Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems
Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500 (AROS, Denmark). Blood samples will be collected for genotyping as well as plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, ?-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.
Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred
Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05) to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9%) of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.
Collings, L K M; Weary, D M; Chapinal, N; von Keyserlingk, M A G
Dairy cows are often overstocked. Some managers are now using "slick bunk" (i.e., feeding for 0% orts) management to save on feed costs, but this reduces the time that cows have access to feed. Both practices may increase competition and affect feeding behavior in dairy cows. The aim was to determine the effects of temporal and spatial restrictions on the feeding and competitive behavior of group-housed cows. Treatments were 2 levels of stocking (2:1 versus 1:1 cows:feed bin) and 2 levels of feed access time (14 versus 24h/d access). Eight groups (each of 6 cows) were tested on each of the 4 treatment combinations for 1 wk, with treatment order assigned using a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI), feeding time, and feeding rate were measured for the last 4d of each week, and data were summarized daily and for the 2-h period immediately after the morning feeding. Displacements were recorded for 2h after the delivery of morning feed (peak feeding period) and 2h following the afternoon milking. The DMI did not decline when temporal access was restricted (27.0 vs. 25.7±0.5 kg/d), and was not affected by overstocking (26.4±1.9, mean ± SD). Cows with restricted temporal access spent less time feeding (190.9 vs. 207.9±6.1 min). Overstocked cows that were temporally restricted had greater feeding rates during the day (156 vs. 137±4 g/min) and especially during the peak feeding period (175 vs. 146±4 g/min) compared with cows that were not restricted. In the peak feeding period, overstocked cows had reduced DMI (3.0 vs. 3.4±0.1 kg/h) and feeding times (20.8 vs. 25.8±1.0 min/h) and increased feeding rates (161 vs. 138±4 g/min). Cows with restricted temporal access had greater DMI (3.9 vs. 2.6±0.2 kg/h) and time spent feeding (27.3 vs. 19.2±1.3 min/h) during the peak feeding period compared with cows that had continuous access to feed. Restricting temporal access in conjunction with overstocking resulted in the greatest increase in daily displacements (15.0 vs. 3.8±1.4 displacements/d); the majority of these occurred during the peak feeding period. Adequate space and time to access feed is essential to minimize feed bunk competition in indoor group housing systems. PMID:22032370
Huzzey, J M; DeVries, T J; Valois, P; von Keyserlingk, M A G
The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate how stocking density at the feed bunk affects feeding and social behavior of dairy cows; and 2) determine if this effect is further influenced by the type of feed barrier used. Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows, allotted to 4 groups, were subjected to each of 4 stocking density treatments and 2 feed barrier treatments. Initially, 2 groups were assigned to a headlock barrier, and 2 groups to a post-and-rail barrier. Each group was then exposed to 4 stocking density treatments (0.81, 0.61, 0.41, and 0.21 m/cow, corresponding to 1.33, 1.00, 0.67, and 0.33 headlocks/cow), in 4 successive 10-d treatment periods. After these periods, the feed barriers were switched between groups and the 4 stocking density treatments were readministered. Time-lapse video was used to quantify feeding, standing, and aggressive behavior at the feed bunk. Daily feeding times were greater and duration of inactive standing in the feeding area was less when using a post-and-rail compared with a headlock feed barrier. Feeding time decreased and inactive standing increased for both barrier designs as stocking density increased at the feed bunk. Cows were displaced more often from the feeding area when the stocking density was increased, and this effect was greater for cows using the post-and-rail feed barrier. Cows ranked lower in the social hierarchy at the feed bunk were displaced more often when feeding at a post-and-rail barrier, particularly at high stocking densities. Therefore, we recommend avoiding overstocking at the feed bunk to increase feeding activity and reduce competition. Use of a barrier that provides some physical separation between adjacent cows, such as a headlock feed barrier, can be used to further reduce competition at the feed bunk. PMID:16357274
Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N
The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is a reasonable tool to monitor feeding behavior and feed intake for freestall-housed dairy cows. PMID:25771061
The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.
Rioja-lang, Fiona C.
The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows is directly related to milk production, thus a good food supply is extremely important to the modern, high producing dairy cow. Intake is critical for improving milk production, health, body condition and the welfare of the animals. Feeding designs can have a major effect on ...
A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulting and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains
Powell, J. Mark
In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU?1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU?1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha?1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.
Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure suources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)
Wei, Han; Yan-xia, Li; Ming, Yang; Wei, Li
Four estrogens in cattle feces collected from 24 dairy and beef feeding operations located in the northeast of China were investigated. The average concentration of 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol and estrone in dairy feces was 194.6, 104.4, and 262 ?g/kg, respectively. While as to beef waste the mean content of 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol and estrone was 104.5, 67.7 and 216.4 ?g/kg, respectively. Estriol was below the detection limit in all samples. The 17?-estradiol equivalents of all samples ranged from 45.8 to 926.1 ?g/kg and dairy together with beef probably generated 16 times more estrogens than the human population in the study area. PMID:21437787
Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Abstract The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins is successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged, or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards indi...
A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)
Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, JØrgen E
Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years. When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention in soil of C over decades to centuries appears to be similar whether the initial turnover of plant biomasses occurs in the soil, in the digestive tract of ruminants, in an anaerobic reactor or in a combination of the latter two.
Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)
Liu, Jinggao; Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S
A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. vasinfectum (Atk) Sny. & Hans., found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require plant parasitic nematodes to cause disease. This makes it a threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is grown on heavy alkaline soil and currently is not affected by Fusarium wilt. In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live cottonseed were imported into California for dairy cattle feed. Thirteen F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum isolates and four isolates of a Fusarium spp. that resembled F. oxysporum were isolated from the imported cottonseed. The isolates, designated by an AuSeed prefix, formed four vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) all of which were incompatible with tester isolates for 18 VCGs found in the USA. Isolate AuSeed14 was vegetatively compatible with the four reference isolates of Australian biotype VCG01111. Phylogenetic analyses based on EF-1?, PHO, BT, Mat1-1, and Mat1-2 gene sequences separated the 17 seed isolates into three lineages (race A, race 3, and Fusarium spp.) with AuSeed14 clustering into race 3 lineage or race A lineage depending on the genes analyzed. Indel analysis of the EF-1? gene sequences revealed a close evolutionary relationship among AuSeed14, Australian biotype reference isolates, and the four Fusarium spp. isolates. The Australian seed isolates and the four Australian biotype reference isolates caused disease with root-dip inoculation, but not with stem-puncture inoculation. Thus, they were a vascular incompetent pathotype. In contrast, USA race A lineage isolates readily colonized vascular tissue and formed a vascular competent pathotype when introduced directly into xylem vessels. The AuSeed14 isolate was as pathogenic as the Australian biotype, and it or related isolates could cause a severe Fusarium wilt problem in USA cotton fields if they become established. PMID:22004096
Guilherme Amorim Franchi
Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.
Abstract: In this study, samples of forage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, silage of common vetch with triticale, wheat straw), feed ingredient (barley grain, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran, corn meal, corn bran, corn gluten meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dried digestible grain solubilty), and concentrate feed (calf grower feed, heifer feed, dairy cattle feed and beef cattle feed) were collected from various feed mills and dairy cattle farms in the Central Anatolia and M...
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Yea-Sacc® (Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed additive for cattle for fattening, goats for fattening, dairy cows, dairy sheep, dairy goats and buffaloes
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP
Full Text Available Yea-Sacc® is an additive based on a live preparation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intended for use as a zootechnical additive. It is produced in a powder (Yea-Sacc® and in a prills (Yea-Sacc® TS form. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the production strain has been established, safety for the target species, consumer and the environment is presumed. Both formulations are non-irritant to skin, Yea-Sacc® TS is non-irritant to the eye whilst Yea-Sacc® is a moderate irritant. In the absence of data both formulations should be considered skin sensitisers. As both forms are highly proteinaceous, they should be considered as potential respiratory sensitisers. Yea-Sacc® TS is designed to reduce dustiness and no significant exposure of users is to be expected for this form. In the absence of data on the dusting potential of Yea-Sacc®, it would be prudent to treat it as a respiratory sensitiser. Based on the results of four trials Yea-Sacc® was shown to have the potential to increase milk production in dairy cows when supplied at a minimum dose of 5 x 107 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor species used for milk production can be presumed when used at the same minimum dose. Yea-Sacc® was also shown to have a potential to improve the production of cattle raised for fattening at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor ruminant species reared for meat production can be presumed at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed.
The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...
Berry, D P; Coffey, M P
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.
van Arendonk, Johan A M; Liinamo, Anna-Elisa
The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Overall EU dairy production continues to follow a trend towards increased intensification on a smaller number of larger, more specialised production units. In this paper we highlight the main characteristics of dairy cattle production in the EU, as well as their impact on cow and herd reproductive performances. AI is widely used in areas where there is high input:high output farming and farmers' primary objective is to have each cow produce a calf every 12 months without any particular calving pattern. The use of embryo technologies is increasing and in some areas (e.g. IVP embryo transfers) Europe leads the world. In most areas of Europe, because of both year round calving and ethical or consumer concerns, hormones are mainly used to treat reproductive diseases and not for pharmaceutical control of breeding. PMID:12499004
Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.
Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical observations, and thereby identify major nutritional and management constraints to productivity, - investigate approaches for improving productivity in dairy cattle by increasing the utilization of basal diets and other locally available fed resources, - monitor the effectiveness of nutritional and management interventions by measuring performance indicators such as body weight, body condition, milk production and reproductive performance (using radioimmunoassay and other clinical observations), - establish whether differences in productivity correlate with selected metabolic indicators in blood, which might thereby prove useful as predictors of nutritional constraints
E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.
Full Text Available Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.
Tolboom, R K; Snoep, J J; Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M
The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves. PMID:18309823
Shawn S Donkin
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
Shawn S, Donkin.
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter
This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…
Arendonk, J. A. M.; Bijma, P.
The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Overall EU dairy production continues to follow a trend towards increased intensification on a smaller number of larger, more specialised production units. In this paper we highlight the main charact...
Qiu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhang, Xu; Sheng, Zhong-Hua; Chang, Qiao-Chen; Zhao, Quan; Wu, Song-Ming; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan
The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, was surveyed between April 2009 and May 2011. A total of 1803 (693 beef cattle and 1110 dairy cattle) serum samples were collected from 10 administrative regions rearing beef cattle and dairy cattle, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle was 2.6% (46/1803), and the prevalence in beef cattle (3.0%) was slightly higher than that in dairy cattle (2.3%). The prevalence of antibodies in adult animals was higher than that in calves, but the differences among the age groups were not significant (p>0.05). The seroprevalence in female (3.4%) and male (2.5%) beef cattle was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Though the prevalence in intensively reared beef cattle and dairy cattle was lower than that in semi-intensively reared animals, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The results of this survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in beef cattle and dairy cattle in Heilongjiang Province, the coldest province in China, which may cause economic losses to the local livestock industry, and may be a source of T. gondii infection for humans in this region. PMID:22545962
Thomasen, JØrn Rind
Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions and maintain the genetic vaiability in the breed.
Hudri Aunurohman; Krismiwati Muatip
This research aimed to (1) evaluate feasibility business study on financial aspect dairy cattle farmers partnership government project in Banyumas Regency, (2) to study and to analyze farm management dairy cattle (cost and revenue) at the fifth year on business study dairy cattle. The study applied survey methode. Sample was collected in two step. The first step, determining location of study using purposive sampling technique. Four subregencies that accepted cows from government in 1998 were...
Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project
The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998
Hauge, S J; Kielland, C; Ringdal, G; Skjerve, E; Nafstad, O
Animal cleanliness in dairy herds is essential to ensure hygienic milk production, high microbial quality of carcasses, good hide quality, and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to identify on-farm factors associated with dairy cattle cleanliness. The study also examined differences in risk factors and preventive factors between contrasting herds regarding cattle cleanliness. In total, 60 dairy herds, selected from a national database, were visited by 2 trained assessors during the indoor feeding period in February and March 2009. In Norwegian abattoirs, cattle are assessed and categorized according to hide cleanliness, based on national guidelines, using a 3-category scale. Dirty animals result in deductions in payment to farmers. "Dirty" herds (n=30) were defined as those that had most deductions in payment registered due to dirty animals slaughtered in 2007 and 2008. "Clean" herds (n=30) were those that had similar farm characteristics, but slaughtered only clean animals during 2007 and 2008, and thus had no deductions in payments registered. The dairy farms were located in 4 different areas of Norway. Relevant information, such as housing, bedding, feeding, and management practices concerning cleaning animals and floors, was collected during farm visits. In addition, the cleanliness of each animal over 1 yr of age (4,991 animals) was assessed and scored on a 5-point scale, and later changed to a dichotomous variable during statistical analysis. Milk data (milk yield and somatic cell counts) were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. Factors associated with dirty animals in all 60 herds were, in ranked order, high air humidity, many dirty animals slaughtered during the previous 2 yr, lack of preslaughter management practices toward cleaning animals, animal type (heifers and bulls/steers), housing (freestalls and pens without bedding), manure consistency, and lack of efforts directed toward cleaning the animals throughout the year. Additional factors associated with dirty animals in the dirty herds were water leakage from drinking nipples/troughs into lying areas, bedding type, and feed type. In the clean herds, additional risk factors were water leakage from drinking nipples/troughs and low milk yield. PMID:22541475
Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.
Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele R; Wiltbank, Milo C
Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (>70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances. PMID:20003858
Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Radostits, Otto M.
The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a “ping” and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 case...
Erkan Yaslioglu; Ilker Kilic; Ercan Simsek; Ismet Arici
The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ...
Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323
SØrensen, M K; Norberg, E
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value of crossbreeding is documented with special emphasis on results from a Danish crossbreeding experiment. This experiment included 1,680 cows from 3 breeds and their crosses. In general, at least 10% heterosis can be expected for total merit, mainly due to increased longevity and improvement of functional traits. A minor part of heterosis for total merit is due to heterosis for production traits. For production, there is evidence of recombination loss using continued crossbreeding programs, which does not seem to be the case for longevity and total merit. However, recombination loss should be investigated more carefully as crossbreeding is becoming more popular. A prerequisite for crossbreeding to be beneficial on a long-term basis is that genetic gain within the parental breeds not be reduced. As long as the crossbred cow population constitutes less than 50% of the whole population, and young bulls can be tested through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits
Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.
Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A
As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or inferiority that will transmit to its offspring. PMID:25529426
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.
Wang, Chunren; Wang, Yu; Zou, Ximing; Zhai, Yanqing; Gao, Junfeng; Hou, Meiru; Zhu, Xing-Quan
The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in China's northeastern Heilongjiang Province was surveyed between 2007 and 2008. In total, 540 serum samples of dairy cattle from 9 counties were examined for antibodies to N. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle was 13.3% (72/540). The seroprevalence of N. caninum in aborting cows (14.9%) was slightly higher than that in nonaborting cows (10.3%). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (22.7%). However, there was no apparent association between N. caninum seropositivity and aborting age or number of pregnancies (P > 0.05). There was, however, an apparent association between N. caninum seroprevalence and animal husbandry practices, with the cattle under confinement feeding having significantly lower seroprevalence than the grazing cows (P < 0.05). The results of the present survey indicates that infection with N. caninum in dairy cattle is widespread in Heilongjiang Province, and that it appears to be an important cause of bovine abortion. PMID:19895158
Metabolic characteristics of the proteins in yellow-seeded and brown-seeded canola meal and presscake in dairy cattle: comparison of three systems (PDI, DVE, and NRC) in nutrient supply and feed milk value (FMV).
Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang
To the authors' knowledge, there is little research on metabolic characteristics of the protein in newly developed yellow and brown types of canola meal and canola presscake. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify differences in the metabolic characteristics of the protein among yellow-seeded ( Brassica juncea ) and brown-seeded ( Brassica napus ) canola meal and brown-seeded (B. napus) canola presscake modeled for dairy cattle, (2) determine the extent of ruminal and intestinal digestion and absorption of the protein, (3) determine feed milk value, and (4) compare three evaluation systems in modeling nutrient supply to dairy cattle, namely, the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance), the National Research Council (NRC) 2001 model, and the PDI system (protein truly digestible in the small intestine). Comparison was made in terms of (1) ruminally synthesized microbial protein, (2) truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, (3) endogenous protein, (4) total metabolizable protein, and (5) degraded protein balance. The results showed that there were significant differences in the truly absorbed protein supply, protein degraded balance, and feed milk value (P < 0.05) among the different types of canola meal. Yellow-seeded canola meal had significantly higher (P < 0.05) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded crude protein (%dRUP) than brown-seeded canola meal and presscake (%dRUP, 90 vs 75 and 60%, respectively). Yellow-seeded canola meal also had higher (P < 0.05) total metabolizable protein predicted by all three models (DVE, 312 vs 192 and 128 g/kg DM; MP, 287 vs 193 and 168 g/kg DM; PDIA, 264 vs 168 and 137 g/kg DM, respectively), lower (P < 0.05) degraded protein balance (OEB, 84 vs 104 and 102 g/kg DM; DPB, 49 vs 60 and 57 g/kg DM, respectively), and higher (P < 0.05) feed milk value (6.3 vs 3.9 and 2.6 kg milk/kg feed, respectively) than the brown-seeded canola meal and presscake. In the model comparison, the supply of endogenous protein predicted by the DVE/OEB system was higher (P < 0.05) than that predicted by the NRC-2001 model. Moreover, a high proportion of the variability in truly absorbed rumen-undegraded feed protein in the small intestine and the total metabolizable protein predicted by the DVE/OEB system was found that can be accounted for by the equivalent parameters predicted by the NRC-2001 model. The truly absorbed rumen-synthesized microbial protein values predicted from the PDI system were 19% lower than those predicted from the DVE/OEB system. Between the two latest mentioned models, no differences were detected in truly absorbed rumen-undegraded feed protein, microbial protein supply based on available energy, and degraded protein balance. All of the parameters predicted by the PDI system can be accounted for by the equivalent parameters predicted by the DVE/OEB system. When the PDI system and NRC-2001 model were compared, the overall means for microbial protein supply based on energy and truly absorbed rumen-synthesized microbial protein were found to be lower than those predicted by the NRC-2001 model. Although the factors used in quantifying calculations as well as the evaluation system's concepts differ among each other, all three protein evaluation systems employed in this study efficiently predict the potential nutrient supply to the animal from feedstuffs as affected by processing. In conclusion, the yellow-seeded canola meal provided the highest total metabolizable protein and the lowest degraded protein balance. PMID:23410190
The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...
Vanderick, SYLVIE; Troch, Thibault; Gillon, Alain; Glorieux, Géry; Faux, Pierre; Gengler, Nicolas
Calving complications have an incidence on the economic profitability of dairy herds. In the Walloon Region of Belgium, calving ease data recording is being done on voluntary basis since 2000. This allows now the implementation of a genetic evaluation of Holstein dairy cattle addressing the need of dairy breeders to select bulls in order to reduce frequency of calving problems. Calving ease scores were analyzed using univariate animal linear models, which were fitted with the genetic corr...
Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui
This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145
Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). PMID:25623969
J P.F., Arthur; R.M., Herd.
Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected f [...] eed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the current status of dairy cattle farms in Ni?de, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions. In the study, representing all provinces, total 95 dairy farms selected by stratified and random sampling method was taken. The data obtained from the surveys in farms, face-to-face was used. The results showed that the large portion of dairy cattle breeders (60% were primary school graduates, the average duration of cattle breeding was 15.2 years, a significant proportion of labor (92% of family labor was used, 54%, 19%, 15%, 6%, 4% and 2% of farms reared only Holstein, Holstein and Simmental, only Brown Swiss, only Simmental, Holstein and Brown Swiss, and Simmental and Brown Swiss respectively, the average number of animals per farm was 33, the number of dairy cows was 13, the average daily milk yield per lactating cow was 16.6 kg. Farmers agreed that the most important problems were the high cost of basic inputs, concentrated feed problem, low cost of products sold, roughage and pasture problem. In addition, according to Likert scale, the most satisfied activities were reared cattle breed (3.95, breeder’s organization services (3.94, milking process (3.76, calving and maintenance duties (3.74 and recording system (3.71. Beside, for the breeders, the worst issues were satisfied that Ministry policies about cattle breeding (1.83, sales price and the market situation of animals (1.96, sales price and the market situation of the milk (2.04, provision of essential inputs such as feed and labor costs (2.06, credit and financial support (2.08.
Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)
Simenew, K.; Wondu, M.
This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...
Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart Hp; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle
Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203
Zhang, Juan; Sun, Gui-Quan; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an SEIV dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963
Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.
Smink, W. [Feed Innovation Services FIS, Wageningen (Netherlands)
The methane production in The Netherlands from 1990 to 2002 was calculated via the IPCC-GPG Tier 2 (Good Practice Guidance) method. In this calculation no nutritional mechanistic approach can be used to decrease the methane production. Therefore, the calculation of the methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows is recently carried out with dynamic modelling. Another model has been used which is based on a rumen model. The input for the intake of feed in the model for dairy cows in milk and in calf is based on the intake figures of the requirement of energy (i.e. VEM or feed unit of lactation) system. In order to be in line with the dairy cows, the calculation of methane production of the other cattle categories should be also be based on the VEM system. The goal of the study is to calculate the methane production from enteric fermentation in all cattle categories excluding dairy cows, based on the VEM system.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 ppm. The overall hourly average ammonia emission was calculated as 56.1 g/h.barn. Ammonia concentrations increased with lower airflow rate while ammonia emissions increased with higher airflow rate. As a result of this study, there is no significant relationship observed between ammonia emission and indoor environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity.
Overton, T R; Yasui, T
Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace minerals. Furthermore, opportunities for specific modulation of aspects of health, milk production, and reproduction through supplementation strategies for diets of transition dairy cows are attractive because of the known dynamics of energy metabolism, immune function, and oxidative metabolism during this timeframe. PMID:24305870
Bruijnis, M. R. N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E. N.
This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem with serious economic consequences. On average, foot disorders cost €53 per cow per year, of which indirect cost factors are the main cause. Subclinical foot disorders, which are the foot dis...
Reijs, J.W.; Meijer, W.H.; Bakker, E. J.; Lantinga, E.A.
To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield on undisturbed plots under cages were studied for a grass monoculture and a grass/clover mixture. The bio-a...
Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike
Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P?>?0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P?0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation. PMID:25339431
Raffrenato, E.; Erasmus, L.J. (Lourens Jacobus)
Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLÃƒ?2.4 (iNDF2.4). The relationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective impli...
Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M
The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production. PMID:17954744
Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B
Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (?) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical ?, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. PMID:25602228
Kathy J. Soder
Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.
Oldenbroek, J K
In four experimental studies on feed intake, two completely mixed rations containing 0 and 50 per cent of concentrates respectively were fed ad lib. to dairy cattle of four different breeds: the Jersey, the Holstein-Friesian (HF), the Dutch Black-and-White (FH) and the Dutch Red-and-White (Meuse-Rhine-Yssel). There are considerable differences in feed intake between the breeds, particularly between the Jerseys and the heavier breeds (HF + MRY + FH). The experimental studies in the Jerseys showed that there was an interaction between breed and the composition of the feed, which is due to differences in nutrient requirements between breeds. These variations are attributable to differences in composition of the milk. The dairy breeds, Jersey and HF, use a large part of the energy taken up for milk production and a smaller part for maintenance than do the double-purpose breeds: FH and MRY. PMID:2922748
Dong, Hui; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Ting; Kong, Chunlin; Huang, Bing
The prevalence of coccidial infections in dairy cattle was examined in Shanghai from November 2010 to March 2011. In total, 626 fecal samples from 24 dairy farms were examined; oocysts were identified to the species level based on morphological features. All herds were infected with Eimeria species. The overall prevalence of coccidia was 47.1%, with the highest prevalence in 12-mo-old cattle (27.0%). The number of oocysts per gram of feces was significantly higher in young calves than in weaners and adults. Ten species of Eimeria were identified, among which Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, and Eimeria alabamensis were the predominant species. Concurrent infection with 2-8 species was common. PMID:22590990
E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.
Full Text Available A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (
Joosten, I.; Stelwagen, J.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.
The financial losses due to retained placenta in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated by using two different methods of calculation. A data-set containing the birth records of 160,188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows provided data on the reproductive performance of cows with and without retained placenta. The fertility of cows after retention of the placenta appeared to be affected. An economic calculation made by adding the losses due to increased calving interval, increased culling rate, loss of milk pr...
João Cruz, Reis Filho; Rui da Silva, Verneque; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Paulo Sávio, Lopes; Fernanda Santos Silva, Raidan; Fabio Luiz Buranelo, Toral.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d), fat [...] (fat 305-d), protein (protein 305-d), lactose (lactose 305-d), and total solids (TS 305-d) yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM), age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d) and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.
The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)
Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.
Full Text Available This research aimed to (1 evaluate feasibility business study on financial aspect dairy cattle farmers partnership government project in Banyumas Regency, (2 to study and to analyze farm management dairy cattle (cost and revenue at the fifth year on business study dairy cattle. The study applied survey methode. Sample was collected in two step. The first step, determining location of study using purposive sampling technique. Four subregencies that accepted cows from government in 1998 were chosin as the location. The Second step determining responders of study using purposive sampling technique by collecting all breeders on the locations that accepted the government support in the form of cows in 1998. Result of this research indicated on breeders that accepted the support in form of one cows and two cows was assumed feasible as reflected by Net Present Value (NPV > 0 ; Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C ratio > 1 ; Internal Rate of Return (IRR > I (Social discount rate. At the fifth year, revenue were in form of one cow Rp 6.456.000,00 and two cows Rp 10.545.000,00. Profit received as one cow Rp 2.997.160,00 and two cows Rp 5.418.700,00. (Animal Production 6(2: 76-85 (2004 Key Words: Feasibility study, Farmer income, Farmer profitability
Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.
Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.
Hoekstra, N.J.; Bosker, T.; Lantinga, E.A.
Cattle dung from four farms with different feeding strategies was used in a bioassay to determine phytotoxicity. The first farm was an extensive organic farm (ORGE) with young steers grazing on a highly biodiverse sward. Second, an intensive organic farm (ORGI) was included with dairy cattle grazing on a grass/clover sward during daytime and fed low-protein forages indoors. Next, dung from an integrated farm (INT) was used where the feeding strategy aimed at high dung quality by including str...
Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter
The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.
Tu?rkyilmaz, Mehmet Kenan
The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive performance and the factors influencing reproductive performance of Holstein cattle reared in a private dairy cattle enterprise. Over 10 years, 480 records on reproduction were analysed with the least squares technique. Mean days open, services per conception, gestation period and calving interval were 114.5 ± 1.7 days, 2.01 ± 0.04, 278.7 ± 0.3 days and 394.9 ± 1.9 days, respectively. The effect of the lactation number on the gesta...
Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael
Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare. Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47%) to control ticks, while all incidences of diseases were treated by a veterinarian. Most of the cattle housing flooring were made of concrete (87%) with only one farmer regularly using bedding for the cows. Cows were mainly fed fresh Napier grass (60%) in Kiambu while natural grasses (43%) was the main feed used by farmers in Kajiado. This study indicated that four major challenges exist for organic dairy cattle management in Kenya, which need to be addressed in future research and development: 1) the use of robust breeds and the breeding strategies; 2) grazing and access to outdoor areas; 3) feeding in terms of stability and self sufficiency of enough nutritious feed; and 4) the handling of diseases and pests using poisons, chemical medicines, along with the development of viable alternative disease handling strategies
Li, Guoqing; Xiao, Shumin; Zhou, Rongqiong; Li, Weihua; Wadeh, Hicham
Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified as the cause of large outbreaks of diarrhea in many parts of the world, but its host range and reservoirs remains poorly defined. Recently, oocysts resembling the C. cayetanensis were detected in dairy cattle fecal specimens from China. The 18S rDNA from two of these Cyclospora-like oocyst specimens from dairy cattle was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these cattle-associated Cyclospora-like organisms are nearly identical to each other and belong to the group of primate-derived Cyclospora, which are the closest known relatives of C. cayetanensis; while these cyclosporans constitute a coherent clade within the diverse group of Eimeria species. Moreover, on the basis of our finding that ruminant- and avian-associated Eimeria species are different in MnlI sites, a new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol with primers NesCycF and NesCycR was developed to distinguish the Cyclospora species from ruminant-associated Eimeria species. PMID:17206510
Che Hashim Hassan
Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.
This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organisations were established to meet the demand for breeding cattle from abroad. In 1904, the Dutch Herd Book Organisation was reorganised, aiming its breeding policy at three well-defined types of ca...
Dijkstra, J; Zijderveld, S.M., van; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H
There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with dairy cattle with a total of 10 dietary treatments and 50 observations were used. Dietary treatments included supplementation with calcium fumarate, diallyldisulfide, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauri...
Zhou Dong-Hui; Zhao Fu-Rong; Xia Hui-Yan; Xu Min-Jun; Huang Si-Yang; Song Hui-Qun; Zhu Xing-Quan
Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guang...
Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production. However, the livestock system is also credited for the fact that the use of manure reduces the amount of artificial fertilizer being used. Consequently, a manure handling system was set up as a subsystem to the cattle system. This method allowed a comparison between different fodder crops on an equal basis. Furthermore, the crop-specific contribution from changes in soil C was estimated based on estimated amounts of C input to the soil.
Yazwinski, T A; Gibbs, H C
The survey was done to determine the incidence and seasonal prevalence of the gastrointestinal helminths infecting Maine dairy cattle. Approximately equal groups of calves, heifers, and cows from 13 dairy farms, managerially and geographically representative of dairying in the state, were sampled at regular 2-month intervals over the period of a year. On the basis of fecal egg counts and identification of cultured larvae, the following results were obtained: Of the 94 adult cows, 78 heifers, and 91 calves sampled continuously in the course of the survey, 95.7%, 98.7%, and 96.7%, respectively, were strongylorid positive (infected with Ostertagia, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus, and Oesophagostomun), with an overall incidence of 97%. Strongyloides papillosus eggs were in 64.6% of the cattle, Bunostomum in 40.3%, Nematodirus in 27.8%, Trichuris in 27.0%, Capillaria in 9.5%, Moniezia in 25.1%, and Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in 2.7%. Worm burdens, as reflected by mean nematode egg production per gram of feces, varied. The greatest worm burdens were in the calves, followed by the heifers and the cows. A marked variation in egg production related to season was observed, particularly with the strongylorid worms. Peak strongylorid egg production was observed in the May-June sampling period. After the peak period, worm burdens decreased in all groups of cattle to their lowest point during the winter period of January-February. This pattern of egg production was similar to that reported by workers in other parts of the world. Farm management practices were shown to be related to the degree of parasitism existing in these herds. Those herds classed as poorly managed had significantly higher levels of parasitism in young animals than those classed as having fair or good management. PMID:127538
José Daniel Cazale
Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C; the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C; the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R. Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001. Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001, took more sips (p<0.001 and spent more time drinking (p<0.001 from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows’ preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.
Dilek Bostan Budak; Ferhat Yilmaz
This study investigated the role of dairy cooperatives as an information source in solving problems at dairy cattle production in the district of Osmaniye, Turkey. Local animal husbandry activities were investigated by collecting data using a questionnaire with owners of 112 dairy farms. The results showed that 31.3% of farmers were members of dairy cooperatives. Only 8.7% of farmers used cooperatives as a main source when they need information about solving their problems and getting informa...
Bruijnis, M. R. N.; Meijboom, F. L. B.; Stassen, E. N.
In current dairy farming it is possible to run a profitable farm without having to adapt the system to the needs of dairy cows. In such systems the interests of the farmer and animals often diverge. Consequently, specific animal welfare problems occur. Foot disorders in dairy cattle are an illustrative example resulting from the specific methods of housing and management in current dairy farming. Foot disorders and the resulting lameness are considered the most important welfare problem in da...
Xia, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Jia, Kun; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Zhang, Dun-Wei; She, Li-Xuan; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Li, Shou-Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan
A seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in China's southern Guangdong Province between July 2009 and March 2010. A total of 370 serum samples of dairy cattle was collected from 5 farms and examined for antibodies to N. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle was 18.9% (70/370). The seroprevalence of N. caninum in aborting cows (22.7%) was higher than that in nonaborting cows (16.3%), but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Five-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (27.8%), followed by those that were 6-yr-old (20.4%). Dairy cattle with 4 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (29.2%). There was no apparent association of N. caninum seropositivity with age or number of pregnancies (P > 0.05). The results of the present survey indicated that the infection with N. caninum is prevalent in dairy cattle of all ages in southern China, which may be one of the causes of bovine abortion. This is the first report of seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle in southern China. PMID:21348632
Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350. Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.
Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of futureher than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs
Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.
Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and aborted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to detect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cattle are recommended.
Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco
Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China?s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. PMID:25262083
Full Text Available This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, transition cow program and reproductive performance, immunosuppressant effect of transition period, early predictors of disorders and major abnormalities are discussed in an informative way. Future potential areas of research and possible challenges are also indicated briefly. Finally, it is concluded that despite decades of research in the area of transition cow health and management the high incidence of health disorders around calving continues to negatively affect milk production and reproductive performance; and as recommendation, implementing a transition nutrition program with the help of nutritionists can help dairy herd avoid most of the costly problems and molecular level research studies should get due attention to further understand the situation and devise proper intervention techniques.
Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João
Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1% (95% C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5%). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5% (25.5 to 44.7%) and 4.4% (1.7 to 10.9%), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400. Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%, followed by those that were???6 years old or?P?>?0.05. Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%. These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.
Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Xia, Hui-Yan; Xu, Min-Jun; Huang, Si-Yang; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400). Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%), followed by those that were???6 years old or??0.05). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%). These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region. PMID:23379717
Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio
In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control. PMID:23718833
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Massimo, Scacchia; Andrea, Di Provvido; Carla, Ippoliti; Uqbazghi, Kefle; Tesfaalem T, Sebhatu; Annarita, D' Angelo; Fabrizio, De Massis.
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross- | sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) a [...] nd positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77% (417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucella species, with a variable and generally I: low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% -2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota I: from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis I: eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Setiyawan, H.; Si, Santoso; Mukson
This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of ...
Sa, Santosa; Ata, Sudewo; Susanto, A.; Iswoyo
A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU) was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1) to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2) to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods an...
Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Se?bastien; Jaffre?zic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-louis; Gautier, Mathieu
Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three...
Pollari, F. L.; Wangsuphachart, V. L.; Digiacomo, R. F.; Evermann, J. F.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis...
Zhou Dong-Hui; Zhao Fu-Rong; Lu Ping; Xia Hui-Yan; Xu Min-Jun; Yuan Li-Guo; Yan Chao; Huang Si-Yang; Li Shou-Jun; Zhu Xing-Quan
Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collec...
Andre, G.; Bleumer, E. J. B.; Duinkerken, G.
Dynamic feeding is an innovative application for concentrate feeding of dairy cows. Daily individual settings are derived from the actual individual milk yield response to concentrate intake. This response is estimated using an adaptive dynamic linear model. Optimal daily individual settings for concentrate supply are directed to achieve the maximum gross margin milk returns minus concentrate costs. This response curve plays a key role in the application. The response curve is derived from a ...
Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some of the Cryptosporidium species and all four E. bieneusi genotypes identified in bovine animals in the study areas may have zoonotic potential. PMID:25541482
Full Text Available Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products.This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans. The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.
Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.
D. L. M. Ecco
Full Text Available Several researches used the combination of ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone, by itself or in combination, to promote the development of the mammary gland and induction of lactation in cattle. However, only recently with development of new technologies, such as the culture of mammary cells in vitro, molecular mechanisms of the hormones in specific genes was possible to know the functioning of animal physiology and define the function of each hormone in the control of mamogenesis, lactogenesis and galactopoesis. The use of new drugs many of these techniques have reached up to 100% success rate in induction and produced good quantities of milk at a low cost of induction, being a alternative easy application and profitable for the dairy farms. In this sense, the aim of this study was to review the physiology of lactation, as well to evaluate the protocols described in literature
Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro
CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits. The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data for both platforms
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis
I.M., Petzer; E.F., Donkin; E., Du Preez; J., Karzis; T.J., Van Der Schans; J.C., Watermeyer; R., Van Reenen.
Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant [...] Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h) was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R² = 0.253). There was a moderate positive correlation (R² = 0.583) between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R² = 0.456). Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R² = 0.414) and composite (R² = 0.262) milk samples. Significant differences (P
Du Toit, C. J. L.; Meissner, H. H.; Niekerk, Willem A.
The objective of this study was to estimate direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle in total and per province using the Tier 2 methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), but adapted for tropical production systems. Dairy and beef cattle in 2010 contributed an estimated 964 Giga gram (Gg) or 72.6% of the total livestock methane emissions in South Africa. Beef cattle in extensive systems were the largest contributor (83.3%), fo...
Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)
The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.
Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian
Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12–14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather’s sugar flotation techniq...
Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; LeJeune, Jeffrey T
Potential dairy farm management and environmental factors that attract European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to dairy farms were explored. During the period from 2007 to 2009, 150 dairy farms were each visited twice (once during the summer and again in the fall) and the number of starlings was recorded. Risk factors were assessed for possible association with the number of starlings per milking cow (starling density), using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Starling density was higher on farms visited in 2007 compared to those visited in 2008 or 2009. The interaction term between feeding method and feeding site was significantly associated with starling density on farm; generally, feeding outdoors was associated with increased starling density. The odds of a zero starling count (compared to a count greater than zero) was higher on farms that removed manure from barns weekly or less frequently than weekly compared to those that removed manure daily or after every milking. The odds of a zero starling count decreased with increasing distance of a farm from the closest night roost. Identifying on farm risk factors that expose farms to starlings will help farmers develop strategies that minimize the number of birds on their farms and thereby reduce physical damage to the farms as well as the potential for pathogen transmission from birds to cattle and humans. PMID:25940010
Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on v...
Full Text Available A data set of dairy cattle production and reproduction taken from Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre (Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul; BBPTU was used in the study. The data included were 180 records of milk production collected from first, second and third lactation. The objectives of the study were : (1 to estimate heritability and repeatability of the milk production, (2 to compute accuracy, response and effectiveness of individual selection on different selection methods and intensities, (3 to study the best lactation period for selection in dairy cattle. Some conclusion can be drawn: (1 the estimated repeatability of milk production was considered low, the opposite was true for heritability estimate, (2 the selection response and its effectiveness increased when the number of animals maintained in the population decreased, (3 the selection accuracy increased along with the increased of number of record included, (4 the highest selection accuracy was obtained from individual selection with three records whilst the family selection resulted in the lowest selection accuracy. It was also concluded that selection in dairy cattle can be done as early as the first lactation and the accuracy will be increased if combined with the information from relatives. (Animal Production 11(1: 66-70 (2009 Key Words: dairy cattle, effectiveness selection method
Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintater fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase
Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.
Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette
The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency traits is very important from productive, economic and environmental perspectives. Network approaches can help us to better understand the biological mechanisms behind that complex trait and direct the selection of superior animals. The aim of this work was to identify biological functions and candidate genes related to feed efficiency in Nellore cattle by analyzing liver transcriptomic profile though differential co-expression approach. Measures of carcass ultrasound and visceral fat weight were used to help us interpret the differential co-expression results. It was observed that animals of low FE had higher feed intake, increased deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat and transcriptomic profile related to immune response, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Based on these results and research in humans and mouse we created the hypothesis that the low FE animals are more susceptible to inflammation in the liver. In addition we identified 12 candidate genes for FE regulation.
Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle.
The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin.
There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253. There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583 between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456. Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414 and composite (R2 = 0.262 milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008 and udder half samples (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054 and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R2 = -0.379.
Capitan, A; Michot, P; Baur, A; Saintilan, R; Hozé, C; Valour, D; Guillaume, F; Boichon, D; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Schibler, L; Fritz, S
Fertility is a major concern in the dairy cattle industry and has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 20 years. Surprisingly, most of these studies focused on rough female phenotypes and, despite their important role in reproductive success, male- and embryo-related traits have been poorly investigated. In recent years, the rapid and important evolution of technologies in genetic research has led to the development of genomic selection. The generalisation of this method in combination with the achievements of the AI industry have led to the constitution of large databases of genotyping and sequencing data, as well as refined phenotypes and pedigree records. These resources offer unprecedented opportunities in terms of fundamental and applied research. Here we present five such examples with a focus on reproduction-related traits: (1) detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male fertility and semen quality traits; (2) detection of QTL for refined phenotypes associated with female fertility; (3) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by depletion of homozygous haplotypes; (4) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by mining whole-genome sequencing data; and (5) the contribution of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism chips, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to increasing the power of QTL detection methods and to the identification of causal variants. PMID:25472040
A study was carried out to establish the incidence of anoestrus in dairy cattle in Southern Chile. Cows that had not been seen in oestrus up to 60 days after parturition were considered in anoestrus and were clinically examined. Cows without corpora lutea were designated clinically anoestrus and a milk sample was taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay. Cows with progesterone concentration below 9.5 nmol/L were considered to be in true anoestrus. A total of 1831 post-partum cows from 10 farms were studied. Based on the reproductive records, 208 cows were in anoestrus (11.3% with a range from 4.3 to 33.3%). The clinical examination revealed that only 66 out of the 208 cows were in clinical anoestrus reducing the anoestrus percentage to 36% (range 1.9 - 10.8%). The progesterone concentration in skim milk showed that only 41 cows had low values compatible with anoestrus. Thus the true incidence of anestrus was 2.2% with a range of 0.8 to 7.0% between farms. In conclusion, the figures from the different methods of diagnosis of anoestrus (records, clinical and endocrine status) seem to be within the range of reported data in countries with high standards for livestock production. This study identified true reproductive problems, such as deficient oestrus detection and failures in clinical diagnosis of active CLs. Also, it confirmed that progesterone RIA is a valuable tool to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab
Full Text Available The dissociation of ammonium (NH4+ into ammonia (NH3 in wastewaters is a key factor governing atmospheric nitrogen volatilization. Relatively rich in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN or NH4+ plus NH3, livestock manures are most susceptible to NH3 volatilization, although indirect measurements report 5 times less NH4+ dissociation as compared to theoretical values. The objective of this study was therefore to directly measure NH4+ dissociation of two standard NH4Cl solutions (1750 and 3500 mg TAN/L, and of swine and dairy cattle manures at various dilutions and temperatures using a ammonia selective electrode (hydrogen and silver-silver chloride electrode couple at various pH and temperatures. All solutions demonstrated NH4+ dissociation varying from theory, especially because of dissolved compounds such as atmospheric CO2. At a neutral pH, ratios of theoretical to measured [NH3-N] ranged from 1.5 to 3.5, with higher ratios corresponding to higher TAN levels. At a pH below 6, NH3 volatilization was enhanced by the shift of HCO3- to H2CO3 and CO2. With previous research projects reporting 5 times less NH3 volatilization as compared to theory, the present indicates that dissociation activity account for half of this drop with gas diffusion accounting for the other half.
Jiménez, A E; Fernández, A; Dolz, G; Vargas, B; Epe, C; Schnieder, T
A cross-sectional serological survey of Dictyocaulus viviparus was carried out to determine the prevalence of lungworm infections in 28 dairy cattle farms distributed in five selected areas from Costa Rica. The influence of area, farm, host (breed, age and lactation number) and ecological factors (altitude and life zones) on the presence of lungworm infection was analyzed. A sub-sample of 924 sera collected between September 1998 and July 1999 was processed by ELISA (Ceditest). A total of 162 (17.5%) animals from 26 (93.0%) farms showed antibodies against D. viviparus. The overall seroprevalence detected among areas was Poás 25.0%, Cartago 24.3%, Tilarán 22.0%, Alfaro Ruiz 12.0% and San Carlos 12.1%. Using analysis of variance no significant influence of area and host factors on D. viviparus infections was determined, whereas the variable farm within area was highly significant (p<0.001). However, altitude and life zones showed significant association to seropositive animals, when a Chi-square test was applied. In altitudes of 1000-2000 m (p<0.001) and life zones of Lower Montane moist forest and Montane moist forest (p<0.001) D. viviparus infections in bovines were significantly higher. The results obtained in this study indicate a high D. viviparus seroprevalence in the analyzed farms and that the factors farm, altitude and life zones were significantly related to lungworm infections. PMID:18439761
Ana Bárbara Freitas Rodrigues
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis. The purpose of this work was to report the anatomopathology of three cases of paratuberculosis in autochthonous dairy cattle from Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Animals presented characteristic clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis and were seroreactive to ELISA. They were euthanized and necropsied. Small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and ileocecal valve samples were collected and processed for histopathology and bacteriology. Tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed for paraffin inclusion, and stained by HE (haemathoxilin-eosin and ZN (Ziehl-Neelsen. Macroscopic alterations such as small intestine wall segmental thickness, mucosal hyperaemia, and corrugation were observed. Ileocaecal valve emaciation, evident mesenteric lymphadenomegally, and lymphangiectasy were also present. The main histopathological findings were enteritis, lymphangitis and granulomatous lymphadenitis. Intestinal lesions were mainly restricted to mucosa and submucosa of jejune and ileum, characterized by inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, and scarce giant Langhan’s–type cells. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were observed into macrophages on the top of villi, lamina propria and lymph nodes parenchyma. Anatomopathology was characteristic for the disease and was considered a valuable tool for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.
