Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, ?-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed genes, co-expressed genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.
Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems
Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500 (AROS, Denmark). Blood samples will be collected for genotyping as well as plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, ?-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.
Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred
Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05) to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9%) of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.
Lu, Y; Vandehaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Bello, N M; Tempelman, R J
Genetic improvement of feed efficiency (FE) in dairy cattle requires greater attention given increasingly important resource constraint issues. A widely accepted yet occasionally contested measure of FE in dairy cattle is residual feed intake (RFI). The use of RFI is limiting for several reasons, including interpretation, differences in recording frequencies between the various component traits that define RFI, and potential differences in genetic versus nongenetic relationships between dry matter intake (DMI) and FE component traits. Hence, analyses focusing on DMI as the response are often preferred. We propose an alternative multiple-trait (MT) modeling strategy that exploits the Cholesky decomposition to provide a potentially more robust measure of FE. We demonstrate that our proposed FE measure is identical to RFI provided that genetic and nongenetic relationships between DMI and component traits of FE are identical. We assessed both approaches (MT and RFI) by simulation as well as by application to 26,383 weekly records from 50 to 200 d in milk on 2,470 cows from a dairy FE consortium study involving 7 institutions. Although the proposed MT model fared better than the RFI model when simulated genetic and nongenetic associations between DMI and FE component traits were substantially different from each other, no meaningful differences were found in predictive performance between the 2 models when applied to the consortium data. PMID:26210274
Rioja-Lang, Fiona C
The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows is directly related to milk production, thus a good food supply is extremely important to the modern, high producing dairy cow. Intake is critical for improving milk production, health, body condition and the welfare of the animals. Feeding designs can have a major effect on ...
A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains
Powell, J. Mark
In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU?1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU?1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha?1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.
Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure suources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Abstract The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins is successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged, or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards indi...
A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)
Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, JØrgen E
Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years. When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention in soil of C over decades to centuries appears to be similar whether the initial turnover of plant biomasses occurs in the soil, in the digestive tract of ruminants, in an anaerobic reactor or in a combination of the latter two.
Franz, E.; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Visser, A.A.; Blok, W.J.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.
In the present study, we studied the effect of cattle diet on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from dairy cattle subjected to 6 different feeding regimes consisting of 3 different roughage types and 2 levels of crude protein concentrates. In addition, the rate of survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure-amended soil as a function of manure type (manure vs. slurry) and dairy farm management (organic vs. conventional) was determined. The roughage type affected significantly the decline ra...
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and were calculated using farm models developed for economic planning. A hypothetical contamination scenario was designed using RODOS models for atmospheric dispersion and transfer in terrestrial food chains. Costs for intervention after two similar hypothetical atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios in early June and in July were estimated. As a reference, the cost of complete replacement of fodder throughout the area was also calculated. Feed substitution costs were higher in June than in July, due to the availability of some harvested silage in the later scenario. In the first case, the additional costs of clean feeding amounted to one-fifth of the normal production costs. Effective advisory/support services, available to farmers, can substantially improve the implementation of countermeasures. However, high costs and insufficient sources of clean feed would restrict the use of clean feeding as the sole countermeasure after serious contamination during the growing season
Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)
An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable
Liu, Jinggao; Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S
A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. vasinfectum (Atk) Sny. & Hans., found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require plant parasitic nematodes to cause disease. This makes it a threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is grown on heavy alkaline soil and currently is not affected by Fusarium wilt. In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live cottonseed were imported into California for dairy cattle feed. Thirteen F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum isolates and four isolates of a Fusarium spp. that resembled F. oxysporum were isolated from the imported cottonseed. The isolates, designated by an AuSeed prefix, formed four vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) all of which were incompatible with tester isolates for 18 VCGs found in the USA. Isolate AuSeed14 was vegetatively compatible with the four reference isolates of Australian biotype VCG01111. Phylogenetic analyses based on EF-1?, PHO, BT, Mat1-1, and Mat1-2 gene sequences separated the 17 seed isolates into three lineages (race A, race 3, and Fusarium spp.) with AuSeed14 clustering into race 3 lineage or race A lineage depending on the genes analyzed. Indel analysis of the EF-1? gene sequences revealed a close evolutionary relationship among AuSeed14, Australian biotype reference isolates, and the four Fusarium spp. isolates. The Australian seed isolates and the four Australian biotype reference isolates caused disease with root-dip inoculation, but not with stem-puncture inoculation. Thus, they were a vascular incompetent pathotype. In contrast, USA race A lineage isolates readily colonized vascular tissue and formed a vascular competent pathotype when introduced directly into xylem vessels. The AuSeed14 isolate was as pathogenic as the Australian biotype, and it or related isolates could cause a severe Fusarium wilt problem in USA cotton fields if they become established. PMID:22004096
Guilherme Amorim Franchi
Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.
The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015±0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Yea-Sacc® (Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed additive for cattle for fattening, goats for fattening, dairy cows, dairy sheep, dairy goats and buffaloes
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP
Full Text Available Yea-Sacc® is an additive based on a live preparation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intended for use as a zootechnical additive. It is produced in a powder (Yea-Sacc® and in a prills (Yea-Sacc® TS form. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the production strain has been established, safety for the target species, consumer and the environment is presumed. Both formulations are non-irritant to skin, Yea-Sacc® TS is non-irritant to the eye whilst Yea-Sacc® is a moderate irritant. In the absence of data both formulations should be considered skin sensitisers. As both forms are highly proteinaceous, they should be considered as potential respiratory sensitisers. Yea-Sacc® TS is designed to reduce dustiness and no significant exposure of users is to be expected for this form. In the absence of data on the dusting potential of Yea-Sacc®, it would be prudent to treat it as a respiratory sensitiser. Based on the results of four trials Yea-Sacc® was shown to have the potential to increase milk production in dairy cows when supplied at a minimum dose of 5 x 107 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor species used for milk production can be presumed when used at the same minimum dose. Yea-Sacc® was also shown to have a potential to improve the production of cattle raised for fattening at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor ruminant species reared for meat production can be presumed at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed.
Berry, D P; Coffey, M P
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.
Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.
Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical observations, and thereby identify major nutritional and management constraints to productivity, - investigate approaches for improving productivity in dairy cattle by increasing the utilization of basal diets and other locally available fed resources, - monitor the effectiveness of nutritional and management interventions by measuring performance indicators such as body weight, body condition, milk production and reproductive performance (using radioimmunoassay and other clinical observations), - establish whether differences in productivity correlate with selected metabolic indicators in blood, which might thereby prove useful as predictors of nutritional constraints
Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...
Tolboom, R K; Snoep, J J; Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M
The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves. PMID:18309823
E, Raffrenato; L.J, Erasmus.
Full Text Available Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The rel [...] ationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g, and, as a consequence, on a total decreased metabolizable protein for milk. Use of iNDF240 showed consistently lower metabolizable energy (ME) between 2 and 10 MJ/day, compared to when using iNDF240. The improved metabolizable protein (MP) and ME values would result in 0.3 to 3.2 kg/d less milk when using iNDF2.4. This research demonstrates how points later in the fermentation curve, even if not biologically relevant for the cow, result in a more accurate and precise estimation of the rate of NDF digestibility. Indigestible NDF estimated at 240 h would give better predictions of rumen parameters in models like the CNCPS and better fine-tuning in dairy cow diets, especially when using high forage and/or NDF rations.
Full Text Available Smallholder dairy cattle producers in Uganda face major production constraints including inadequate and poor quality feeds. Forage technologies have been widely recommended to alleviate this problem. This study aimed at comparing profitability of dairy cattle enterprises using improved forage technologies (IFTs with those using local technologies, and determining factors affecting the use of IFTs among smallholder dairy farmers. Data were collected from 121 farmers in Soroti district. Descriptive statistics, partial budget analysis, probit model, and Ordinary Least Squares were used to analyze data. Results indicated that farmers using IFT had significantly (p<0.01 higher gross margins than those using local feeding methods. Probit model results indicated that profitability of technology influenced the decision to use IFT when interacted with improved cattle breed. The decision to use IFTs had a positive significant (p<0.1 relationship with profitability of dairy cattle enterprises. Policies targeting efficient dissemination of IFTs are recommended to improve profitability.
Shawn S Donkin
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
Shawn S, Donkin.
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattl [...] e is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05) except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.
In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Thomasen, JØrn Rind
Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions and maintain the genetic vaiability in the breed.
Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project
The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998
Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.
Erkan Yaslioglu; Ilker Kilic; Ercan Simsek; Ismet Arici
The objective of this study was to determine magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle free-stall barns with natural ventilation. The measurements of ammonia concentration and indoor environmental conditions in barns were done throughout the 4 days in three dairy farms in summer season. The overall hourly average temperature and relative humidity for all barns were 26.5°C and 61%, respectively. In monitored dairy cattle barns, ammonia concentrations were observed between 0.4 and 8.77 p...
Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J G; Kernatz, S
This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported. PMID:11665429
Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J. G.; Kernatz, S
This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported.
Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125?g/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to contaminate milk either due to the ensiling process or because of metabolism within the rumen. Concern over BMSB stink odor compounds contaminating the fluid milk supply, even on highly infested farms, is not warranted. PMID:24565323
SØrensen, M K; Norberg, E
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value of crossbreeding is documented with special emphasis on results from a Danish crossbreeding experiment. This experiment included 1,680 cows from 3 breeds and their crosses. In general, at least 10% heterosis can be expected for total merit, mainly due to increased longevity and improvement of functional traits. A minor part of heterosis for total merit is due to heterosis for production traits. For production, there is evidence of recombination loss using continued crossbreeding programs, which does not seem to be the case for longevity and total merit. However, recombination loss should be investigated more carefully as crossbreeding is becoming more popular. A prerequisite for crossbreeding to be beneficial on a long-term basis is that genetic gain within the parental breeds not be reduced. As long as the crossbred cow population constitutes less than 50% of the whole population, and young bulls can be tested through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits
Mantle, P G
A dairy feed that contained barley malt screenings caused hyperthermia in dairy cattle. The feed was suspected of containing ergot and was subsequently analyzed to determine the ricinoleate component, a special and prominent feature of oil-rich ergot tissue. Triglyceride oil was extracted by organic solvents from the dairy feed, and the oil was saponified to release fatty acids. Ricinoleate, as a methyl ester, was selectively resolved from other fatty acids by silica gel chromatography and was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which demonstrated the presence of the methyl ricinoleate molecule and proved that the feed contained ergot. The methodology may be refined to monitor for ergot in powdered dairy feed more routinely. PMID:8961105
Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Appliby traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)
Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.
Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A
As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or inferiority that will transmit to its offspring. PMID:25529426
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.
Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart HP; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle
Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case–control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One contr...
Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of offering dry hay of different quality and length on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (104 ± 34 d in milk, body weight of 601 ± 116 kg, and parity of 2.38 ± 1.69; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period encompassed 21 d divided into 5 phases: adaptation (d 1 to 14), with ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR); baseline (d 15 to 17), with ad libitum TMR; restricted feeding (d 18), with cows fed for 75% of baseline dry matter intake; challenge (d 19), with 4 kg (as-fed) of finely ground wheat mixed into the digesta of each cow via rumen cannula before feeding; and recovery (d 20 to 21), with ad libitum TMR. Cows were assigned to squares by parity and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were 5.2% low-quality hay TMR (CL), 5.2% high-quality hay TMR (CH; both hays were chopped and included in TMR), TMR with 5.2% supplemental long low-quality hay (TMR+L), and TMR with 5.2% supplemental long high-quality hay (TMR+H; both hays were unprocessed and fed separate from TMR).Low-quality hay contained 8.6% crude protein and 67.1% neutral detergent fiber, whereas high-quality hay contained 14.4% crude protein and 56.2% neutral detergent fiber. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Subacute ruminal acidosis challenge decreased weighted average rumen pH from 5.72 to 5.51. Cows fed TMR+L had higher rumen pH compared with CL and TMR+H on d 19. During d 20, cows fed chopped hay had higher rumen pH than cows fed supplemental long hay. Cows fed supplemental long hay had greater dry matter intake during baseline and challenge days compared with when hay was chopped and included in the TMR. Minimal differences among diets were found for TMR particle size selection during the challenge day; however, cows had a greater preference for high-quality long hay during recovery days. Milk production averaged 38.3 kg/d and did not differ among treatments. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were also not different among treatments. Milk fatty acid profile was altered by treatment. The TMR+L and CH treatments increased production of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Results of this study indicate that feeding TMR plus supplemental long hay can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of and recovery from periods of low ruminal pH. PMID:25200785
Kim, Eui-soo; Rothschild, Max F
Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle pro...
Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui
This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145
Sanfaçon, D; Higgins, R.
Serological studies on Haemophilus somnus infection were carried out on 1795 cattle from 231 dairy herds in the province of Quebec. An epidemiological investigation was done in each of the dairy operations. Seroreactivity rate and mean log2 titer for all the sera were 55.4% and 4.1620 respectively. Cattle from eastern regions of Quebec demonstrated the lowest prevalence of H. somnus agglutinins. The percentage of seroreactor animals was 60.3 in herds of 100 cattle or more in comparison to 53....
Sivertsen T; Øvernes G; Østerås O; Nymoen U; Lunder T
Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E) and blood selenium (Se) concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health R...
Østerås O; Øvernes G; Sivertsen T; Nymoen U; Lunder T
Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E) and blood selenium (Se) concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health R...
Germán Mendoza; Mario Cobos; Ricardo Bárcena; Ignacio Domínguez; Sergio Segundo González; Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodríguez; José Luis Bórquez
Feeding cattle manure (CM) for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO), bakery by-products (BBP) and tallow (TW) was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1) control: CM and MO; 2) LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3) HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4) LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5) HTW: CM, BBP and high level ...
Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). PMID:25623969
Selection applied to populations of dairy cattle has produced a genetic increase in milk production. This will be increased further in the Netherlands by the introduction of Holstein Friesians. In general the high yielding cow is not capable of taking in enough nutrients to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. However the knowledge of the variation in feed intake between animals is limited. It requires detailed observations on each cow.The variation in feed intake and pr...
Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)
K. Simenew; M. Wondu
This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...
Ismael, Ahmed; LØvendahl, Peter
Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE).
Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes
Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the pressure of the system over the environment and it can be considered as a measure of stress in the ecosystem. Values of ELR lower than 2 indicate a low-pressure environment (or systems using large areas of the local environment that "dilute" impacts, between 2 and 10 the systems cause a moderate pressure, and higher than 10 means a pressure systems. The mean 5.9 of ELR (Table 1 demonstrated that the production system is moderately impacting over the environment and require interventions to reduce damage at short and medium term. Examples of these interventions could be: better use of natural resources like organic waste as fertilizer, use of intensified pastures, etc. A long-term damage will be greater if nothing is done.
Aebi, Marlis; van den Borne, Bart H P; Raemy, Andreas; Steiner, Adrian; Pilo, Paola; Bodmer, Michèle
Mycoplasma bovis causes mastitis in dairy cows and is associated with pneumonia and polyarthritis in cattle. The present investigation included a retrospective case-control study to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis associated disease, and a prospective cohort study to evaluate the course of clinical disease in M. bovis infected dairy cattle herds in Switzerland. Eighteen herds with confirmed M. bovis cases were visited twice within an average interval of 75 d. One control herd with no history of clinical mycoplasmosis, matched for herd size, was randomly selected within a 10 km range for each case herd. Animal health data, production data, information on milking and feeding-management, housing and presence of potential stress- factors were collected. Composite quarter milk samples were aseptically collected from all lactating cows and 5% of all animals within each herd were sampled by nasal swabs. Organ samples of culled diseased cows were collected when logistically possible. All samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In case herds, incidence risk of pneumonia, arthritis and clinical mastitis prior to the first visit and incidence rates of clinical mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two visits was estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify potential herd-level risk factors for M. bovis infection. In case herds, incidence risk of M. bovis mastitis prior to the first visit ranged from 2 to 15%, whereas 2 to 35% of the cows suffered from clinical pneumonia within the 12 months prior to the first herd visit. The incidence rates of mycoplasmal mastitis and clinical pneumonia between the two herd visits were low in case herds (0-0.1 per animal year at risk and 0.1-0.6 per animal year at risk, respectively). In the retrospective-case-control study high mean milk production, appropriate stimulation until milk-let-down, fore-stripping, animal movements (cattle shows and trade), presence of stress-factors, and use of a specific brand of milking equipment, were identified as potential herd-level risk factors. The prospective cohort study revealed a decreased incidence of clinical disease within three months and prolonged colonization of the nasal cavity by M. bovis in young stock. PMID:25884203
Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole
Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing a local-based production, (B) 1950 – representing a period with emerging mechanization and introduction of new technologies and a more global market, (C) 1980 – representing a period with heavy use of external resources like fertilizer and feed protein and (D) 2010 – today with focus on balancing production and risk of environmental damage. In A, B and C, other livestock such as pigs and hens also played a role, whilethe dairy farm in 2010 only had cattle. In 1920 and 1950 the farm was based on 7–8 dairy cows producing typically 1800–3400 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow annually and fed primarily on pasture and hay, only to a limited extent supplemented with imported protein. In 1980 the herd size had increased to 20 dairy cows producing 5000 kg ECM each, and feeding was with silage instead of hay, but still included grazing and there was a larger proportion of imported feed. In 2010 the herd had increased to 134 dairy cows producing 9000 kg ECM per cow and fed indoors all year. During this period net energy used for milk and meat in % of total intake and land use per 1000 kg of milk has steadily decreased as a consequence of higher milk yield per cow and higher yields of forage per ha. In opposition, the utilization of N in the herd, while increasing from 1920 to 1950 and to 2010 showed a drop in the 1980 system, where also the environmental N surplus per ha farmland was highest (40; 65; 226; 148 kg N per ha farmland in the respective periods). The lower N efficiency in 1980 also resulted in an increased GHG emission per kg milk than in the preceding and following periods (2.23; 1.38; 1.94; 1.20 kg CO2-eq. per kg ECM in the respective periods). It is concluded that the biological and technical development has made it possible to reduce the environmental load of dairy production significantly, but that this requires a strong focus on nitrogen management at the farm level and production efficiency in the herd.
Zhang, Juan; Sun, Gui-Quan; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an SEIV dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963
Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.
Smink, W. [Feed Innovation Services FIS, Wageningen (Netherlands)
The methane production in The Netherlands from 1990 to 2002 was calculated via the IPCC-GPG Tier 2 (Good Practice Guidance) method. In this calculation no nutritional mechanistic approach can be used to decrease the methane production. Therefore, the calculation of the methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows is recently carried out with dynamic modelling. Another model has been used which is based on a rumen model. The input for the intake of feed in the model for dairy cows in milk and in calf is based on the intake figures of the requirement of energy (i.e. VEM or feed unit of lactation) system. In order to be in line with the dairy cows, the calculation of methane production of the other cattle categories should be also be based on the VEM system. The goal of the study is to calculate the methane production from enteric fermentation in all cattle categories excluding dairy cows, based on the VEM system.
Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...
Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens SandØ
For each of three Danish dairy cattle breeds, Danish Holstein, Danish Red Dairy Cattle and Danish Jersey Cattle approximately 30 key ancestors were sequenced to a depth of about 10X. These key ancestors were chosen to maximize their contributions to present day populations. The three breeds are compared with respect to differences in amount of sequence variation observed. The observed patterns in and differences between breeds are interpreted in the light of known individual and population histories. Also, patterns of occurrence of short indels are compared. Particular attention is paid to variants that occur in several of the breeds. Regions occurring in multiple breeds and suspected of harboring lethal or sub lethal sequence variants are examined for similarities across breeds in occurrence of sequence variants.
Steverink, M.H.A.; Groen, A.F.; Berentsen, P.B.M.
The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of environmental legislation to restrict nitrogen losses on dairy cattle breeding goals. Linear programming was used to model a dairy farm, including multiple restrictions on product output and production factor input. Management was optimized to maximize labour income. Effects of genetic improvement on labour income (economic values) were derived for dry-matter intake capacity, body weight and milk production (carrier, fat and prot...
Massimo Scacchia; Andrea Di Provvido; Carla Ippoliti; Uqbazghi Kefle; Tesfaalem T. Sebhatu; Annarita D’Angelo; Fabrizio De Massis
In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for ant...
Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike
Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P?>?0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P?0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation. PMID:25339431
Raffrenato, E.; Erasmus, L.J. (Lourens Jacobus)
Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLÃƒ?2.4 (iNDF2.4). The relationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective impli...
Full Text Available Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID, to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to equal-diameter and variable-pitch screw feeding structure to realize the precise concentrated feed supply, equipment performance test shown that the system speed 60rpm is the most stable when feeding, feeding accuracy not less than 97.5%, to meet the feeding requirements, equipped with the best traveling speed is 0.6m/s, the response time of the system is 0.4s, the recognition rate is 96%; through one-month feeding experiment in the dairy cow farm showed that the milk production was increased, the average daily milk yield of individual cows improve 0.8kg than artificial feeding.
E.D. Karimuribo; E S Swai; D.M. Kambarage
A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 1...
Kathy J. Soder
Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.
João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini
Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.
E S, Swai; E D, Karimuribo; D M, Kambarage.
Full Text Available A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga region [...] s) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (
M.A Aba; Bianchi, C; M. Becaluba; A.L. Soraci; E.O. Confalonieri; Tapia, O.
The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4%) in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 ...
Rupp, Rachel; Boichard, Didier
Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information...
Full Text Available The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and design; however, in these situations good stockmenship seems to be able to compensate for structural lacks.
João Cruz, Reis Filho; Rui da Silva, Verneque; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Paulo Sávio, Lopes; Fernanda Santos Silva, Raidan; Fabio Luiz Buranelo, Toral.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d), fat [...] (fat 305-d), protein (protein 305-d), lactose (lactose 305-d), and total solids (TS 305-d) yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM), age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d) and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.
Trevisi, Erminio; Zecconi, Alfonso; Cogrossi, Simone; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Grossi, Paolo; Amadori, Massimo
The need for antibiotic treatments in dairy cattle farms can be reduced by a combined intervention scheme based on: (1) timely clinical inspections, (2) the assessment of animal-based welfare parameters, and (3) the use of predictive laboratory tests. These can provide greater insight into environmental adaptation of dairy cows and define animals at risk of contracting disease. In the long-term, an improved disease control justifies the adoption of such a combined strategy. Many antibiotic treatments for chronic disease cases are often not justified with a cost/benefit analysis, because the repeated drug administration does not give rise to the expected outcome in terms of animal health. In particular, compared with untreated cases, antibiotics may not lead to greater cure rates for some forms of mastitis. Lastly, a substantial reduction of antibiotic usage in dairy farms can be achieved through the proper use of immunomodulators, aimed at increasing immunocompetence and disease resistance of cows. PMID:24508188
The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)
Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B
Sprinklers reduce heat load in cattle, but elicit variable behavioral responses: cows readily use water in some studies, but in others either avoid it or show no preference. Nevertheless, on US dairies, a common way to cool cows is with nozzles mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray (i.e., 5 min on, 10 min off, as in this study) animals' backs while they feed. The objectives of this study were to determine how this type of sprinkler system affects behavior (single-treatment phase), and to assess preferences when cows were allowed to choose between feed bunks with or without sprinklers (choice phase). Data were collected 24h/d for lactating Holsteins tested in groups of 3 cows (n=8 groups) in warm ambient conditions [air temperature (mean ± standard deviation): 24-h average=24.5±2.5°C, maximum=36.0±3.5°C]. In the single-treatment phase, cows were fed from shaded bunks with or without sprinklers for 2 d/treatment, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When sprinklers were present, cows spent more time at the bunk, both feeding [sprinkler vs. no sprinkler: 3.5 vs. 2.5h/24h, standard error (SE)=0.12h] and standing without feeding (4.3 vs. 2.3h/24h, SE=0.32 h) than when no sprinklers were present. Sprinklers lowered the average 24-h core temperature (38.8 vs. 39.2°C, SE=0.08°C), particularly on warmer days. Water cooling also mitigated the effects of weather on feeding time, which decreased with increasing heat load (air temperature and temperature-humidity index) when cows did not have sprinklers, but was unchanged when sprinklers were provided. In the choice phase, feed was provided ad libitum in both treatments for 5 d and preference was assessed. All groups preferred the feed bunk with sprinklers (78 vs. 22% of time spent near both feed bunks, SE=3.9%), and the magnitude of this preference increased linearly with heat load. In both phases of the study, cows protected their heads from direct spray when head position was elective (i.e., standing without feeding): cows were more likely to put their heads through the head gates when the sprinklers were on than off (single-treatment phase: 78 vs. 59%, respectively, of time spent standing without feeding, SE=2.8%; choice phase: 71 vs. 52%, SE=2.0%). In conclusion, although cows avoided wetting their heads, this is the first study to demonstrate that cattle readily use and clearly prefer sprinklers mounted above the feed bunk, possibly due to the cooling provided by this resource. PMID:23769371
Full Text Available As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation strategy for a specific condition.
Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L
An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. PMID:26231801
Four spirochete strains were isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Iowa dairy cattle and compared with two previously described spirochete strains isolated from dairy cattle in California. These six strains shared an identical 16S rDNA sequence that was 98% similar to Trep...
Full Text Available Solid State Fermented Apple Pomace (AP-SSF enriched with non-nitrogen protein has been studied as alternative ingredient for feeding dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, the effects of AP-SSF dairy cattle supplementation on yield, sensorial properties and foodborne pathogens on Chihuahua cheese. About 2 groups (treatment and control of 10 cows were used on a Latin square design (2x2. Treatment animals were AP-SSF supplemented (5% as fed basis in 2 periods of 20 days rotating with the control group (conventional diet. About 6 samples of milk within each period were used to elaborated Chihuahua cheese. Foodborne pathogens and sensorial properties were analyzed after 8 and 10 days of cheese elaboration, respectively. No effects were observed (p>0.05 on microbiological cultures of Salmonella sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and total coliforms after 8 days of cheese elaboration. Sensorial properties were affected (p<0.05 by AP-SSF supplementation, improving preferred sample, appearance, flavor and texture also, it was better overall qualified. Results suggest that AP-SSF improve sensorial properties of Chihuahua cheese. Moreover, yield and foodborne load was within international dairy federation standards.
Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.
Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter
The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.
Gron, Kurt J.; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989
Li, Guoqing; Xiao, Shumin; Zhou, Rongqiong; Li, Weihua; Wadeh, Hicham
Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified as the cause of large outbreaks of diarrhea in many parts of the world, but its host range and reservoirs remains poorly defined. Recently, oocysts resembling the C. cayetanensis were detected in dairy cattle fecal specimens from China. The 18S rDNA from two of these Cyclospora-like oocyst specimens from dairy cattle was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these cattle-associated Cyclospora-like organisms are nearly identical to each other and belong to the group of primate-derived Cyclospora, which are the closest known relatives of C. cayetanensis; while these cyclosporans constitute a coherent clade within the diverse group of Eimeria species. Moreover, on the basis of our finding that ruminant- and avian-associated Eimeria species are different in MnlI sites, a new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol with primers NesCycF and NesCycR was developed to distinguish the Cyclospora species from ruminant-associated Eimeria species. PMID:17206510
Che Hashim Hassan
Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.
Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael
Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare. Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47%) to control ticks, while all incidences of diseases were treated by a veterinarian. Most of the cattle housing flooring were made of concrete (87%) with only one farmer regularly using bedding for the cows. Cows were mainly fed fresh Napier grass (60%) in Kiambu while natural grasses (43%) was the main feed used by farmers in Kajiado. This study indicated that four major challenges exist for organic dairy cattle management in Kenya, which need to be addressed in future research and development: 1) the use of robust breeds and the breeding strategies; 2) grazing and access to outdoor areas; 3) feeding in terms of stability and self sufficiency of enough nutritious feed; and 4) the handling of diseases and pests using poisons, chemical medicines, along with the development of viable alternative disease handling strategies
Dijkstra, J; Zijderveld, S.M., van; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H
There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with dairy cattle with a total of 10 dietary treatments and 50 observations were used. Dietary treatments included supplementation with calcium fumarate, diallyldisulfide, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauri...
This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organisations were established to meet the demand for breeding cattle from abroad. In 1904, the Dutch Herd Book Organisation was reorganised, aiming its breeding policy at three well-defined types of ca...
Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production. However, the livestock system is also credited for the fact that the use of manure reduces the amount of artificial fertilizer being used. Consequently, a manure handling system was set up as a subsystem to the cattle system. This method allowed a comparison between different fodder crops on an equal basis. Furthermore, the crop-specific contribution from changes in soil C was estimated based on estimated amounts of C input to the soil.
José Daniel Cazale
Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C; the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C; the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R. Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001. Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001, took more sips (p<0.001 and spent more time drinking (p<0.001 from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows’ preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.
Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; TRUEBA, GABRIEL; Jeffrey W. Bethel
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reacti...
Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F
Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population. PMID:25566325
Ilha, Marcia R S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Barros, Claudio S L
A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to 70% of cattle from those herds were affected. The disease occurred after the introduction of a new batch of feed contaminated with sclerotia of C. purpurea. First clinical signs were observed up to 3 mo after the ration was introduced and consisted of pyrexia, intense salivation and drooling, open-mouth, difficult breathing, in some cases with the tongue protruded, decrease in milk yield, decrease in food intake and weight loss. Affected cattle compulsively sought shade or water ponds. Signs were more pronounced during daytime. The severity of the clinical picture varied according to changes in environmental temperature during the day. There was complete recovery approximately 60 d after feeding with the contaminated ration was discontinued. Abortions occurred during the outbreak and soon after the remission of the clinical signs associated with HS. In one of the herds, reproductive performance and fertility were seriously impaired even after clinical signs of HS completely disappeared. Diagnosis was based on epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the occurrence of HS are briefly discussed. PMID:12776790
Umar, M.; M. Arifin; A. Purnomoadi
Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC) cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) hay, and concentrate feeding consists of poll...
Dairy herd profitability is closely related to reproductive performance, which is, in turn, strongly influenced by management. A regular monitoring of reproductive efficiency is essential to assess management and to avoid financial losses due poor performance. The measures for this efficiency commonly used are either not based on all animals in the herd, only reflect part of the reproductive process or influence each other. Thus, obtaining an overall picture of the herd's reproductive performance requires combination of various individual components into an integrated index. The minimum measures that should be included in an integrated index for herd fertility are: average calving to pregnancy interval, culling rate, services per conception, age at first calving and percentage of stillborn calves. Ideally, the resulting calculation should emphasize the estimated financial losses or gains due to deviations from the targets set for these measures. Any herd fertility summary of projection might indicated reproductive performance but not their causes. For the identification of these causes, the length of the voluntary waiting period, the efficiency of heat detection, the services per conception, the culling rate, the age at first calving and the percentage abortions and stillbirths need to be evaluated. An additional problem with the measures of herd reproductive performance is that they indicate past reproductive performance, rather than reflect current changes of future expectations. The ''Projected Minimum Average Calving-to-Pregnancy Interval'' is the best prediction for future reproductive performance of a herd, but must be combined with the ''Integrated Fertility Index'' to provide a complete picture. (author). 17 refs
Tan, Qi-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Yin, Ming-Yang; Hu, Ling-Ying; Qin, Si-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors with infection were assessed in dairy cattle from Gansu Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NXHAR), northwest China. In total, 1657 serum samples were collected and assayed by the modified agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 4.83% at a 1:100 cut-off, with titers of 1:100 in 72, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4. Among the risk factors examined, no statistically significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and regions or age of dairy cattle in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. However, numbers of pregnancies of dairy cattle was considered as main risk factor associated with T. gondii infection. Dairy cattle in nulliparity group (8.89%) had 6 times (OR=6.31, 95% CI, 2.69-14.83, Pstatistical difference was found between 2 pregnancies group and 3 or above 3 pregnancies group (P = 0.70). The results of this survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in Gansu Province and NXHAR, which enriches the epidemiological data of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in China, and is helpful to strengthen prevention and control of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in these two regions. PMID:26408581
Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.
Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4% in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and aborted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to detect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cattle are recommended.
Full Text Available Gossypol is a yellow pigment occurring in all parts of cotton plants, with the highest levels found in seeds, and it exhibits a variety of toxic effects. Few data are available on the content of gossypol in the commercial complementary feed and in feed raw materials. The present study was focused on the investigation of the presence of free gossypol in commercial complementary feed not containing cotton. A total of 50 samples of commercial complementary feed for dairy cows were performed in 29 feed mills both using and not using cotton as feed material. The free gossypol contamination resulted under the detection limit of the technique (4 mg/kg in 12 out of 50 samples analysed and ranged from 4 to 20 mg/kg in 28 samples. In 10 samples the level of free gossypol ranged from 20 to 29.5 mg/kg. Average contamination of samples was 12.2±9.2 SD mg/kg. No significant difference (P=0.571 was shown in free gossypol concentration between feed produced in cotton free plants and in plants where cotton is used as feed material. Free gossypol content detected in the present study allows considering complementary feed for dairy cows not at risk. On the other hand, the detection of free gossypol in cotton free complementary feed, probably attributable to cross contamination of feed materials upstream of the feed mill, should be further investigated.
Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João
Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1% (95% C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5%). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5% (25.5 to 44.7%) and 4.4% (1.7 to 10.9%), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430
Full Text Available This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, transition cow program and reproductive performance, immunosuppressant effect of transition period, early predictors of disorders and major abnormalities are discussed in an informative way. Future potential areas of research and possible challenges are also indicated briefly. Finally, it is concluded that despite decades of research in the area of transition cow health and management the high incidence of health disorders around calving continues to negatively affect milk production and reproductive performance; and as recommendation, implementing a transition nutrition program with the help of nutritionists can help dairy herd avoid most of the costly problems and molecular level research studies should get due attention to further understand the situation and devise proper intervention techniques.
Yudin, N S; Voevoda, M I
The selection efficiency of complex quantitative economically important traits in dairy cattle depends on the identification of candidate genes responsible for these traits, as well as the determination of causative DNA polymorphism in these genes. Here, we review examples of DNA polymorphisms in coding and noncoding parts of genes that are associated with milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, milk fat and protein percentages, the biochemical composition of milk, and other milk production traits. Together with data with of foreign authors, which were obtained predominantly for Holstein animals, much attention in the review is paid to domestic studies on Russian cattle breeds. Particular attention is dedicated to DNA polymorphisms in the genes encoding transcription factors, which can potentially affect a large number of traits. The results of association analyses are summarized in a table, and they present the progress of research in this area in recent years. Our analysis indicates that the majority of SNPs, which are associated with significant effects on milk production traits, are in fact in a linkage disequilibrium with yet unknown mutations. The identification of functionally significant DNA polymorphisms and other genetic factors (epimutations, VNTR) is necessary for effective marker-assisted selection and genomic selection of diary cattle breeds. PMID:26137639
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400. Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%, followed by those that were???6 years old or?P?>?0.05. Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%. These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Massimo, Scacchia; Andrea, Di Provvido; Carla, Ippoliti; Uqbazghi, Kefle; Tesfaalem T, Sebhatu; Annarita, D' Angelo; Fabrizio, De Massis.
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross- | sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) a [...] nd positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77% (417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucella species, with a variable and generally I: low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% -2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota I: from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis I: eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio
In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control. PMID:23718833
H Setiyawan; SI Santoso; Mukson
This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of ...
Pollari, F. L.; Wangsuphachart, V L; Digiacomo, R F; Evermann, J F
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis...
Cassandro, M.; Dal Zotto, R.; Cesarini, F.; M. Povinelli; D. Marcomin
Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001). National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric) and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The f...
Sorrentino, A; E. Pieragostini; Roma, R.; G. Bramante
Traditionally the dairy cattle breeding in Apulia is mostly concentrated in the “Murgia barese-tarantina”. The most represented breeds in the Apulian dairy cattle population are Italian Brown (IB) and Italian Friesian (IF). The figures plotted in Fig. 1 show the general upward trend of the two breeds recorded for the period 1965–2001 in Taranto's province, representing more than 50% of the above husbandry area. Even though during the last ten years the IB upward slope have s...
Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.
Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and...
Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sébastien; Jaffrézic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Gautier, Mathieu
Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three ...
Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro
CNVs are increasingly recognized as substantial source of genetic variation, fueling studies that assess their impact on complex traits. In particular rare CNVs have been suggested to potentially explain part of the missing heritability problem in genome wide association studies for complex traits. The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define consensus CNV regions at the population level. We identified 29,975 deletion-, 1,489 duplication- and 365 complex CNVRs, respectively, which cover 3.3% of the UMD3.1 autosome. We further compared NGS based CNV calls to CNV calls detected by PennCNV based on Illumina HD chip data for 17 bulls with high quality data for both platforms
Andre, G; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Duinkerken, G., van
Dynamic feeding is an innovative application for concentrate feeding of dairy cows. Daily individual settings are derived from the actual individual milk yield response to concentrate intake. This response is estimated using an adaptive dynamic linear model. Optimal daily individual settings for concentrate supply are directed to achieve the maximum gross margin milk returns minus concentrate costs. This response curve plays a key role in the application. The response curve is derived from a ...
Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P
Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that offering concentrates to grazing dairy cows increased milk production per cow and decreased CH4 emissions per unit of milk produced. PMID:25173463
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis
Deepika Garg,; Jai Singh; Mr. Kuldeep Kumar
A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant ...
Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana
Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum-reactive with these titles. Between animals positive to the test, the lowest title observed was 1:25, while the highest obtained was 1:400. Viral neutralization tests demonstrated that 26.8% of the animals had titers greater or equal to 1:256, and among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 38.1% and 55.56% were serum reactive in the range considered, respectively. Between positive animals for serum neutralization technique, the lower titers observed were 1:2, while the highest obtained was equal to or greater than 1:1024. Only 5.56% of the animals studied had titers equal to or greater than 1:200 in the microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of Leptospira spp. Only a single animal with a history of abortion did not presented negative serology (title 1:100. No animal with a history of stillbirth was presented in the reagent test. The prevalent biovar in reactive animals was Pomona (40%, Hardjo (30%, Tarassovi (20% and Wollfi (10%. There weren’t positive reactions to the tamponated acidified antigen test for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. The study suggests the possibility of concurrent infections by other agents causing reproductive failure in dairy cattle.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.
Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.
Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)
The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.
