Determinacin de la calidad nutritiva, fermentacin In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maz utilizados para la alimentacin del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Martnez-Loperena; O. A., Casteln-Ortega; M., Gonzlez-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la poca de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentacin del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cintica de fermentacin ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realiz en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utiliz un diseo experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables protena cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente cido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utiliz un diseo completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo ms notorio en cuanto al aporte de protena debido al estado de madurez se present en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

  20. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan. PMID:23563620

  1. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ- mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio- logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz- able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas- ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effectis expected.

  2. Heat-induced Protein Structure and Subfractions in Relation to Protein Degradation Kinetics and Intestinal Availability in Dairy Cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences between the treatments. There was a linear effect of heating time on the DVE and a cubic effect on the OEB value. Our results showed that heating changed chemical profiles, protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio, and protein subfractions; decreased rumen-degradable protein and rumen-degradable dry matter; and increased potential nutrient supply to dairy cattle. The protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio had a significant positive correlation with total intestinally absorbed protein supply and negative correlation with degraded protein balance.

  3. Heat-induced protein structure and subfractions in relation to protein degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, K; Yu, P; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio; 2) protein subfractions profiles; 3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; 4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120 degrees C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences between the treatments. There was a linear effect of heating time on the DVE and a cubic effect on the OEB value. Our results showed that heating changed chemical profiles, protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio, and protein subfractions; decreased rumen-degradable protein and rumen-degradable dry matter; and increased potential nutrient supply to dairy cattle. The protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio had a significant positive correlation with total intestinally absorbed protein supply and negative correlation with degraded protein balance. PMID:19528609

  4. Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jrn Rind; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sand; Srensen, Anders Christian

    2014-01-01

    Small dairy cattle populations are challenged because of the low reliabilities of genomic predictions. We have demonstrated that low reliabilities of genomic predictions sets limitations for moving towards more genetic efficient breeding schemes with more intensive use of young bulls without...

  5. Immunisation of smallholder dairy cattle against anaplasmosis and babesiosis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjrnehj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.; Whiteland, A. P.; Chimera, B. A R

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms. They ...

  6. Eimeria Species in Danish Dairy Cattle Preliminary Data from an Ongoing Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M.D.

    2011-01-01

    spp. in Danish cattle herds, and secondly to improve awareness and proper diagnosis of these infections. Collection of samples was initiated in October 2010 from dairy herds with ?50 cows and known diarrhea problems among calves. From each herd individual faecal samples were taken once from...

  7. Overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focused on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate fo...

  8. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  9. Regression metamodels of an optimal genomic testing strategy in dairy cattle when selection intensity is low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic testing of dairy cattle increases reliability and can be used to select animals with superior genetic merit. Genomic testing is not free and not all candidates for selection should necessarily be tested. One common algorithm used to compare alternative decisions is time-consuming and not eas...

  10. Effects of oxygenated drinking water on gaseous emissions, rumen microorganisms and milk production in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cattle production systems contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly in the form of methane. Enteric methane is formed by methanogenic archaea (methanogens) that require anaerobic conditions to thrive. A water treatment system (Oxion, Hugoton, KS) increases the dissolved oxygen conc...

  11. CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION AND MANURE SCORING. PART II: TOOLS FOR MONITORING RUMEN FUNCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper rumen function is essential to support the profitable lactation performance and health of dairy cattle. Excellent cow performance includes high yields of milk and milk components, but encompasses more elements: efficient conversion of consumed nutrients to milk, appropriate maintenance and r...

  12. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  13. Manual of good practices for welfare: a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Mendona Pinto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.

  14. Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cows ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...

  15. Neospora caninum and Leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Peregrine, Andrew S; Martin, S Wayne; Hopwood, Douglas A.; Duffield, Todd F.; McEwen, Beverly; Hobson, Jamie C.; Hietala, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    No significant association existed between Neospora caninum titer and serostatus to Leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in Ontario. Leptospira titer increased with parity. Amongst herds not vaccinated against Leptospira, the proportions of herds with ? 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively.

  16. Draft genome sequences of three arcobacter strains of pig and dairy cattle manure origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zaky; Whiteduck-Leveillee, Kerri; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; Lvesque, C Andr; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of three strains of Arcobacter species cultured from pig and dairy cattle manure tanks. This information will assist in the characterization of features related to host specificities and identify potential pathogenic health risks to humans and animals. PMID:24831143

  17. Short communication: Relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call rate has been used as a measure of quality on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and animal basis since SNP genotypes were first used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle. The genotyping laboratories perform initial quality control screening and genotypes that fail are usually exclude...

  18. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  19. Application of BLUP in prediction of breeding values and estimation of SNP effects in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sausan

    2011-01-01

    Genetic selection for higher milk production has unavoidably resulted in a decline in fertility of dairy cattle in the UK due to the antagonistic correlation existing between fertility and milk yield. This trend in fertility has necessitated broadening the breeding programme to include fertility traits. However, the heritability of fertility traits currently used in the UK are of low heritability (h2

  20. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 612% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 2627% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good level of reliability for mean deviations between the annual actual and estimated electrical power yields have been equal to 11.5% for each PV system given the actual irradiation s uncertainty during the examined year. The main technical parameters, crucial to maximise the energy yield from a ground-mounted PV system to an integrated one, have been identified in the Tilt and Azimuth angles. Indeed, once a variance of 34% in the global efficiency has been confirmed when the type of PV system is changed, in the case of the unidirectional integrated PV plant, the high roof pitch and the almost South orientation guarantee a solar energy increase up to 18% higher than that obtainable on the horizontal plane and similar to the increase estimated for the ground-mounted generator (+20%. Hence, integrated PV systems, besides reaching the same levels of energy efficiency as those ground-mounted, are also more sustainable than the latter. This is true providing that there are both a suitable orientation and an accurate design, especially to prevent the PV panels warming during summer, on an already available surface that is, however, functional to the roofs architecture.

  1. Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products? : How can dairy products contribute to a healthy and sustainable diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a growing problem in the Western world. Dairy products comprise a food group containing a high amount of saturated fat, which has been linked to an increase in CVD risk. However, a recent metaanalysis including 611.430 subjects failed to find any association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. Consequently, there is less focus on the consumption of saturated fatty acid. However, many attempts have been made to prevent and reduce complications from CVD and T2DM and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid (FA) uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders, due to agonist ctivities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products (represented by cheese and butter) from cows fed green feed would affect the human concentration of plasma PA differently as compared to dairy products from cows fed conventional feed, and, further to examine the health effects of PA. A second objective was to examine the health effects of dairy products (represented by butter) produced from milk delivered from mountain-pasture grazing cows. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies where risk markers of CVD and T2DM were assessed. We found that it is possible to increase human plasma PA concentration after four weeks of intervention with butter and cheese containing even a traditional content of PA, which agrees with observational studies. No significant difference in plasma PA concentration between treatment groups was found; therefore, investigating any effect of PA on metabolic parameters was not possible. However, considering the strong correlation between plasma PA at baseline and total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), it may be suggested that PA have a specific LDL-C rising effects. We found no health beneficial effect on CVD and T2DM risk markers of butter delivered from mountain-pasture grazing, which had, among other differences, increased PA content compared to butter from conventionally fed cows. As no other study has been published regarding the health of milk delivered from grazing cattle, we cannot compare our findings directly with other studies and further evidence is needed. During the past few years climate change has been recognized as the major environmental problem facing the world. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high nutritional value. In addition, when discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food sector, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE by creating dietary scenarios with different quantities of dairy products. This was evaluated on the basis of one theoretical study based on national intake data and carbon footprint data of 71 widely consumed food items. Furthermore, an index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items. Our dietary scenarios

  2. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  3. Studying the possibilities to reduce methane emission in dairy cattle by adding Product X to the diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    With Product X, Orffa Additives (an European feed additives supplier) and Cono Kaasmaker (a Dutch dairy cooperative) are searching for a practical feed application to reduce methane emissions (>10%) in dairy cattle. In this study three in vitro experiments were conducted to test the characteristics of Product X. The experiments were performed to test the cumulative gas, methane production (kinetics) and the fermentation end-products. It became clear that Product X is able to change rumen fermentation characteristics significantly. In the experiments Product X showed higher volatile fatty acids (VFA) levels and differences in methane production kinetics. It seems that the production of methane is delayed and the % of methane produced per total amount of gas is decreasing over weeks. This fact is especially of interest in live animals. Time feed remains in the rumen is relative short compared with this in vitro trial. With these results it also became clear that after six weeks of Product X administration there still is an effect on rumen fermentation and no signs of adaptation were found. A reduction of 10% means a potential reduction of 9522 MT CO2-eq per year when only the members of Cono are taken into account (e.g. 37500 lactating animals). On national level this means 0.58 Mton CO2-eq reduction per year. Reducing methane emissions is also improving feed efficiency. This means more milk for the same costs. It could be an option that Cono will implement an incentive to stimulate farmers to reduce methane emissions in their Caring Dairy program.

  4. Molecular characterization and assessment of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Manzoor; Debnath, Chanchal; Pramanik, Amiya Kumar; Xiao, Lihua; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2010-07-15

    Few studies in the past have examined the genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in India. To assess the importance of these animals as a source of human Cryptosporidium infections, fecal samples from 180 calves, heifers and adults and 51 farm workers on two dairy farms in West Bengal, India were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium followed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the DNA sequences obtained in the study and those available in GenBank. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle was 11.7% though the infection was more prevalent in younger calves than in adult cattle. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium ryanae and Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle followed an age-related pattern. A Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype was also detected in a calf. Farm workers were infected with Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum and a novel C. bovis genotype. These findings clearly suggest that there is a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium infections between cattle and humans on dairy farms in India. PMID:20356678

  5. Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated

  6. Comparison between two methods of measurement of milking speed in dairy cattle reared in Trento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......

  7. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (P<0.05). Dairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study. PMID:26801594

  8. Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; stergaard, Sren; Ancker, Marie-Louise; Nielsen, J.; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2014-01-01

    This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended...

  9. Direct measurements of the ozone formation potential from dairy cattle emissions using a transportable smog chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Cody J.; Yang, Wenli; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Malkina, Irina L.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    Tropospheric ozone continues to be an air pollution problem in the United States, particularly in California, Texas, and across the eastern seaboard. The obvious sources of ozone precursors have been largely controlled over the past several decades, leading to the critical examination of secondary sources. In particular, California has new air quality rules addressing agricultural sources of ozone precursors, including dairy farms. Some recent estimates predict that dairy cattle are second only to on-road vehicles as a leading source of ozone precursor emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley. The objective of this work was to directly measure the ozone formation potential from dairy housing. A transportable "smog" chamber was constructed and validated using organic gases known to be present in dairy emissions. The ozone formation potential of emissions from eight non-lactating dairy cows and their fresh waste was then directly evaluated in the field at a completely enclosed cow corral on the campus of the University of California, Davis. The results demonstrate that the majority of the ozone formation is explained by ethanol (EtOH) in the emissions from the dairy cows, not by acetone as previously thought. Ozone formation potential is generally small, with dairy emissions with significant ozone formation potential. Simulations carried out with a modified form of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism verify that actual ozone formation from dairy emissions is much lower than what would be predicted using the current regulatory profiles. Based on these results, the ozone formation potential of emissions from dairy cattle in California seems to be lower than previously estimated.

  10. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60Co or 177Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  11. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)

  12. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

  13. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  14. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy. PMID:21984469

  15. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition score<2.5 out of 5) produced less milk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM and high protein forage were positively associated with DMP in early lactation on Kenyan SDF. In addition there was an association between, taller cows and increased DMP, evidence supporting the importance of educating farmers on good genetic selection and heifer management. These findings will help with future management recommendations for higher DMP on SDF. PMID:26783201

  16. Genetics of health and lameness in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Obike, Onyemauchechi Mercy

    2009-01-01

    For the modern dairy cow, advances in genetics and breeding for productivity has resulted in an increasing incidence of health disorders and reduced longevity. One of the most important health problems is lameness, which has led to significant economic, production and welfare consequences. A reduction in lameness will improve the economic future of the dairy industry through increased profitability and decreased welfare-related problems. Although positive attempts have been mad...

  17. Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, C.; stergaard, S.; Ancker, M. L.; Nielsen, J.; Kristensen, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Model...