Schmid, A.; Ho?rmansdorfer, S.; Messelha?usser, U.; Ka?sbohrer, A.; Sauter-louis, C.; Mansfeld, R.
Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fe...
Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M
Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124
Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique
There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.
Srai?ri, Mt; Farit, Y.
The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al) database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of...
Birgit Fuerst-Waltl; Hermann Schwarzenbacher; Christian Fuerst
Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E) and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra) between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Uppe...
Cheryl M.E. McCrindle
Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.
Twenty-eight dairy cattle were used in this experiment. The blood was collected from the jugular vein by vacutainer tubes which contained EDTA as anticoagulant. For detecting the selenium status in the cows, the GSH-Px of all blood samples were analyzed and percentage of 75Se uptake were also analyzed. The activity of 75Se used in this experiment was 6 muCi/ml sample. The result of this experiment shows that percentage uptake of 75Se is higher in deficient dairy cattle compared to normal ones. (author)
Eko Hendarto; Sri Mastuti
Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Surv...
A. O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni
This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...
Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; ZHANG Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian
Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall preval...
Kwan, Patrick S. L.; Birtles, Andrew; Bolton, Frederick J.; French, Nigel P.; Robinson, Susan E.; Newbold, Lynne S.; Upton, Mathew; Fox, Andrew J.
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), an accurate and phylogenetically robust characterization method for population studies of Campylobacter, was applied to Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 297) from the fecal samples of cattle from five dairy farms in Cheshire, United Kingdom, collected throughout 2003. The population dynamics of the C. jejuni strains, as identified by the occurrence of sequence types and clonal complexes, demonstrated variations within and between cattle populations over ti...
Firas Mahmoud Faleh Hayajneh
Full Text Available In present study attempts were made to measure the effect of pregnancy stress on the antioxidative capacity in the blood of dairy cattle. Results of the present study revealed that antioxidative capacity screens the health status of the animals. Animals far away from delivery time have higher levels of (ACW water soluble antioxidants in their blood which reflects healthier bodies while during this level decrease and it will adversely affect the health of cattle.
Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.
Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.
Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne; Moyes, Kasey
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.
The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)
Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.
Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.
Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.
Vaddella, V K; Ndegwa, P M; Joo, H S; Ullman, J L
About 80% of dairy cattle N intake is excreted in urine and feces. Urinary-N is about 75% urea, whereas fecal-N is mostly organic. Urinary-N (urea) can only be volatilized when it is hydrolyzed to ammonia (NH3) in a process catalyzed by urease, which is predominantly found in feces. Minimizing contact between urine and feces may be an effective approach to reducing urea hydrolysis and subsequent NH3 emissions. Previous studies have reported 5 to 99% NH3 emissions mitigation within barns from separation of feces and urine. The objective ofthis study was to compare NH3 emissions mitigation via separation of urine and feces in postcollection storage to a conventional scrape manure handling method where urine and feces are comingled. Laboratory scale studies were conducted to evaluate NH3 emissions from simulated postcollection storag of three waste streams: (i) idealistically separated feces and urine (no contact between urine and feces), (ii) realistically separated urine and feces (limited contact of urine and feces), and (iii) conventionally scraped manure (control). From the results of these studies, NH3 losses ranking in descending order was as follows: aggregate of realistically separated waste streams (3375.9 +/- 54.8 mg), aggregate of idealistically separated urine and feces (3047.0 +/- 738.0 mg), and scrape manure (2034.0 +/- 106.5 mg), respectively. Therefore, on the basis of these results, the extra effort of separating the waste streams would not enhance mitigation of NH3 losses from postcollection storage of the separated waste streams compared to the conventional scrape manure collection system. PMID:21043286
Pozzato, N.; Capello, K.
Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions.
Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle
R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.
Full Text Available En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P
Full Text Available In recent years organic livestock production has gained interest all over the world due to the increased consumer demand for food that is perceived to be safe, healthy, flavorsome and produced in an environmentally sustainable way. This book completes a trilogy of books by Professor Robert Blair dealing with the nutrition of feeding of farm animals that are produced organically. Through its 7 chapters.....
Genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in the US has been available for Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations allowing for the evaluation of this breed. Gains ...
Martin, S. Wayne; Hopwood, Douglas A.; Duffield, Todd F.; McEwen, Beverly; Hobson, Jamie C.; Hietala, Sharon K.
Abstract No significant association existed between Neospora caninum titer and serostatus to Leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in Ontario. Leptospira titer increased with parity. Amongst herds not vaccinated against Leptospira, the proportions of herds with ? 1 animal seropositive to serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona were 45%, 42%, and 58%, respectively. PMID:16734373
Ana Luiza Mendonça Pinto
Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality® protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.
Zebeli, Q; Metzler-Zebeli, B U
In this review, an overview is provided on the current achievements regarding the interplay between rumen digestive disorders and diet-induced inflammation in dairy cattle. It starts with a review of factors favoring the disturbances in the rumen metabolism, which culminate with development of sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). The latter digestive disorder is often linked to greater metabolic stress of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and lowered fiber digestion, as well as with disruption of the barrier functions of the GI epithelia, which open the route of deleterious molecules to translocate from the GI lumen into the portal system. A model is suggested to illustrate the mechanisms of the involvement of digestive disorders in the disruption of the host's inner homeostasis leading to activation of acute phase response (APR). The latter is part of multifaceted innate immune and metabolic responses of the host. According to this model, endotoxin, its toxicity, and other metabolic compounds of microbial origin are regarded as important immunogenic components of GI tract, which when favored by disruption of host barriers triggers a systemic APR. Although the activation of an APR is viewed as a protective reaction aiming to reestablish the disturbed homeostasis, the presence of inflammatory state over long periods might be associated with negative consequences for the host. The review concludes that prolonged systemic inflammation can: (1) cause significant changes in the energy and lipid metabolism in different body tissues, (2) lead to the development of refractory states associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility to various diseases, and (3) artificially increase host's requirements in energy and nutrients, lowering the efficiency of energy and feed use by the animal. The paper emphasizes the critical role that formulation of healthy diets plays for curbing down inflammation and enhancing metabolic health of dairy cows. PMID:22370295
Werner, Louise Bruun
Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a growing problem in the Western world. Dairy products comprise a food group containing a high amount of saturated fat, which has been linked to an increase in CVD risk. However, a recent metaanalysis including 611.430 subjects failed to find any association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. Consequently, there is less focus on the consumption of saturated fatty acid. However, many attempts have been made to prevent and reduce complications from CVD and T2DM and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid (FA) uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders, due to agonist ctivities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products (represented by cheese and butter) from cows fed green feed would affect the human concentration of plasma PA differently as compared to dairy products from cows fed conventional feed, and, further to examine the health effects of PA. A second objective was to examine the health effects of dairy products (represented by butter) produced from milk delivered from mountain-pasture grazing cows. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies where risk markers of CVD and T2DM were assessed. We found that it is possible to increase human plasma PA concentration after four weeks of intervention with butter and cheese containing even a traditional content of PA, which agrees with observational studies. No significant difference in plasma PA concentration between treatment groups was found; therefore, investigating any effect of PA on metabolic parameters was not possible. However, considering the strong correlation between plasma PA at baseline and total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), it may be suggested that PA have a specific LDL-C rising effects. We found no health beneficial effect on CVD and T2DM risk markers of butter delivered from mountain-pasture grazing, which had, among other differences, increased PA content compared to butter from conventionally fed cows. As no other study has been published regarding the health of milk delivered from grazing cattle, we cannot compare our findings directly with other studies and further evidence is needed. During the past few years climate change has been recognized as the major environmental problem facing the world. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high nutritional value. In addition, when discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food sector, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE by creating dietary scenarios with different quantities of dairy products. This was evaluated on the basis of one theoretical study based on national intake data and carbon footprint data of 71 widely consumed food items. Furthermore, an index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items. Our dietary scenarios
Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J
This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993
Khan, Shahbaz Manzoor; Debnath, Chanchal; Pramanik, Amiya Kumar; Xiao, Lihua; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan
Few studies in the past have examined the genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in India. To assess the importance of these animals as a source of human Cryptosporidium infections, fecal samples from 180 calves, heifers and adults and 51 farm workers on two dairy farms in West Bengal, India were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium followed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the DNA sequences obtained in the study and those available in GenBank. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle was 11.7% though the infection was more prevalent in younger calves than in adult cattle. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium ryanae and Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle followed an age-related pattern. A Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype was also detected in a calf. Farm workers were infected with Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum and a novel C. bovis genotype. These findings clearly suggest that there is a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium infections between cattle and humans on dairy farms in India. PMID:20356678
Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian
Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China. PMID:24999982
Swanepoel, Nadia; P.H. Robinson; Erasmus, L.J. (Lourens Jacobus)
The objectives were to predict aminoa cid (AA) profiles of intestinally delivered protein in California high group (i.e., lactating but not yet confirmed to be in calf) dairy cattle fed contemporary rations using three metabolic models of dairy cows. This was done in order to predict limiting AA in dairy rations to determine if there was enough consistency in the nutrient profiles of these rations to support a common ruminally protected (RP) AA package to supplement similar rations. Nutrient ...
According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated
Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60Co or 177Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)
Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and inffor early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)
Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T
The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:24881798
A. O. Rini
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.
Climate change is affecting the production of feed on dairy farms. Warming climates also affect the performance of dairy cattle and the interactions between feed production and animal performance. Process level simulation of dairy production systems provides a tool for whole-farm evaluation of the e...
Yudi Sastro; Indarti Puji Lestari
Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using ...
Isbandi; Mukson; Setiadi, A.; Sudjadmogo; Santosa, S. I.
This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC), 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC) and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA). Pr...
Karnaen Karnaen; J Arifin
The research was conducted at Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul Sapi Perah (BBPTU-SP) Baturraden, Purwokerto, Central Java. The aims of this research were to study: (1) Breeding Value among test day record at first, second and third lactations on milk productions of dairy cattle, (2) Correlation of breeding values among test day record at first, second, and third lactations on milk production of dairy cattle. There were 4964 records of milk productions for 9 years since 1997 to 2006 dividi...
Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z
Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of determination. The predicted RFI could be used in the dairy breeding program to increase profitability by selecting animals that are genetically superior in energy efficiency based on RFI, or through routinely measured traits, which are genetically correlated with RFI. PMID:24124653
Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes = Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility
Elisa Cristina Modesto
Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRMforam 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica(DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upperthird of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: drymatter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third ofcassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement were increased. The inclusion of CFS did not alter the intake or digestibility of nutrients, except for ADCP. In spite of the negative effect on the apparent digestibility of protein, CFS can partially replace CS in the diet of lactating dairy cows.
Weller, Joel I
Many studies have proposed that rates of genetic gain in dairy cattle can be increased by direct selection on the individual quantitative loci responsible for the genetic variation in these traits, or selection on linked genetic markers. The development of DNA-level genetic markers has made detection of QTL nearly routine in all major livestock species. The studies that attempted to detect genes affecting quantitative traits can be divided into two categories: analysis of candidate genes, and genome scans based on within-family genetic linkage. To date, 12 patent cooperative treaty (PCT) and US patents have been registered for DNA sequences claimed to be associated with effects on economic traits in dairy cattle. All claim effects on milk production, but other traits are also included in some of the claims. Most of the sequences found by the candidate gene approach are of dubious validity, and have been repeated in only very few independent studies. The two missense mutations on chromosomes 6 and 14 affecting milk concentration derived from genome scans are more solidly based, but the claims are also disputed. A few PCT in dairy cattle are commercialized as genetic tests where commercial dairy farmers are the target market. PMID:19075920
Wang, Rongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Zhao, Jinfeng; Lu, Qingbin; Wang, Helei; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua
Dairy industry plays an important role in the agricultural economy of China. To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in China, during four consecutive years (from 2006 to 2009), a total of 1315 fecal samples from 22 dairy cattle farms in ten prefectures in Henan Province were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 7.9%, with the highest infection rate (11.3%) in 3 to 11-month-old calves and the lowest infection rate (1.0%) in >2-year-old cows (p<0.01). Cryptosporidium-positive samples (n=104) were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and 25 representative samples were further analyzed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium andersoni were identified. C. andersoni (84/104) was the predominant species and was found in all age groups, whereas C. bovis (20/104) was only detected in 3 to 11-month-old calves. Thus, C. andersoni appears to be the dominant species in weaned dairy calves and heifers in China, in contrast with its common occurrence in adult cattle in other parts of the world. PMID:20884374
Amr M.M. Abd-Elall
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.
Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele
The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405
Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E
Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for reproduction could also aid in resolving genetic antagonisms. Past breeding programmes have contributed to the deterioration in reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. The tools now exist, however, to reverse the genetic trends in reproductive performance underlying the observed phenotypic trends. PMID:24703258
Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weter weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)
Obike, Onyemauchechi Mercy
For the modern dairy cow, advances in genetics and breeding for productivity has resulted in an increasing incidence of health disorders and reduced longevity. One of the most important health problems is lameness, which has led to significant economic, production and welfare consequences. A reduction in lameness will improve the economic future of the dairy industry through increased profitability and decreased welfare-related problems. Although positive attempts have been mad...
Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W
With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally poor IOFC margin conditions. We analyzed the dynamics of realized IOFC margins in 2009 under 4 different risk management strategies and found that optimal strategies that were founded on the principles delineated above succeeded in reducing the decline in IOFC margins in 2009 by 93% for the Home-Feed profile and by 47% for the Market-Feed profile, and they performed substantially better than alternative strategies suggested by earlier literature. PMID:23040030
Parnell, Calvin B.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Saqib Mukhtar; Faulkner, William B.; Md Saidul Borhan; Russell McGee
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during...
Z. Bani Ismail
Full Text Available Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10 included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14 included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7 included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.
Xiao, S M; Li, G Q; Zhou, R Q; Li, W H; Yang, J W
A rapid and sensitive assay for the detection of Cyclospora species in dairy cattle faecal specimens has been developed. The method utilizes a nested PCR to amplify a 168-bp DNA fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of cattle-derived Cyclospora sp. and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to detect the amplified product. In this study, the OLA technique was compared with conventional gel electrophoresis for the detection of amplified product. In evaluating the PCR-OLA for Cyclospora sp. and non-Cyclospora parasites, A(405) reading value for Cyclospora species was significantly higher than those for non-Cyclospora control. At known concentrations of purified amplicons from cattle-derived Cyclospora sp., the OLA was able to detect more than 0.5 ng of the amplified DNA. Of 168 clinical specimens collected from four dairy cattle farms, 6 were positive by both PCR-gel electrophoresis and the PCR-OLA procedure, and 2 were positive only by PCR-OLA, indicating the PCR-OLA procedure was more sensitive than the common way with gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the PCR-OLA is simple, rapid and suitable in clinical detection of cattle-derived Cyclospora species. PMID:17850971
Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, A.F.B., van der; Boehm, J; Agus, A.
High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...
Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...
Tozato, Claudia C.; Lunardi, Michele; Alfieri, Alice F.; Otonel, Rodrigo A.A.; Di Santis, Giovana W.; de Alcântara, Brígida K.; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.
This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24516429
Claudia C., Tozato; Michele, Lunardi; Alice F., Alfieri; Rodrigo A.A., Otonel; Giovana W., Di Santis; Brígida K. de, Alcântara; Selwyn A., Headley; Amauri A., Alfieri.
Full Text Available This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. [...
Saeid Hosseinzadeh; Mojtaba Kafi; Mostafa Pour-Teimouri
Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz ...
Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053
Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Yihong; Zhang, Longxian; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Weizhe; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua; Ling, Hong
Few data are available on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in China. In the present study, a total of 507 fecal specimens from six dairy farms in Heilongjiang Province were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. by light microscopy of concentrates from the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method (for less than 2-month-old calves) or Sheather's floatation method (more than 3-month-old dairy cattle). Twenty-seven post-weaned calves on five farms were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA, actin, and 70 kDa heat shock protein genes identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae, with C. andersoni as the dominant species (26 out of 27). In comparison with other regions of the world, the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in the areas appears to be unique. PMID:19424720
Jamal Gharekhani; Hamidreza Haddadzadeh; Alireza Bahonar
Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran) by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. A Signi...
Cheryl M.E. McCrindle; Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga; Paolo Paolotto; Paola Sechi
A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts). Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6%) were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claime...
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.
Sri Mastuti; Rahayu Widiyanti
This research is aimed to study production, technical and the profit of group and individual system on smallholder dairy cattle farm. The research has been conducted in Banyumas Regency. Data collection was done by surveying about 80 farmers, Unit Output Price Cobb-Douglas Profit Function estimation employed Ordinary Leas Square (OLS) method. The different of variable from the result of profit estimation. Profit function analysis on group system showed that manpower pay, animal age, lactation...
Hackett, A. J.; Batra, T. R.
Dairy cattle of three genetic lines maintained year round in total confinement (either in loose housing or tie stall barn) were monitored for estrous cycle activity and reproductive performance. Only 54% of the 492 cows calving over a 12 month interval were observed in estrus at least once between parturition and day 55 postpartum. There was a significant genetic line by barn interaction in the detection of estrus mainly because more cows of the Ayrshire line were observed in estrus in the ti...
Meuwissen, T. H. E.
IntroductionNicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In the MOET nucleus breeding schemes, selection was within a closed nucleus herd using short generation intervals and mainly sib information. Juga and Maki-Tanila (1987) simulated MOET nucleus schemes and found that predicted ra...
Hooijer, G. A.; Lubbers, R. B. F.; Ducro, B. J.; Arendonk, J. A. M.; Kaal-lansbergen, L. M. T. E.; Lende, T.
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed gynecological findings in dairy cattle. It causes temporary infertility and is likely to affect reproduction as well as production parameters in cows. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heritability of COD in a Dutch Black and White population and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic relationships with milk production traits. In the data set used, the overall incidence of COD was 7.7ø1204 COD diagnoses i...
Chen, Fu; Huang, Kehe
Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under acce...
Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Wallace, Richard L.
The goal of this study was to follow ceftiofur-treated and untreated cattle in a normally functioning dairy to examine enteric Escherichia coli for changes in antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic diversity. Prior to treatment, all of the bacteria cultured from the cows were susceptible to ceftiofur. Ceftiofur-resistant E. coli was only isolated from treated cows during and immediately following the cessation of treatment, and the 12 blaCMY-2-positive isolates clustered into two genetic ...
Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.
In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides...
Langford, F M; Rutherford, K M D; Sherwood, L; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B; Haskell, M J
The behavior of groups of housed, lactating dairy cattle was observed over 2 winter housing periods on 20 organic farms and 20 conventional farms in the United Kingdom. Three methods were used: (1) 6 video-clips of 10 min duration were captured of cows feeding at sections of the feed-bunk face during the peak feeding period (0 to 90 min) and continuously observed for aggressive interactions among cows; (2) the proportion of cows at the feed-bunk face was scanned every 15 min for 4.5h to include the peak feeding period (0 to 255 min); and (3) all nonfeeding behaviors were scanned every 15 min for 2.5h after the peak feeding period (120 to 255 min). The latter scans were analyzed post hoc for measures of cow comfort (freestall farms only). Management and health data were collected on each farm. On farms with open-fronted feed-bunk faces, a greater number of aggressive interactions occurred at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding time on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic = 36.3 ± 4.4; conventional = 29.1 ± 3.0). Higher proportions of cows were at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic=0.58 ± 0.04; conventional=0.48 ± 0.03). Housing type (freestall versus straw pen) explained most differences in postfeeding behavior (proportion of ruminating cow in alleyways: freestalls=0.16±0.06 vs. straw-pen=0.08 ± 0.03), with few differences between organic and conventional herds. On freestall farms, the proportions of cows on organic farms lying down postfeeding was smaller than in conventional herds (organic=0.38 ± 0.09 vs. conventional=0.43 ± 0.07). Differences in behavior around peak feeding time could be associated with the reduction in food "quality" on organic farms compared with the energy requirement of the cows, with cows on organic farms being highly motivated to feed. A correlation was observed between farms that had high amounts of lying and farms that had high lameness prevalence (R(2)=55.3), suggesting a complex relationship between comfort and pain. Overall, the behavior of dairy cows on organic farms was not different from that of conventionally reared cows, and the results suggest that most behavioral welfare problems relating to housing could be alleviated by management practices. PMID:21257042
Arendonk, J. A. M.
In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.The investigations described in this thesis were directed towards the economic optimization of the policy for replacement and insemination of dairy cows. The following three items were treated:1. The evaluation of techniques to determine the optimum policy of insemi...
V.E., Imbayarwo-Chikosi; K., Dzama; T.E., Halimani; J.B., van Wyk; A., Maiwashe; C.B., Banga.
Full Text Available Longevity is a major component of the breeding objective for dairy cattle in many countries because of its high economic value. The trait has been recommended for inclusion in the breeding objective for dairy cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs [...] ) and proportional hazard models (PH) have been used to evaluate longevity. This paper discusses these methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Heritability estimates obtained from these models are also reviewed. Linear methodologies can model binary and actual longevity, while RR and TM methodologies model binary survival. PH procedures model the hazard function of a cow at time t derived from survival from first calving to culling, death or censoring. It is difficult to compare methodologies for sire evaluation and ranking across countries because of the variation in the definition of longevity and the choice of model. Sire estimated breeding values (EBVs) are derived differently for the models. Sire EBVs from PH models are expressed as deviations of the culling risk from the mean of the base sires, expected percentage of daughters still alive after a given number of lactations, expected length of productive life in absolute terms or as standard deviation units. In linear, TM and RR modelling, sire EBVs for longevity have been expressed as deviations of survival from the mean estimated with Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Appropriate models should thus be developed to evaluate functional longevity for possible inclusion in the overall breeding objective for South African dairy cattle.
van der Fels-Klerx, I.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.
Azeem Khan, M.; Akhter Ali; Muhammad Zubair Anwar; Nisar Ali Shah; Ikram Saeed
Over the years, role and strength of dairy goat is increasing in Barani Tract of Punjab. The bread and butter needs of poor and small household are largely depends on livestock specifically on the dairy goats. The 80 percent livestock management activities are mostly depends upon women; therefore under the experimentation of feed supplementation mainly women's were included as research partners. The women perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feed supplement were collected by using a wel...
Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter
The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.
Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ?NH3:?CH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ?28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and its environmental effects on air quality and nitrogen deposition are not fully accounted for.
Chen, Fu; Huang, Kehe
Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers EU369377-84 and GU070730-33. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a distances matrix generated from these sequences confirmed the existence of Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum 'mouse' genotype, C. bovis, C. andersoni, C. hominis, and C. serpentis in cattle. These results represent the first report on the prevalence and genetic identification of Cryptosporidium species, and may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cattle in China. PMID:22437531
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.
This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.
Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder; Rode, L.M.
Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the ...
Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.
Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed
Wikman, I; Hokkanen, A-H; Pastell, M; Kauppinen, T; Valros, A; Hänninen, L
Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure performed on farm to ensure safer handling of cattle. A questionnaire on disbudding-related opinions and practices was sent to 1,000 Finnish dairy producers (response rate: 45%). Attitudes toward disbudding were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale and attitudes to cattle pain scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Principal components analysis was used to assess the loadings, which were further tested for differences between producer gender and housing systems with Mann-Whitney U-tests, and between herd milk yield, herd size, and age and work experience of producers with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Four main factors were identified: factor I ("taking disbudding pain seriously"), factor II ("sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases"), factor III ("ready to medicate calves myself"), and factor IV ("pro horns"). Female producers took disbudding pain more seriously, were more sensitive to pain caused to cattle by diseases, and were more ready to medicate disbudded calves than male producers. Producers with tie-stalls favored horns over producers with freestalls. Male producers with tie-stalls were sensitive to cattle pain and preferred horns over male producers with freestalls. Female producers with freestalls were more ready to medicate calves, but did not prefer horns more than female producers with tie-stalls. Taking disbudding seriously correlated with sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases. Producers with low-milk-yielding herds were less willing to medicate calves and more willing to keep cattle with horns than producers with higher-yielding herds. Older producers were more sensitive to cattle pain than middle-aged and younger producers. No effect was established for taking disbudding pain seriously: the pro-horn factor was associated with work experience, age, and herd size. Women rated pain higher and were more positive toward pain medication for animals than men. Maintaining horns are more important for producers with tie-stalls than for those with freestalls. PMID:24054284
Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage
Radjabov R. H.
Full Text Available In this article we carry out the analysis of the current state of dairy farming in the country and in the Rostov region. The article shows the number of cows and milk production in farms of all categories in the country and the region. At present, Russia is ranked 6th in the world in milk production and is the largest importer of milk and dairy products. The situation is similar in the dairy industry of the Rostov region. Nowadays Rostov region ranks 5th in the Russian Federation and 2nd place in the southern Federal district in milk production. A large portion of milk (83,4% is produced in households. This indicates decentralization of livestock complex in the Rostov region. The demand for milk is met through own production by 83%. Currently, the region has just started a period of stabilization of the gross milk production. For the last 4 years the indicators of milk productivity of cows have been 13.0-14.5% higher than the national average. Much of this was facilitated by the measures of state support. With the support of Federal and regional authorities in this field it has been created a favorable investment climate for the development of dairy farming. In the article the main organizational and economic aspects of profitability of milk production have been shown. It identifies the main issues that hinder the intensification of dairy farming. The dairy sector of the Rostov region has good prospects. Main approaches to the solution of the problems of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Rostov region have been listed
Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”), such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased...
Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Loubier, Catherine B; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Dubuc, Jocelyn
Dairy cattle are considered a Campylobacter reservoir in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis. Currently, very little data on the prevalence of Campylobacter in dairy herds are available in the Province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter associated with management practices in 40 dairy cattle herds as well as to characterize the bacterial genetic diversity. Fecal samples from 797 lactating cows of 40 dairy farms, water provided to animals, milk from bulk tank, and fecal matters from pens were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter. Management information was collected using a short survey and the geographical positioning was mapped for each farm. Bacterial genetic characterization was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-typing. In total, 29 farms (72.5%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. and 20 (50%) of them were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. In animals, 27.6% of the fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. C. hyointestinalis was the most prevalent species (19.3%) in herds, followed by C. jejuni (6.5%). No Campylobacter were recovered from water or milk samples. Component-fed ration systems and the lack of biosecurity measures were associated with an increased prevalence of C. jejuni on the studied farms. Campylobacter-positive farms were scattered throughout the region, and bacterial genetic heterogeneity was observed between farms and inside the herds. This study is the first one to characterize C. jejuni isolates from dairy herds in the Province of Quebec. These observations may be useful in order to elaborate risk-mitigation strategies. PMID:24617502
Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.
Full Text Available Repeat breeding (RB, defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both herd and individual cow level. The effects of risk factors on the herd frequency of RB were studied by logistic regression. A generalised linear mixed model with logit link, and accounting for herd-level variation by including a random effect of herd, was used to study the individual animal risk for RB. The total percentage of RB animals was 10.1% and the median proportion of RB animals in the herds studied was 7.5%. The proportion of RB cows in herds increased with decreased herd sizes with decreased average days from calving to first AI, with increased herd incidence of clinical mastitis, with decreased reproductive disorders, and increased other diseases treated by a veterinarian. On animal level, the risk factors were milk yield, lactation number, difficult calving or dystocia, season at first service, days in milk at first service and veterinary treatment for reproductive disorders before the first service. Cows being an RB animal in the previous lactation had a higher risk of becoming an RB animal also in the present lactation. In conclusion our results show that the repeat breeding syndrome is a multifactorial problem involving a number of extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic factors coupled to the individual animal.
This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p?>?0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p?reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154
An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.
Credille, B C; Giguère, S; Vickroy, T W; Fishman, H J; Jones, A L; Mason, M E; DiPietro, R O; Ensley, D T
The objective of this study was to determine the disposition of ampicillin in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle. Ampicillin trihydrate was administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (n = 6, total of 3 doses) or every 12 h (n = 6, total of 5 doses) for 3 days. Concentrations of ampicillin were measured in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk using HPLC with ultraviolet absorption. Quantifiable ampicillin concentrations were found in plasma, milk, and lochial fluid of all cattle within 30 min, 4 h, and 4 h of administration of ampicillin trihydrate, respectively. There was no significant effect of dosing interval (every 12 vs. every 24 h) and no significant interactions between dosing interval and sampling site on the pharmacokinetic variable measured or calculated. Median peak ampicillin concentration at steady-state was significantly higher in lochial fluid (5.27 ?g/mL after q 24 h dosing) than other body fluids or tissues and significantly higher in plasma (3.11 ?g/mL) compared to milk (0.49 ?g/mL) or endometrial tissue (1.55 ?g/mL). Ampicillin trihydrate administered once daily by the i.m. route at the label dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight achieves therapeutic concentrations in the milk, lochial fluid, and endometrial tissue of healthy postpartum dairy cattle. PMID:25376083
Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian
Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1-E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern. PMID:24971639
Bp, Widyobroto; Sps, Budhi
This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH), King Grass (KG), Corn stover (CS), Elephan Grass (EG), Rice Straw (RS), Soja Straw (SS), Corn Straw (CST), Glyricidea (Gli), and Caliandra (Cal). The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. Th...
Williams, E J
Post-partum uterine disease has a detrimental effect on dairy cow fertility; affected cows require more serves per conception, have reduced conception rates and are more likely to be culled for infertility. Furthermore, the detrimental effects on fertility remain even after clinical resolution of disease. There are many factors that influence a cow's resistance to or development of post-partum disease, and the key drivers determining disease outcome are uterine microbial load, regulation of inflammation and immune responses peripherally and at a local level, production pressure, and metabolic (energy) status. These factors are intricately interlinked, which makes assessment of their individual effects difficult. It is clear, however, that the period surrounding calving is a key transition phase and events during this time point will influence uterine disease outcome and subsequent fertility. Good peripartum management and accurate diagnosis are critical to facilitate the use of the most effective treatment and limit the negative impact of post-partum uterine disease on fertility. If we can improve our understanding of the underlying causes of disease, then we can identify 'at risk' animals and implement management and breeding strategies to prevent uterine disease or reduce its severity. Thus, this article aims to summarize the key factors that drive uterine disease in the post-partum dairy cow. PMID:23962215
Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J; Diskin, Michael G; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Sinead M. Waters
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5? promoter, intr...
Calvin B. Parnell
Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.
Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)
This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…
Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH, King Grass (KG, Corn stover (CS, Elephan Grass (EG, Rice Straw (RS, Soja Straw (SS, Corn Straw (CST, Glyricidea (Gli, and Caliandra (Cal. The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. The results showed that DM and OM intakes were significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin ranged from the lowest (Gli of 29.55 g DMI/kg0.75 to the highest (CS of 94.88 g/kg0.75. OM intake of buffaloes was higher than that of ongole cattle supported by organic matter (OM digestibility data (61.51 vs 59.51. The digestibility of nutrient was significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. OM digestibility of SS were lowest while the highest were CST of 54.56 and 71.66% respectively. Digestibility of CP was also significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. The lowest Digestible Crude Protein was CST and the highest was PH of 44.10 and 67.99% respectively. The digestibility of NDF and ADF were significantly influenced by feed stuffs. The lowest NDF and ADF digestibilities were Cal of 40.84 and 33.19% and the highest digestibility of NDF and ADF were CST of 68.53 and 63.57%. It can be concluded that there were an important variation of feed compositions and digestibility of fibrous feeds. Buffalo were better than cattle on capacity of ingestion and utilization of fibrous feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 86-90 (2010Key Words: fibrous feeds, intake, digestibility, ongole cattle, buffaloes
Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the difference between returns from milk and feed costs (defined as the economic efficiency). In these two definitions of efficiency the relationship between feed intake and milk production is very impo...
Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B
Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship training sessions. In conclusion, cattle handling skills are considered important by Minnesota dairy producers to ensure worker safety and cow flow. Limited availability of time, language barrier, and a perceived lack of training materials were considered challenges during the training of workers on farms. PMID:24835968
Michaelis, I; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W
The objective of the study was to evaluate an automated activity monitoring (AAM) system for oestrous detection in dairy cows. Specifically, we set out to determine the oestrous detection efficiency and accuracy of the AAM system and to compare reproductive performance of cows detected either by AAM, by visual observation (VO) or by at least 1 of the 2 methods (EOM). A total of 1004 potential cow-periods from 348 cows were analysed. Oestrous detection rates (EDR) were calculated for 21 day (VWP+21), 42 day (VWP+42), and 63 day (VWP+63) after voluntary waiting period (VWP). Oestrous detection rate did not differ between AAM (42.1%) and VO (37.3%) during VWP+21 (p > 0.05) but was significantly higher in EOM (56.3%, p dairy cattle. The exclusive use of such a system, however, cannot be recommended. PMID:24888980
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. PMID:25475653
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.
Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M
Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months. PMID:9311087
Schouten, J. M.; Graat, E. A. M.; Frankena, K.; Zijderveld, F. G.; Jong, M. C. M.
Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out in one of two pastures. From each group, five animals were experimentally inoculated with 109 c.f.u. O157 VTEC and, considered infectious, put back in their group. Each of the susceptible contact ca...
Amer, Said; Zidan, Shereif; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua; Feng, Yaoyu
Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IIa subtypes in pre-weaned calves. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. In this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four Nile River delta provinces in Egypt. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast microscopy was used to screen for Cryptosporidium oocysts in 1974 fecal specimens from animals of different ages on 12 farms. Positive fecal specimens were identified from all studied farms with an overall prevalence of 13.6%. By age group, the infection rates were 12.5% in pre-weaned calves, 10.4% in post-weaned calves, 22.1% in heifers, and 10.7% in adults. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of microscopy-positive fecal specimens revealed the presence of four major Cryptosporidium species. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was most common (30/69 or 43.5%), but Cryptosporidium ryanae (13/69 or 18.8%), Cryptosporidium bovis (7/69 or 10.2%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (7/69 or 10.2%) were also present at much higher frequencies seen in most industrialized nations. Mixed infections were seen in 12/69 (17.4%) of genotyped specimens. In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (193/195 or 99.0%) in post-weaned calves and older animals. Subtyping of C. parvum based on sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene showed the presence of subtypes IIdA20G1 in nine specimens, IIaA15G1R1 in 27 specimens, and a rare subtype IIaA14G1R1r1b in one specimen. The common occurrence of non-C. parvum species and IId subtypes in pre-weaned calves is a distinct feature of cryptosporidiosis transmission in dairy cattle in Egypt. The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in Egypt suggests calves can be potential reservoirs of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24036320
Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.
A. Akhlaghy Kermany
Full Text Available Fatty liver syndrome or hepatic lipidosis occurs when the received energy by animal is lower than the consumed energy especially during lactation. In this case, body fats will become lipolysis because of negative balance of energy then flow to the liver so, inevitable troubles will appear such as abomasums displacement, placenta remaining, post partum hypocalcaemia and reduction of body immunization, etc. In this study, 96 heads of hybrid and healthy dairy cattle of 3-5 years old with body score of 2 and 3 were used and the blood and liver samples were obtained with the rate of 10 cc and 20 g, respectively in order to investigate fatty liver syndrome. The amount of NEFA, glucose and albumin in serum and the amount of liver cells TAG in liver samples were measured. The results suggest that there is meaningful increase in serum NEFA (1082±432.88 ? Eq L•1 and liver TAG (7.73±1.68% and meaningful decrease in serum glucose (37.20±15.26 mg dL•1 in new-calved cattle (p<0.001. Also, serum albumin in new calved cattle and last months pregnant cattle in which the NEFA serum and liver fat were in highest levels, sowed meaningful decrease (p<0.01.
Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Aning, Kwame G; Boi-Kikimoto, Bashiru; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy
The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. PMID:25005431
Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.
Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W
When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers. PMID:25483200
McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R
The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1.2), increased the risk of removal from herd by a factor of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8), and was associated with a decrease in milk production by 0.5 kg/d for the first 30 DIM. These results show that time of onset and BHBA concentration of first SCK-positive test are important indicators of individual cow performance. PMID:22916909
A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)
Full Text Available Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates. The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli.
Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Micha?; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna
Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to the increased spreading rate of the VFs, while the barn habitat is characterised by the higher levels of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. PMID:25607605
Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn
The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183
Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn
The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183
Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.
Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.
Full Text Available Sejumlah penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menyelidiki faedah pemecahan batang alfalfa pada saat dipanen di daerah prairi terhadap lama pengeringan, sifat-sifat nutrisi pada saat disimpan dan nilai nutrisi pakan. Alfalfa pada awal pertumbuhan bunga dipanen menggunakan salah satu dari dua mesin. : mesin convensional, (CONV atau dengan mesin pemecah batang yang mempunyai empat tingkat pemecahan (LIGHT : ringan,LIGHT + : agak berat, SEVERE : berat dan SEVERE+ : sangat berat. Selama pengeringan, perlakuan LIGHT + s.d. SEVERE+ mencapai kadar Bahan Kering (BK 45 % dan 80% dalam waktu masing-masing hanya sekitar 2 jam dan 9-11 jam, dibanding CONV, yang mencapai kadar BK tersebut berturut-turut dlm waktu 6 dan 54 jam. Padet sapi pedaging mengonsumsi BK silase 13 % lebih banyak dan memperoleh pertambahan bobot badan harian 22.7% lebih berat (P<0.05 jika batang alfalfa dipecah pada saat dipanen(SEVERE, dibanding tidak (CONV , pada awal pertumbuhan selama 21 hari. Sapi perah Holstein betina awal laktasi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung silase dan hay dari alfalfa yang batangnya dipecah pada saat dipanen memproduksi susu dengan kandungan gizi yang sama disbanding batang. Namun demikian, kelompok sapi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung alfalfa yang terpecah batangnya memberikan bobot hidup yang lebih berat dan nilai kondisi tubuh yang lebih baik (P<0.05 pada saat akhir penelitian laktasi selama 14 minggu. (Animal Production 3(2: 83-90 (2001 Key Words : Alfalfa, maceration, wilting time, silage, hay, dairy, beef.
Vargas, B.; HERRERO, M; Van Arendonk, J.A.M.
A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and potential milk yield. A set of cow-states was defined by lactation number (1 to 12), calving interval (11 to 16 months), potential milk yield (15 levels) and stage of lactation (months 1 to 16). Act...
Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.
Full Text Available Improvement of feed efficiency in dairy farming economically has a great importance. In this study, the genetic parameters of net energy efficiency and its relationships with milk yield, 3.2% fat corrected milk, body weight, gross income and income over feed costs were investigated, by the 2589 monthly records collected from the 723 lactating cows in the 3 herds. The different requirements of energy were estimated, by the National Research Council (NRC models. A general linear model was employed for determining significant factors affecting each trait. The genetic parameters were estimated by a multivariate analysis with the derivative free approach of restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The animal models contained the fixed effects of herd-year-season, parity number and stage of lactation, the regression coefficients of each trait on the dietary levels of rumen undegradable protein and metabolizable energy, and the random effects of animal additive genetic, permanent environment and residuals. The heritability of milk yield, 3.2 percent fat corrected milk, body weight, net energy efficiency, gross income and income over feed cost, were estimates 0.31, 0.32, 0.30, 0.34, 0.24 and 0.29 respectively. The results of this study indicated that the direct selection for net energy efficiency might genetically improve the feed efficiency. It also seems that the selection for fat corrected milk may be effective for the indirect improvement of feed efficiency and economic performance of dairy cows.
Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.
We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...
Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981. The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of “good”. (Animal Production 1(2: 63-74 (1999 Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.
The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs
Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (?6,000 kg herd average and intensive (?9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.
Liu, Gang; Su, Yan; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhao, Jixue; Zhang, Tianyu; Ahmad, Waqas; Lu, Huijun; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Qijun; Xiang, Mei; Yin, Jigang
Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal parasite responsible for diarrhea in humans and other animals worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of bovine giardiosis and to perform molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in the northeast of China. A total of 655 fecal specimens were collected from dairy cattle in 15 farms located in three different provinces. G.?duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. As a whole, the G.?duodenalis infection rate in dairy cattle was 7.9% (52/655), as determined by Lugol's iodine staining. Two assemblages were identified, namely, the potentially zoonotic assemblage A (n?=?1), the livestock-specific assemblage E (n?=?50), and a mixed infection case of assemblages A and E. Seven distinct subtypes of E assemblages were identified and E-XI, E-I and E-III are the major subtypes. Only subtype A-I was identified in assemblage A. Findings relevant to assemblage A are of public health importance. The results indicated the livestock-specific assemblage E is the major genotype and zoonotic assemblage A or B occurs very seldomly which is significantly different with previous report in the same area. So that determination of genotypes in individual epidemiological setting can make important contributions to public health. PMID:25845754
In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg ± 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazinposition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)
Full Text Available El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumenta [...] r la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that th [...] ere are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) and affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.
Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil
Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period
Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with rep period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise
Ducheyne, Els; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Rinaldi, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Demeler, Janina; Brandt, Christina; De Waal, Theo; Selemetas, Nikolaos; Höglund, Johan; Kaba, Jaroslaw; Kowalczyk, Slawomir J; Hendrickx, Guy
A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status assessed using an indirect bulk tank milk (BTM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dairy farms were considered exposed when the optical density ratio (ODR) exceeded the 0.3 cut-off. Two ensemble-modelling techniques, Random Forests (RF) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT), were used to obtain the spatial distribution of the probability of exposure to Fasciola hepatica using remotely sensed environmental variables (1-km spatial resolution) and interpolated values from meteorological stations as predictors. The median ODRs amounted to 0.31, 0.12, 0.54, 0.25 and 0.44 for Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and southern Sweden, respectively. Using the 0.3 threshold, 571 municipalities were categorized as positive and 429 as negative. RF was seen as capable of predicting the spatial distribution of exposure with an area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.83 (0.96 for BRT). Both models identified rainfall and temperature as the most important factors for probability of exposure. Areas of high and low exposure were identified by both models, with BRT better at discriminating between low-probability and high-probability exposure; this model may therefore be more useful in practise. Given a harmonized sampling strategy, it should be possible to generate robust spatial models for fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe to be used as input for temporal models and for the detection of deviations in baseline probability. Further research is required for model output in areas outside the eco-climatic range investigated. PMID:25826307
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.
E.F, Dzomba; K.A, Nephawe; A.N, Maiwashe; S.W.P, Cloete; M, Chimonyo; C.B, Banga; C.J.C, Muller; K, Dzama.
Full Text Available Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation cu [...] rve for cows in similar contemporary groups and homogeneity of additive genetic variances across lactation and for its inability to account for persistency of lactation. The random regression test-day model has been suggested as a more appropriate method and is currently implemented by several Interbull member-countries. This review traces the development of random regression methods and their adoption in test-day models. Comparisons are drawn with the fixed regression test-day model. The paper discusses reasons for suggesting the adoption of the random regression approach for dairy cattle evaluation in South Africa and identifies the key areas where research efforts should focus.
E., van Marle-Köster; C., Visser; D.P., Berry.
Full Text Available The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selecti [...] on (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by using marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.
Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein
This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia. PMID:25236935
Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter d...
Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.
This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)
Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.
Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle
Emanuel Senyael Swai; Luuk Schoonman
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structu...
Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E
The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day, respectively). Breeds other than Holstein were used more prevalently on farms in clusters 2 and 4. Results indicated extreme variation in animal breed, structure, and feeding strategies among Wisconsin organic dairy farms. Feeding strategies appeared to be major determinants of RHA and IOFC. These findings may serve current organic and transition farmers when considering feeding management changes needed to meet organic pasture rule requirements or dealing with dietary supplementation challenges. PMID:24819131
L. A. Goonewardene; R. D. Wiedmeier; Olson, K C; Okine, E. K.; Zobell, D. R.; Stonecipher, C.
Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage), fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey si...
Wang, Chong; Liu, Jian-Xin; Makkar, Harinder Paul Singh; Wei, Ning-bo; Xu, Qun-mei
A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system had the highest milk yield, better feed conversion efficiency, better nitrogen use efficiency, and used lower proportion of grains in the diet. Within a system, different farms had wide variations in feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency, suggesting the need to improve management practices within the system. Among the three systems, SH and CO systems require the most improvements in the management practices. PMID:24510199
POLAT, Nebahat; Gül, Mehmet
Aflatoxin in roughage, concentrates and compound feed from dairy farms located in Erzurum province, and the presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFLM1) in the milk of animals fed with these feeds were determined in four different seasons. The mean level of Aflatoxin M1 detected in milk samples was 0.03 ppb. Aflatoxin M1 levels in the milk samples taken from the holdings were lower in autumn and summer (0.02 ppb) compared to winter and spring (0.04 ppb). The total aflatoxin levels in feed samples were hi...