Ibraimi, Zana; Shehi, Agim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Shaip; Agani, Zana
Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess the state of the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle in Kosovo according to different diagnosis as directed by treatment protocol and to evaluate the methods of their application in dairy cattle. Methods: We’ve visited over 80% of dairy farms throughout the territory of Kosovo in 2013. Assessment was carried out through a specific questionnaire, which identifies problems with medical treatment of cattle, the number of cattle treated and untreated, description of dose and type of drugs used, as well as the duration of drugs issuance. Results: In Kosovo for the treatment of sick cows are mainly used beta lactams and sulfonamides. The drugs were not given only to sick cattle by their diagnosis, but they were given to healthy cattle too, as a preventative therapy, mainly through intramuscular route. Conclusion: We conclude that the dairy cattle were not treated correctly as directed by the treatment protocol. In Kosovo’s general health system there are no rules and procedures on monitoring and recording the expenditures on antibiotics. PMID:26244043
Full Text Available Feeding cattle manure (CM for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO, bakery by-products (BBP and tallow (TW was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1 control: CM and MO; 2 LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3 HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4 LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5 HTW: CM, BBP and high level of TW. Ensiling CM with BBP had the lowest silage losses. Silages were part of diets, which were fed to lambs fitted with ruminal cannulas. Nutrient intake and N balance did not differ in lambs across all experimental diets, but the NDF digestion of diets with BBP and TW was lower than with MO or BBP. Ensiling CM with BBP offered less silage losses as compared to MO.
Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs
Van Eenige, M J E M; Counotte, G H M; Noordhuizen, J P T M
Drinking water can be considered an essential nutrient for dairy cattle. However, because it comes from different sources, its chemical and microbiological quality does not always reach accepted standards. Moreover, water quality is not routinely assessed on dairy farms. The microecology of drinking water sources and distribution systems is rather complex and still not fully understood. Water quality is adversely affected by the formation of biofilms in distribution systems, which form a persistent reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria. Saprophytic microorganisms associated with such biofilms interact with organic and inorganic matter in water, with pathogens, and even with each other. In addition, the presence of biofilms in water distribution systems makes cleaning and disinfection difficult and sometimes impossible. This article describes the complex dynamics of microorganisms in water distribution systems. Water quality is diminished primarily as a result of faecal contamination and rarely as a result of putrefaction in water distribution systems. The design of such systems (with/ without anti-backflow valves and pressure) and the materials used (polyethylene enhances biofilm; stainless steel does not) affect the quality of water they provide. The best option is an open, funnel-shaped galvanized drinking trough, possibly with a pressure system, air inlet, and anti-backflow valves. A poor microbiological quality of drinking water may adversely affect feed intake, and herd health and productivity. In turn, public health may be affected because cattle can become a reservoir of microorganisms hazardous to humans, such as some strains of E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni. A better understanding of the biological processes in water sources and distribution systems and of the viability of microorganisms in these systems may contribute to better advice on herd health and productivity at a farm level. Certain on-farm risk factors for water quality have been identified. A practical approach will facilitate the control and management of these risks, and thereby improve herd health and productivity. PMID:23457917
Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; LeJeune, Jeffrey T
Potential dairy farm management and environmental factors that attract European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to dairy farms were explored. During the period from 2007 to 2009, 150 dairy farms were each visited twice (once during the summer and again in the fall) and the number of starlings was recorded. Risk factors were assessed for possible association with the number of starlings per milking cow (starling density), using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Starling density was higher on farms visited in 2007 compared to those visited in 2008 or 2009. The interaction term between feeding method and feeding site was significantly associated with starling density on farm; generally, feeding outdoors was associated with increased starling density. The odds of a zero starling count (compared to a count greater than zero) was higher on farms that removed manure from barns weekly or less frequently than weekly compared to those that removed manure daily or after every milking. The odds of a zero starling count decreased with increasing distance of a farm from the closest night roost. Identifying on farm risk factors that expose farms to starlings will help farmers develop strategies that minimize the number of birds on their farms and thereby reduce physical damage to the farms as well as the potential for pathogen transmission from birds to cattle and humans. PMID:25940010
Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed- ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro- ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition.
Gates, M C
National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production. PMID:23926171
Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on v...
Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.
Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase
Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette
The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency traits is very important from productive, economic and environmental perspectives. Network approaches can help us to better understand the biological mechanisms behind that complex trait and direct the selection of superior animals. The aim of this work was to identify biological functions and candidate genes related to feed efficiency in Nellore cattle by analyzing liver transcriptomic profile though differential co-expression approach. Measures of carcass ultrasound and visceral fat weight were used to help us interpret the differential co-expression results. It was observed that animals of low FE had higher feed intake, increased deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat and transcriptomic profile related to immune response, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Based on these results and research in humans and mouse we created the hypothesis that the low FE animals are more susceptible to inflammation in the liver. In addition we identified 12 candidate genes for FE regulation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.
Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth – death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.
Bruns, H R; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J
Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103±39 d in milk) were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean=28.8kg/d), milk production (42.2kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and ?-C18:3. Body weights (752kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration. PMID:26277308
Sanfaçon, D; Higgins, R.; Mittal, K R; L'Archevêque, G.
Serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Haemophilus somnus were carried out in herds of beef and dairy cattle using three different techniques: agglutination, complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. The agglutination test appeared to detect more seroreactors than the complement fixation and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests. Results of the three tests indicated that there were more positive reactors in beef cattle and dairy cattle from infected herds than in d...
Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique
There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.
Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M
Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124
G. BILAL AND M. S. KHAN1
The use of appropriate method for genetic evaluation of dairy animals is an important aspect of dairy cattle production. Traditional 305-day lactation model does not account for the changes in environmental factors within 305-day lactation and may involve unjustified projection of incomplete lactations. The use of test-day model in the recent past has made it possible to economize the genetic evaluation with a better accuracy. This paper reviews the recent developments in genetic evaluation o...
Thomasen, JØrn Rind; Egger-Danner, C
Small dairy cattle populations are challenged because of the low reliabilities of genomic predictions. We have demonstrated that low reliabilities of genomic predictions sets limitations for moving towards more genetic efficient breeding schemes with more intensive use of young bulls without progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces that increase reliabilities of genomic predictions.
A test-day model was developed in order to study the feasibility and the usefulness of a random regression test-day model based on dairy cattle data from New Zealand. (Co)variance components were estimated first within breeds then across breeds for Holstein-Friesian and Jersey animals. Results from single breed analysis showed that there are several differences between the two main breeds of dairy cattle in New Zealand. This was confirmed with the genetic correlations below one (r²= 0.926...
Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S
The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly. PMID:24698359
Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.
Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.
Ingvartsen, Klaus LØnne; Moyes, Kasey
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To alarge extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glutamine) and how certain metabolic states, such as degree of negative energy balance and risk of PI, contribute to immunosuppression during the periparturient period. Finally, we will address some issues on disease prevention through nutrition.
A. O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni
This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...
Ilahi, Houcine; Kadarmideen, Haja
Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 20?4397, 655?989 and 40?242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heri...
Kadarmideen Haja N; Ilahi Houcine
Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance...
Vaddella, V K; Ndegwa, P M; Joo, H S; Ullman, J L
About 80% of dairy cattle N intake is excreted in urine and feces. Urinary-N is about 75% urea, whereas fecal-N is mostly organic. Urinary-N (urea) can only be volatilized when it is hydrolyzed to ammonia (NH3) in a process catalyzed by urease, which is predominantly found in feces. Minimizing contact between urine and feces may be an effective approach to reducing urea hydrolysis and subsequent NH3 emissions. Previous studies have reported 5 to 99% NH3 emissions mitigation within barns from separation of feces and urine. The objective ofthis study was to compare NH3 emissions mitigation via separation of urine and feces in postcollection storage to a conventional scrape manure handling method where urine and feces are comingled. Laboratory scale studies were conducted to evaluate NH3 emissions from simulated postcollection storag of three waste streams: (i) idealistically separated feces and urine (no contact between urine and feces), (ii) realistically separated urine and feces (limited contact of urine and feces), and (iii) conventionally scraped manure (control). From the results of these studies, NH3 losses ranking in descending order was as follows: aggregate of realistically separated waste streams (3375.9 +/- 54.8 mg), aggregate of idealistically separated urine and feces (3047.0 +/- 738.0 mg), and scrape manure (2034.0 +/- 106.5 mg), respectively. Therefore, on the basis of these results, the extra effort of separating the waste streams would not enhance mitigation of NH3 losses from postcollection storage of the separated waste streams compared to the conventional scrape manure collection system. PMID:21043286
Full Text Available Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensins are particularly active against gram-positive bacteria and fungi but at higher concentrations they are also, capable of destroying gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, enveloped viruses and some protozoons. The aim of this study was to search for associations between the occurrence of clinical mastitis and Combined Defensin Genotypes (CDG and to investigate the possibility of using defensin gene polymorphisms in marker-assisted selection for immunity towards mastitis in dairy cows. This study included such indicators as the number of clinical cases of mastitis acuta and chronica, number of affected udder quarters and duration of the condition in 1,025 cows (Polish Holstein-Friesian breed kept on a farm located in the North-Western region of Poland. The cows were of different ages and in different lactations parities (from 1st to 6th. An analysis of associations between selected CDGs and susceptibility/immunity towards mastitis has showed statistically significant relations with regard to all the indicators under study and CDGs. Moreover, some genotypes have been found to have different effects on chronic and acute infections.
Pozzato, N.; Capello, K.
Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions.