  18. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

    2014-05-01

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

  19. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers for the Qualitative Behaviour Assessment in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Vries, M. de; Antonissen, I.C.M.A.; de Boer, I J M

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is part of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle, although its inter- and intra-observer reliability have not been reported. This study evaluated inter- and intra-observer reliability of the QBA for dairy cattle in experienced and inexperienced observers using videos. Eight experienced observers performed the QBA (20 descriptors) twice for 16 video clips (60 s per clip; series 1) showing 4-17 animals. They assessed another 11 video clips showing...

  20. A pilot study to compare oxidative status between organically and conventionally managed dairy cattle during the transition period

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelo Sebio, ngel; Hernndez Bermdez, Joaqun; Benedito Castellote, Jos Luis; Castillo Rodrguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC a...

  1. Creating a model to detect dairy cattle farms with poor welfare using a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality() protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (pwelfare indicators could be used to distinguish farms with good welfare from farms with poor welfare, we created a model using the classifier J48 of Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. The model was a decision tree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm. PMID:26549665

  2. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  3. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Anggraeni; Sofjan Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian) under tropical climate has res...

  4. Behavioural assessment of pain in dairy cattle with mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Assessing pain and discomfort experience in cattle is one of the main concerns of farm animal welfare science. Both behavioural and physiological measures have been used as indicators of pain; however, due to impracticability and invasiveness that physiological measures involve, behavioural measures are currently the most used parameter to assess pain in cattle. The scientific assessment of pain has been focused on farm procedures such as dehorning, branding and castration. Non...

  5. Gene Mapping of Reproduction Traits in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Hglund, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis my aims were to map genes affecting reproduction in cattle and to explore the correlated effect of these genes on yield traits. This knowledge is expected to provide novel insights into the biological processes underlying reproduction traits and to identify individual causal polymorphisms or genetic markers for practical application in marker-assisted and genomic selection strategies. A wide range of female fertility traits has been recorded for cattle indigenou...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin B. Parnell; Sergio C. Capareda; Saqib Mukhtar; Faulkner, William B.; Md Saidul Borhan; Russell McGee

    2011-01-01

    A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during...

  7. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adawiah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 40.39 kg were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets. Milk dry matter of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk fat of cows fed A, B and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05 than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05 than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria.

  8. Validation of Nordic dairy cattle disease recording databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ann-Kristina; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Ersbll, Annette Kjr; Espetvedt, M. N.; Wolff, C.; Rintakoski, S.; Houe, Hans

    The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases. Completen......The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases...... veterinarian-treated disease events (VET). A sample of herds with 15 or more cows was obtained from a simple random sample of dairy farms in FIN, NO and SE, and from a systematic random sample in DK. There were 105, 167, 179 and 129 participating farmers in DK, FIN, NO and SE, respectively, and during two 2...

  9. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Van Arendonk, J A M

    1985-01-01

    In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.The investigations described in this thesis were directed towards the economic optimization of the policy for replacement and insemination of dairy cows. The following three items were treated:1. The evaluation of techniques to determine the optimum policy of insemi...

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHEDDING OF E. COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...

  11. Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewers malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  12. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  13. Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bani Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10 included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14 included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7 included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.

  14. Occurrence of Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in Dairy Cattle from N ova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the risk factors associated to thesummer mastitis in 27 dairy cattle from Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso. From the 408dairy cows evaluated, 62 animals (15.19% were positive to mastitis with 13.32% ofprevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed moreinfluence on mastitis occurrence due to the use of the milking machine OR: 20.64 (p:0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle

  15. Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of Spain, Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Alvarez-Garca, G; Ortega-Mora, L M; Sanjunl, M L; Yus, E; Diguez, F J

    2011-02-01

    Herd and individual animal seroprevalence for Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the Galician Farmer Sanitary Defence Associations (ADSG) in 2004. All animals ?1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect ELISA. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. True herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed herds), true animal seroprevalence was estimated to be 23.2% (21.9% dairy, 25.1% beef and 24.9% animal to mixed herds), and within-herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 25.4% (23.6% dairy, 28.3% beef and 28.6% to mixed herds). Seropositivity was significantly associated with herd type (higher in dairies), herd size (increased when herd size increases), animal type (higher in beef) and age (lineal increase with the age). Results obtained in this study will be used for the development of a N. caninum control programme in the ADSG in Galicia. PMID:21145605

  16. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of plutonium by dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain information on the potential transport of ingested Pu and to gain additional information on Pu deposition patterns in ruminants, a series of metabolism studies with dairy cows were conducted. Results are presented on tissue uptake following oral 238Pu administration. (CH)

  17. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  18. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...

  19. Plasmin measurement as a new diagnosis test for mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Perney, V.O.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a major economic issue in dairy cattle. It causes high economic losses due to veterinary costs, milk which can't be used for consumption and due to decreased production and increased culling rates. Current tests like somatic cell count, electrical conduction and CMT-test are not always reliable. There are regularly false negative and false positive results so that there is need for new diagnostic tests. The objective of the present study was to determine test characteristics of pl...

  20. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Schrooten, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Coppieters, W.; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2000-01-01

    A granddaughter design was used to locate quantitative trait loci determining conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle. In this granddaughter design, consisting of 20 Holstein Friesian grandsires and 833 sons, genotypes were determined for 277 microsatellite markers covering the whole genome. Breeding values for 27 traits, regarding conformation (18), fertility (2), birth (4), workability (2), and udder health (1), were evaluated in an across-family analysis using multimarker regres...

  1. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction. PMID:18394682

  2. Dairy producer attitudes to pain in cattle in relation to disbudding calves

    OpenAIRE

    Wikman, I.; Hokkanen, A.-H.; Pastell, M.; Kauppinen, T.; Valros, Anna; HÀnninen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure perform...

  3. COWEL: a decision support system to assess welfare of husbandry systems for dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Mol, R.M.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Animals have various behavioural and physiological needs that are important for welfare. Fulfilment of these needs depends on the quality of housing, management and animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to develop a model to assign welfare scores to husbandry systems for dairy cattle, based on scientific results, and thereby supporting the design of new, welfare-friendly systems. COWEL is a computer-based decision support system that contains attributes regarding housing and...

  4. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from two contrasted dairy cattle deep litters

    OpenAIRE

    Charpiot, Alicia; Edouard, Nadge; Hassouna, Melynda; Faverdin, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Doll, J.-B.

    2012-01-01

    Animal housing contributes a large proportion of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia emissions in livestock systems. The diversity of the French cattle systems is huge mainly because of the many manure management systems (with or without straw). The aim of this study is to provide knowledge on GHG and NH3 emissions to propose mitigation options. During, respectively 4 (P1) and 6 (P2) weeks, two deep litters were accumulated beneath three dairy cows in a mechanically ventilated room, with di...

  5. Derivation of sustainable breeding goals for dairy cattle using selection index theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, H. M.; Christensen, L.G.; Groen, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be added to market economic values in the breeding goal to define sustainable breeding goals. The first method was restricted indices. A consequence of adding a nonmarket value to a market economic value ...

  6. Variance components for susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy and beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Open Access Research Variance components for susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy and beef cattle Ian W Richardson12, Dan G Bradley1, Isabella M Higgins3, Simon J More3, Jennifer McClure4 and Donagh P Berry2* * Corresponding author: Donagh P Berry Donagh.berry@teagasc.ie Author Affiliations 1 Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland 2 Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Center, Teagasc, Moore...

  7. Genetic parameters for cystic ovarian disease in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijer, G.A.; Lubbers, R.B.F.; Ducro, B J; Arendonk, J.A.M., van; Kaal-Lansbergen, L.M.T.E.; Lende, T.

    2001-01-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed gynecological findings in dairy cattle. It causes temporary infertility and is likely to affect reproduction as well as production parameters in cows. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heritability of COD in a Dutch Black and White population and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic relationships with milk production traits. In the data set used, the overall incidence of COD was 7.71204 COD diagnoses in...

  8. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srari, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  9. Reproduction in three genetic lines of dairy cattle housed a total confinement system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, A. J.; Batra, T R

    1981-01-01

    Dairy cattle of three genetic lines maintained year round in total confinement (either in loose housing or tie stall barn) were monitored for estrous cycle activity and reproductive performance. Only 54% of the 492 cows calving over a 12 month interval were observed in estrus at least once between parturition and day 55 postpartum. There was a significant genetic line by barn interaction in the detection of estrus mainly because more cows of the Ayrshire line were observed in estrus in the ti...

  10. Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) Prevalence in Dairy CattleUzeyir

    OpenAIRE

    Rustem Duman; Taha Iscan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) prevelance causing Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) in dairy cattle that showed respiratory system symptoms and that were located in Iskilip, Corum situated in Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey were studied. For this purpose, owned by small family enterprises and not vaccinated, 5200 animals over 1 year old were scanned and nasal swap and blood samples were taken from 250 animals showing respiratory system disease symptoms and having bod...

  11. Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Boichard, Didier; Grohs, Ccile; Bourgeois, Florence; Cerqueira, Frdrique; Faugeras, Rmi; Neau, Andr; Rupp, Rachel; Amigues, Yves; Boscher, Marie; Levziel, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1?548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regr...

  12. Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues Yves; Boscher Marie; Rupp Rachel; Neau Andr; Faugeras Rmi; Cerqueira Frdrique; Bourgeois Florence; Grohs Ccile; Boichard Didier; Levziel Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire li...

  13. Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Komisarek Jolanta; Morek-Kope? Ma?gorzata; Szyda Joanna; ?arnecki Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the...

  14. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Hosseinzadeh; Mojtaba Kafi; Mostafa Pour-Teimouri

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz ...

  15. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J. [Group Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bannink, A.; Zom, R. [Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), notably of methane (CH4), by domestic animals and possible ways of abatement have been the subject of many international studies in recent years. From all emission sources of CH4, agriculture is by far the most important source in The Netherlands. Several techniques to measure CH4 losses from farm animals exist. Most widely used among them are respiration calorimetric chambers and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. Also, there are several ways to express CH4 losses. The most widely used way is to express it as % of GEI. A less popular, but for dairy cows interesting way to express CH4 losses is as gram (or litre) per kg desired product, hence g CH4/kg of milk. Some years ago a series of research projects on the subject of CH4 losses from ruminants in The Netherlands were started, coordinated by the ROB-Agro research programme committee (www.robklimaat.nl). In a 2000 study the role that animal nutrition could play to alleviate the loss of CH4 from ruminant animals, notably from dairy cows, has been reviewed. Several Rob-Agro studies have been performed since and evaluated the effect of nutrition and feed additives on CH4 emission. Simultaneously, a research project, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board of Feedstuffs and the ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), started at the end of 2002 aiming at the quantification of CH4 emission by dairy cows by applying an integrative modelling approach. The model developed was recently used to deliver estimates for the national emission of CH4 by cows. These estimates were used in the Dutch national inventory of emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

  16. Modelling of paratuberculosis spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Gal; Vergu, Elisabeta; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes Johne's disease, with large economic consequences for dairy cattle producers worldwide. Map spread between farms is mainly due to animal movements. Locally, herd size and management are expected to influence infection dynamics. To provide a better understanding of Map spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale, we describe the first spatio-temporal model accounting simultaneously for population and infection dynamics and indirect local transmission within dairy farms, and between-farm transmission through animal trade. This model is applied to Brittany, a French region characterized by a high density of dairy cattle, based on data on animal trade, herd size and farm management (birth, death, renewal, and culling) from 2005 to 2013 for 12,857 dairy farms. In all simulated scenarios, Map infection highly persisted at the metapopulation scale. The characteristics of initially infected farms strongly impacted the regional Map spread. Network-related features of incident farms influenced their ability to contaminate disease-free farms. At the herd level, we highlighted a balanced effect of the number of animals purchased: when large, it led to a high probability of farm infection but to a low persistence. This effect was reduced when prevalence in initially infected farms increased. Implications of our findings in the current enzootic situation are that the risk of infection quickly becomes high for farms buying more than three animals per year. Even in regions with a low proportion of infected farms, Map spread will not fade out spontaneously without the use of effective control strategies. PMID:26407894

  17. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle of Hamedan province, west of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Gharekhani; Hamidreza Haddadzadeh; Alireza Bahonar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran) by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. A Signi...

  18. Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for functional longevity in dairy cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.E., Imbayarwo-Chikosi; K., Dzama; T.E., Halimani; J.B., van Wyk; A., Maiwashe; C.B., Banga.