Hugo, Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela, Santos; Carla Maris Machado, Bittar; Paulo Sérgio, Correia; Júnio César, Martinez.
Full Text Available O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB), adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína metabolizável ( [...] PM) (NRC, 2001) com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5%) . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação) foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001). O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5) para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5) para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05) pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p Abstract in english Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP), adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable [...] protein (MP) according to NRC (2001), with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk) were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5) to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5) to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05). Milk protein content decreased (p
Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.
van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic prediction across breed
Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.
Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002. Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969, but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995. In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.
Full Text Available The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cows, and 12 respondents on the third dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of >7 cows. Simple random sampling was used for taking the respondents of smallholder dairy farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the Duncan method of one way ANOVA. The results of this research showed that: (1 Milk yields average on the third dairy cattle farm scale were same as the second and the third dairy cattle farm scales (13.98 vs. 13.91 vs. 13.32 kg respectively, (2 Farm management level was highest on the third dairy cattle farm scale than both the second and the first dairy cattle farm scales. (Animal Production 8(3: 216-225 (2006 Key Words : Technical management, dairy farm, milk yield.
Steele, M A; Schiestel, C; AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Matthews, J C; McBride, B W
The structural and functional adaption of the rumen epithelium during the transition period is largely undescribed. To characterize the adaptation of the rumen epithelium during transition, multiparous dairy cattle (n=12) fitted with rumen fistulas and fed a low-energy dry cow diet (1.37 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) were transitioned abruptly to a high-energy lactating cow diet (1.68 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) immediately after parturition. Rumen papillae were biopsied at -3, +1, and +6 wk relative to calving. The histology of morphology of the rumen papillae was evaluated under the light microscope and electron microscope, and mRNA profiling was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Data preprocessing was conducted using the robust multi-array average method, and detection of significant genes was conducted using ANOVA. Also, the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate of 0.1 was applied. Microscopic examination of rumen papillae revealed an increase in epithelial desquamation during early lactation as sloughing scores increased from 1.7±0.2 at -3 wk to 4.1±0.3 and 3.4±0.2 at +1 and + 6 wk, respectively. A total of 1,011 (-3 vs. +1 wk) and 729 (-3 vs. +6 wk) differentially expressed genes were identified (false discovery rate of 0.10, Ptransition period in dairy cattle. In conclusion, the experimental data support the hypothesis that rumen papillae adapt in early lactation by altering their gene expression patterns and, thus, their epithelial structure. PMID:25682143
Elwakeel Eman A
Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.
Ansari-Mahyari, S; SØrensen, A C
This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates
Schmid, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Messelhäusser, U; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Mansfeld, R
Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fecal samples, boot swabs, and dust samples were analyzed for ESBL-producing E. coli using selective media. PCR was performed to screen for CTX-M and ampC resistance genes. A total of 598 samples yielded 196 (32.8%) that contained ESBL-producing E. coli, originating from 39 (86.7%) of 45 farms. Samples obtained from mixed farms were significantly more likely to be ESBL-producing E. coli positive than samples from beef cattle farms (fecal samples, P boot swabs, P = 0.014; and dust samples, P = 0.041). A total of 183 isolates (93.4%) of 196 ESBL-producing E. coli-positive strains harbored CTX-M genes, CTX-M group 1 being the most frequently found group. Forty-six additional isolates contained ampC genes, and 5 of the 46 isolates expressed a blaCMY-2 gene. The study shows that ESBL-producing E. coli strains are commonly found on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of blaCMY-2 in cattle in Germany. PMID:23455336
Mattiello, S; Battini, M; Andreoli, E; Barbieri, S
The aim of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of indicators of poor welfare among 5 Italian cattle breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian, Italian Bruna, Pezzata Rossa Italiana, Grigia Alpina, and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) kept in tie-stalls in the Italian Alps under similar housing and management conditions. We recorded the presence of integument alterations (hairless patch areas, lesion/swollen areas, or overgrown claws) and lameness in 612 cows. Additionally, we checked 834 cows for the presence of physical malformations ("open" shoulders). In general, the prevalence of welfare problems showed a decreasing trend from the more productive to the less productive breeds. Local breeds (Grigia Alpina and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) showed a significantly lower prevalence of welfare problems compared with the other 3 breeds, whereas Italian Holstein-Friesian usually had the highest percentage of individuals with problems. No differences were found between Pezzata Rossa Italiana and Italian Bruna, both of which showed fewer problems than Italian Holstein-Friesian. The effect of the breed significantly affected the welfare of dairy cows in tie-stalls in alpine traditional husbandry systems. The prevalence of the negative welfare indicators studied was lower in local breeds, which are better adapted to local breeding conditions. Our results indicate an urgent need to promote changes in the criteria used for genetic selection in the dairy industry and underline the importance of maintaining the diversity of local breeds, which should be carefully chosen for each specific environmental condition. PMID:21524530
Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n?=?4); necrotizing myocarditis (n?=?3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n?=?3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n?=?2), N. caninum (n?=?2), BVDV (n?=?1), and BoHV-1 (n?=?1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents. PMID:25480485
Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.
Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.2to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency
McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.
Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 ?g/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter. Environ Health Perspect 123:337–343;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408555 PMID:25633846
L. A. Goonewardene
Full Text Available Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage, fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey silage diets were similar (P>0.05 to the control diets. However, in the second study, dry matter intake was reduced (P<0.05 in animals fed the whey silage diet compared to the control. Whey silage can be included at 98% of the total diet with no adverse effects on gain and feed efficiency. This study provides cattle producers with low cost feeding options that use crop residues and agricultural by products such as whey which can be ensiled and fed to growing cattle.
Misselbrook, T H; Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H
Improvements to the efficiency of dietary nitrogen use by lactating dairy cattle can be made by altering the concentration and form of protein in the diet. This study collected urine and feces from dairy cows from selected crude protein (CP) treatments of 2 lactation studies. In the first trial, collections were made from cattle fed a diet with high (19.4%) or low (13.6%) CP content (HCP and LCP, respectively). In the second trial, collections were made from cattle fed diets in which the forage legume component was alfalfa (ALF) or birdsfoot trefoil with a low (BFTL) or high (BFTH) concentration of condensed tannins (CT). A system of small laboratory chambers was used to measure NH3 emissions over 48 h from applications of equal quantities of urine and feces to cement (simulating a barn floor) and from applications of slurries, made by combining feces and urine in the proportions in which they were excreted for each treatment, to soil. Reducing dietary CP content resulted in less total N excretion and a smaller proportion of the excreted N being present in urine; urine N concentration was 90% greater for HCP than LCP. Surprisingly, NH3 emissions from the barn floor were similar in absolute terms despite the great differences in urine urea-N concentrations, presumably because urease activity was limiting. Cumulative emissions from fresh slurries applied to soil represented 18% of applied N for both HCP and LCP. Following storage at 20 degrees C for 2 wk, cumulative emissions from LCP were much lower than for HCP, representing 9 and 25% of applied N, respectively. Emissions were also lower when expressed as a proportion of slurry total ammoniacal N (TAN) content (24 and 31%, respectively) because of treatment differences in slurry pH. Increasing CT content of the dietary forage legume component resulted in a shift in N excretion from urine to feces. Cumulative NH3 emissions from the barn floor were greater for ALF than for BFTL or BFTH. Emissions from fresh and stored slurries were in proportion to slurry TAN contents, with approximately 35% of applied TAN being lost for all treatments. Emissions expressed as a proportion of total N applied were consistently lower for BFTH than for ALF. PMID:15829670
Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto
Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depe...
Zhang, Q.; Boichard, D.; Hoeschele, I.; Ernst, C.; Eggen, A.; Murkve, B.; Pfister-genskow, M.; Witte, L. A.; Grignola, F. E.; Uimari, P.; Thaller, G.; Bishop, M. D.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production and health of dairy cattle were mapped in a very large Holstein granddaughter design. The analysis included 1794 sons of 14 sires and 206 genetic markers distributed across all 29 autosomes and flanking an estimated 2497 autosomal cM using Kosambi's mapping function. All families were analyzed jointly with least-squares (LS) and variance components (VC) methods. A total of 6 QTL exceeding approximate experiment-wise significance threshol...
Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav
This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM.
Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M. P. L.
The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage and detailed FA contents in milk (14 individual FA and 14 groups of FA) predicted from mid-infrared spectra were used. Mid-infrared spectrometry profiles were collected during regular milk recordi...
Freetly, H C; Brown-Brandl, T M
We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellipse that resulted from regressing BW gain on DMI were selected. In the first experiment, 113 crossbred steers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Steers were 355 ± 1 d of age and weighed 456 ± 10 kg when they began the study. Steers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 82.8% corn, 12.8% corn silage, and 4.5% supplement [contains 0.065% monensin, 32% CP (28% NPN), 7.5% Ca, 0.8% P, 4.8% NaCl, 1.8% K, and 55,116 IU/kg vitamin A]. Thirty-seven steers were selected to measure CH4 production. In the second experiment, 197 heifers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Heifers were 286 ± 1 d of age and weighed 327 ± 2 kg when they began the study. Heifers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 60% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay, and 10% wet distillers grains with solubles. Forty-seven heifers were selected to measure CH4 production. Methane production was measured with respiration calorimeters. In both experiments, cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and DMI consumed during the 24 h before CH4 production was measured. Methane production was collected for a 6-h period on untrained cattle. Consequently, methane production is not a quantitative measure of daily methane production; rather, it is an index value to rank cattle. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between either BW gain:DMI ratio or residual feed intake (RFI) on CH4 production after adjusting for the previous 24-h DMI. In the steers, BW gain:DMI ratio and previous 24-h feed intake accounted for little of the variance in CH4 production (R(2) = 0.009), and neither did RFI and previous 24-h feed intake (R(2) = 0.001). In the heifers, the BW gain:DMI ratio contributed 28% toward the variance estimate and previous 24-h DMI contributed 72% toward the variance estimate (R(2) = 0.31). As the BW gain:DMI ratio increased, daily CH4 production increased. The regression coefficient for RFI (P = 0.45) did not differ from 0 for CH4 production. Our study does not support our original hypothesis that CH4 production decreases with increased feed efficiency and suggests that CH4 production may increase with increased feed efficiency. PMID:23965389
Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Heebal
Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to Ne, and assuming a constant actual population size, Ne was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical Ne, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase Ne over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating r(2) and estimated Ne. The observed Ne based on r(2) corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea. PMID:25049757
In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of the extreme dairy type were believed to be prone to bovine tuberculosis. This conviction was at the basis of the development of 'the modern Friesian,' a rather robust type of dairy cow that was also valued for its aesthetically pleasing conformation and that became a commercial success. Contrary to the scientists' claims, it was not only for commercial reasons that breeders were reluctant to give up their modern Friesians after World War II, when the introduction of artificial insemination opened up the possibility of breeding more productive types by means of progeny testing. The political economy of breeding did indeed require breeders to protect their breed as a recognisable brand. Yet the moral economy of breeding must also be taken into account: the modern Friesian was also a product of widely shared normative standards of good and responsible farming. PMID:19244844
Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Odo, Primavesi; Magda Aparecida, Lima; Rosa, Frighetto; Simone Gisele de, Oliveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli.
Full Text Available Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas [...] secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, [...] 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu) ¼), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p
Mayo, Christie E; Gardner, Ian A; Mullens, Bradley A; Barker, Christopher M; Gerry, Alec C; Guthrie, Alan J; MacLachlan, N James
Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of cattle and abundance of Culicoides midges on individual dairy farms in California. A serosurvey of adult dairy cattle confirmed that BTV infection is prevalent throughout much of the state, although the coastal northwestern region remains free of infection and prevalence varies markedly among farms in the remainder of the state. Intensive sampling for one year of 4 farms in the northern Central Valley of California showed that the abundance of Culicoides midges was markedly different and coincided with the prevalence of BTV infection of sentinel cattle on each farm. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures and other meteorological parameters were similar on all 4 farms, thus we speculate that particular management practices were responsible for both the increased midge abundance and prevalence of BTV infection of cattle at individual farms. Specifically, it is concluded that variation in vector abundance at individual farms most likely is the result of waste-water lagoon and irrigation management practices, leading to higher BTV infection rates among livestock held on farms with more waste-water lagoons and greater acreage of land for waste-water irrigation. PMID:21930352
Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.
Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992
Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of feeding preferences of ruminants may help to define diet supplementation, achieve an efficient exploitation of natural resources and preserve normal body condition of the animal. Thereafter, such knowledge may enable to improve reproductive and productive performance as well as product quality. Ruminants generally develop preferences for feed that are richer in energy, providing them a high satiety level rapidly (Provenza, 1995. Nevertheless, physical characteristics, accessibility and palatability properties of feed per se can stimulate or depress hedonic behaviour and........
N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.
Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.
Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.
Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc
The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.
Schultz, N.; Capion, N.
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M
Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator. Farmers perceived crossbreeding as success and recommended it. We conclude that farmers can realize income increase with crossbreeding. The complexity of this technology, high initial investment and the need for support services and external production inputs are probable reasons why crossbreeding uptake is low. Improving the availability of semen and/or bulls must be the top priority for breeding service providers to enable farmers to follow a breeding strategy and reach a suitable and sustainable herd performance. Access to investment capital, input supply, strong technical support and market linkages are crucial for successful crossbreeding. PMID:25230246
Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.
Full Text Available Information on effects of weather conditions on milk production of dairy cows is rather scarce. Legislation exists in some countries saying when and how protection should be available for cows on pasture. Producers refer to the extra costs, and are not always convinced of the return of investment. Therefore, (reproduction variables of high producing dairy cows were reviewed in relation to weather conditions in a mild climate. The objective was to understand mechanisms cows are using for acclimatization, which might affect (reproduction, and to propose managing tools. An overall critical dry air temperature seems to be about 16 °C, with cumulative interactions from relative humidity, wind speed, radiation and rain fall. The explanation is related to the cow’s thermoregulatory physiology associated with her heat and energy balance, as a primary need. Modulating factors, such as breed, individual capacity, feed composition and farm management have to be taken into account. The effects have to be considered as important at herd level, especially in a system with year round calving, since production might be below peak production up to six months of the year. Planning of day of calving should avoid peak production during summer, since mild heat stress might counteract the expression of genetic progress for (reproduction. However, since the most important factor seems to be the level of dry air temperature, the effects will be independent of protection or not. Hence, there will be no direct return of investment moneywise, but indirectly as appreciation from society for animal welfare.
Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Jun-Li; Shen, Jian-Zhong; Fan, Hong-Liang; Guan, Hong; An, Xiao-Ping; Li, Pei-Feng
Fluoroquinolones are frequently used to treat infectious disease that is caused by Escherichia coli in dairy cattle. However, fluoroquinolone resistance occurs and is due either to chromosomal mutations in the bacterial topoisomerase genes and/or to plasmid-mediated resistance genes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in E. coli strains (n=148) isolated from dairy cattle with bovine endometritis in Inner Mongolia (China). Analysis of the mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of resistant E. coli isolates confirmed previously reported substitutions in the GyrA and ParE. However, we identified additional substitutions in the ParC and GyrB that have not been reported earlier. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in any of the isolates were found. The number of point mutations found per isolate correlated with an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Overall, 45.5% of the isolates were positive for the class I integrase gene along with four gene cassettes that were responsible for resistance to trimethoprim (dfr1 and dfrA17) and aminoglycosides (aadA1 and aadA5), respectively. The prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) was 100%, and the blaTEM gene was predominant in all of the isolates. In conclusion, our results identify the mechanism of quinolone resistance for the first time and reveal the prevalence of integron and ESBLs in E. coli isolates from dairy cattle with bovine endometritis in China after 20 years of quinolone usage in cattle. PMID:24224497
Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding strategies; MR1, MR2-E or MR2-L. Cows fed according to the MR1 strategy were allowed one medium energy ration during the whole lactation. Cows on the MR2 strategies were allowed a high energy ration during early lactation, followed by an early (MR2-E) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows into a second period of mobilization, whereas cows continued to gain live weight in response to late reduction of ration energy concentration. In general results from the present experiment indicate that feeding according to live weight can be used to manipulate the extent and the duration of the mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition metabolism. Additionally the results suggest that the transition period from mobilization to deposition is relatively short. Udgivelsesdato: December
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4 pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.
Odo, Primavesi; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi, Frighetto; Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Magda Aparecida de, Lima; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Pedro Franklin, Barbosa.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4) pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6), em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da [...] raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã) adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4) emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and [...] dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI) varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.
Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences
Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB) including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL) i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF) (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls) in the VAL dataset Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB) dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls) was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls) though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs) and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs) were found genome-wide significant Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P < 0.05 Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive
Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M
Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478
Santolaria, P; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Nogareda, C; Mezo, M; Gonzalez-Warleta, M; Castro-Hermida, J A; Pabón, M; Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F
The antigen-specific IgG subclass response may be a convenient indicator of the underlying nature of T helper cell regulation. The aim of the present study was to identify possible differences in Neospora caninum-specific total plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels in purebreed and crossbreed pregnancies throughout gestation in beef and dairy cattle chronically infected with N. caninum. Comparisons were also made between aborting and non-aborting dams. The population examined comprised 96 pregnant parous cows seropositive for N. caninum. Plasma antibodies were determined on Days 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation or until abortion. Of the 96 pregnancies examined, 12 ended in abortion. None of the 14 Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows inseminated with HF semen (HF-HF group) aborted, whereas 6 (11.0%) of the 54 HF cows inseminated with Limousin semen (HF-L group) and 6 (21.4%) of the 28 Rubia Gallega (RG) beef cows inseminated with RG semen (RG-RG group) aborted. In the 84 non-aborting cows, a significant positive effect of gestation day was observed on total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies levels (Pcattle. PMID:21216103
Studies performed by the Brazilian Nuclear Corporation (NUCLEBRAS), in collaboration with the Geological Survey Company of Brazil (CPRM), identified high levels of natural uranium in the districts of Pedra and Venturosa, in the rural region of the state of Pernambuco (PE) - Brazil, where the maximum value found in rocks was 22,000 mg x kg-1. The raising of dairy cattle is one of the principal activities in these districts and adjacent areas. 226Ra is released by weathering of rocks rich in uranium, entering the soil and water from where it is transferred to plants, animals and humans. The aim of this research was to determine 226Ra concentrations in the milk produced in farms located in the two districts and nearby areas. The methodology used to determine and quantify 226Ra was based on the 222Rn emanation classical technique. The results of 226Ra in milk samples varied from 4 to 500 mBq x l-1. The consequences of the 226Ra intake on human health are discussed. (author)
Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E
A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. PMID:22583325
Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to investigate the behavior of dairy farmers and factors affecting the effort to enhance the economic of scale. Survey was conducted on 75 dairy farmers at Getasan District, Semarang Regency. Samples were drawn in random from villages of Jetak, Batur and Tajur, 25 farmers each. The data were analyzed by logit model regression, using 15 indicators of behavioural approach and socio-economic factors as predictors (independent variables i.e. ages, formal education, family size, experience in cattle rearing, number of cattle raised, production of milk and land occupation. The result showed that 40.04% of the farmers were good, 33.07% were moderate and 20.89% were low risk takers. The farmers’ behaviour in enhancing economic of scale significantly influenced by the farmers’ age, milk production and number of cattle reared. The odds ratio of ages, milk production and number of cattle reared were 0.93; 1.32 and 1.37, respectively. These values indicated that as values of ages increased as much as 1 year, the values of the willingness on risk taking will decrease as much as 0.93 times; the values of milk production increase as much as 1 litre, the values of the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as 1.32 times; and the values of the number of cattle increased as much as 1 AU, the values of the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as 1.37 times.
Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M
Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8±1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0±23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530
Giuseppe De Rosa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto- cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat- tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col- lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame- ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con- cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat- tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52 to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P stepping (P nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance (P that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus less feasible.
Sanderson, Michael W.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Renter, David G.; Griffin, D. Dee; Smith, Robert A.
The objective of this study was to investigate coliform counts in feedlot cattle water and feed rations and their associations with management, climate, fecal material, and water Escherichia coli O157 using a cross-sectional study design. Coliform counts were performed on feed samples from 671 pens on 70 feedlots and on water samples from 702 pens on 72 feedlots in four U.S. states collected between May and August 2001. Management and climate factors were obtained by survey and observation. M...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bolus and dietary supplements on production, fat, protein and SNF of milk and the evaluation of the udder immune system by SCC of Holstein dairy cattle. In this study 2 groups containing 30 cattle were selected with an average of milk production 30±2 kg and the same of the parity and days in milk. Both supplements were the same in composition. Dietary supplement was used in control group as TMR and bolus (2 bolus/cow were used in the treatment group for 6 months. Milk sample was collected 1 week later from the beginning, 3 and 6 months after the examination for analyzed SCC, milk production, percent of fat, protein and SNF of milk. Results indicated that the treatment group lead to a significant increase of milk production compared to the control group and fat and SNF milk were higher than the control group but it wasn’t significant. Also, between the two groups no significant differences were observed on SCC and milk protein at total sampling. It was concluded that bolus supplement had the same effects with dietary supplement in dairy cattle.
Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S
Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with any of the milk flavors. These results suggest the regional differences in feeding systems contribute to the differences in the fatty acid compositions of milk at the farm level. However, these differences do not influence the flavor of pasteurized milk. Thus, more specific feed profiles will be required to provide a specific regional flavor to pasteurized milk. PMID:23769370
St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P
A large project involving commercial dairy farms was undertaken to identify important sources of variation in composition data of common feeds and mixed diets. This information is needed to develop appropriate sampling schedules for feeds and should reduce the uncertainty associated with the nutrient composition of delivered diets. The first subproject quantified sources of variation in the composition of corn and haycrop silages over a 2-wk period. Silages from 11 commercial dairy farms in Ohio and Vermont were sampled daily over a 14-d period. Most silages were sampled in duplicate each day, and all samples were assayed in duplicate. Total variance was partitioned into analytical, sampling, farm, and true day-to-day components. Farm was the largest source of variation, but within-farm variance was our primary interest. Sampling variance comprised 30 to 81% of within-farm variance depending on nutrient and type of silage. For dry matter, true day-to-day variation was the greatest source of variance, but for most other nutrients, sampling was the largest source of within-farm variation. The second subproject consisted of sampling feeds and total mixed rations (TMR) from 47 commercial dairy farms across the United States. Feeds and TMR were sampled monthly. Because samples were not assayed in duplicate, source of variation included farm, month, and residual (sampling plus analytical). For corn and alfalfa silages, month-to-month variation over a 12-mo period comprised about twice as much of the total within-farm variation as did day-to-day variation over a 14-d period in the first subproject. Although month-to-month variation was greater than sampling variation, sampling still accounted for 9 to 37% of the total within-farm variance for those 2 feeds. For TMR, sampling plus analytical variance accounted for approximately 40 to 70% of the total within-farm variance (depending on the nutrient). Variance components were estimated for several nutrients and for several common feeds. The contributions to total variance differed depending on feed and nutrient, but the information provided will help in determining whether on-farm samples should be taken and if so, how often. A major implication of this project is that sampling is a substantial source of variation in silages, concentrates, and TMR, and data from a single sample are likely not highly reliable. PMID:25981080
Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC. Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS to yield long (>19 mm, medium (8 mm, short (1.18 mm, and fine particles (19 mm and reduced (P1.18 mm and fine particles (0.05 the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm. Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol. Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol. There was no response (P>0.05 of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Feeding prepartum glycerol to transition dairy cows increases the preference for the long-stem forage particles of the diet. The alternative methodology proposed in this study is more reliable than the standard methodology to determine feed sorting.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.