A. R. Onal
Full Text Available This research was carried out by consulting with dairy farms that were selected by chance from the analyzed farms registered in the Dairy Cattle Breeders Associations in Edirne. The farms were selected through Edirne and its counties, thus it was aimed to find accurate results.The survey questions are about the general characteristic features of the farm owners, their educational degrees, their existing breeding status, their practical experiences in breeding cattle, their aims and expectations, the condition of the animal sheds and equipments, distribution and marketing of their products.The rate of literacy in the farms that were members of the Cattle Breeding Association is 100%. The dairy cattle breeding was made for providing subsistence income by 47.4% of the farms and it was made for gaining supplementary budget by the rest of the farms. The rate of working in the farms as owners of the farms and members of their family was 96.5%. Average animal stock 21-30 heads of cattle in 33.3% of the farms.98.2 per cent of the farm areas were in the residential areas, 96.5 per cent of the farms consist of bound-standstill type farms and 3.6% of those consist of free type farms. The rate of the milking with the milking machine was 100 % and in 89.5% of farm the average production of milk per cattle 20-25 liters/day in the farms.
Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.
Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.
The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)
Van der Werf, J. H. J.; Waaij, E.H., van der; Groen, A.F.; de Jong, G.
Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows culled from dairy herds. All animals originated from dairy or dual purpose breeds. Heritabilities for carcass traits on veal calves varied from 0.06 to 0.19; for bulls from 0.25 to 0.30, and for cull...
Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero / Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle
R., Martínez-Loperena; O. A., Castelán-Ortega; M., González-Ronquillo; J. G, Estrada-Flores.
Full Text Available En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero [...] . El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content [...] of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P
Urton, G; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M
Dairy cows experience a high incidence of disease and metabolic disorders in the weeks immediately following calving, but early and accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. Cows suffering from metritis, one common disease following calving, exhibit reduced milk yield and reproductive performance. However, afflicted cows show few overt signs of illness and frequently go unnoticed in the absence of veterinary examination. To determine whether changes in feeding behavior could be used to identify animals at risk for metritis, attendance at the feed alley was monitored continuously for 26 Holstein cows during the transition period, beginning 2 wk before and ending 3 wk after calving. Every 3 +/- 1 d, cows were examined for metritis based on rectal body temperature and condition of vaginal discharge. Over the 3 wk of observations after calving, 69% of cows showed some signs of metritis. These cows spent on average 22 min/d less time at the feed alley during the transition period than did non-metritic cows. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time, cows were twice as likely to be diagnosed with metritis. A threshold of 75 min of average daily feeding time was 89% sensitive and 62% specific for detection of acute metritis. In conclusion, reduced time at the feeder can be used to identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. More research is required to determine how soon before calving at-risk cows can be identified and whether these behavioral differences can also be used in the early diagnosis of other diseases or metabolic disorders. PMID:16027199
With Product X, Orffa Additives (an European feed additives supplier) and Cono Kaasmaker (a Dutch dairy cooperative) are searching for a practical feed application to reduce methane emissions (>10%) in dairy cattle. In this study three in vitro experiments were conducted to test the characteristics of Product X. The experiments were performed to test the cumulative gas, methane production (kinetics) and the fermentation end-products. It became clear that Product X is able to change rumen fermentation characteristics significantly. In the experiments Product X showed higher volatile fatty acids (VFA) levels and differences in methane production kinetics. It seems that the production of methane is delayed and the % of methane produced per total amount of gas is decreasing over weeks. This fact is especially of interest in live animals. Time feed remains in the rumen is relative short compared with this in vitro trial. With these results it also became clear that after six weeks of Product X administration there still is an effect on rumen fermentation and no signs of adaptation were found. A reduction of 10% means a potential reduction of 9522 MT CO2-eq per year when only the members of Cono are taken into account (e.g. 37500 lactating animals). On national level this means 0.58 Mton CO2-eq reduction per year. Reducing methane emissions is also improving feed efficiency. This means more milk for the same costs. It could be an option that Cono will implement an incentive to stimulate farmers to reduce methane emissions in their Caring Dairy program.
Call rate has been used as a measure of quality on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and animal basis since SNP genotypes were first used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle. The genotyping laboratories perform initial quality control screening and genotypes that fail are usually exclude...
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)
Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...
Clark, C.; Radostits, O; Petrie, L.; Allen, A.
The clinical and laboratory findings of a group of 9 dairy cattle that accidentally ingested large volumes of canola oil are described. Four of the animals died, and 3 were necropsied. No specific cause of death was found, although a number of theories are advanced. This is the first report of such an occurrence.
Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ- mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio- logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz- able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas- ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect is expected.
Zebeli, Q; Metzler-Zebeli, B U
In this review, an overview is provided on the current achievements regarding the interplay between rumen digestive disorders and diet-induced inflammation in dairy cattle. It starts with a review of factors favoring the disturbances in the rumen metabolism, which culminate with development of sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). The latter digestive disorder is often linked to greater metabolic stress of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and lowered fiber digestion, as well as with disruption of the barrier functions of the GI epithelia, which open the route of deleterious molecules to translocate from the GI lumen into the portal system. A model is suggested to illustrate the mechanisms of the involvement of digestive disorders in the disruption of the host's inner homeostasis leading to activation of acute phase response (APR). The latter is part of multifaceted innate immune and metabolic responses of the host. According to this model, endotoxin, its toxicity, and other metabolic compounds of microbial origin are regarded as important immunogenic components of GI tract, which when favored by disruption of host barriers triggers a systemic APR. Although the activation of an APR is viewed as a protective reaction aiming to reestablish the disturbed homeostasis, the presence of inflammatory state over long periods might be associated with negative consequences for the host. The review concludes that prolonged systemic inflammation can: (1) cause significant changes in the energy and lipid metabolism in different body tissues, (2) lead to the development of refractory states associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility to various diseases, and (3) artificially increase host's requirements in energy and nutrients, lowering the efficiency of energy and feed use by the animal. The paper emphasizes the critical role that formulation of healthy diets plays for curbing down inflammation and enhancing metabolic health of dairy cows. PMID:22370295
Werner, Louise Bruun
Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a growing problem in the Western world. Dairy products comprise a food group containing a high amount of saturated fat, which has been linked to an increase in CVD risk. However, a recent metaanalysis including 611.430 subjects failed to find any association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. Consequently, there is less focus on the consumption of saturated fatty acid. However, many attempts have been made to prevent and reduce complications from CVD and T2DM and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced by the degradation of the chlorophyll molecule, is a fatty acid (FA) uniquely found in ruminant fat. PA has been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders, due to agonist ctivities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. The content of milk fat PA has been shown to increase with the content of green feed fed to dairy cows. Hence, increasing green feed has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products (represented by cheese and butter) from cows fed green feed would affect the human concentration of plasma PA differently as compared to dairy products from cows fed conventional feed, and, further to examine the health effects of PA. A second objective was to examine the health effects of dairy products (represented by butter) produced from milk delivered from mountain-pasture grazing cows. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies where risk markers of CVD and T2DM were assessed. We found that it is possible to increase human plasma PA concentration after four weeks of intervention with butter and cheese containing even a traditional content of PA, which agrees with observational studies. No significant difference in plasma PA concentration between treatment groups was found; therefore, investigating any effect of PA on metabolic parameters was not possible. However, considering the strong correlation between plasma PA at baseline and total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), it may be suggested that PA have a specific LDL-C rising effects. We found no health beneficial effect on CVD and T2DM risk markers of butter delivered from mountain-pasture grazing, which had, among other differences, increased PA content compared to butter from conventionally fed cows. As no other study has been published regarding the health of milk delivered from grazing cattle, we cannot compare our findings directly with other studies and further evidence is needed. During the past few years climate change has been recognized as the major environmental problem facing the world. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high nutritional value. In addition, when discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food sector, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE by creating dietary scenarios with different quantities of dairy products. This was evaluated on the basis of one theoretical study based on national intake data and carbon footprint data of 71 widely consumed food items. Furthermore, an index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items. Our dietary scenarios
Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Thadtapong, Nalumon; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn
The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in feces of dairy cattle from the northern part and the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 900 fecal samples were collected directly from rectum and examined by using zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cows was 5.0 % (45/900) by zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation and 6.0 % (54/900) by PCR. Genotypes of G. duodenalis found in this study were Assemblage AI and E. The results indicated that dairy cattle may act as a potential risk of Giardia transmission among animals and humans (especially Assemblage AI). PMID:26204183
Remo Alessio Malagnino
Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good level of reliability for mean deviations between the annual actual and estimated electrical power yields have been equal to 11.5% for each PV system given the actual irradiation’ s uncertainty during the examined year. The main technical parameters, crucial to maximise the energy yield from a ground-mounted PV system to an integrated one, have been identified in the Tilt and Azimuth angles. Indeed, once a variance of 3÷4% in the global efficiency has been confirmed when the type of PV system is changed, in the case of the unidirectional integrated PV plant, the high roof pitch and the almost South orientation guarantee a solar energy increase up to 18% higher than that obtainable on the horizontal plane and similar to the increase estimated for the ground-mounted generator (+20%. Hence, integrated PV systems, besides reaching the same levels of energy efficiency as those ground-mounted, are also more sustainable than the latter. This is true providing that there are both a suitable orientation and an accurate design, especially to prevent the PV panels’ warming during summer, on an already available surface that is, however, functional to the roof’s architecture.
Swanepoel, Nadia; P.H. Robinson; Erasmus, L.J. (Lourens Jacobus)
The objectives were to predict aminoa cid (AA) profiles of intestinally delivered protein in California high group (i.e., lactating but not yet confirmed to be in calf) dairy cattle fed contemporary rations using three metabolic models of dairy cows. This was done in order to predict limiting AA in dairy rations to determine if there was enough consistency in the nutrient profiles of these rations to support a common ruminally protected (RP) AA package to supplement similar rations. Nutrient ...