    Full Text Available Longevity is a major component of the breeding objective for dairy cattle in many countries because of its high economic value. The trait has been recommended for inclusion in the breeding objective for dairy cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs [...] ) and proportional hazard models (PH) have been used to evaluate longevity. This paper discusses these methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Heritability estimates obtained from these models are also reviewed. Linear methodologies can model binary and actual longevity, while RR and TM methodologies model binary survival. PH procedures model the hazard function of a cow at time t derived from survival from first calving to culling, death or censoring. It is difficult to compare methodologies for sire evaluation and ranking across countries because of the variation in the definition of longevity and the choice of model. Sire estimated breeding values (EBVs) are derived differently for the models. Sire EBVs from PH models are expressed as deviations of the culling risk from the mean of the base sires, expected percentage of daughters still alive after a given number of lactations, expected length of productive life in absolute terms or as standard deviation units. In linear, TM and RR modelling, sire EBVs for longevity have been expressed as deviations of survival from the mean estimated with Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Appropriate models should thus be developed to evaluate functional longevity for possible inclusion in the overall breeding objective for South African dairy cattle.

  19. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Fels-Klerx, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.

  20. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    OpenAIRE

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; A.F.B. van der Poel; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...

  1. GENETIC EVALUATION OF MILKING SPEED FOR BROWN SWISS DAIRY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters and breeding values (EBV) were estimated for milking speed in Brown Swiss cattle. Owner recorded milking speed scores on a 1 to 8 scale (low to high) were collected by the Brown Swiss Association as part of its linear type appraisal program starting in 2004. Data were 6,483 record...

  2. Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, C.; stergaard, S.

    2014-01-01

    This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.

  3. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of organic dairy farms has increased globally and, given the pressure to decrease the use of antimicrobials and hormones, conventional farms may be able to learn from well-managed organic farms. The possibilities of using milk for disease diagnostics and monitoring are considerable, and dairy herd improvement associations will continue to expand the number of tests offered to diagnose diseases and pregnancy. Genetic and genomic selection for increased resistance to disease offers substantial potential but requires collection of additional phenotypic data. There is every expectation that changes in the dairy industry will be further accentuated and additional novel technologies and different management practices will be adopted in the future. PMID:26342982

  4. Dairy cattle grazing preference among six cultivars of perennial ryegrass

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, H.J.; Tamminga, S; ELGERSMA, A.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 13, 2005. Six endophyte-free diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars (Abergold, Respect, Agri, Herbie, Barezane, and Barnhem) were examined in an experiment to investigate the selection behavior of grazing Holstein Friesian cows in July and September 2003 and May 2004 and to identify factors related to preference. Three groups of dairy cows (Bos taurus) were allowed to select among these six cultivars that were sown in replicates in a random...

  5. Bedded pack barns for dairy cattle in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Galama, P.J.; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C., van; Ouweltjes, W.; Poelarends, J.J.; Driehuis, F

    2014-01-01

    The bedded pack barn offers good perspective on animal welfare, animal health and public perception, but has disadvantages in terms of mineral management (nitrogen losses and fertilising value) and the presence of TAS (Thermophilic Aerobic Spore formers). Bedded packs with compost have a too high ammonia emission in the barn and lead to too high concentrations of TAS in sterile dairy products and therefore have no perspective. A controlled composting process with wood chips may have more futu...

  6. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Marisanna Speroni; Luciano Migliorati; Maurizio Capelletti; Fabio Abeni; Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milkin...

  7. Optimal time postbreeding for pregnancy examination in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    White, Maurice E.; LaFaunce, Norman; Hussni O. Mohammed

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving interval and the interval from artificial insemination to pregnancy examination. Cows examined for pregnancy at 30 or more days postbreeding were followed to determine the calving interval for cows examined at sequential intervals postbreeding (e.g. 42-44 days, 45-47 days postbreeding). Cows included in the study were from five large dairies in California, were presented for pregnancy examination from December of 19...

  8. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ?NH3:?CH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ?28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and its environmental effects on air quality and nitrogen deposition are not fully accounted for.

  9. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows behavior can be expected to be natural.

  10. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  11. Estimation of risk management effects on revenue and purchased feed costs on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K

    2015-09-01

    Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers. PMID:26117353

  12. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  13. The Effect of Using Monensin on Haptoglobin Serum Level in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gholipour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90, 120, time of parturition and 2 weeks after parturition the blood samples was collected from jugular vein and then serum was separated. In all serum samples the haptoglobin serum level was measured by biochemical kit. The average of serum haptoglobin did not have meaningful difference between two groups on day of zero but in care group there was decrease in serum haptoglobin after the day of 30 and on the day of 30 the difference between two groups was not significant (p = 0.066. On the day of 90 and 120 this difference was significant and it was p = 0.037 and p = 0.04, respectively. On parturition time, haptoglobin serum level increased in two groups and this increase in treatment group was less than control group which was nonsignificant (p = 0.003 and 2 weeks after parturition it was low in treatment group which was not significant (p = 0.586. The changes of serum haptoglobin in control group was not meaningful on different times but in treatment group the serum changes was significant on days of zero and 30 (p = 0.04. The mean serum level of this protein in affected cattle to parturition diseases was greater than healthy carrel in two groups. Final result was that adding monensin to pregnant cattle diet led to decrease of haptoglobin serum level, 4 month before parturition.

  14. Mastitis Causing Pathogens within the Dairy Cattle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuba Caleb Kudi; M. P. Bray; Aziwo. T. Niba; Demo. J.U. Kalla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions fr...

  15. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identi...

  16. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Combrink; Graham Carr; Mans, Ben J.; Frances Marais

    2012-01-01

    The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bo...

  17. Alteration of dairy cattle diets for beneficial on-farm recycling of manure nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed and manure nutrients pass through a continuous cycle on dairy farms. Cows are fed forages, grain, protein and mineral supplements to produce milk; land applied manure recycles nutrients through crops and pastures; and so on. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how the types and amount...

  18. Implementing innovative farm management practices on dairy farms: a review of feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZKAN, ?eyda; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The Australian dairy industry relies primarily on pasture for its feed supply. However, the variability in rainfall negatively affects plant growth, leading to uncertainty in dryland feed supply, especially during periods of high milk price. New feeding (complementary) systems combining perennial ryegrass with another crop and/or pasture species may have the potential to mitigate this seasonal risk and improve productivity and profitability by providing off-season feed. To date, the majority ...

  19. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cludio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  20. Assessment of Feed Supplementation to Dairy Goat: Results of Research and Technology Dissemination Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azeem Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, role and strength of dairy goat is increasing in Barani Tract of Punjab. The bread and butter needs of poor and small household are largely depends on livestock specifically on the dairy goats. The 80 percent livestock management activities are mostly depends upon women; therefore under the experimentation of feed supplementation mainly women's were included as research partners. The women perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feed supplement were collected by using a well structured questionnaire. A total of 62 women's were included in the sample size. Results indicated that 95.08% women's had shown their complete satisfaction from the feed supplements given to dairy goats. A large majority of the respondents (98.31 were in view that the given feed supplements had increased their milk productivity. Overall, 82.69 % sample women had pointed out that their knowledge about goat management has increased with this experimentation. Both empirical and experimental data shows a significant increase in milk yield i.e 520 ml and 562 ml respectively. The marginal rate of returns from milk was about 246.38 % that also revealed economic significance of the feed supplementation intervention to the dairy goats. The sustainability of feed supplementation has serious problem, about 67.27 percent respondents were in view that feed supplementation to dairy goat will not sustain due to resources poorness, availability and relatively importance of goat in household economy.

  1. STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE ROSTOV REGION

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    Radjabov R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we carry out the analysis of the current state of dairy farming in the country and in the Rostov region. The article shows the number of cows and milk production in farms of all categories in the country and the region. At present, Russia is ranked 6th in the world in milk production and is the largest importer of milk and dairy products. The situation is similar in the dairy industry of the Rostov region. Nowadays Rostov region ranks 5th in the Russian Federation and 2nd place in the southern Federal district in milk production. A large portion of milk (83,4% is produced in households. This indicates decentralization of livestock complex in the Rostov region. The demand for milk is met through own production by 83%. Currently, the region has just started a period of stabilization of the gross milk production. For the last 4 years the indicators of milk productivity of cows have been 13.0-14.5% higher than the national average. Much of this was facilitated by the measures of state support. With the support of Federal and regional authorities in this field it has been created a favorable investment climate for the development of dairy farming. In the article the main organizational and economic aspects of profitability of milk production have been shown. It identifies the main issues that hinder the intensification of dairy farming. The dairy sector of the Rostov region has good prospects. Main approaches to the solution of the problems of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Rostov region have been listed

  2. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

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    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  3. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sters O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  4. The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

  5. Techno-Economic Factors Affecting Genetic Investment in Dairy Cattle in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; Mashhour, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical expansion in Egyptian livestock is the only feasible approach for development, particularly, milk production. This is due to lack of natural range, enough feed supply and competition between food production and feed production in using the very limited water resources supply and irrigated agricultural land in Egypt. In addition, Egypt has a comparative advantage in milk production. However, the milk yield of the domestic cattle is still much below the world average. Vertical expansio...

  6. Association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and culling in dairy cattle herds

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    R Arrazuría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the causes for culling in dairy herds with different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status and to compare these causes with those observed over the general dairy cattle population. During 2009, causes for culling were registered in two different groups of farms: (1 farms with seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 but where Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has not been isolated from any of the fecal samples collected and (2 farms with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 and where the bacteria has been isolated from at least one fecal sample. Causes for animal loss were compared between both groups and between them and the general dairy cattle population by means of regression analysis. The distribution of culling reasons was different between infected herds (both bacteriologically positive and negative and the general population. The percentage of losses seemed to be higher in infected herds from the first parity on. The most remarkable difference among groups was observed in losses due to "death/urgent slaughter".

  7. Hypokalemia, muscle weakness, and recumbency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, S F; Divers, T J; Guard, C; Rath, A; Rebhun, W C

    2000-01-01

    Seventeen cases of severe hypokalemia (serum or plasma potassium cattle were included in a retrospective study. The cattle were from 15 different farms. Eleven of the 17 animals were recumbent at presentation while the remaining six became recumbent within 6 hours of admission. Both multiparous cows (n = 11) and first calf heifers (n = 6) were included. The median days in milk was 21 (range: 5 to 110), and chronic, recurrent ketosis (15 of the 17 cases) was the most common preexistent condition. Potential musculoskeletal and neurologic causes of recumbency were ruled out on the basis of physical examination and ancillary diagnostics. Ten of the 17 animals were euthanized and underwent full necropsy examination that demonstrated ischemic muscle damage and varying degrees of hepatic lipidosis. Aggressive potassium supplementation was instituted in all 17 cases either orally, intravenously, or by a combination of both routes. In the seven individuals that survived, potassium supplementation was administered orally and intravenously in five, orally only in one, and intravenously only in one. PMID:19757570

  8. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila Mnchen; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando ( and Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  9. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lnne; Moyes, Kasey

    imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a...... situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the...... not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for...