Full Text Available Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP, adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP and metabolizable protein (MP according to NRC (2001, with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5 to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5 to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05. Milk protein content decreased (p O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB, adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína metabolizável (PM (NRC, 2001 com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5% . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001. O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5 para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5 para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05 pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p < 0,01 pelo maior fornecimento de uréia (U-17,5; enquanto maior produção de proteína do leite (p < 0,01 foi observada para o tratamento SBCS-17,5. Para vacas produzindo em torno de 29 kg d-1, aumentar o teor de PB para 17,5%, por meio do maior fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão, acima das recomendações do NRC (2001 para PDR e PM, resultou em aumentos na produção de leite, leite corrigido para gordura e de proteína do leite.
Duncan, A. J.; Teufel, N.; Mekonnen, K.; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B.
Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of ...
...false Identification and disposal of cattle. 50.18 Section 50.18 Animals...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas...18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle...
Nielsen, H. M.; Groen, A. F.; Ostergaard, S.; Berg, P.
The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production and health in a dairy herd. Because of indirect effects between traits, the phenotypic levels of (related) traits can change as a result of genetic changes. Economic values for milk production and b...
Baran, Murat Sedat; Demi?rel, Ramazan; Demi?rel, Dilek S?entu?rk
It is very important to know the feeding value and metabolizable energy content of feedstuffs for balancing animal diets. Feeding value and energy content of animal feeds change according to maturity stage, soil conditions, fertilization, climate, processing methods, etc. There are no adequate tables that show the basic feeding values of feedstuffs grown in different regions of Turkey; therefore, the present study analyzed 8 different feedstuffs and 56 dairy and beef cattle mixed feeds to det...
Igino Andrighetto; Paolo Berzaghi; Severino Segato; Giorgio Marchesini
The objective of this study was to determine whether the partial replacement of roughage from forage with non-forage fiber sources, in a total mixed ration (TMR), could reduce feed sorting by dairy cows without modifying behaviour and milk production. Twelve Holstein cows were fed two TMR maize silage based diets in a cross-over experiment. Compared to the control diet (C-diet), experimental diet (E-diet) was formulated by replacing 8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from straw and alfalfa hay ...
Onyiro, O M; Offer, J; Brotherstone, S
Weekly locomotion scores on a scale of 1 to 5 were used to investigate the relationship between cattle lameness, management systems and the impact of lameness on milk production. The data were 14026 locomotion scores from 248 Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were managed in two groups, XE (high-concentrate feed and housed indoors all year) and XM (low-concentrate feed and outdoors in summer). Analysis was performed using residual maximum likelihood. Results indicated that the most significant variables affecting locomotion were time of year when the animal was locomotion scored and management group. Cows scored during February and August had increased locomotion problems. Cows in the more intensively managed group had significantly poorer locomotion compared with those in the more extensive group. Older animals were more susceptible to lameness than heifers. Body weight, body condition score and days in milk (DIM) also accounted for significant variation in locomotion score. Poor locomotion was associated with a significant reduction in the milk yield of later lactation cows. There was a significant difference in the shape of the lactation curve depending on whether or not the cow was lame during lactation. Average persistency was greater for the group of cows never lame throughout lactation compared with those lame before 60 DIM. PMID:22443736
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.
van Pelt, M L; Meuwissen, T H E; de Jong, G; Veerkamp, R F
Longevity, productive life, or lifespan of dairy cattle is an important trait for dairy farmers, and it is defined as the time from first calving to the last test date for milk production. Methods for genetic evaluations need to account for censored data; that is, records from cows that are still alive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these methods also need to take account of survival being genetically a different trait across the entire lifespan of a cow. The data set comprised 112,000 cows with a total of 3,964,449 observations for survival per month from first calving until 72mo in productive life. A random regression model with second-order Legendre polynomials was fitted for the additive genetic effect. Alternative parameterizations were (1) different trait definitions for the length of time interval for survival after first calving (1, 3, 6, and 12mo); (2) linear or threshold model; and (3) differing the order of the Legendre polynomial. The partial derivatives of a profit function were used to transform variance components on the survival scale to those for lifespan. Survival rates were higher in early life than later in life (99 vs. 95%). When survival was defined over 12-mo intervals survival curves were smooth compared with curves when 1-, 3-, or 6-mo intervals were used. Heritabilities in each interval were very low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.031, but the heritability for lifespan over the entire period of 72mo after first calving ranged from 0.115 to 0.149. Genetic correlations between time intervals ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the genetic effect were more sensitive to the trait definition than to whether a linear or threshold model was used or to the order of Legendre polynomial used. Cumulative survival up to the first 6mo predicted lifespan with an accuracy of only 0.79 to 0.85; that is, reliability of breeding value with many daughters in the first 6mo can be, at most, 0.62 to 0.72, and changes of breeding values are still expected when daughters are getting older. Therefore, an improved model for genetic evaluation should treat survival as different traits during the lifespan by splitting lifespan in time intervals of 6mo or less to avoid overestimated reliabilities and changes in breeding values when daughters are getting older. PMID:25892695
Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.3±0.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studs were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs
Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein
A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1), Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4) and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalen...
Knegsel, Arie?tte; Den Brand, Henry; Dijkstra, Jan; Tamminga, Seerp; Kemp, Bas
The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3 products required for milk production. This review compares studies which manipulated dietary energy source and shows that dietary energy source can affect the balance of the C2/C3 ratio, as indicated ...
Edward Missanjo; Venancio Imbayarwo-Chikosi; Tinyiko Halimani
Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0....
Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P
Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion of the overall appearance of the cow into the assessment process counteracted these errors and led to a fair predictability of BFT with the flowchart-based BCS. This might be particularly important, if different cattle types and breeds are assessed. PMID:25076185
Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette
The objective of this study was to use a system biology approach to identify biological mechanisms involved on feed efficiency in Nellore cattle and its possible regulator genes. Two modules of co-expressed and highly inter-connected genes correlated to feed efficiency were identified as well as five regulator genes.
Full Text Available In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in Southeastern Mexico, traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production have great potential for conversion to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the potential of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. Researchers studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives: RPS Grijalva (RPS-G: n = 35, RPS Pomarroza (RPS-P: n = 22 and RPS Malpaso (RPS-M: n = 18. For this, researchers used as a guide the multi-criteria methodology of the Organic Livestock Proximity Index (OLPI proposed by Mena adapting it to suit the purposes. In the current study, researchers designed a new OLPI with 35 variables which integrate 10 indicators. Information was obtained through direct observation and a questionnaire applied to producers. Statistical analysis of the results of 10 indicators used did not show significant differences among rural production societies. The same was true for the organic conversion index (p>0.05: RPS-G = 62.5%; RPS-M = 63.4% and RPS-P = 64.6%. The data suggest that all cattle farms need to substantially improve veterinary care, safety of milking, quality of milk and dairy products, ecological management and sustainable grassland management. In general, producers of the three rural production societies should be trained in a variety of organic cattle production and management techniques so that cattle farms may achieve a closer approximation to the organic model of production and thus may be certified.
Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F
For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784
Huzzey, J M; Nydam, D V; Grant, R J; Overton, T R
The objective was to determine whether overstocking during the dry period could alter physiological parameters in dairy cattle associated with cortisol secretion and energy metabolism. Four groups of 10 late-gestation, nonlactating Holstein cows (6 multiparous cows and 4 heifers per group) were exposed to both a control [1 lying stall/cow and 0.67 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] and an overstocked (1 stall/2 cows and 0.34 m of FB space/cow) stocking density treatment in a replicated crossover design with 14-d treatment periods. On d 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 of each 14-d treatment period, blood and fecal samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, and fecal cortisol metabolite (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA) concentrations. Glucose and ACTH challenges were conducted on d 13 and 14, respectively, of each treatment period. Dry matter intake per cow was greater during the overstocked period than during the control period (15.9 vs. 14.9 ± 0.5 kg/d). Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations were greater (0.11 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006 mEq/L and 65.3 vs. 64.2 ± 1.1mg/dL, respectively) and 11,17-DOA concentration tended to be greater (891 vs. 792 ± 86 ng/g of fecal dry matter) during the overstocked period than during the control period. Insulin concentration was the same during the overstocked (29.0 ± 2.1 ?IU/mL) and control (31.2 ± 2.1 ?IU/mL) periods. Overstocking was associated with slightly slower glucose clearance from circulation as evidenced by a greater area under the curve estimate for the glucose response curves (2,882 vs. 2,657 ± 165 mg/dL × 180 min) but a more attenuated insulin response (insulin area under the curve = 5,258 vs. 6,692 ± 1,104 ?IU/mL × 180 min for the overstocked and control periods, respectively). Changes in tissue glucose uptake may be mediated by changes in pancreatic insulin secretion or peripheral tissue responses to insulin. The role of glucocorticoids in mediating these changes in energy metabolism is still unclear because stocking density treatment was not associated with changes in adrenal secretion of cortisol following ACTH stimulation. PMID:22818455
van den Berg, Irene; Rodrigue<, Sabrina
The present availability of sequence data gives new opportunities to narrow down from QTL (quantitative trait locus) regions to causative mutations. Our objective was to decrease the number of candidate causative mutations in a QTL region. For this, a concordance analysis was applied for a leg conformation trait in dairy cattle. Several QTL were detected for which the QTL status (homozygous or heterozygous for the QTL) was inferred for each individual. Subsequently, the inferred QTL status was used in a concordance analysis to reduce the number of candidate mutations. Methods Twenty QTL for rear leg set side view were mapped using Bayes C. Marker effects estimated during QTL mapping were used to infer the QTL status for each individual. Subsequently, polymorphisms present in the QTL regions were extracted from the whole-genome sequences of 71 Holstein bulls. Only polymorphisms for which the status was concordant with the QTL status were kept as candidate causative mutations. Results QTL statuscould be inferred for 15 of the 20 QTL. The number of concordant polymorphisms differed between QTL and depended on the number of QTL statuses that could be inferred and the linkage disequilibrium in the QTL region. For some QTL, the concordance analysis was efficient and narrowed down to a limited number of candidate mutations located in one or two genes, while for other QTL a large number of genes contained concordant polymorphisms. Conclusions For regions for which the concordance analysis could be performed, we were able to reduce the number of candidate mutations. For part of the QTL, the concordant analyses narrowed QTL regions down to a limited number of genes, of which some are known for their role in limb or skeletal development in humans and mice. Mutations in these genes are good candidates for QTN (quantitative trait nucleotides) influencing rear leg set side view.
Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen
There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination. PMID:25555228
Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná
Full Text Available Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12% samples were seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26% samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was observed between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.Foram analisadas, por meio da imunofluorescência indireta, 385 amostras de soros de vacas, pertencentes a 90 propriedades leiteiras de 12 municípios da região Norte do estado do Paraná. Foram observados 45 (12% sororeagentes ao Neospora caninum e 102 (26% ao Toxoplasma gondii. Apenas quatro animais apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para ambos os coccídios. Não foi observada diferença significativa na associação entre a sorologia do N. caninum e as variáveis relacionadas ao manejo, produção de leite, problemas reprodutivos, alimentação, presença de cães, gatos e roedores. Os resultados sugerem que neosporose e toxoplasmose estão disseminadas nos rebanhos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná, e a freqüência simultânea de anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii, demonstra sua ocorrência independente em vacas leiteiras.
The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management) on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cow...
Zaworski, E M; Shriver-Munsch, C M; Fadden, N A; Sanchez, W K; Yoon, I; Bobe, G
Feeding 56 versus 0 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) can increase feed intake and milk production in transition dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of various dosages of SCFP, Holstein cows were given individually a supplement containing 0 (n=14), 56 (n=15), or 112 g (n=13) of SCFP daily during morning lockup as a topdressing to their total mixed ration. The supplement consisted of 0, 56, or 112 g of SCFP mixed with 84 g of molasses and 168, 112, or 56 g of corn meal, respectively. Supplement feeding began 28 d before predicted calving date (no less than 14 d) and ended 28 d postpartum, and supplement intake was evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected at d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure serum concentrations of macrominerals, metabolites, acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin, and hormones. Milk weights were measured and milk samples were collected 2 times/wk on nonconsecutive days and analyzed for milk fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). During the first day after calving, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased serum cortisol concentrations and at least tended to increase supplement intake and serum concentrations of calcium, glucose, urea N, and serum amyloid A. During the first 4 wk postpartum, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased milk SCC and increased milk production and serum phosphorus concentrations. Feeding 112 versus 56 g of SCFP/d did not show additional effects. Feeding SCFP may have a dosage-independent beneficial effect in supporting the physiologic adaptations after parturition, resulting in higher milk production and lower milk SCC. PMID:24612807
Ranjbar-bahadori, S.; Mosleh-tehrani, F.; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Razzaghi-abyaneh, M.
Background and Objectives: Cattle dermatophytosis (syn. cattle ringworm), an important skin infection, has received major"nconsideration not only for economical losses in the animal breeding industry but also in regards to its zoonotic transmission to"nhumans. For effective control measures, it is important to determine the disease prevalence in cattle herds."nMaterials and Methods: To determine ringworm prevalence, a total number of 3,540 cattle in different age groups at three"nmajor farms ...
Zom, R. L. G.; Baal, J.; Goselink, R. M. A.; Bakker, J. A.; Veth, M. J.; Vuuren, A. M.
The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one of 2 treatments. The treatments were supplementation either with or without (control) rumen-protected choline. Treatments were applied from 3 wk before until 6 wk after calving. Both groups receive...
Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.
Product quality and a sustainable food chain of ruminant products are largely determined by animal nutrition, in which forage is the major feed source. Forages and grasslands play a unique role in agriculture because they contribute through animals to our food supply and to the abatement of environmental problems. Interest in grassland management and grass utilization for dairy production in temperate and subtropical regions has recently led to considerable research efforts. In the past this ...
Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W
The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures to prevent further disease transmission and conducting adequate follow-up to ensure that biosecurity measures are being implemented correctly in the field. PMID:24012354
Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Uthai Koatdoke; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat
Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate...
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.
Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J
The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782
Yuan, K; Liang, T; Muckey, M B; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J
Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying such an effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and metabolism in cows during the transition to lactation. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21 d before expected calving to 42 d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR Inc., Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Dry matter and water intake, feeding behavior, and milk production were monitored. Plasma samples collected on -21, -7, 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving were analyzed for glucose, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake and water intake did not differ among treatments. Quadratic dose effects were observed for prepartum feeding behavior, reflecting decreased meal size, meal length, and intermeal interval, and increased meal frequency for cows received 30 and 60g/d of YC-EHY. Postpartum feeding behavior was unaffected by treatments. Milk yields were not affected (45.3, 42.6, 47.8, and 46.7kg/d for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) by treatments. Tendencies for increased percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were detected for cows receiving YC-EHY. Supplementing YC-EHY increased plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate and tended to decrease (quadratic dose effect) glucose but did not affect nonesterified fatty acids. Yeast product supplementation during the transition period did not affect milk production and dry matter intake but modulated feeding behavior and metabolism. PMID:25465565
McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E; Kelton, David F; Grexton, Bill
The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative associatio...
The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)
Kim, E. T.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. J.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, C. -h; Ha, Jong K.
This study was conducted to estimate the potential acid production value (PAPV) of major diets and to determine the relationship between dietary PAPV and dairy production traits. Estimation of PAPV of major cattle feeds was based on an in vitro technique, which determined the degree of Ca dissociation from CaCO3. Data on feeds and production traits were collected on 744 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows from five different farms. Grains had high PAPV with variable protein sources and ...
Progesterone hormone is a key indicator of ovarian activity in both human and animal systems. This attribute makes the hormone (as conjugated with a protein carrier, BSA) and ideal ligand for antibody production which serves as the basis for the development of immunoassay kits, such as radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. This study shows on -field application of progesterone RIA : liquid- (LPRIA) and solid-phase (SPRIA) techniques, for monitoring and evaluating reproductive performance of dairy cattle under smallholder management in Laguna (n=67; in 8 villages in Sta. Cruz and 1 village in Pagsinjan), and Quezon (n=36): Bgy. Concepcion, Sariaya). Fat-free milk/serum samples are collected on the day of breeding and on the third week (day 19-23) after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating to diagnose the reproductive success of each cow. With an envisioned integrated network mechanism of sample collection in collaboration with the dairy farmers, efficient transport by land/air, and centralized laboratory analysis, this sensitive and reliable nuclear technique, having distinct advantages over other clinical methods currently used, can shorten calving intervals thus improving reproductive efficiency of the cows and our local dairy industry. (author)
Bewley, J. M.; Boehlje, M. D.; Gray, A. W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S. J.; Eicher, S. D.; Russel, M. A. S.; Schutz, M. M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting framework. A primary objective was to establish a flexible, user-friendly, farm-specific, decision-making tool for dairy producers or their advisers and technology...
Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that ...
Geraldo Márcio da Costa
Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimentadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença.An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.
Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Sandro César, Salvador; Marcos Neves, Pereira.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimen [...] tadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença. Abstract in english An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows [...] were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.