MacNeil, M D; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Northcutt, S L
Recent improvement in technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. The goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for feed intake. Weaning weight (WWT), postweaning BW gain (PGN), subcutaneous fat depth (SQF), and feed intake data were accumulated by the American Angus Association from a variety of cooperators and augmented with data collected for routine genetic evaluation of Angus cattle. The feed intake data were standardized (SFI, mean 0 and variance 1) within contemporary groups. Numbers of animals with observed phenotypes were 18,169, 7,107, 4,976, and 4,215 for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. The 4-generation pedigree for animals with records contained 45,120 individuals. (Co)variance components were estimated with ASREML, fitting a 4-trait animal model with fixed contemporary groups for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI. Heritability estimates were 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.04, and 0.42 ± 0.05 for direct genetic effects on WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. Genetic correlations of WWT and PGN with SFI were 0.40 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.10, respectively, and indicate their value as indicator traits in predicting EPD for feed intake. The genetic correlation of SQF and SFI was not different from 0. For all animals with a recorded feed intake phenotype, accuracy of their EPD for feed intake ranged from 0.16 to 0.64 with a mean of 0.26. However, 9,075 animals had an accuracy that was equal to or exceeded 0.2 for their feed intake EPD. Postanalysis calculation of measures of efficiency EPD was pursued. This work demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a national cattle evaluation for feed intake using indicator traits to reduce opportunity for selection bias, increase accuracy of the evaluation for a substantial number of animals, and ultimately facilitate calculation of selection indexes including feed intake. PMID:21764839
Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)
Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks over Winter had high BHB and low albumin values suggesting that they were seriously underfed. This observation stimulated a successful nutritional intervention in the following winter. Inorganic phosphate values were within the reference range in most countries most of the time suggesting, contrary to expectation, that this mineral was not commonly a constraint. The use of metabolic profile testing proved valuable in drawing attention to important potential constraints on productivity in dairy cows in tropical and subtropical environments and in confirming those which were not. (author)
A. O. Rini
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.
Full Text Available Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis
Emanuelson U; Gustafsson H
Repeat breeding (RB), defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both...
Karnaen Karnaen; J Arifin
The research was conducted at Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul Sapi Perah (BBPTU-SP) Baturraden, Purwokerto, Central Java. The aims of this research were to study: (1) Breeding Value among test day record at first, second and third lactations on milk productions of dairy cattle, (2) Correlation of breeding values among test day record at first, second, and third lactations on milk production of dairy cattle. There were 4964 records of milk productions for 9 years since 1997 to 2006 dividi...
Yudi Sastro; Indarti Puji Lestari
Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using ...
Amr M.M. Abd-Elall
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.
Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth
Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina. PMID:26203996
Demeter, R M; Kristensen, A R; Dijkstra, J; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Arendonk, J A M
Herd optimization models that determine economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions are valuable research tools to study various aspects of farming systems. The aim of this study was to develop a herd optimization and simulation model for dairy cattle. The model determines economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions for individual cows and simulates whole-herd results that follow from optimal decisions. The optimization problem was formulated as a multi-level hierarchic Markov process, and a state space model with Bayesian updating was applied to model variation in milk yield. Methodological developments were incorporated in 2 main aspects. First, we introduced an additional level to the model hierarchy to obtain a more tractable and efficient structure. Second, we included a recently developed cattle feed intake model. In addition to methodological developments, new parameters were used in the state space model and other biological functions. Results were generated for Dutch farming conditions, and outcomes were in line with actual herd performance in the Netherlands. Optimal culling decisions were sensitive to variation in milk yield but insensitive to energy requirements for maintenance and feed intake capacity. We anticipate that the model will be applied in research and extension. PMID:22118084
Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele
The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405
de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M
Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a prescreening tool for detecting herds with a welfare problem, but this should be followed by a verification of the level of welfare in an on-farm assessment to identify false-positive herds. Consequently, the number of farm visits needed for routine welfare assessments can be reduced. The RHD also hold value for continuous monitoring of dairy cattle welfare. Prediction models developed in this study, however, should first be validated in additional field studies. PMID:24290821
Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E
Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for reproduction could also aid in resolving genetic antagonisms. Past breeding programmes have contributed to the deterioration in reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. The tools now exist, however, to reverse the genetic trends in reproductive performance underlying the observed phenotypic trends. PMID:24703258
Calvin B. Parnell; Sergio C. Capareda; Saqib Mukhtar; Faulkner, William B.; Md Saidul Borhan; Russell McGee
A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during...
Xiao, S M; Li, G Q; Zhou, R Q; Li, W H; Yang, J W
A rapid and sensitive assay for the detection of Cyclospora species in dairy cattle faecal specimens has been developed. The method utilizes a nested PCR to amplify a 168-bp DNA fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of cattle-derived Cyclospora sp. and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to detect the amplified product. In this study, the OLA technique was compared with conventional gel electrophoresis for the detection of amplified product. In evaluating the PCR-OLA for Cyclospora sp. and non-Cyclospora parasites, A(405) reading value for Cyclospora species was significantly higher than those for non-Cyclospora control. At known concentrations of purified amplicons from cattle-derived Cyclospora sp., the OLA was able to detect more than 0.5 ng of the amplified DNA. Of 168 clinical specimens collected from four dairy cattle farms, 6 were positive by both PCR-gel electrophoresis and the PCR-OLA procedure, and 2 were positive only by PCR-OLA, indicating the PCR-OLA procedure was more sensitive than the common way with gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the PCR-OLA is simple, rapid and suitable in clinical detection of cattle-derived Cyclospora species. PMID:17850971
P Shayan; J Ashrafihelan; H Haddadzadeh; Salehi, N.; A Sadrebazzaz
"nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 placentas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The ...
Z. Bani Ismail
Full Text Available Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10 included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group 2 (n = 14 included cattle with reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation and group 3 (n = 7 included cattle with no reticuloruminal foreign bodies and no perireticular adhesions/inflammation. Anorexia and decreased milk production were the most common clinical signs in all groups. Reluctant to move and arched back were prominent in group 1. In 45% of cases, frothy bloat was associated with the presence of large amounts of reticuloruminal, non-metallic foreign bodies. Collectively, factors that significantly had negative impact on outcome were: presence of perireticular adhesions, feeding finely-ground grain and plasma fibrinogen levels above 600mg dL-1. However, the amount of grain fed per day and type of bloat (free-gas or frothy gas had no significant effect on the outcome. Results of this study suggest that similar to metallic foreign bodies, non-metallic foreign bodies in the reticulorumen of adult dairy cattle are equally important in causing recurrent rumen tympany.
Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)
Claudia C., Tozato; Michele, Lunardi; Alice F., Alfieri; Rodrigo A.A., Otonel; Giovana W., Di Santis; Brígida K. de, Alcântara; Selwyn A., Headley; Amauri A., Alfieri.
Full Text Available This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle. [...
Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...
Tozato, Claudia C.; Lunardi, Michele; Alfieri, Alice F.; Rodrigo A.A. Otonel; Di Santis, Giovana W.; de Alcântara, Brígida K.; Selwyn A. Headley; Alfieri, Amauri A.
This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle.
Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W
With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally poor IOFC margin conditions. We analyzed the dynamics of realized IOFC margins in 2009 under 4 different risk management strategies and found that optimal strategies that were founded on the principles delineated above succeeded in reducing the decline in IOFC margins in 2009 by 93% for the Home-Feed profile and by 47% for the Market-Feed profile, and they performed substantially better than alternative strategies suggested by earlier literature. PMID:23040030
Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, A.F.B., van der; Boehm, J; Agus, A.
High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Holstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet. Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sa...
Doran P; Carson J; Costello E; More SJ
Abstract Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five ...
R. R. Lima
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the risk factors associated to the summer mastitis in 27 dairy cattle from Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso. From the 408 dairy cows evaluated, 62 animals (15.19% were positive to mastitis with 13.32% of prevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed more influence on mastitis occurrence due to the use of the milking machine OR: 20.64 (p: 0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle
Claridge, Jen; Diggle, Peter; McCann, Catherine M.; Mulcahy, Grace; Flynn, Rob; McNair, Jim; Strain, Sam; Welsh, Michael; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana J. L.
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In the UK, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of BTB is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. Here we show in a study involving 3026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of BTB. The magnitude...
Azam MA, Khan MKI and Das A
The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptability and survivability of different crossbred dairy cows under commercial farming conditions in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Different cattle genotypes (Holstein × Local, Sahiwal × Local, Sahiwal × Holstein and Jersey × Local) were found in the studied farms. The percentages of Holstein × Local was (58.94%) higher than other genotype. The survivability of Holstein × Local, Sahiwal × Local, Sahiwal × Holstein and Jersey × Local calves were...
del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.
Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair...
Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.
In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides...
Maillard, R.; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S.; CHOMEL, B.; Delcroix, T; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.
Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...
Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Wallace, Richard L.
The goal of this study was to follow ceftiofur-treated and untreated cattle in a normally functioning dairy to examine enteric Escherichia coli for changes in antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic diversity. Prior to treatment, all of the bacteria cultured from the cows were susceptible to ceftiofur. Ceftiofur-resistant E. coli was only isolated from treated cows during and immediately following the cessation of treatment, and the 12 blaCMY-2-positive isolates clustered into two genetic ...
Nielsen, H. M.; Christensen, L.G.; Groen, A. F.
The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be added to market economic values in the breeding goal to define sustainable breeding goals. The first method was restricted indices. A consequence of adding a nonmarket value to a market economic value ...
Charles O. Ebojei; Gyang C. Davou; Blessing A. Salman; Victoria O. Mosimabale
Mastitis is a major disease that infects the mammary gland of dairy cattle and adverselyaffects the quantity and quality of milk produced by cows. This study described the socio-economiccharacteristics of herdsmen and examined the prevalence rate of mastitis in White Fulani cows in KanamLocal Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Four districts were randomlyselected from the LGA (among 10 districts) and twenty herdsmen were randomly selected from each ofthese four dis...