  10. Meta-analysis of stray voltage on dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdreich, L S; Alexander, D D; Wagner, M E; Reinemann, D

    2009-12-01

    A quantitative assessment of dairy cow responses to contact current (stray voltage) at 50 or 60 Hz was conducted using meta-analysis and pooled analysis methodology. The objective was to more accurately quantify the minimum exposure level (threshold) at which dairy cows respond and to identify sources of heterogeneity among studies. Several medical and agricultural databases were used to locate individual studies for the systematic literature review, from which 22 published studies of stray voltage and behavioral response or milk yield met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis models were constructed to assess the percentage of cows with a behavioral response at documented exposure levels, and the summary relative risk estimate for all exposure pathways combined was calculated for each 1-mA increment from 1.0 through 5.0 mA. The meta-analysis of percentage response showed that cows exhibited statistically significant first behavioral responses at 3.0 mA, response probability increased with exposure levels, and exposure pathways contributed to heterogeneity in the model. The pooled analysis of mean behavioral response threshold was based on experimental studies of ascending series of current exposures on 355 cows. The overall weighted mean for first behavioral response to current was 4.0 mA. Ten of the studies that met the inclusion criteria addressed milk production, but heterogeneity in exposure pathways, patterns, and duration precluded meta-analysis or data pooling. The milk production studies ranged in size from 4 to 48 cows and used switchback or paired design to increase power. A qualitative narrative review of these studies indicated that production was not affected by exposure to contact current at levels of 3 mA or lower for exposures of up to 21 d or 4 wk. PMID:19923599

  11. Black Quarter in crossbred dairy cattle- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nazir Zahid

    Full Text Available Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF cross bred cows (n=8 at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC and plasma biochemistry were performed on survived animals (n=6. The needle biopsy samples were subjected to culture and identification of the organism by Gram staining. Results: Two cows were died before instituting the treatment in this clinical incident. The carcasses were seen with typical bloated appearance immediately after death, laying one side with affected leg stuck out. Post-mortem of the carcasses were not been carried out. Pertinent findings of the CBC were a relative neutrophilia whilst a normal total leucocyte count and lowered Hb. Plasma biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in the mean activity of aspartate aminotransferase while alanine aminotransferase levels were within limits. Gram's staining of the inoculated culture revealed the presence of small gram-positive rods with sub terminal spores. Clinical treatment of the cases was performed with administration of heavy dose of crystalline penicillin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Clinical recoveries of the cases were good and cessation of spread within the herd confining itself as a sporadic clinical incident. Conclusion: Sporadic Clostridiosis (BQ of eight cross bred dairy cows was dealt in the present case study by including the details of its alterations in hematological parameters, Plasma biochemical parameters, observation of characteristic clinical signs of the disease and employment of empirical treatment with Penicillin. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 767-770

  12. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.

  14. Relationship between group size and feeding success of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis in the central Free State

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    Hennie Butler

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of habitat or time of day, cattle egrets feeding independently of hosts generally occurring larger groups than those feeding in close association with ungulates. The average group size of three individuals feeding in association with hosts stays remarkably constant with regard to divergent situations. Based on the type of habitat and the grazing speed of the host concerned, cattle egrets achieve the highest feeding success (number of prey items with the least energy inputs (number of paces in association with cattle, and to a lesser extent with the closely related buffalo. Compared to solitary birds, cattle egrets feeding in groups experience without exceptional higher feeding success. Results of feeding experiments, as well as the exceptional occurrence of so-called feeding lines, confirm the phenomenon that the feeding success of cattle egrets correlates closely with the size of the feeding group.

  15. Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR

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    HR Shahbazkia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

  16. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernndez, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. PMID:25475653

  17. Genetic detection of Campylobacter lanienae in fecal matter and stored manure from swine and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvremont, Evelyne; Normand, Valrie; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Ct, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    Tracking sources of contamination is an issue related to food safety. In a preliminary study conducted to evaluate the distribution of thermophilic Campylobacter in the environment surrounding dairy cattle and swine production, a number of Campylobacter lanienae were directly detected by PCR. The amplicons came from dairy cows and pig fecal samples, as well as from stored manure. DNA sequencing of a 360-bp fragment of C. lanienae 16S rRNA gene was performed. Alignment of sequences confirmed the bacterial identification as sequences shared 99-100% homology with C. lanienae 16S rRNA gene sequences available in GenBank. Interestingly, bioinformatics analyses also revealed two different genetic clusters depending on the animal reservoir. More samples and other molecular techniques need to be tested in order to characterize and evaluate the distribution of this microorganism in the agri-food chain. PMID:18767980

  18. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna imkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.

  19. Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

    2008-11-01

    A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139

  20. Recovery of Mollicutes from the reproductive tract of dairy cattle in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflicks medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P; Howard, Dawn J; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; David A. Magee; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5? promoter, intron...

  2. A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring Node of the Physiological Signals for Unrestrained Dairy Cattle Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihai; Zhang, Changli; Fang, Junlong; Fan, Yongcun

    A newly developed smart sensor node that can monitor physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle is designed through modular design and its advantages are compact structure and small volume. This sensor node is based on a MSP430F133 micro-controller; the digital sensor includes temperature sensor (DS18B20-America) and vibration-displacement sensor (DN series China); transmission of the digital data uses the nRF903. The results show that this node can collect physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle and then send it to upper network node. This research can provide better hardware platform for further researching the communication protocols of wireless sensor networks.

  3. Effect of Summer Supplementary Feeding on Cattle Performance in Low Rainfall Grassland Savanna, South Darfur, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakr Omer Ismail; Yousif Rizggalla Sulaiman; Faisal Awad Ahmed; Hafiz Abdalla Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    In a tropical ranch of animal production, which was divided by fire lines into 20 equal grazing paddocks of one mile square each, a grazing experiment was conducted as controlled rotational grazing with forty-five (45) cross-bred Sudanese improved Baggara cattle which were divided into four feeding systems (groups). A drop in condition scores of the farm cattle stock herd was treated during dry summer by supplementary feeding with four types of supplements to investigate the changes in averag...

  4. Do udder edema and delayed placental delivery in dairy cattle have a common cause?

    OpenAIRE

    Prosman, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    In dairy cattle, udder edema (18 to 96%) and retention of fetal membranes (3,6 to 29%) are very common disorders around calving. Previous studies suggests that udder edema (UE), retained fetal membranes (RFM), and mastitis have a common cause. We studied whether a link between the prevalence of them might to be found. We found no correlation between UE and RFM. Despite the suggested relation where this research was based on, evidence for such a relation was not found. Scoring udder edema is n...

  5. Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits

    OpenAIRE

    van der Waaij, E. H.; Holzhauer, M.; Ellen, E.D.; Kamphuis, C.; DE JONG, G.

    2005-01-01

    Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and the health status of the rear claws recorded. Only herds with >75% of the animals having feet trimmed were considered, resulting in records on 21,611 animals. Eight claw disorders were scored: dig...

  6. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jrn Rind; Srensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of...... genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...

  7. Transmission and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in dairy cattle and calves

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; K. Frankena; Zijderveld, F.G., van; Jong, M.C.M

    2009-01-01

    Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out in one of two pastures. From each group, five animals were experimentally inoculated with 109 c.f.u. O157 VTEC and, considered infectious, put back in their group. Each of the susceptible contact ca...

  8. Socio-economic factors affecting the level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    ?EK, Hasan; CEVGER, Yavuz; Tando?an, Murat

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors which are effective in helping dairy cattleenterprises to adopt some innovations in Afyonkarahisar. The data acquired from questionnaires of 80 randomly selected enterpriseswere analyzed with chi-square test in May 2006. Enterprises those have 1-10, 11-35 and more than 35 cattle were classified as small,medium and high scale, respectively. It was found that 12% of enterprises adopt innovations at low level, 65% of them at med...

  9. Effect of time of artificial insemination on embryo sex ratio in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h after ovulation. Time of ovulation was assessed by ultrasound at 4-h intervals. In total, 64 embryos were determined to be male or female. Of these 64 embryos, 51.6% were female. The sex ratio in ...

  10. Prevalence of Antibodies Against of Neospora caninum in Dairy Cattle in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hernandez-Vidal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present epidemiological research was the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in order to determine the presence and prevalence of neosporosis in dairy cattle herds at 8 counties from the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A total of 33 herds and 371 animals were included. Detection of Neospora caninum was performed using a commercial kit observed prevalence was 45%. This result allowed the conclusion that animals which are seropositive for the protozoan Neospora caninum do exist in Nuevo Leon. Serological evidence was found in animals at milk-production stage indicating that the presence of emerging diseases in the region is a fact therefore, sanitary measurements should be re-evaluated or reinforced in order to keep the cattle free from pathogens that have a negative impact in the production of food from animal origin used for the human consumption.

  11. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  12. Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B

    2014-07-01

    Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 378 kg (mean standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship training sessions. In conclusion, cattle handling skills are considered important by Minnesota dairy producers to ensure worker safety and cow flow. Limited availability of time, language barrier, and a perceived lack of training materials were considered challenges during the training of workers on farms. PMID:24835968

  13. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  14. Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Konosonoka, I. H.; A. Jemeljanovs; Osmane, B.; D. Ikauniece; Gulbe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in...

  15. Feed intake and energy utilization in dairy cows of different breeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the difference between returns from milk and feed costs (defined as the economic efficiency). In these two definitions of efficiency the relationship between feed intake and milk production is very impo...

  16. Herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, S?awomir J; Czopowicz, Micha?; Weber, Corinna N; Mller, Elisabeth; Witkowski, Lucjan; Kaba, Jaros?aw

    2016-01-01

    A serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of Poland (Podlaskie, 47 herds and ?odzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. A simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (?18 month-old). A total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with a commercial competitive ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Belgium). To calculate true herd-level seroprevalence test sensitivity and specificity were adjusted from an individual- to a herd-level using FreeCalc method. The true overall herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was 56.7% (95% CI: 47.5%, 65.9%). The true herd-level seroprevalence in Podlaskie was 63.3% (95% CI: 43.0%, 83.6%) and 50.5% (95% CI: 32.8%, 68.2%) in ?odzkie province and these figures did not differ significantly between the two provinces (chi2 test p = 0.238). One hundred forty three of 734 cows (19.5%) were seropositive which gave the true overall individual-level seroprevalence of 20.1% (95% CI: 17.4%, 23.2%). Percentage of seropositive cows in each herd varied from 6% to 80%. This study is the first epidemiological investigation of herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in Polish dairy cattle population. In conclusion, the result of the study confirmed previous data that N. caninum infection is widespread in the Polish cattle population and thus should be considered as a potential cause of spontaneous abortions. PMID:26751872

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.

  18. Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 Prevalence in Dairy CattleUzeyir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem Duman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 prevelance causing Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR in dairy cattle that showed respiratory system symptoms and that were located in Iskilip, Corum situated in Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey were studied. For this purpose, owned by small family enterprises and not vaccinated, 5200 animals over 1 year old were scanned and nasal swap and blood samples were taken from 250 animals showing respiratory system disease symptoms and having body temperature above normal. Total 250 nasal swap samples and blood samples from the same cattle were tested, respectively against antigen and antibody presence for BHV-1 by ELISA kits obtained commercially. For the sampled cattle, BHV-1 antigen prevelance was detected as 0.8% (2/250. During the serological part of the study, for the same sampled animals, BHV-1 specific antibody prevelance was detected as 21.2% (53/250. Consequently, BHV-1 infection presence/extensity was detected in cattle owned by family enterprises in Iskilip vicinity and it was agreed that serious precautions should be taken to control the infection.

  19. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identifythe mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred andeighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test(CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterialspecies. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional andmolecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalenceof 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positiveacid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito(Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other thantuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana(spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilstspoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum asWest African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified.This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.

  20. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Ppole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paran, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis. PMID:26415955

  1. Feeding of by-products completely replaced cereals and pulses in dairy cows and enhanced edible feed conversion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2015-02-01

    When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers. PMID:25483200

  2. Studies on the utilization of non-protein nitrogen and agricultural by-products as feed for native cattle in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)

  3. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  4. Precipitation and temperature effects on mortality and lactation parameters of dairy cattle in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, C L; McV Messam, L L; Collar, C A; Peterson, N G; Castillo, A R; Reed, B A; Andersen, K L; VerBoort, W R

    2008-12-01

    Data from 3 commercial rendering companies located in different regions of California were analyzed from September 2003 through August 2005 to examine the relationship of dairy calf and cow mortality to monthly average daily temperature and total monthly precipitation respectively. Yearly average mortality varied between rendering regions from 2.1 to 8.1% for mature cows. The relationship between cow and calf monthly mortality and monthly average daily temperature was U-shaped. Overall, months with average daily temperatures less than 14 and greater than 24 degrees C showed substantial increases in both calf and cow mortality with calf mortality being more sensitive to changes in these temperature ranges than cow mortality. Temperature changes were reflected in a 2-fold difference between the minimum and maximum mortality in cows and calves. Precipitation showed a weak effect with calf mortality and no effect with cow mortality. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement Association were used from 112 California herds tested over a 24-mo period to examine the relationship of milk production and quality with monthly average daily temperature and monthly precipitation. Somatic cell count and percent milk fat were either weakly or not associated with monthly average daily temperature and total monthly precipitation. However, total monthly precipitation was negatively associated with test day milk per milking cow regardless of the dairy's geographical location. Housing-specific associations for test day milk per milking cow were greater for total monthly precipitation than monthly average daily temperature, with the strongest negative association seen for dairies that do not provide shelter for cows. This suggests that providing suitable housing for lactating dairy cattle may ameliorate the precipitation-associated decrease in test day milk per milking cow. PMID:19038933

  5. Lameness, Activity Time-Budgets, and Estrus Expression in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, S. L.; Smith, R. F.; Routly, J. E.; Jones, D N; Morris, M. J.; Dobson, H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 1.4 d postpartum) were monitored on a commercial dairy farm for 5 d following estrus synchronization. Overall, lame cows (n = 39) spent proportionately less ...