Improvement of livestock production in the African region has been embarked on in many countries with support from their own resources as well as from external donors. Although artificial insemination (AI) has been applied for cattle breeding for many years in Africa as a means of accelerated genetic improvement of the indigenous stock, the overall productivity of this sector has continued to be low. Some of the factors that contribute to the poor output include inadequate management practices, poor nutrition, occurrence of reproductive disorders, systemic diseases and parasites. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has taken a keen interest in supporting efforts to improve livestock production in Africa through national and regional technical cooperation projects. In the recent past, two successive regional projects were implemented under the framework of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement (AFRA) programme. The first was entitled Development and Field Evaluation of Animal Feed Supplementation Packages and had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'self-coating' Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The second was entitled Increasing and Improving Milk and Meat Production and had the objectives of: (a) assessing and improving AI programmes for small-scale dairy farmers; (b) establishing sustainable early non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services based on RIA; and (c) harmonizing managerial and field practices within the region. Some of the issues, among others, which have been identified through the above projects as being responsible for low productivity of cattle in Africa include: (a) inadequate follow-up of offspring arising from AI (e.g. poor calf management leading to retarded growth or even death, and failure to record the performance of improved genotypes); (b) lack of appropriate selection criteria for breeding stock for improved productivity; (c) inadequate management practices coupled with poor nutrition and absence of disease control measures; and (d) lack of regular programmes for training and continued education for extension workers and farmers. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the project activities of Increasing and Improving Milk and Meat Production. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences
Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Choudhary, Poonam; Malik, Anushree; Vijay, Virendra Kumar
In the present work four algae were tested for their biomass production potential in neat livestock wastewater. Chroococcus sp.1 was found to be the best for biomass production under controlled (2.13 g L(-1)) and outdoor conditions (4.44 g L(-1)) with >80% of nutrients removal. The produced biomass was then digested with cattle dung as cosubstrate. Interestingly, up to 291.83 ± 3.904 mL CH4 g(-1) VS fed was produced during codigestion studies (C/N ? 13.0/1). In contrast to this, only 202.49 ± 11.19 and 141.70 ± 2.57 mL CH4 g(-1) VS fed was recorded with algae (C/N ? 9.26/1) and cattle dung (C/N ? 31.56/1) alone, respectively. The estimated renewable power generation potential of the investigated coupled process was around 333.79-576.57 kW h d(-1) for a dairy farm with 100 adult cattle. However, further scale-up and testing is needed to make this process a reality. PMID:24994683
Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E; Schrooten, C; Hayes, B J
In dairy cattle, the rate of genetic gain from genomic selection depends on reliability of direct genomic values (DGV). One option to increase reliabilities could be to increase the size of the reference set used for prediction, by using genotyped bulls with daughter information in countries other than the evaluating country. The increase in reliabilities of DGV from using this information will depend on the extent of genotype by environment interaction between the evaluating country and countries contributing information, and whether this is correctly accounted for in the prediction method. As the genotype by environment interaction between Australia and Europe or North America is greater than between Europe and North America for most dairy traits, ways of including information from other countries in Australian genomic evaluations were examined. Thus, alternative approaches for including information from other countries and their effect on the reliability and bias of DGV of selection candidates were assessed. We also investigated the effect of including overseas (OS) information on reliabilities of DGV for selection candidates that had weaker relationships to the current Australian reference set. The DGV were predicted either using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for the bulls with daughters in Australia, or using this information as well as OS information by including deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull for bulls with only OS daughters in either single trait or bivariate models. In the bivariate models, DTD and DRP were considered as different traits. Analyses were performed for Holstein and Jersey bulls for milk yield traits, fertility, cell count, survival, and some type traits. For Holsteins, the data used included up to 3,580 bulls with DTD and up to 5,720 bulls with only DRP. For Jersey, about 900 bulls with DTD and 1,820 bulls with DRP were used. Bulls born after 2003 and genotyped cows that were not dams of genotyped bulls were used for validation. The results showed that the combined use of DRP on bulls with OS daughters only and DTD for Australian bulls in either the single trait or bivariate model increased the coefficient of determination [(R(2)) (DGV,DTD)] in the validation set, averaged across 6 main traits, by 3% in Holstein and by 5% in Jersey validation bulls relative to the use of DTD only. Gains in reliability and unbiasedness of DGV were similar for the single trait and bivariate models for production traits, whereas the bivariate model performed slightly better for somatic cell count in Holstein. The increase in R(2) (DGV,DTD) as a result of using bulls with OS daughters was relatively higher for those bulls and cows in the validation sets that were less related to the current reference set. For example, in Holstein, the average increase in R(2) for milk yield traits when DTD and DRP were used in a single trait model was 23% in the least-related cow group, but only 3% in the most-related cow group. In general, for both breeds the use of DTD from domestic sources and DRP from Interbull in a single trait or bivariate model can increase reliability of DGV for selection candidates. PMID:25771052
McGee, M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A
New approaches to limit expenses associated with input, without compromising profit, are needed in the beef industry. Residual feed intake (RFI) is an efficiency trait that measures variation in feed intake beyond maintenance, growth, and body composition. The addition of feeding behavior analysis to standard RFI tests may provide an approach to more readily identify feed-efficient cattle. The current study analyzes 7 feeding behaviors (BVFREQ: bunk visit frequency, BVDUR: bunk visit duration, FBFREQ: feed bout frequency, FBDUR: feed bout duration, MFREQ: meal frequency, MDUR: meal duration, and AMINT: average meal intake) and their relationships with RFI, ADG, and DMI in Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle. Three cohorts of yearling Wagyu animals were studied using a standard 70-d RFI test, and data from divergent ( ± 0.5 SD from population RFI mean) subsets of animals were analyzed for feeding behaviors [n = 58, bulls on high-concentrate diet (C1); n = 36, bulls on a lower-concentrate diet (C2); n = 34, heifers on a lower-concentrate diet (C3)]. The following behaviors were correlated with ADG: BVFREQ (r = 0.32, P = 0.01; C1 bulls), BVDUR (r = 0.42, P = 0.01, C2 bulls), FBFREQ (r = 0.37, P < 0.01; C1 bulls), FBDUR (r = 0.46, P < 0.01, C1 bulls), and MFREQ (r = 0.42, P < 0.01, C2 bulls). Behaviors were trending or significantly correlated with DMI for all cases except for MFREQ for C3 and AMINT for C2. Residual feed intake was positively correlated with MDUR across all cohorts (r = 0.31, P = 0.02; r = 0.38, P = 0.02; r = 0.54, P ? 0.01, respectively). For C2 bulls and C3 heifers, RFI was positively correlated with behavior frequency categories (BVFREQ; r = 0.44, P = 0.01; r = 0.60, P ? 0.01, respectively, and FBFREQ r = 0.46, P ? 0.01; r = 0.60, P ? 0.01, respectively). Bunk visit frequency and FBFREQ were highly correlated with RFI status (high or low) in C2 bulls and C3 heifers. Behavior duration categories (BVDUR, FBDUR, and MDUR) were most correlated with efficiency status in C1 bulls. However, behavior frequency categories (BVFREQ and FBFREQ), as well as MDUR, were most correlated with efficiency status in C2 bulls and C3 heifers. Inclusion of meal duration measurements when evaluating RFI provides an additional tool in understanding the drivers of variation in this important trait in Wagyu cattle. The present study provides new insights into feed intake patterns of a beef breed for which there are few reports of feeding behavior. PMID:24948647
AlZahal, O; McGill, H; Kleinberg, A; Holliday, J I; Hindrichsen, I K; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W
Two studies were conducted. The objective of the first study was to assess the effects of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) product on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, disease incidence, and blood metabolites in dairy cattle. The objective of the second study was to assess the effects of DFM on apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility (ATTD). One hundred twenty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows housed in a tiestall facility at the University of Guelph were used in study 1, and a subset (21) of the same cows participated in study 2. Cows were blocked by anticipated calving date (6 blocks) and then randomly assigned within parity to receive either a DFM supplement (Chr. Hansen Ltd., Milwaukee, WI) or placebo (control). The DFM supplement provided cows with 5.0 × 10(9) cfu/d of 3 strains of Enterococcus faecium and 2.0 × 10(9) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DFM supplement was mixed with 0.5 kg of ground dry corn and top-dressed during the morning feeding. The placebo supplement contained the corn only. Individual feed intakes and milk yields were recorded daily. The experiment commenced 3 wk before calving and ended 10 wk postcalving. Milk samples for component analysis were collected on 3 d per week and pooled by week. Body weights and body condition scores were assessed 1 d before enrollment in the study (wk -3), postcalving (wk 1), and at the end of wk 3, 6, and 9. Blood samples were collected before calving (wk -3) and the end of wk 1 and 3. Study 1 showed that treatment had no effect on average dry matter intake or milk yield (kg/d) over the duration of the experiment. The changes in body weights and body condition scores and net energy balance over the duration of the experiment did not differ due to treatment. Treatment had no effect on plasma concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, or haptoglobin. Study 2 investigated the effects of DFM on ATTD of starch and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) using insoluble NDF and lignin as internal markers. Study 2 used 21 cows (block 6) from the cows that participated in study 1 while the cows were between 60 and 70 d in milk. Cows receiving DFM had lower fecal starch content (0.88 ± 0.10 vs. 1.39 ± 0.25) and greater ATTD for starch (98.76% ± 0.28 vs. 97.87% ± 0.24) compared with those receiving placebo, and the AATD of NDF did not differ. Additionally, we detected no difference between internal markers for the measurement of ATTD. In conclusion, we were unable to detect a change in overall dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk and blood parameters with DFM supplementation. However, our results demonstrated that DFM can have a positive effect on total-tract starch digestibility. More studies are needed to investigate the effects of DFM and their modes of action under multiple management conditions. PMID:25218748
A simulation study Using Matrix formulation was used to asses the flow of genes from the nucleus to the commercial population for three nucleus dairy cattle crossbreeding schemes involving indigenous (Zebu or native ) and exotic (European) animals under Kenyan conditions: Artificial insemination (A.I.) or natural mating F1 production, continuous crossbred (F2 inter se) production and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) F1 production. The latter two schemes used MOET in the nucleus. cumulative discounted expressions (CDES) and cumulative discounted Revenues (CDR) were calculated to rank these schemes. The Pathways considered were sires and dams to produce sires and dams. The evaluation Criterion was milk production measured in age class 3 through 10 in F1 and F2 cow populations. the schemes were evaluated over a 30-year projected period with assumed interest rates of 0% and 10%. Further, the genetic level between the indigenous nucleus animals, the F1 males and commercial female population was calculated by defining the incidence vector h as the difference between the three groups. The F1 A.I. or natural scheme had higher CDES of 0.978 and 0.161 at 0% and 10% interest rates respectively. The corresponding values for F1 MOET scheme were 0.735 and 0.070 and those of F2 inter se were 0.676 and 0.079 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively. For a nucleus with 64 ates, respectively. For a nucleus with 64 dams, CDR (US$) were 95.50 and 15.80 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively for F1 A.I. or natural scheme. The F1 MOET scheme had corresponding values of 62.05 and 6.90 while F2 inter se had 66.10 and 7.75. Under both interest rates, the F1 A.I. or natural mating schemes had higher CDES and CDR than the other two schemes and is faster in dissemination of genes to the commercial population. F2 inter se was intermediate. The genetic level of nucleus animal is higher than of F1 male and females because indigenous nucleus females contribute 50% of the genes. F2 cows are expected to lag behind F1 males genetically because the latter are used as parents of F2 cows. In conclusion, although CDES and CDR are higher for the F1 A.I. or natural mating schemes using inter se mating are promising in terms of logistics and combination of breed effects as indicated in other studies
Patton, R A; Patton, J R; Boucher, S E
Literature was searched for studies performed in adult dairy cattle that simultaneously measured starch degradability in the rumen (RSDeg) and starch digestion in the total tract to compute postruminal starch digestion (PRSDig). Forty-one studies with 161 dietary treatments were used to form the data set. Of these diets, the major starch source was corn for 83 diets, small grain for 58 diets, and sorghum for 8 diets. Corn RSDeg was more variable than other sources. As measured in vivo across all starch sources, the percent RSDeg was influenced only by the amount of starch consumed, with the amount of degradation being approximately 75% at low starch intakes and decreasing to about 60% when 4 kg or more of starch were consumed. Small grain starch had greater RSDeg than corn or sorghum starch, which were approximately equal. The PRSDig of corn and small grain starches were approximately equal, but sorghum was about 15% less. Across all diets, models derived from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System predicted percentage of total-tract digestibility of starch very accurately, but overpredicted RSDeg and, as a result, underpredicted percent PRSDig. Calculation of RSDeg using a French model predicted the mean RSDeg with greater accuracy but less precisely. The relative differences in RSDeg percent among starch sources was correctly predicted by these models. A model using a revised rate of digestion as a way of combining effects of starch type and processing was developed, which predicted corn starch RSDeg and PRSDig with greater accuracy than nutrition models but only slightly better than using the mean observed degradation or the French calculation. Inaccuracies in prediction of RSDeg may be due mainly to processing effects and particle sizes, but these were not well reported in literature studies and were difficult to estimate. More accurate assessment of RSDeg and PRSDig will require better and more consistent reporting of grain processing. Based on this study, the French calculation is the most accurate of the models examined, although adjustments will be required to improve accuracy. PMID:22281342
Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M.D.
Contrary to the majority of European countries, antiparasiticides are on prescription only in Denmark, thus treatment requires a proper diagnosis made by a veterinarian, and therefore relies on adequate diagnostic procedures. This study was performed to obtain information about presence of Eimeria spp. in Danish cattle herds, and secondly to improve awareness and proper diagnosis of these infections. Collection of samples was initiated in October 2010 from dairy herds with ?50 cows and known diarrhea problems among calves. From each herd individual faecal samples were taken once from approximately 10 calves aged 3 weeks to 6 months. Veterinarians were instructed to collect samples 3-4 weeks following relocation to common pens, and from groups with reduced growth, uneven appearance and diarrhea. Oocyst excretion was analyzed using a modified McMaster technique. Eimeria spp. were identified based on morphology, and oocysts from highly positive specimens were sporulated for additional species verification. Furthermore faecal consistency was scored on a scale from 0 (firm) to 5 (watery with blood and/or mucus). Currently (March 2011) 42 herds and a total of 356 calves have been analyzed. Eimeria spp. were detected in 95.2% of the herds, and 90.5% were positive for the known pathogenic spp. E. bovis and/or E. zuernii. Of the individual calves 56% were shedding oocysts at the time of sampling, and 39% were excreting E. bovis and/or E. zuernii. A total of 11 different spp. have been identified so far. Of the faecal samples included in the study 7% had a firm/ normal consistency, 81% were soft to liquid, and 12 % were watery with blood and/or mucus. Oocyst excretion above 5000 oocysts per gram (OPG) was found in 6.5% of the calves, whereas 12.0% excreted 500-5000 OPG. Clinical coccidiosis was diagnosed in 11 of 42 herds based on detection of pathogenic Eimeria spp. and the following criteria: one or more samples with ?5000 OPG; mean OPG >2500; one or more samples with >2500 OPG and clinical signs. Moderate to massive excretion of the less studied species E. subspherica and E. auburnensis was in several cases correlated to diarrhea. These cases however were not diagnosed as coccidiosis. The results warrants further pathogenicity studies of the different Eimeria spp. In addition, it was shown that correct diagnosis of coccidiosis is a challenge and knowledge of the management system is essential for interpreting laboratory findings. In many cases these findings do not support diagnosis of coccidiosis either because there is no real coccidiosis problem or because feacal samples were obtained at the wrong time.
Andersen-Ranberg, I M; Klemetsdal, G; Heringstad, B; Steine, T
Data from 1,815,581 first insemination records from daughters of 2697 Norwegian Dairy Cattle (NRF) sires were analyzed. A multitrait model was used to estimate genetic parameters and genetic change for 56-d nonreturn rate in virgin heifers (NR56D0), for 56-d nonreturn rate in first lactation cows (NR56D1L), for interval from calving to first insemination (CFI1L), and for protein yield (PY(305)1L). The heritabilities for NR56D0, NR56D1L, CFI1L, and PY(305)1L were 1.08, 0.99, 3.01, and 20.80%, respectively. Genetic correlation between heifer and cow fertility was high and favorable between NR56D0 and NR56D1L (0.54) and moderate and unfavorable between NR56D0 and CFI1L (0.24). The genetic correlations between NR56D1L and CFI1L and between NR56D0 and PY(305)1L were 0.08 and 0.04, respectively. A small, unfavorable genetic correlation between NR56D1L and PY(305)1L (-0.18) was found, while the genetic correlation between PY(305)1L and CFI1L was strongly unfavorable (0.47). Since 1972, NRF sires have been selected for NR56D0 using breeding values estimated from large progeny groups and with considerable weight in the total merit index. A linear regression analysis of sire PTA on year of first insemination of daughters showed an annual genetic change of 0.14% units for NR56D0. Selection was able to stabilize the genetic change of NR56D1L (0.03%/yr) but an undesirable change for CFI1L (0.11 d/yr) was found. The change of sire PTA for PY(305)1L was 0.63 kg/yr. PMID:15591399
Wolf, C A
This research examines the definition, historical pattern, and utility of the milk-to-feed price ratio (MF) as a measure of dairy farm profitability. The MF was generally an acceptable proxy of profitability in an annual sense from 1985 to 2006. The MF was steady at an average of 2.8 from 1985 to 2006 even as average annual milk price in nominal terms increased from $12 to $14/hundredweight. An alternative proxy for profitability is income over feed costs, which is measured in dollars per hundredweight. Comparison with an actual profit measure, rate of return on assets, is used to examine the appropriateness of the proxies. The volatility from 2007 to 2009 resulted in MF being a poor measure of profitability over that period. The implication is that MF is not the preferred measure of profitability when a significant change in the pattern of one or both price series occurs. Income over feed cost is a better measure of profitability in periods of volatility. PMID:20855028
Full Text Available 24 Holstein cows and 16 Holstein heifers in close-up period were used to evaluate the effects of ground wheat grain in prepartum diets on health and performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked based on parity (three groups and then randomly assigned to two experimental diets. Study rations included a treatment containing wheat with 1.62Mcal/kg NEL, 14.8%CP, 42.1%NFC, and –64meq/Kg DCAD and another treatment was composed of barley and wheat bran with 1.59Mcal/kg NEL, 14.8%CP, 38.2%NFC, and –48meq/Kg DCAD. Cows were fed experimental diets in group, on average 24%4 days prior to parturition, and they were fed the same ration up to day 21 postpartum. Average feed intake prior to confining, milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, feeding and chewing activity, urine and feces pH, placenta weight and time of its omitted, pregnancy duration, parturition status, body weight and BCS, and metabolic disorders were evaluated in this research. Average feed intake for wheat treatment was more than barley and wheat bran treatment (11.56 in contrast to 10.74, Kg DM, but it was not statistically significant. Milk production in wheat treatment had no significant increase. Milk fat yield in wheat treatment had a higher value compared to barley and wheat bran treatment (P
Full Text Available The aim of this research note is to evaluate the variability of the physical measurements obtained by a separator of feeds for dairy cows based on particle size. Fresh samples of total mixed ration (TMR and corn silage were collected from four dairy units and were immediately fractionated using a particle separator (NASCO®, Pennsylvania State University com- posed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom. Repeatability expressed as standard devi- ation was similar between fractions (>19, 8-19 and +1.7 and +1.5% for corn silages, but when expressed as coefficient of variation there were, for both samples, large dif- ferences between the values for fraction exceeding 19 mm (44.7 and 35.1 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and the middle (3.9 and 2.5 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and bottom fractions (3.7 and 5.6 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages. The between operator reproducibility was very close to repeatability and this indicates that the operator’s contribution to the overall variability is marginal in comparison with residual variability. In conclusion, differ- ent operators properly trained in the use of the NASCO® separator can produce satisfactory repeatable and reproducible values for the middle and the bottom fractions.
Liang, D; Cabrera, V E
This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net return to management and decreased GHG emissions. PMID:25682149
Steele, M A; Alzahal, O; Walpole, M E; McBride, B W
The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of genes involved in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in the rumen epithelium during grain-induced ruminal acidosis. Eight lactating dairy cattle were randomly assigned to a control (38% concentrate) or a high-grain (HG; 57% concentrate) diet in a randomized study. Dry matter intake, milk production, ruminal pH, and rumen papillae gene expression were measured before treatment allocation (d 0) and on the fourth day of treatment. On d 4, no differences were observed in total feed intake and milk production; however, the cattle fed the HG diet displayed lower ruminal pH (587 ± 130 min/d below 5.6; mean ± SE) compared with cattle receiving the control diet (169 ± 145 min/d below 5.6). No change in the relative mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and IGF-binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) was detected between treatments. However, the relative expression value of IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) decreased (0.73 ± 0.07 fold, mean ± SE), whereas IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) expression increased (1.53 ± 0.20 fold). These results indicate that the IGF axis may play a role in rumen epithelial adaptation to HG diets. PMID:22921628
Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Luciana Andrade, Lage; Fernando César Ferraz, Lopes; Carlos Gustavo Santos, Ribeiro; Marco Antônio Sundfeld da, Gama; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet [...] DM). The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic) was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21). Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.
SØrensen, Lars Peter; Janss, Luc
BACKGROUND: Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related traits such as mammary disease traits in dairy cattle. METHODS: Data on progeny means of six traits related to mastitis resistance in dairy cattle (general mastitis resistance and five pathogen-specific mastitis resistance traits) were analyzed using a bivariate Bayesian SNP-based genomic model with a common prior distribution for the marker allele substitution effects and estimation of the hyperparameters in this prior distribution from the progeny means data. From the Markov chain Monte Carlo samples of the allele substitution effects, genomic (co)variances were calculated on a whole-genome level, per chromosome, and in regions of 100 SNP on a chromosome. RESULTS: Genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits. Genomic correlations were lower than pedigree-based genetic correlations and they were highest between general mastitis and pathogen-specific traits because of the part-whole relationship between these traits. The chromosome-wise genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits, with some chromosomes explaining higher or lower values than expected in relation to chromosome size. Few chromosomes showed pleiotropic effects and only chromosome 19 had a clear effect on all traits, indicating the presence of QTL with a general effect on mastitis resistance. The region-wise patterns of genomic variances differed between traits. Peaks indicating QTL were identified but were not very distinctive because a common prior for the marker effects was used. There was a clear difference in the region-wise patterns of genomic correlation among combinations of traits, with distinctive peaks indicating the presence of pleiotropic QTL. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to estimate, genome-wide and region-wise genomic (co)variances of mastitis resistance traits in dairy cattle using multivariate genomic models.
R. A. Ware
Full Text Available Four Holstein steers (456 kg fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the influence of substituting palmitic acid (Energizer?, IFFCO, EEU; 92% C16:0 for conventional feed fat (yellow grease on characteristics of digestion and utilization of fat. Treatments were: 1 basal diet, no supplemental fat; 2 5% of yellow grease; 3 2.5% of yellow grease and 2.5% palmitate and 4 5% palmitate. The basal diet contained (DMB: alfalfa hay (40.0%, steam-flaked corn (43.2%, canola meal (7.0%, molasses (8.0% , and mineral supplement (1.8%. Fat treatments replaced steam-flaked corn in the basal diet. Total fatty acid intake for fat supplemented diets averaged 637 g/d. Inclusion of palmitate increased quantitatively (linear effect, P 0.20 by fat supplementation. Fat supplementation increased (P 0.20 on ruminal pH, VFA molar proportions, or estimated methane production. Calculated NEg for supplemental fats were 4.53 ,4.83, and 4.64 Mcal/kg for yellow grease, yellow grease-palmitate blend, and palmitate, respectively. Intestinal digestion of a supplemental fat consisting of 92% palmitate is equivalent to that of yellow grease (conventional feed fat. Substituting a portion of the supplemental feed fat with palmitate may have a positive associative effect on intestinal fat digestion.
Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B
Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy-derived income is on the increase in high market quality sites. This is accompanied by a strong increase in stall feeding at the expense of grazing. The study indicates that the first constraint to intensification of dairy production in Ethiopia is the genetic quality of the herd. There is less scope for improved AI provision in India since the cross-bred herd is mainly serviced by AI already. However, as for Ethiopia, there is considerable scope for closing yield gaps in India through improved feed use and supply. Results strongly show that well-developed markets with good procurement arrangements are key for sustainable dairy intensification. PMID:24103418
Höjer, A; Adler, S
Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with ?-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494?g/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226?g/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of ?-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered.
Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue
The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection. PMID:21717768
Ware, R. A.; Plascencia, A.; Corona, L.; Zinn, R. A.
Four Holstein steers (456 kg) fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the influence of substituting palmitic acid (Energizer?, IFFCO, EEU; 92% C16:0) for conventional feed fat (yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and utilization of fat. Treatments were: 1) basal diet, no supplemental fat; 2) 5% of yellow grease; 3) 2.5% of yellow grease and 2.5% palmitate and 4) 5% palmitate. The basal diet contained (DMB): alfalf...
Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S
Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response. Treatment did not affect plasma insulin, glucagon, glucose, and nonesterified FA concentrations. Results show that stearic acid has the potential to increase DMI and yields of milk and milk components, without affecting conversion of feed to milk, body condition score, or body weight. Moreover, effects on DMI and yields of milk and milk components were more pronounced for higher-yielding cows than for lower-yielding cows. PMID:25529423
Full Text Available Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested.
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from loamy and clay soils fertilized with liquid or solid dairy cattle manures and synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers were measured in this study in order to determine if the use of manure for silage maize production increased N2O emissions when compared with the application of N-based fertilizers. Manures and ammonium nitrate were applied on the soil surface and sampled. Silage corn was then planted over a period of 2 years between 2002 and 2003. Soil-surface fluxes of N2O were measured using non-flow through, non-steady-state chambers. Measurements were taken weekly over the study period, and all air samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture levels were also recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were used to examine the effects of manure type on soil N2O concentrations; soil-surface N2O fluxes; soil mineral N content; soil temperature; and soil water content. Results of the study showed that between 60 and 90 per cent of N2O emissions occurred during the first 40 days of fertilizer application. The fertilization of the silage corn crop with dairy cattle manure resulted in N2O emissions greater than, or equal to, soils amended with synthetic N. Maize yields were also lower in the manured fields. No difference in N2O emissions was observed between the liquid and the solid manures. It was concluded t and the solid manures. It was concluded that the main source of N20 was nitrification in the loamy soils, and denitrification in clay soils. 41 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs
João Cruz, Reis Filho; Fábio Luiz Buranelo, Toral; Rui da Silva, Verneque; Anibal Eugênio, Vercesi Filho; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Ricardo Frederico, Euclydes.