  6. Bienestar animal en bovinos lecheros Dairy cattle welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Tadich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumentar la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción, la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento. De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos.The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that there are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production, the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment and affective states (pain, suffering. Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.

  7. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  8. Quantifying the influence of ambient temperature on dairy and beef cattle mortality in France from a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hnaux, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the thermoneutral zone and temperature effects outside this zone is of primary interest for farmers because it can help determine when to implement appropriate preventive and mitigation measures. PMID:26005951

  9. Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hendarto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981. The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of good. (Animal Production 1(2: 63-74 (1999 Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.

  10. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (?6,000 kg herd average and intensive (?9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

  12. Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 ?-stigmastanol and epi-5 ?-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.00.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

  13. Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, B.; Herrero, M; Arendonk, J.A.M., van

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and potential milk yield. A set of cow-states was defined by lactation number (1 to 12), calving interval (11 to 16 months), potential milk yield (15 levels) and stage of lactation (months 1 to 16). Act...

  14. Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 2.4) and T4 (144.2 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

  15. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  16. The use of multilevel models to evaluate sources of variation in reproductive performance in dairy cattle in Reunion Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohoo, I.R.; Tillard, E.; Stryhn, H.; Faye, B.

    Sources of variation in measures of reproductive performance in dairy cattle were evaluated using data collected from 3207 lactations in 1570 cows in 50 herds from five geographic regions of Reunion Island (located off the cast coast of Madagascar). Three continuously distributed reproductive...

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS: BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SENSITIVITY OR CHRONIC PAIN FOLLOWING TAIL-DOCKING IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tail-docking of dairy cattle causes mild to moderate behavior changes and physiological indicators of acute pain, but no studies have investigated the possibility of tail-docking leading to chronic pain. In human amputees, incidence of increased limb surface temperature is associated with phantom l...

  18. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; sters, Olav; Reksen, Olav; Toft, Nils; Grhn, Yrjo T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  19. Forage-based systems for beef and dairy cattle production: Challenges and opportunities in the South Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage-based systems for beef and dairy cattle production: Challenges and opportunities in the South Central region. W. A. Phillips, G. W. Horn and B. K. Northup USDA-ARS El Reno, OK and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Stillwater. The states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkans...

  20. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  1. A cross sectional study on reproductive health disorders in dairy cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.

  2. The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cows during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  4. A review of genomic selection - Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., van Marle-Kster; C., Visser; D.P., Berry.

    Full Text Available The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selecti [...] on (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by using marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.

  5. Effects of prolonged consumption of water with elevated nitrate levels on certain metabolic parameters of dairy cattle and use of clinoptilolite for their amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Karatzia, M A; Polizopoulou, Z; Florou-Paneri, P; Karatzias, H

    2015-06-01

    Elevated levels of nitrates in feed and water can pose a significant risk for dairy cattle, due to their cumulative action. The effect of prolonged consumption of water naturally contaminated with nitrates on some metabolic parameters in dairy cows was investigated at the present study. Concurrently, whether in-feed inclusion of clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite with high selectivity for ammonia cations, could ameliorate nitrate consumption consequences was examined. Two experiments were run simultaneously in two farms each. In both, farms were assigned into two groups according to nitrate levels in borehole water (NG?>?40 ppm; CG?clinoptilolite in the ration was taken into account (NC-clinoptilolite feeding; CNC-controls). In experiment 1, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations appeared to be affected by nitrate consumption and were significantly higher in NG animals. In experiment 2, BUN concentration was significantly lower in the NC group. The prolonged consumption of water with increased nitrate levels seemed, to some degree, to impair protein metabolism and glucose utilization, while the dietary administration of clinoptilolite could alleviate the nitrates' effects. PMID:25874417

  6. Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.

  7. Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle production data in South Africa: creating the framework

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.F, Dzomba; K.A, Nephawe; A.N, Maiwashe; S.W.P, Cloete; M, Chimonyo; C.B, Banga; C.J.C, Muller; K, Dzama.

    Full Text Available Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation cu [...] rve for cows in similar contemporary groups and homogeneity of additive genetic variances across lactation and for its inability to account for persistency of lactation. The random regression test-day model has been suggested as a more appropriate method and is currently implemented by several Interbull member-countries. This review traces the development of random regression methods and their adoption in test-day models. Comparisons are drawn with the fixed regression test-day model. The paper discusses reasons for suggesting the adoption of the random regression approach for dairy cattle evaluation in South Africa and identifies the key areas where research efforts should focus.

  8. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Cryptosporidium SPP from dairy cattle in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Harfoush, Mohamed; He, Hongxuan

    2010-08-01

    Cryptosporidium infections in cattle result in considerable'economic loss as well as a significant source for zoonotic infection. This study was devoted to spot analysis on Cryptosporidium parasites derived from dairy cattle at Kafr El Sheikh Province, Egypt, using morphological and molecular tools. Fecal specimens from neonatal calves as well as adult cattle were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Oocysts in positive samples were concentrated using sugar floatation technique. Small size oocysts from calves and large size ones from adults were identified microscopically with measures correspond to those of C parvum and C. muris-C. andersoni, respectively. DNA was extracted from 8 positive specimens; 4 harbored small and 4 had large oocysts and used for PCR amplification, RFLP analysis and nucleotide sequence. RFLP analysis revealed 2 types of banding patterns coinciding with those of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris-C. andersoni. Sequence analysis of amplified fragments of small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and heat shock protein (HSP70) genes were used as markers for species identification and genotyping of the parasite. Homology search and phylogenetic analysis of the generated sequences versus those deposited in Genbank revealed that small oocysts were belong to C. parvum genotype II, whereas large ones were belong to C. andersoni. PMID:21246942

  9. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  10. Organic farming of dairy goats in the Veneto region: feeding management and milk quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Bailoni; Valerio Bondesan; Silvia Miotello

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B), time of sampling (ST) and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI), diet...

  11. Study of nutritional and reproductive constraints of Friesian dairy cattle in the Mitidja area of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)

  12. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  13. Simulation, prediction, and genetic analyses of daily methane emissions in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brgemann, K; Simianer, H; Knig, S

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an approach combining phenotypes from novel traits, deterministic equations from cattle nutrition, and stochastic simulation techniques from animal breeding to generate test-day methane emissions (MEm) of dairy cows. Data included test-day production traits (milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen), conformation traits (wither height, hip width, body condition score), female fertility traits (days open, calving interval, stillbirth), and health traits (clinical mastitis) from 961 first lactation Brown Swiss cows kept on 41 low-input farms in Switzerland. Test-day MEm were predicted based on the traits from the current data set and 2 deterministic prediction equations, resulting in the traits labeled MEm1 and MEm2. Stochastic simulations were used to assign individual concentrate intake in dependency of farm-type specifications (requirement when calculating MEm2). Genetic parameters for MEm1 and MEm2 were estimated using random regression models. Predicted MEm had moderate heritabilities over lactation and ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, with highest heritabilities around DIM 100. Genetic correlations between MEm1 and MEm2 ranged between 0.91 and 0.94. Antagonistic genetic correlations in the range from 0.70 to 0.92 were found for the associations between MEm2 and milk yield. Genetic correlations between MEm with days open and with calving interval increased from 0.10 at the beginning to 0.90 at the end of lactation. Genetic relationships between MEm2 and stillbirth were negative (0 to -0.24) from the beginning to the peak phase of lactation. Positive genetic relationships in the range from 0.02 to 0.49 were found between MEm2 with clinical mastitis. Interpretation of genetic (co)variance components should also consider the limitations when using data generated by prediction equations. Prediction functions only describe that part of MEm which is dependent on the factors and effects included in the function. With high probability, there are more important effects contributing to variations of MEm that are not explained or are independent from these functions. Furthermore, autocorrelations exist between indicator traits and predicted MEm. Nevertheless, this integrative approach, combining information from dairy cattle nutrition with dairy cattle genetics, generated novel traits which are difficult to record on a large scale. The simulated data basis for MEm was used to determine the size of a cow calibration group for genomic selection. A calibration group including 2,581 cows with MEm phenotypes was competitive with conventional breeding strategies. PMID:26026753

  14. Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarek Jolanta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2 are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able to demonstrate that livestock with its detailed records of family structure, genetic, and environmental factors as well as extensive trait recording can be a good model organism for research aspects related to humans.

  15. Invited review: effects of milk ration on solid feed intake, weaning, and performance in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-03-01

    A feeding regimen that allows a smooth transition from milk to solid feed is vital for successful heifer-rearing programs. In the past, research efforts have focused on the development of feeding methods that allow early weaning, perhaps because the risk of disease is highest during the milk feeding stage. To encourage early intake of calf starter, conventional feeding programs have limited the supply of milk (often to 10% of BW at birth). However, dairy calves provided free access to milk will typically consume more than twice this amount. We critically review the available literature examining the relationship between milk feeding method, solid feed consumption, and rumen development in young dairy calves and identify areas where new work is required. We conclude that milk-fed dairy calves can safely ingest milk at approximately 20% of body weight (BW)/d, and greater milk consumption supports greater BW gain, improved feed efficiency, reduced incidence of disease, and greater opportunity to express natural behaviors, which in combination suggest improved welfare. Method of weaning greatly influences feed consumption, rumen development, and growth check in calves provided higher amounts of milk. Gradual weaning encourages starter intake during the preweaning period, and both weaning age and duration of weaning influence this consumption. Increased solid feed consumption during the weaning process contributes to rumen development, permitting higher starter intake and BW gain after weaning. Growth factors in milk may also enhance the growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, but more research is required to understand the role of these factors. Greater nutrient supply through increased amount of milk appears to improve immune function and long-term performance of heifer calves; for example, reducing the age at first breeding and increasing first-lactation milk yield, but more research is needed to confirm these effects. PMID:21338773

  16. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20 targeted region, however, there was indication on differences in the causal factor(s) across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene showed strong association with milk, fat, protein yields. In HOL, the highest peaks for milk yield and susceptibility to mastitis were separated by over 3.5 Mb (3.8 Mb by haplotype analysis, 3.6 Mb by single SNP analysis), suggesting separate genetic variants for the traits. Further analysis yielded 2 candidate mutations for the mastitis QTL, at 33,642,072 bp (rs378947583) in an intronic region of the caspase recruitment domain protein 6 gene (CARD6) and 35,969,994 bp (rs133596506) in an intronic region of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR). These findings suggest that it may be possible to separate these beneficial and detrimental genetic factors through targeted selective breeding

  17. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  18. Food Security and Dairy Cow Feeding: The Necessity for a Paradigm Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm Knaus

    2013-01-01

    Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This mean...

  19. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  20. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Rajo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  1. Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.

  2. [Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in intra-urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussini, H; Traor, A; Tamboura, H H; Bessin, R; Boly, H; Oudraogo, A

    2012-12-01

    A study of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis was conducted in dairy cattle farms in and around the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It reveals the potential economic and health impact of these two major zoonoses in the study area. Three farming systems were included in the study. A total of 1,420 cattle were tested for tuberculosis and 1,689 cattle were tested for brucellosis. The intradermal tuberculin test was used for tuberculosis, and the buffered antigen test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for brucellosis. The overall prevalence rate is estimated to be 6.05% for tuberculosis and 3.61% for brucellosis. The prevalence rates of tuberculosis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou were found to be high. As these two production-linked diseases are zoonotic, they could pose a major risk to human health and contribute significantly to reducing animal production and productivity in the areas covered by the study. Animals should be checked systematically prior to introducing them into dairy herds, with the ultimate goal of eradicating these two zoonoses. PMID:23520747

  3. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.150.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  4. Across-Family Marker-Assisted Selection Using Selective Genotyping Strategies in Dairy Cattle Breeding Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Srensen, A C

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates

  5. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso...disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart...each animal's left ear. (b) Dairy cattle disposed of under this...

  6. Aflatoxin Levels in Roughage, Concentrates, Compound Feed and Milk Samples from Dairy Farms in Erzurum Province

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Nebahat; GL, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin in roughage, concentrates and compound feed from dairy farms located in Erzurum province, and the presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFLM1) in the milk of animals fed with these feeds were determined in four different seasons. The mean level of Aflatoxin M1 detected in milk samples was 0.03 ppb. Aflatoxin M1 levels in the milk samples taken from the holdings were lower in autumn and summer (0.02 ppb) compared to winter and spring (0.04 ppb). The total aflatoxin levels in feed samples were hi...

  7. The Feasibility of Feeding High Levels of Whey Silage and Effects on Production in Growing Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Goonewardene; Wiedmeier, R. D.; K.C. Olson; Okine, E. K.; D.R. ZoBell; C. Stonecipher

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage), fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey si...

  8. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at...... day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to...

  9. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

  10. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies its the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms its a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle dont paste; the arable land its used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isnt a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces cant speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  11. Evaluation Of Decision Options For Industry Wide Control Of Salmonella In Dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean

    2009-01-01

    dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from......Modeling the transmission of a pathogen between herds provides useful insight into how prevention and surveillance programs can be organised. We aimed to devise a technique for simulating the transfer of Salmonella (S.) Dublin between Danish dairy herds based on trading patterns and infection rates...

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n=314) from a population (N=1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95%=20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n=21) and matched (n=63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1:3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR=0.10; CI 95%=0.02-0.39; Pcattle of neighbouring farms (OR=5.78; CI 95%=1.41-23.67; P=0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. PMID:24661884

  13. Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoul Aurélie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

  14. Molecular and Pathological Study of Bovine Aborted Fetuses and Placenta from Neospora caninum Infected Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shayan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 placentas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and perivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of hemorrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "nConclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neospora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.

  15. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity. PMID:26130505

  16. Energy consumption in the cattle feed chain. Survey for the MJA2; Energiegebruik in de veevoerketen. Inventarisatie t.b.v. MJA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenster, M.N.; Hueting, D.H.

    2007-02-15

    Cattle feed used in the Netherlands contributes at least 62 PJ tot the total energy consumption in the Netherlands. More than half of the energy required for the production of cattle feed takes place abroad. On average, transport is responsible for 25%, and cultivation, including the use of fertilizers, contributes 30%. The indirect energy consumption for cattle feed concentrates in the related sectors (dairy industry and meat processing industry) is more than half of the total energy consumption. This implies there are possibilities to improve the energy efficiency through measures in different parts of the cattle feed chain. Energy efficiency measures and projects can be realized as part of the second long-term energy efficiency agreements programme (MJA2), which is carried out by the Dutch agency SenterNovem. [Dutch] In Nederland gebruikt krachtvoer staat voor minimaal 62 PJ aan primaire energie. Ruim de helft van dit energiegebruik vindt buiten Nederland plaats. Transport is gemiddeld voor een kwart van het energiegebruik verantwoordelijk en teelt, inclusief kunstmestgebruik, voor 30%. Sojaschroot is de grondstof met de grootste bijdrage aan het energiebeslag van 18% (2004). Het indirecte energiegebruik via krachtvoer bedraagt voor betreffende sectoren (zuivel, vlees(verwerking)) zo ruim de helft van het totale energiegebruik. Dit betekent dat er veel ruimte is om via ketenmaatregelen aan de totale energie-efficientie te werken. De mogelijkheid om met de zogeheten 'verbredingsthema's' van MJA2 (Tweede Meerjarenafspraken Energie Efficientie) aan de slag te gaan is voor deze sectoren erg interessant, zeker omdat ook een belangrijk deel van de kosten voor rekening van voer komt. Deze inventarisatie, in opdracht van Senternovem, geeft een uitgebreid overzicht van energiegebruik in de veevoer(grondstof)ketens als handreiking naar de verschillende betrokken partijen.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 FROM DOWNER AND HEALTHY DAIRY CATTLE IN THE UPPER MIDWEST REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While cattle in general have been identified as a reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, there are limited data regarding the prevalence and clonality of this pathogen in downer dairy cattle and the potential impact to human health that may occur following consumption of meat derived from downer dai...

  18. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    Based on individual cow live weight gain, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems, and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH), and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). The objective of the present...... paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake and...... automatic weighing of the cows. All cows had 3kg of individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in addition to a mixed ration (MR). Cows were either allowed a medium energy MR during whole lactation (strategy MR1) or a high energy MR during early lactation, which was reduced to a low energy MR either...

  19. Fatty Liver Syndrome in Dairy Cattle: Relation between Nefa, Apo-A, Ammoniac, Tsh and Total Bilirobin Serum Values in this Syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Parviz Rezaei Saber; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver syndrome (Hepatic lipidosis) or fat cow syndrome is a major metabolic disorder in many dairy cattle's in early period of lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluating fatty liver syndrome in dairy cattle in Tabriz by measurement of NEFA, APO-A, Ammoniac, TSH and Total Bilirobin serum values. In this study 10 mL blood samples from 400 Holstein dairy cows were obtained by venoject from jugular vein and then samples in vicinity of the ice sent to the laboratory. In lab, prepared...

  20. Research on the Effect of Utilization CLA and ZLL Nutritional Supplements in Dairy Cows Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vidu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cows is an area of great importance to ensure the basic needs of people. Dairy cows are also subjected to the action of various factors of influence due to the feeding peculiarities. This research aims to reveal the influence of the dairy cows feeding use of based on conjugated linoleic acid -CLA and a mixture of plant extracts and micro-ZLL supplements. The study was carried out in Agrimat Matca farm, on a herd of 100 cows at the first lactation. The experiment consisted in the administration of 0.20 kg VILOMIL ZLL and 0.13 kg VILOMIX CLA for a period of 24 days. Observations were made on the quantity of daily milk, the milk quality and hygiene and the health of the dairy cows. We observed that at the beginning of the experiment the somatic cell contents was 800000/ml, and at the end of the experiment it decreased to 400000/ml. The quantity of milk increased between 4and 12.5%, the fat contents decreased by 0.4 to 0.6% while the protein content was not influenced.

  1. Estimation of variance components for some production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy cattle using Bayesian and AI-REML methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegh Alijani*, Mehdi Jasouri, Nasrolah Pirany and Hossein Daghigh Kia

    2012-01-01

    The used data set included the records of 131990 Iranian Holstein dairy cattle for first three lactations that were collected from 1981 to 2008 time period by Animal Breeding Center, Iran. The traits which were considered for 305 days of lactation included milk, fat and protein yield and percentages of milk fat and protein. Variance components were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) algorithm using AIREMLF90 software under single trait and repeatabilit...

  2. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV),...

  3. Evaluation of the role of a biological medication, reacre agricura, in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Grnlund, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to evaluate a biological medication in the treatment of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cattle. The study was divided into four parts; i) on farm evaluation of DD and treatment effects and comparison between the biological ointment and OTC-spray, ii) statistical evaluation, iii) histological examination using FISH and iv) microbiological examination and culture if bacteria found in biopsies from infected skin.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine chemokine and toll-like receptors : impacts on disease susceptibility and productivity in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Christopher David

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is recognised worldwide as the most important and costly disease affecting dairy cattle. The reduction of herd mastitis rates is crucially needed to improve animal welfare and profitability, and lessen the reliance on antibiotics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes that have a critical role in the innate immune response, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2, could impact on establishment and progression of intramamm...

  5. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits

    OpenAIRE

    Egger-Danner, C.; Cole, J B; Pryce, J. E.; Gengler, Nicolas; Heringstad, B.; Bradley, A.; Stock, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as dir...

  6. Study on performance analysis of Holstein Fresien cattle under intensive management at government dairy farm, Pishin, Balochistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf H. Barozai; Majed Rafeeq; Haroon Baloch; Irfan Shahzad; Babar Hilal; Farhat Abbas; Mudassar Jehan

    2011-01-01

    The study was carried out to analyze the productive and reproductive performance ofHolstein Friesian cattle under intensive management at Government Dairy Farm, Pishin (Balochistan)exploring the ten years performance records from 1997-2007. Parameters were productive traits(birth weight, lactation length, lactation milk yield), reproductive traits (age at first conception, age atfirst calving, service period, dry period, calving interval) and effect of calving season on (milk yield,calving in...

  7. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; sters, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM.

  8. Potential for Conversion of Agrosilvopastoral Systems of Dairy Cattle to the Organic Production Model in South Eastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    A. Manzur-Cruz; M. Orantes-Zebadua; F. de Asis Ruiz; J. Ma. Castel; R. Aguilar-Jimenez; J. Ruiz-Rojas; Y. Mena; B. Sanchez-Munoz; J. Nahed-Toral; J. Cruz-Lopez; C. Delgadillo-Puga

    2012-01-01

    In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in Southeastern Mexico, traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production have great potential for conversion to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the potential of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. Researchers studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives): RPS Grijalva (RPS-...

  9. Effect of selenium concentration on feed preferences by cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium-containing plants are reputed to be unpalatable to livestock. The objective of this study was to determine if sheep and cattle could discriminate between forages and feeds with different concentrations of Se. In phase I, freshly-harvested forages (intermediate wheatgrass, Thinopyrum inte...

  10. CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sumantri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sample or 10 hours after AFB1 ingestion. The steady state of AFM1 concentration observed since the first day of treatment period and AFM1 contamination was still detected until 5 days after AFB1 removed from the diet. The COR in this study was observed 0.1%. AFM1 concentration was highly significantly (P0.05 of levels of AFB1 and bentonite inclusions on the COR, nutrients intake, milk production, and milk composition. IIt is concluded that AFM1 concentration was influenced by AFB1 intake and that transfer of AFB1-feed into AFM1-milk (COR in PFH cow was lower compare to reported COR value for dairy cow in sub tropical region.

  11. The Analysis of Application of Technical Management on Various Small Holder Dairy Farm Scale in Garut Regency West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Sopiyana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.

  12. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior. PMID:26686722

  13. Ruminal methane emission by dairy cattle in Southeast Brazil / Emisso de metano ruminal por bovinos leiteiros no sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mrcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Odo, Primavesi; Magda Aparecida, Lima; Rosa, Frighetto; Simone Gisele de, Oliveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantao ruminal, metano em particular, representam no s uma perda parcial de energia da alimentao como tambm so apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emisso de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactao, vacas [...] secas e novilhas com idade mdia de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condies tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a tcnica do gs traador hexafluoreto de enxfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribudos em quatro blocos. As medies foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raa Holandesa e Mestia Leiteira Holands x Gir - Mestias, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanznia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiria (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e tambm novilhas de ambas as raas em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubao, simulando as condies de produo extensiva. As concentraes de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenas na emisso de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, [...] 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein x Gir (Zebu) ), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p

  14. Effect of propionate on mRNA expression of key genes for gluconeogenesis in liver of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Bequette, Brian J; Donkin, Shawn S

    2015-12-01

    Elevated needs for glucose in lactating dairy cows are met through a combination of increased capacity for gluconeogenesis and increased supply of gluconeogenic precursors, primarily propionate. This study evaluated the effects of propionate on mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), key gluconeogenic enzymes, and capacity for glucose synthesis in liver of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, six multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 33 Latin square design consisting of a 6-d acclimation or washout phase followed by 8h of postruminal infusion of either propionate (1.68mol), glucose (0.84mol), or an equal volume (10mL/min) of water. In experiment 2, twelve male Holstein calves [394 kg initial body weight (BW)] were blocked by birth date and assigned to receive, at 7d of age, either propionate [2mmolh(-1)(BW(0.75))(-1)], acetate [3.5mmolh(-1)(BW(.75))(-1)], or an equal volume (4mL/min) of saline. In both experiments, blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h relative to the start of infusion and liver biopsy samples were collected at the end of the infusion for mRNA analysis. Liver explants from experiment 1 were used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and gluconeogenesis using (13)C mass isotopomer distribution analysis from (13)C3 propionate. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not altered by infusions in cows. Serum insulin concentration in cows receiving propionate was elevated than cows receiving water, but was not different from cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK1 and G6PC mRNA and glucose production in cows receiving propionate were not different from cows receiving water, but tended to be higher compared with cows receiving glucose. Hepatic expression of PCK2 and PC mRNA was not altered by propionate infusion in cows. Blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon in calves receiving propionate were not different than controls. Calves receiving propionate had increased PCK1 mRNA, tended to have increased G6PC mRNA, and had similar PC mRNA compared with saline controls. These data indicate a tendency for in vivo effects of propionate to alter hepatic gene expression in mid-lactation cows and neonatal calves, which are consistent with a feed-forward effect of propionate to regulate its own metabolism toward gluconeogenesis through changes in hepatic PCK1 mRNA. PMID:26409969

  15. Cross-sectional estimation of Babesia bovis antibody prevalence in cattle in two contrasting dairying areas in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The crude prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis infection in cattle was estimated by serology using indirect ELISA during the period January to April, 1999. Sera were obtained from 1 395 dairy cattle (of all ages, sexes and breeds on smallholder farms, the majority being kept under a zero grazing regime. The crude prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis was 6 % for Tanga and 12% for Iringa. The forces of infection based on the age sero-prevalence profile, were estimated at six for Iringa and four for Tanga per 100 cattle years-risk, respectively. Using random effect logistic regression as the analytical method, the factors (variables of age, source of animals and geographic location were hypothesised to be associated with sero-positivity of Babesia bovis in the two regions.