Full Text Available Test-day records of milk yields from the first three lactations were used to verify consequences of incorporation of lactation with non-conventional drying-off causes in genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle. The first file (File1) was composed of test-day records of lactations with conventional dr [...] ying-off causes. In the second file (File2), the test-day records of lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes were included, such as drying-off by death or separation of the calf, disease, death or sale of cow, and removal of cow from milking control. Data were analyzed by mixed models, using an autoregressive process to adjust the random effects of long-term and short-term environment. The inclusion of test-day records from lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes increased the number of controls by 12% and the number of cows by 18%, and it generated an increase in the estimates of variance components. These results impacted estimates of heritability, calculated at 0.32, 0.28 and 0.26 for the first, second and third lactations in File1, respectively, while in File2 they were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.28 to the same lactation order. The estimated accuracy of predicted breeding values in File2 were higher in relation to File1, but the Pearson and Spearman correlations between predicted breeding values of animals in the two files were high. Lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes can be incorporated to the routines of genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle, because they provide higher estimates of heritability and accuracy of breeding values, which could raise expectations of genetic gains with selection.
João Cruz Reis Filho
Full Text Available Test-day records of milk yields from the first three lactations were used to verify consequences of incorporation of lactation with non-conventional drying-off causes in genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle. The first file (File1 was composed of test-day records of lactations with conventional drying-off causes. In the second file (File2, the test-day records of lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes were included, such as drying-off by death or separation of the calf, disease, death or sale of cow, and removal of cow from milking control. Data were analyzed by mixed models, using an autoregressive process to adjust the random effects of long-term and short-term environment. The inclusion of test-day records from lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes increased the number of controls by 12% and the number of cows by 18%, and it generated an increase in the estimates of variance components. These results impacted estimates of heritability, calculated at 0.32, 0.28 and 0.26 for the first, second and third lactations in File1, respectively, while in File2 they were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.28 to the same lactation order. The estimated accuracy of predicted breeding values in File2 were higher in relation to File1, but the Pearson and Spearman correlations between predicted breeding values of animals in the two files were high. Lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes can be incorporated to the routines of genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle, because they provide higher estimates of heritability and accuracy of breeding values, which could raise expectations of genetic gains with selection.
The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering experimental chlorate products in the feed and water on gut, hide and carcass concentrations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In the experiment, 64 feedlot cattle were randomly assigned to one of eight different treatments wher...
Márcio dos Santos Pedreira
Full Text Available Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4 emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6, four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu ¼, maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4 ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6. Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p < 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. Animais da raça holandesa produziram mais metano (299,3 g dia-1 que as mestiças (264,2 g dia-1. Vacas secas e novilhas produzem menos metano (g dia-1 que vacas em lactação. A média de emissão de metano (g dia-1 pelas vacas secas e novilhas foi de 268,8 e 222,6 g respectivamente e as vacas em lactação 353,8 g. Os animais da raça holandesa, com maior potencial de produção de leite, perderam menos CH4 (p < 0,05 por unidade de matéria seca ingerida (19,1 g kg-1 que as mestiças (22,0 g kg-1. A produção de metano pelas novilhas mantidas em pastagens adubadas (sistema intensivo foi de 222,6 g dia-1, maior (p < 0,05 que os animais desta categoria em pastagens não adubadas (179,2 g dia-1. A produção de metano variou em função da categoria de animal e pelo sistema de produção imposto aos animais.
Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
Modeling the transmission of a pathogen between herds provides useful insight into how prevention and surveillance programs can be organised. We aimed to devise a technique for simulating the transfer of Salmonella (S.) Dublin between Danish dairy herds based on trading patterns and infection rates extracted from data archives. The framework for the model was a virtual hierarchy of objects residing in computer memory. The model was used to assess strategies for reducing the prevalence over a ten year period. Each object in the hierarchy was programmed to mimic a level of organization of the Danish dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from simulations showed that programs that enhance herd-level biosecurity (prevention of new outbreaks) and quickly resolve infections once they are detected are attractive additions to the current approach that has already resulted in substantial progress.
Fisher, M W; Mellor, D J
People have complex and diverse relationships and interactions with, and expectations of, animals; relationships which are very important. In making sense of this complexity, we draw on our values. The objective of this study was to reflect upon, develop and articulate key values guiding the genetic improvement of dairy cattle. Animal husbandry is guided by the philosophy that while animals serve our needs, we must ensure that their needs are met, and any compromises to those needs justified and minimised. In applying modern technology to the genetic improvement of animals, this philosophy should be enacted through consideration of all the broader goals of agriculture, and the ecology and biology of the farming system. It should also be informed by the differing perspectives of interested parties, including stock handlers, veterinarians, animal welfare groups, consumers, and the public. Monitoring the consequences of technology applications, managing and avoiding any harms, and considering the future of animals and ourselves, should also be part of decision making in this area. Transparent consideration of these principles will help to ensure that any compromises to animal welfare resulting from trait selection are both reasonable and necessary, and that any harms are minimised, thereby helping to safeguard continuation of the important contribution that animal agriculture, and in particular the dairy sector, makes to society. PMID:18536768
Guanghua Wang, Jizhang Zhou, Fuying Zheng, Guozhen Lin, Xiaoan Cao, Xiaowei Gong and Changqing Qiu*
Dual-labeled fluorescence hybridization probe-based multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was used for the detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes alpha (cpa), beta (cpb), iota (ia), epsilon (etx), beta2 (cpb2) and enterotoxin (cpe) directly from the feces of cattle. Fecal samples from 261 lactating cattle, belonging to three dairy herds in Ningxia (China), were examined using the developed assays. The duplex qPCR assay revealed that cpa, etx, cpb2 a...
Schukken, Ynte H; Bar, Doron; Hertl, Julia; Gröhn, Yrjo T
Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds worldwide and is considered to be the most economically important disease of dairy cattle. Modeling the risk of cows contracting mastitis is therefore of great interest for both targeting prevention programs and evaluating treatment protocols. Clinical mastitis (CM) is a disease of recurrent nature, thus correlation between the subsequent events within one cow may be present. This would violate the assumption behind most statistical time-to-event models. In the case of time to event models, the semi-parametric Cox regression models have become the default tool in modeling the time to an event. Limited methods are currently available to evaluate marginal and random (frailty) effects to account for multiple correlation sources. The objective of this study was to explore the implications of using several Cox or related semi-parametric or parametric models to estimate the hazard for CM in the presence of correlation between events. We evaluated the Andersen-Gill model which uses robust standard errors to account for the correlation, the Conditional Anderson-Gill model that uses stratification to account for event dependence, the Frailty model that introduces a random term to account for unobserved (cow level) heterogeneity, and a related generalized linear mixed model that uses Poisson regression to allow multi-level modeling of time-to-event data. We analyzed data on the occurrence of CM from five dairy farms in New York State. Data were from 8206 cows with 721, 275, 119, and 57 first, second, third, and fourth occurrences of CM, respectively, in the same lactation. The analysis of our sample dataset demonstrated that both cow- and farm-level correlation are present in the case of CM. The Conditional Frailty model was able to model one source of correlation in a random effect and one in a fixed effect. Poisson modeling allowed for simultaneous estimation of within cow correlation and within herd correlation. PMID:21035216
Abraha, Solomon; Belihu, Kelay; Bekana, Merga; Lobago, Fikre
This study was conducted in South Wollo Zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, to assess the milk yield and reproductive performance of indigenous and crossbred cattle under smallholder management conditions. Questionnaire survey was used to collect retrospective data on the performance of dairy cattle in 186 households. Thirty two postpartum cows (16 indigenous and 16 crossbred) were selected purposively and monitored for five months and milk samples were collected twice per week from each cow to determine postpartum ovarian activity using ELISA techniques. Daily milk yields at all stages of lactation were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in crossbred than indigenous cows. Crossbred cows had significantly (P < 0.01) longer lactation length and shorter age at first calving, while calving interval was significantly shorter in cows that gave previous calves during the wet season than the dry season. Only six cows (18.8%) showed heat signs on an average of 136 days postpartum of which one was a crossbred and five were indigenous. While, 11 cows (34.3%) resumed ovarian activity until 150(th) day postpartum among which three were crossbred and eight were indigenous. PMID:19396564
Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990 Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990
Júlio César Damasceno
Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRM foram 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upper third of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third of cassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement were increased. The inclusion of CFS did not alter the intake or digestibility of nutrients, except for ADCP. In spite of the negative effect on the apparent digestibility of protein, CFS can partially replace CS in the diet of lactating dairy cows.
Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.
Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina
Background: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well asin Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries
Piñero, Alvaro; Barandika, Jesús F; García-Pérez, Ana L; Hurtado, Ana
The genetic diversity of Coxiella burnetii from 36 dairy cattle herds was determined by Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and genotypes from different sources (bulk-tank milk - BTM and surface dust) and sampling time (2009/10 and 2011/12) were compared. A total of 15 different genotypes were identified from 60 BTM and seven dust samples, including seven genotypes reported here for the first time (BN, BO, BP, BQ, BR, BS, BT). The two most prevalent genotypes (J and I), detected both in BTM and dust, accounted for 44.5% of the C. burnetii typed and have been reported infecting cattle worldwide. In 52% of herds more than one genotype was found, and mixed infection with two genotypes was observed in seven BTM samples. Comparison of C. burnetii genotypes at different samplings within each herd detected a change in genotype in 32% of herds, while a persistent genotype was identified in the remaining 68%. In addition, the genotype obtained from dust samples was always identical to that present in the BTM sample. Often persistent genotypes were among the most prevalent types. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes from this and other studies using the minimum spanning tree method separated our C. burnetii strains into two clusters, 10 genotypes clustered within genomic group (GG) III, and the remaining five types (AE, BQ, BR, BS and BT) grouped with GG II, which includes strains implicated in human outbreaks. Although presence in cattle of genotypes closely related to those identified in humans does not seem to be common event, it cannot be neglected and surveillance of genotype distribution is needed to fully understand the epidemiology of Q fever. PMID:25684412
Fahey, J; O'Sullivan, K; Crilly, J; Mee, J F
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nutrition and management practices on reproductive performance in 31 Irish dairy herds participating in the Moorepark Dairy Management Information System (DairyMIS) during the period 1991-1998. Fifty variables relating to herd reproductive indices, calving events, stocking rate, disease, concentrate feeding, fertiliser usage, milk production and economic performance were studied using factor analysis. A factor analysis, followed by varimax rotation, identified 13 factors, which accounted for 83% of the total variance of the original variables. A regression model was used to predict calving rate from the orthogonal factor scores identified by factor analysis. Calving rate was defined as the proportion of services, for which an outcome was known, which resulted in a subsequent calving. Year, farm code and factor 3 (labelled herd size) together accounted for 40% of the observed variation in calving rate. The factor scores for factor 3 (herd size) were plotted against calving rate and because the plot was not linear, it was decided that dividing the factor scores into quartiles would produce a better fitting model. The factor scores for herd size were sorted and assigned to four equal categories (n = 47 per category), from lowest to highest. The ranges in herd size according to category were as follows: category 1 (34-96), category 2 (47-103), category 3 (66-152) and category 4 (108-359). The calving rate (%), (+/-S.E.) was 67.0 +/- 2.5 for category 1, 61.8 +/- 1.8 for category 2, 56.9 +/- 1.5 for category 3 and 53.2 +/- 2.85 for category 4. Using pair-wise comparisons, calving rates differed significantly (P 0.05). Herd-level milk production was not associated with calving rate indicating that good management may overcome any adverse effects of high milk production on reproductive performance. Larger herds, in combination with other associated herd characteristics, are likely to have poorer calving rates than medium or small herds. PMID:12417116
Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O
Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows. PMID:25262186
Stevan, Stankovski; Gordana, Ostojic; Ivana, Senk; Marija, Rakic-Skokovic; Snezana, Trivunovic; Denis, Kucevic.
Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a better solution [...] in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF) RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.
Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.
Xin-hua Du§, Cui Chen§
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene is part of the central melanocortin pathway located in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain in which appetite is regulated. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene plays a role in muscle growth, myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Thus, they are candidate genes for feed conversion efficiency (FCE). The study was to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MC4R and IGF2 gene on FCE traits including residual feed intake (RFI), feed conversion ...
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
SUMMARY This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged =180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds.
Abu Bakr Omer Ismail
Full Text Available In a tropical ranch of animal production, which was divided by fire lines into 20 equal grazing paddocks of one mile square each, a grazing experiment was conducted as controlled rotational grazing with forty-five (45 cross-bred Sudanese improved Baggara cattle which were divided into four feeding systems (groups. A drop in condition scores of the farm cattle stock herd was treated during dry summer by supplementary feeding with four types of supplements to investigate the changes in average body weight changes, heart girth and condition scores, through dry summer, wet summer and winter seasons. The results showed that, animals of group three (G3 which supplemented with groundnut cake performed better in all body parameters under study when compared with group one (G1 and group two (G2 being supplemented with groundnut haulm, Stover respectively and group four (G4 which was kept under natural grazing as control group (Natural grazing alone which reveals the worse body measurement traits performance under study. The effect of seasonal changes showed a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the seasons in average body weight in groundnut cake supplements both in dry and wet summer obtained better average body weight (162.53 Kg and 174.56 Kg respectively than in groundnut haulm (in dry and wet summer -143.60 Kg and 163.50 Kg respectively, Stover supplements and natural grazing (controlled groups. The results also showed that, the heart girth and condition score were significantly different (P < 0.05 between the treatments in wet summer and winter. While showing no significant difference between the treatments in dry summer, group supplemented with groundnut cake during the dry summer reported better performance in condition scores than other groups.
Lehuger, Simon; Gabrielle, Benoi?t; Gagnaire, Nathalie
Growing public concerns about the traceability, safety and environmental-friendliness of food products provide an incentive for shorter supply chains in agricultural production. Here, we assessed the environmental impacts of the substitution of imported soybean meal with locally-produced rapeseed meal in French dairy production systems, using a life-cycle approach. Two feeding rations based on either French-produced rapeseed meal or Brazilian-produced soy meal as concentrates, were compared f...
DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E
The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen temperature, and milk fat production. PMID:25108867
Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.; Crompton, L A; Lopez, S.(Instituto de F ?sica Corpuscular (IFIC) and Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica and Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia and CSIC, Valencia, Spain); Abrahamse, P.A.; Chilibroste, P.; Mills, J. A. N.; France, J
Grass-based diets are of increasing social-economic importance in dairy cattle farming, but their low supply of glucogenic nutrients may limit the production of milk. Current evaluation systems that assess the energy supply and requirements are based on metabolisable energy (ME) or net energy (NE). These systems do not consider the characteristics of the energy delivering nutrients. In contrast, mechanistic models take into account the site of digestion, the type of nutrient absorbed and the ...
Höglund, Johanna; Sahana, Goutam
Female fertility is important for the maintenance of the production in a dairy cattle herd. Two QTL regions on BTA04 and on BTA13 previously detected in Nordic Holstein (NH) and validated in the Danish Jersey (DJ) and Nordic Red (NR) were investigated further in the present study to further refine the QTL locations. Refined QTL regions were imputed to the full sequence data. The genes in the regions were then studied to ascertain their possible effect on fertility traits
Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.
In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis...
Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti,; Battaglini, Ana Paula P.; Dunga, Karen Da S.; Ronaldo Tamanini
Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...
Mayo, Christie E.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Gerry, Alec C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Mertens, Peter P. C.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender; Gardner, Ian A.; Guthrie, Alan John; Maclachlan, N. James
Bluetongue (BT) is an important viral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. We examined the seasonal patterns of abundance and infection of Culicoides sonorensis at four dairy farms in the northern Central Valley of California to develop estimates of risk for bluetongue virus (BTV) transmission to cattle at each farm. These four farms were selected because of their similar meteorological conditions but varying levels of vector abundance an...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The feeding of curcumin to beef cattle has been shown to increase nitrogen retention and decrease the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber in beef cattle. It was suggested that there could be interactions between the effects of curcumin and the composition of the ration. Approach: In this study with beef cattle, concentrates without or with curcumin and low or high level of leucaena leaves were fed to assess the possible interactive effects. Apparent macronutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance were measured. Results: When the ration was curcumin free, an increase in the intake of leucaena leaf meal raised the group mean of apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but the opposite effect was seen for the curcumin-containing rations. Nitrogen retention was raised by extra intake of leucaena leaf meal, but only when the ration did not contain curcumin. The feeding of curcumin intake elevated nitrogen retention, the effect being greater for the ration with low content of leucaena. Conclusion: This study confirms that curcumin feeding has a stimulatory effect on nitrogen retention in beef cattle. The composition of the ration may determine the magnitude of the inhibitory effect of curcumin on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber.
Levantamento sorológico de Mycobacterium avium subesp. paratuberculosis em bovinos leiteiros no estado do Espírito Santo / Serological survey of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle in Espírito Santo state
J.C.M, Costa; F.A, Pieri; C.F, Souza; I.F, Espeschit; A.G, Felippe; G.M, Santos; F.L, Tobia; A, Silva Junior; M.A.S, Moreira.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was verified in dairy cattle from Espírito Santo state. A total of 1,450 serum samples were analyzed for antibodies anti-MAP, using ELISA. Dairy cattle, males and females, from four regions of Espírito Santo state were [...] used. One hundred sixty-five (11.4%) samples were positive for anti-MAP, 33 (2.3%) were considered suspicious, and 1,252 (86.3%) were negative. In all regions, seropositive animals were found, indicating that the agent is spread by the State, posing a threat to the local dairy farming and neighboring states, as well as public health, since MAP can be involved with Crohn's disease in humans. This result presents the first serologic anti-MAP survey in dairy cattle of Espírito Santo State.
Groenendaal, H.; Galligan, D. T.; Mulder, H. A.
The aim of this paper is to describe a user-friendly spreadsheet culling model that was constructed to support economical, optimal breeding and replacement decisions on dairy farms. The model was based on the marginal net revenue technique. Inputs for the model can be entered for specific farm conditions, and the output is easily accessible. In the model, the retention pay-off (RPO) value of individual dairy cows was calculated. The RPO value of a cow is equal to the total additional profits ...
Full Text Available Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, a member of retroviridae is an oncovirus that causes a chronic infection in cattle called Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL and has a worldwide distribution but its overall prevalence in Iran is unknown. EBL causes significant economic loss associated with the cost of control and eradication, loss in milk production and difficulties in exports. The bulk tank samples were collected from 92 dairy herds in Mashhad area during Summer, 2009. The dairy herds were categorized based on the type of herd, herd size and geographical location of herd. A positive ELISA antibody response was detected in 38 (41.3% out of 92 herds. There was a significant and positive correlation between herd size and PP value (rs = 0.345, p100 cattle (p0.05. This study revealed that BLV infection in dairy herds of Mashhad area is influenced by herd size and type of herd. The test showed that it can be used in an extensive investigation for rapid screening of dairy herds in Iran. The researchers predict a major role for herd management practices in this prevalence but characterization of key risk factors needs more investigations.
Cun, G S; Robinson, P H; Benes, S E
Due to its potential toxicity to wildlife, selenium (Se) is a highly regulated trace element in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. Tall wheatgrass (TWG) is a Se-accumulating, salt tolerant forage suitable for cropping systems which re-use agricultural drainage waters. Utilization of TWG hay as an alternative Se supplement for dairy cattle could reduce the importation of 'new' Se into the SJV in the form of sodium selenite (SS) diet supplements. Our study used Se-enriched (4.65mg/kg DM) TWG hay as a Se source for lactating dairy cows and measured Se accumulation in milk, blood, urine and feces to assess its bioavailability using several indices. Using a 3×3 Latin Square design, three pens of ~310 cows each were fed a similar total mixed ration over 4week periods, except for Se which was higher in TWG and SS diets (0.53 and 0.65mg/kg DM) vs. Control diet (0.35mg/kg DM). Feeding Se-enriched TWG increased blood Se by 6.4% over Control; whereas SS increased it by 4.8%, suggesting higher Se bioavailability for TWG vs. SS. Marginal Se outputs in milk, feces and urine were judged to be better indicators of bioavailability as they estimate Se specifically from supplemental SS or TWG hay. In milk, TWG cows expressed 3.0% of supplemented Se vs. 0.6% for SS cows, supporting higher Se bioavailability for TWG. In contrast, more supplemental Se was retained and not expressed in feces by the SS cows (72.5%) vs. TWG cows (55.1%) which suggested higher Se bioavailability for SS. Based on published guidelines, Se intakes were 'adequate' for cows in all treatment groups, but milk and fat production increased with Se supplementation suggesting that Control cows were Se-deficient to some extent. Collectively, results suggest that the Se in TWG hay had comparable bioavailability to Se in the base diet. PMID:25747375
Full Text Available Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP and carbamate (CB in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC. In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20% were contaminated with OP, five (16.7% with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25% were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50% with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50% were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.Considerando os efeitos tóxicos, agudos e crônicos, para a saúde humana e animal, causados por resíduos de praguicidas em alimentos, este trabalho teve como objetivo a identificação e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa (CG de resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados (OF e carbamatos (CB no leite cru, nos componentes da alimentação e água dos animais. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite cru da região agreste de Pernambuco e ao mesmo tempo eram coletadas amostras de alimentação e água ofertada aos animais em lactação de cada propriedade, totalizando 109 amostras de alimentação e 38 amostras de água. Das 30 amostras de leite analisadas, seis (20% estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF, cinco (16,7% por resíduos de CB e uma amostra por ambos os praguicidas. Das 109 amostras de alimentação ofertada aos animais coletadas, 48 foram analisadas, com 15 amostras (31,25% apresentando resíduos de OF, seis amostras (12,50% contaminadas por resíduos de CB e uma amostra positiva para ambos os praguicidas. Das 16 amostras de água analizadas, seis (37,50% estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF e nenhuma apresentou resíduos de CB. Em quatro propriedades leiteiras os praguicidas detectados no leite foram compatíveis com o princípio ativo detectado na alimentação e/ou na água ofertada aos animais, sugerindo uma possível fonte de contaminação, mas não a única.
Rafael, Fagnani; Vanerli, Beloti; Ana Paula P., Battaglini; Karen da S., Dunga; Ronaldo, Tamanini.
Full Text Available Considerando os efeitos tóxicos, agudos e crônicos, para a saúde humana e animal, causados por resíduos de praguicidas em alimentos, este trabalho teve como objetivo a identificação e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa (CG) de resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados (OF) e carbamatos (CB) no le [...] ite cru, nos componentes da alimentação e água dos animais. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite cru da região agreste de Pernambuco e ao mesmo tem