  16. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter : application to body condition scores in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaren, Burak; Janss, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.

  17. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Slkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator. Farmers perceived crossbreeding as success and recommended it. We conclude that farmers can realize income increase with crossbreeding. The complexity of this technology, high initial investment and the need for support services and external production inputs are probable reasons why crossbreeding uptake is low. Improving the availability of semen and/or bulls must be the top priority for breeding service providers to enable farmers to follow a breeding strategy and reach a suitable and sustainable herd performance. Access to investment capital, input supply, strong technical support and market linkages are crucial for successful crossbreeding. PMID:25230246

  19. Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbyla Klara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1 the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV, and 2 prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.

  20. Incidental phosphorus and nitrogen loss from grassland plots receiving chemically amended dairy cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Grant, J; Ibrahim, T G; Fenton, O

    2012-12-15

    Chemical amendment of dairy cattle slurry has been shown to effectively reduce incidental phosphorus (P) losses in runoff; however, the effects of amendments on incidental nitrogen (N) losses are not as well documented. This study examined P and N losses in runoff during three simulated rainfall events 2, 10 and 28 days after a single application of unamended/chemically amended dairy cattle slurry. Twenty-five hydraulically isolated plots, each measuring 0.9 m by 0.4 m and instrumented with runoff collection channels, were randomly assigned the following treatments: (i) grass-only, (ii) slurry-only (the study-control), (iii) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid alum comprising 8% Al?O?, (iv) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) comprising 10% Al?O?, and (v) slurry amended with lime. During the first rainfall event, lime was ineffective but alum and PAC effectively reduced dissolved reactive P (DRP) (by 95 and 98%, respectively) and total P (TP) flow-weighted-mean-concentrations (by 82 and 93%, respectively) in runoff compared to the study-control. However, flow-weighted-mean-concentrations of ammonium-N (NH?--N) in runoff were increased with alum- (81%) and lime-treated (11%) slurry compared to the study-control whereas PAC reduced the NH?--N by 82%. Amendments were not observed to have a significant effect on NO?--N losses during this study. Slurry amendments reduced P losses for the duration of the study, whereas the effect of amendments on N losses was not significant following the first event. Antecedent volumetric water content of the soil or slope of the plots did not appear to affect runoff volume. However, runoff volumes (and consequently loads of P and N) were observed to increase for the chemically amended plots compared to the control and soil-only plots. This work highlights the importance of considering both P and N losses when implementing a specific nutrient mitigation measure. PMID:23137978

  1. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  2. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.

  3. Effect of the Different Feed Formulas on Physiological Changes and Milk Production Performance of Holstein-friesian Crossbred Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Watchara Sirikool; Surachart Teanglum; Choompol Songwicha; Tharadol Jitrajak; Hanchai Umpapol

    2010-01-01

    The effect of 3 different feed formulas on some physiological changes, haematological changes, cortisol levels and milk production performance of Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows were studied during the early period of the first lactation, by Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replications and 3 treatments. Twelve cows were randomly assigned to each of the 3 feed formula groups as follows; (1) Commercial Feed as control group, (2) Cooperative-mixed Feed and (3) Cooperative-mixed Fe...

  4. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  5. Feeding behavior of Nellore cattle fed high concentrations of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.

  6. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of this study indicate that young calves exhibit clear preferences for certain high-energy and high-protein feeds that may be considered highly palatable. Further, preference ranking of feed types provided as 50:50 mixtures was consistent with ranking of individual feed types, suggesting that palatability of mixed starter rations can be improved by inclusion of a preferred feed type. PMID:24418273

  7. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 0.5 months to 11.8 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  8. Factors affecting dairy farmers' attitudes towards antimicrobial medicine usage in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P J; Marier, E A; Tranter, R B; Wu, G; Watson, E; Teale, C J

    2015-09-01

    There has been growing concern about bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in the farmed livestock sector. Attention has turned to sub-optimal use of antimicrobials as a driver of resistance. Recent reviews have identified a lack of data on the pattern of antimicrobial use as an impediment to the design of measures to tackle this growing problem. This paper reports on a study that explored use of antibiotics by dairy farmers and factors influencing their decision-making around this usage. We found that respondents had either recently reduced their use of antibiotics, or planned to do so. Advice from their veterinarian was instrumental in this. Over 70% thought reducing antibiotic usage would be a good thing to do. The most influential source of information used was their own veterinarian. Some 50% were unaware of the available guidelines on use in cattle production. However, 97% thought it important to keep treatment records. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to identify dairy farmers' drivers and barriers to reduce use of antibiotics. Intention to reduce usage was weakly correlated with current and past practice of antibiotic use, whilst the strongest driver was respondents' belief that their social and advisory network would approve of them doing this. The higher the proportion of income from milk production and the greater the chance of remaining in milk production, the significantly higher the likelihood of farmers exhibiting positive intention to reduce antibiotic usage. Such farmers may be more commercially minded than others and thus more cost-conscious or, perhaps, more aware of possible future restrictions. Strong correlation was found between farmers' perception of their social referents' beliefs and farmers' intent to reduce antibiotic use. Policy makers should target these social referents, especially veterinarians, with information on the benefits from, and the means to, achieving reductions in antibiotic usage. Information on sub-optimal use of antibiotics as a driver of resistance in dairy herds and in humans along with advice on best farm practice to minimize risk of disease and ensure animal welfare, complemented with data on potential cost savings from reduced antibiotic use would help improve poor practice. PMID:26123631

  9. Analyzes of genome-wide association follow-up study for calving traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB) including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL) i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF) (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls) in the VAL dataset Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB) dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls) was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls) though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs) and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs) were found genome-wide significant Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P < 0.05 Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive

  10. Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences

  11. Field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N

    2016-03-01

    The hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n?=?65, 25, and 30, respectively). Collected samples were cultured for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria using serological techniques and PCR. The bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 50%, at different concentrations were evaluated by the determination of total viable and coliform counts of water prior and postwater treatment. In small cattle breeders, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial isolates from surface water (56.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.7%), Salmonella spp. (26.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (23.3%), Shigella flexneri (16.7%), Proteus spp. (16.7%), and Klebsiella pneumonae (10.0%) at X (2)?=?9, P???0.01. Prior to the use of disinfectants, the averages of total bacterial and coliform counts were the highest in surface water (3.56??10(7), 240.0, and 38.0 CFU/100ml, respectively). It has been found that hydrogen peroxide 50% at a concentration of 35mg/l had a lethal effect (100%) on indicator microorganisms compared with NaDCC at concentration of 2mg/l. In conclusion, the higher bacterial contaminants in drinking water were found in surface water followed by tap water, particularly for small cattle breeders. Therefore, the usage of more hygienic water troughs with their regular treatment by hydrogen peroxide 50% at concentration of 35mg/l is highly recommended to control waterborne bacteria and consequently improve and maintain the animal health. PMID:26861741

  12. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  13. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  14. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoma, Rinske; Fields, Julia; Ebenstein, David B; Lam, Ying-Wai; Greenwood, Sabrina L

    2016-03-01

    Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016) [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software. PMID:26937459

  15. 226Ra in milk of the dairy cattle from the rural region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed by the Brazilian Nuclear Corporation (NUCLEBRAS), in collaboration with the Geological Survey Company of Brazil (CPRM), identified high levels of natural uranium in the districts of Pedra and Venturosa, in the rural region of the state of Pernambuco (PE) - Brazil, where the maximum value found in rocks was 22,000 mg x kg-1. The raising of dairy cattle is one of the principal activities in these districts and adjacent areas. 226Ra is released by weathering of rocks rich in uranium, entering the soil and water from where it is transferred to plants, animals and humans. The aim of this research was to determine 226Ra concentrations in the milk produced in farms located in the two districts and nearby areas. The methodology used to determine and quantify 226Ra was based on the 222Rn emanation classical technique. The results of 226Ra in milk samples varied from 4 to 500 mBq x l-1. The consequences of the 226Ra intake on human health are discussed. (author)

  16. Q fever infection in dairy cattle herds: increased risk with high wind speed and low precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovici, S; Frssling, J; Widgren, S; Beaudeau, F; Lindberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Ruminants are considered the main reservoir for transmission of Coxiella burnetii (Cb) to humans. The implementation of effective control measures against Cb in ruminants requires knowledge about potential risk factors. The objectives of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution of Q fever-infected dairy cattle herds in Sweden, (ii) to quantify the respective contributions of wind and animal movements on the risk of infection, while accounting for other sources of variation, and (iii) to investigate the possible protective effect of precipitation. A total of 1537 bulk milk samples were collected and tested for presence of Cb antibodies. The prevalence of test-positive herds was higher in the south of Sweden. For herds located in areas with high wind speed, open landscape, high animal densities and high temperature, the risk of being infected reached very high values. Because these factors are difficult to control, vaccination could be an appropriate control measure in these areas. Finally, the cumulated precipitation over 1 year was identified as a protective factor. PMID:25783480

  17. Association between interleukin 8 receptor ? gene (CXCR1) and mastitis in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Adrianna; Kapera, Magdalena; Korwin-Kossakowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune response plays an important role in the course of bacterial infections. Innate immunity effectiveness relies on the expression of many genes, connected, among others, to the activity of neutrophils. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) receptor ?, coded by the CXCR1 gene, is present on the neutrophil surface and binds pro-inflammatory IL-8 with high affinity. This is why the bovine CXCR1 gene carries a potential for use as a dairy cattle mastitis marker. To date, several studies on the CXCR1 polymorphism brought out contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between two SNPs of the CXCR1 gene, which is potentially important for the protein function and animal phenotype for mastitis susceptibility. A total of 554 Polish Holsteins were genotyped, and 140 among them were bacteriologically tested. The differences between animals carrying different genotypes and haplotypes of CXCR1 in test day somatic cell count (SCC) and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis susceptibility were estimated. We found that test day SCC was significantly related to CXCR1+472 SNP but not to CXCR1+735 SNP. No statistically significant association between CXCR1 polymorphism and susceptibility to S. aureus mastitis was found in the studied herd. PMID:26557028

  18. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frssling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Morans I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  19. Prediction of causative genomic relationships using sequence data of five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier

    The increasing number of sequenced individuals makes the use of sequences for genomic prediction feasible. With the current SNP chips, the accuracy of genomic selection is limited in populations with low linkage disequilibrium, as is the case in across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. Sequence data is more likely to contain causative mutations and therefore increase the prediction accuracy in such populations. We studied the potential advantage of using real sequence data for prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations using sequence data of chromosome 1 for 122 Holstein, 27 Jersey, 28 Montbliarde, 23 Normande and 24 Danish Red bulls. Different scenarios varying the number of causative mutations (10, 50, 100 or 250), minor allele frequency of causative mutations and prediction markers, and sets of prediction markers were used. Prediction markers were either SNP on the 50K and HD chips, or two 1 Kb intervals on both sides of each causative mutation, varying the distance between causative mutations and intervals from 1 base to 1 Mb. Subsequently, the regression coefficient of the genomic relationships at prediction markers on the genomic relationships at causal loci was used to quantify the reduction in prediction R2 resulting from the use of prediction markers rather than the causative mutations. The reduction in prediction R2 was lowest when a limited number of variants close to the causative mutations was used and increased when more variants were added or the distance to the causative mutations increased. This increase was larger across breed than within breed

  20. Maximizing genetic response in breeding schemes of dairy cattle with constraints on variance of response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, T H; Woolliams, J A

    1994-07-01

    Predicted genetic progress in dairy cattle breeding schemes was maximized with the variances of selection responses constrained, i.e., restricted effective population sizes. This restriction would also lead to schemes with acceptable rates of inbreeding (openness of schemes, and generation intervals increased. When elite cows produced 8 offspring annually, this reduction of the coefficient of variation tended toward a conventional progeny-testing scheme. If the number of donor cows was optimized, responses increased < or = 2%, and the breeding schemes became virtually closed. Variances of responses were reduced by selecting fewer, but proven, bulls, as is done in hybrid multiple ovulation and embryo transfer schemes, which select progeny-tested bulls and young elite cows. In spite of the constrained coefficients of variation, maximized genetic gains were high and were only reduced from .300 to .293 genetic standard deviations per year, when coefficients of variation were reduced from .32 to .16. Adoption of breeding schemes with low coefficients of variation is recommended, because responses are high and coefficients of variation are sensitive to accidental changes in the breeding structure. PMID:7929952

  1. DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphism in dairy and dual purpose Italian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bagnato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allele frequency distribution at the DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphic site in seven Italian dairy and dual purpose cattle breeds. On the whole, 651 animals belonging Italian Holstein (116, Italian Brown (105, Italian Simmental (95, Valdostana Red Pied (95, Rendena (62, Reggiana (128 and Modenese (50 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Sequencing was carried out to confirm results of the genotyping protocol. The DGAT1 p.232K allele was identified in Italian Holstein (25.4%, Reggiana (17.2%, and with very low frequency in Italian Simmental, Valdostana Red Pied and Rendena (1%. In Italian Brown and Modenese, this allele was not detected. These results indicated that this polymorphic site can be considered for association studies only in Italian Holstein and Reggiana breeds. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the Reggiana breed (P<0.01 in which there was an excess of heterozygous sires and absence of animals with the p.232KK genotype. This result should be further evaluated because the analysed sires represented almost all bulls available for artificial insemination in this breed. Comparison of allele frequencies at the DGAT1 locus with several other Holstein populations showed a wide range of variability, probably due to different selection strategies adopted.

  2. Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amigues Yves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease. These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits.

  3. Metano entrico de bovinos leiteiros em condies tropicais brasileiras Dairy cattle enteric methane measured in Brazilian tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emisso de metano (CH4 pela tcnica do gs traador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condies tropicais brasileiras. As medies foram realizadas na estao das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raa Holandesa e Mestia Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiat (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiat adubada, com vacas em lactao, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiria (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. no adubada com novilhas. As concentraes de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emisso de CH4 pelas vacas em lactao foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emisso de CH4 por matria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactao, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emisso de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramneas tropicais superior emisso por bovinos ingerindo gramneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiat grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.

  4. Interactive Effects of the Feeding of Leucaena Leaves and Curcumin on Macronutrient Digestion and Nitrogen Balance in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yuangklang, C.; J. Khotsakdee; K. Vasupen; S. Bureenok; S. Wongsuthavas; P. Panyakaew; A. Alhaidary; H.E. Mohamed; Beynen, A C

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The feeding of curcumin to beef cattle has been shown to increase nitrogen retention and decrease the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber in beef cattle. It was suggested that there could be interactions between the effects of curcumin and the composition of the ration. Approach: In this study with beef cattle, concentrates without or with curcumin and low or high level of leucaena leaves were fed to assess the possible interactive effects. Ap...

  5. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nadeau, E.; Randby, .T.; Rustas, B.-O.; Ekns, M.; Nrgaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep and cattle and feed characteristics established from Study I were tested on faeces samples from goat, sheep, llama and cattle fed other types of forages (Study II). Study I included 112 faeces samples fr...

  6. Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M

    2014-12-01

    Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478

  7. Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, E D; Swai, E S; Kyakaisho, P K

    2008-06-01

    A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3% and 46.3%, respectively and there was no significant difference between'case' and 'control' farms (P > 0.05), hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants, chronic bracken-fern poisoning is more likely to be associated with the syndrome affecting animals in the study area. However, further investigation is required to confirm this observation so that appropriate control strategies can be devised. PMID:18846854

  8. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530

  9. Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E D, Karimuribo; E S, Swai; P K, Kyakaisho.

    Full Text Available A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers fro [...] m Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3% and 46.3%, respectively and there was no significant difference between 'case' and 'control' farms (P>0.05), hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder. Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants, chronic bracken-fern poisoning is more likely to be associated with the syndrome affecting animals in the study area. However, further investigation is required to confirm this observation so that appropriate control strategies can be devised.

  10. On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto- cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat- tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col- lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame- ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con- cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat- tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52 to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P stepping (P nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance (P that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus less feasible.

  11. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N

    2006-04-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  12. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with any of the milk flavors. These results suggest the regional differences in feeding systems contribute to the differences in the fatty acid compositions of milk at the farm level. However, these differences do not influence the flavor of pasteurized milk. Thus, more specific feed profiles will be required to provide a specific regional flavor to pasteurized milk. PMID:23769370

  13. Partitioning variation in nutrient composition data of common feeds and mixed diets on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2015-07-01

    A large project involving commercial dairy farms was undertaken to identify important sources of variation in composition data of common feeds and mixed diets. This information is needed to develop appropriate sampling schedules for feeds and should reduce the uncertainty associated with the nutrient composition of delivered diets. The first subproject quantified sources of variation in the composition of corn and haycrop silages over a 2-wk period. Silages from 11 commercial dairy farms in Ohio and Vermont were sampled daily over a 14-d period. Most silages were sampled in duplicate each day, and all samples were assayed in duplicate. Total variance was partitioned into analytical, sampling, farm, and true day-to-day components. Farm was the largest source of variation, but within-farm variance was our primary interest. Sampling variance comprised 30 to 81% of within-farm variance depending on nutrient and type of silage. For dry matter, true day-to-day variation was the greatest source of variance, but for most other nutrients, sampling was the largest source of within-farm variation. The second subproject consisted of sampling feeds and total mixed rations (TMR) from 47 commercial dairy farms across the United States. Feeds and TMR were sampled monthly. Because samples were not assayed in duplicate, source of variation included farm, month, and residual (sampling plus analytical). For corn and alfalfa silages, month-to-month variation over a 12-mo period comprised about twice as much of the total within-farm variation as did day-to-day variation over a 14-d period in the first subproject. Although month-to-month variation was greater than sampling variation, sampling still accounted for 9 to 37% of the total within-farm variance for those 2 feeds. For TMR, sampling plus analytical variance accounted for approximately 40 to 70% of the total within-farm variance (depending on the nutrient). Variance components were estimated for several nutrients and for several common feeds. The contributions to total variance differed depending on feed and nutrient, but the information provided will help in determining whether on-farm samples should be taken and if so, how often. A major implication of this project is that sampling is a substantial source of variation in silages, concentrates, and TMR, and data from a single sample are likely not highly reliable. PMID:25981080

  14. Rumen Fermentation and Milk Quality of Dairy Cows Fed Complete Feed Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komalasari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.

  15. Models for genetic evaluations of claw health traits in Spanish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prez-Cabal, M A; Charfeddine, N

    2015-11-01

    Genetic parameters of 7 claw health traits from Spanish dairy cattle were estimated and the predictive ability of linear and ordinal threshold models were compared and assessed. This study included data on interdigital and digital dermatitis (DE), sole ulcer (SU), white line disease (WL), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), and chronic laminitis (CL) collected between July 2012 and June 2013 from 834 dairy herds visited by 21 trained trimmers. An overall claw disorder (OCD) was also considered an indicator the absence or the presence of at least 1 of the 6 disorders. Claw health traits were scored as categorical traits with 3 degrees of severity (nonaffected, mild, and severe disorder). Genetic parameters were estimated by fitting both a standard linear model and an ordinal threshold animal model. Around 21% of cows had at least 1 claw disorder, and the most frequent disorders were SU, DE, WL, and CL. Heritabilities of claw disorders estimated with a linear model ranged from 0.01 (IP) to 0.05 (OCD), whereas estimates from the ordinal threshold models ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 (for IP and IH, respectively). Repeatabilities of claw health estimated with the linear model varied from 0.03 to 0.18 and estimates with the ordinal threshold model ranged from 0.33 to 0.69. The global trait OCD was correlated with all disorders, except for IH and IP when the linear model was fitted. Two different genetic backgrounds of claw disorders were found. Digital dermatitis showed positive correlations with IH and IP, whereas SU was positively correlated with WL and CL. The predictive ability of the models was assessed using mean squared error and Pearson correlation between the real observation and the corresponding prediction using cross-validation. Regardless of the claw health status, the linear model led to smaller mean squared error. However, differences in predictive ability were found when predicting nonaffected and affected animals. For most traits, healthy cows were better predicted using the threshold model, whereas the linear model fitted affected cows better. Correlations between the observed data and corresponding predictions support those results ranging from 0.01 to 0.34. Claw health traits showed enough genetic variance to be included in the selection goal for Spanish Holsteins to select animals with less susceptibility to claw health problems, and we suggest the linear model for implementing genetic evaluations of claw heath traits. PMID:26387016

  16. Genetic analysis of longevity in Dutch dairy cattle using random regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, M L; Meuwissen, T H E; de Jong, G; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-06-01

    Longevity, productive life, or lifespan of dairy cattle is an important trait for dairy farmers, and it is defined as the time from first calving to the last test date for milk production. Methods for genetic evaluations need to account for censored data; that is, records from cows that are still alive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these methods also need to take account of survival being genetically a different trait across the entire lifespan of a cow. The data set comprised 112,000 cows with a total of 3,964,449 observations for survival per month from first calving until 72 mo in productive life. A random regression model with second-order Legendre polynomials was fitted for the additive genetic effect. Alternative parameterizations were (1) different trait definitions for the length of time interval for survival after first calving (1, 3, 6, and 12 mo); (2) linear or threshold model; and (3) differing the order of the Legendre polynomial. The partial derivatives of a profit function were used to transform variance components on the survival scale to those for lifespan. Survival rates were higher in early life than later in life (99 vs. 95%). When survival was defined over 12-mo intervals survival curves were smooth compared with curves when 1-, 3-, or 6-mo intervals were used. Heritabilities in each interval were very low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.031, but the heritability for lifespan over the entire period of 72 mo after first calving ranged from 0.115 to 0.149. Genetic correlations between time intervals ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the genetic effect were more sensitive to the trait definition than to whether a linear or threshold model was used or to the order of Legendre polynomial used. Cumulative survival up to the first 6 mo predicted lifespan with an accuracy of only 0.79 to 0.85; that is, reliability of breeding value with many daughters in the first 6 mo can be, at most, 0.62 to 0.72, and changes of breeding values are still expected when daughters are getting older. Therefore, an improved model for genetic evaluation should treat survival as different traits during the lifespan by splitting lifespan in time intervals of 6 mo or less to avoid overestimated reliabilities and changes in breeding values when daughters are getting older. PMID:25892695

  17. Effects of a subtropical climate on the fertility of dairy cattle in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.30.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs

  18. Prediction of Ammonia Emission from Dairy Barns using Feed Characteristics. Part II: Relation between Urinary Urea Concentration and Ammonia Emission.

    OpenAIRE

    G.J. Monteny; Smits, M.C.J.; Duinkerken, G; Mollenhorst, H.; de Boer, I J M

    2002-01-01

    Emission of NH3 from dairy barns can be reduced substantially by changing the cows diet. Emission of NH3 is reduced most effectively when dietary changes result in a reduction of urinary urea concentration. The objective of this research was to predict NH3 emission from dairy barns for various diets, using feed characteristics, and climate, barn, and slurry related parameters. Model results were validated using experimental data. Cows were fed one of nine diets, which was a combination of th...

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n?=?677) and Holstein Jersey (n?=?264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p?

  20. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; stergaard, S; Nielsen, L. R.

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and...... estimated GM losses. This was more influential in the poorer management scenarios due to increased number of infected cows. The results can be used to inform dairy farmers of the benefits of preventing introduction and controlling spread of S. Dublin. Furthermore, they can be used in cost-benefit analyses...... heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based...