In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative genetic variation can not be distinguished. Developments in molecular genetics, however, have resulted in the identification of polymorphic sites in the genome, which are called genetic markers. Geneti...
Amigues Yves; Boscher Marie; Rupp Rachel; Neau André; Faugeras Rémi; Cerqueira Frédérique; Bourgeois Florence; Grohs Cécile; Boichard Didier; Levéziel Hubert
Abstract A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire li...
Boichard, Didier; Grohs, Cécile; Bourgeois, Florence; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Faugeras, Rémi; Neau, André; Rupp, Rachel; Amigues, Yves; Boscher, Marie; Levéziel, Hubert
A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1?548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regr...
Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Leroy, Grégoire; Brochard, M.; Moureaux, S; Verrier, Etienne
A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance...
P. Verità; R. Leotta; C. Scolozzi; MARTINI, M; CECCHI, F.
Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995). The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002). Milk fat globules ...
Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility level of dairy cattle farm on the farming company level especially from the financial aspects. Research was carried out from March to July 2003 in Rumeksa Mekaring Sabda dairy cattle farm company, Argomulyo District, Salatiga. Case study was used as research method. Collected data was tabulated and analyzed using financial analysis criteria (Return On Investment, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The result showed that ROI (20.44% is higher than deposit interest rate (8%. The length of payback period (3 years and 6 months is faster than maximum period that was predicted by the company (5 years. NPV (Rp. 45,565,585.16 and BC Ratio (1.42 have positive and higher value (more than 1, respectively. IRR’s value (38.45% is higher than credit interest rate (18%. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the company is feasible enough to continue the operational project. (Animal Production 7(1: 40-45 (2005 Key Words : Financial analysis, farming company, dairy cattle
Shinozuka, Yasunori; Hirata, Harumi; Ishibashi, Ichiro; Okawa, Yuzo; Kasuga, Asako; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Taura, Yasuho
The objective of this field study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of mammary irrigation for the treatment of dairy cattle diagnosed with acute coliform mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the effects of different mammary irrigation regimen fluids such as ozone water and normal saline were compared. Dairy cattle clinically diagnosed with acute coliform mastitis (n = 57) were enrolled in the study, randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, and received the following treatments: systemic antibiotic administration (SAA group; n = 40), mammary irrigation regimen (MIR group; n = 10), and both treatments (MIX group; n=7). Significant antipyretic effects, as assessed by rectal temperature measurement, were observed in the MIX and MIR groups. Although 2 irrigating fluids were used, namely, ozone water and normal saline, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. Fourteen days after the onset of the treatments, the milk yield recovery rate in MIR group tended to be higher (p = 0.06) than that in the SAA group. Additionally, after 30 days of treatment, the MIR group cows demonstrated significantly higher successful recovery rates (pcows. These results indicate that mammary irrigation with normal saline is an effective treatment for acute coliform mastitis in dairy cattle. PMID:19346692
V.E., Imbayarwo-Chikosi; K., Dzama; T.E., Halimani; J.B., van Wyk; A., Maiwashe; C.B., Banga.
Full Text Available Longevity is a major component of the breeding objective for dairy cattle in many countries because of its high economic value. The trait has been recommended for inclusion in the breeding objective for dairy cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs [...] ) and proportional hazard models (PH) have been used to evaluate longevity. This paper discusses these methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Heritability estimates obtained from these models are also reviewed. Linear methodologies can model binary and actual longevity, while RR and TM methodologies model binary survival. PH procedures model the hazard function of a cow at time t derived from survival from first calving to culling, death or censoring. It is difficult to compare methodologies for sire evaluation and ranking across countries because of the variation in the definition of longevity and the choice of model. Sire estimated breeding values (EBVs) are derived differently for the models. Sire EBVs from PH models are expressed as deviations of the culling risk from the mean of the base sires, expected percentage of daughters still alive after a given number of lactations, expected length of productive life in absolute terms or as standard deviation units. In linear, TM and RR modelling, sire EBVs for longevity have been expressed as deviations of survival from the mean estimated with Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Appropriate models should thus be developed to evaluate functional longevity for possible inclusion in the overall breeding objective for South African dairy cattle.
van der Fels-Klerx, I.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this study showed that quantitative supply chain modeling is an effective tool in assessing whether or not a specific combination of soil properties would lead to unacceptable contaminant levels in feedstuffs and animal products in the view of animal and human health.
Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.
Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ?NH3:?CH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ?28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and its environmental effects on air quality and nitrogen deposition are not fully accounted for.
Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter
The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.
Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K
Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers. PMID:26117353
Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of monensin on serum level of haptoglubolin in pregnant dairy cattle. About 20 heads of pregnant dairy cattle (5 months pregnant were selected in two, control and treatment, groups. The cattle of two groups were in the same situation considering management, production and age. In treatment group about 200 mg monensin was added to the diet of each cattle head in addition to the ordinary diet of control group. On days of 0, 30, 90, 120, time of parturition and 2 weeks after parturition the blood samples was collected from jugular vein and then serum was separated. In all serum samples the haptoglobin serum level was measured by biochemical kit. The average of serum haptoglobin did not have meaningful difference between two groups on day of zero but in care group there was decrease in serum haptoglobin after the day of 30 and on the day of 30 the difference between two groups was not significant (p = 0.066. On the day of 90 and 120 this difference was significant and it was p = 0.037 and p = 0.04, respectively. On parturition time, haptoglobin serum level increased in two groups and this increase in treatment group was less than control group which was nonsignificant (p = 0.003 and 2 weeks after parturition it was low in treatment group which was not significant (p = 0.586. The changes of serum haptoglobin in control group was not meaningful on different times but in treatment group the serum changes was significant on days of zero and 30 (p = 0.04. The mean serum level of this protein in affected cattle to parturition diseases was greater than healthy carrel in two groups. Final result was that adding monensin to pregnant cattle diet led to decrease of haptoglobin serum level, 4 month before parturition.
Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.
This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate the herd's performances over the last 52 weeks.
Marisanna Speroni; Luciano Migliorati; Maurizio Capelletti; Fabio Abeni; Giacomo Pirlo
The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milkin...
Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed
Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne
In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ?0.5IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from vaccinated cows should not be vaccinated before six months old to avoid maternal antibody interference. Whilst most cattle older than six months old will be protected after a single inoculation, a second inoculation ensures a higher antibody levels for improved protection. Cattle receiving an effective priming dose responded well to a booster up to 36 months later. Such results demonstrate the effectiveness of rabies vaccination in cattle and the added value of a second dose to ensure a prolonged immune response against rabies. PMID:26032721
Joanna Szyda; Tomasz Strabel; Katarzyna Wojdak-Maksymiec; Kinga Mikolajczyk
Identification of marker sequences related to immunity towards mastitis may be instrumental in improving resistance against this trait and as a result may reduce the costs related to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The ideal candidate genetic markers for immunity towards mastitis are the genes encoding bovine defensins which belong to the wide and varied group of peptide antibiotics. A lot of antimicrobial peptides identified in cattle have been classified as ?-defensins. Defensi...
Ayuba Caleb Kudi; M. P. Bray; Aziwo. T. Niba; Demo. J.U. Kalla
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions fr...
Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Full Text Available Plasma ?-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 ?g vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 ?g Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.
Cláudio E. F. Cruz
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.
Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage
Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than nulliparous 100D animals, whereas 100D parous animals tended to spend 7.6±4.5 fewer minutes per day feeding than 80D parous animals. The 2 treatments were not different in the number of lying bouts or lying-bout duration; lying time was longer for 100D on d -33, -29, and -26 and shorter on d -7, -5, and 0 than 80D. The interaction between treatment, parity, and social rank was associated with lying and feeding times. In summary, animals in the 80D treatment had a lower number of displacements from the feed bunk and spent more time lying down near parturition than 100D animals, and 80D nulliparous animals had reduced daily feeding time compared with 100D nulliparous animals. Although these results showed some potential behavior benefits of a prepartum stocking density of 80% compared with 100%, observed changes were small. However, greater stocking density cannot be recommended; more research is needed to evaluate the effects of stocking densities greater than 100% and with other breeds of cattle besides Jersey. PMID:25465554
Full Text Available Regardless of habitat or time of day, cattle egrets feeding independently of hosts generally occurring larger groups than those feeding in close association with ungulates. The average group size of three individuals feeding in association with hosts stays remarkably constant with regard to divergent situations. Based on the type of habitat and the grazing speed of the host concerned, cattle egrets achieve the highest feeding success (number of prey items with the least energy inputs (number of paces in association with cattle, and to a lesser extent with the closely related buffalo. Compared to solitary birds, cattle egrets feeding in groups experience without exceptional higher feeding success. Results of feeding experiments, as well as the exceptional occurrence of so-called feeding lines, confirm the phenomenon that the feeding success of cattle egrets correlates closely with the size of the feeding group.
Full Text Available Repeat breeding (RB, defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both herd and individual cow level. The effects of risk factors on the herd frequency of RB were studied by logistic regression. A generalised linear mixed model with logit link, and accounting for herd-level variation by including a random effect of herd, was used to study the individual animal risk for RB. The total percentage of RB animals was 10.1% and the median proportion of RB animals in the herds studied was 7.5%. The proportion of RB cows in herds increased with decreased herd sizes with decreased average days from calving to first AI, with increased herd incidence of clinical mastitis, with decreased reproductive disorders, and increased other diseases treated by a veterinarian. On animal level, the risk factors were milk yield, lactation number, difficult calving or dystocia, season at first service, days in milk at first service and veterinary treatment for reproductive disorders before the first service. Cows being an RB animal in the previous lactation had a higher risk of becoming an RB animal also in the present lactation. In conclusion our results show that the repeat breeding syndrome is a multifactorial problem involving a number of extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic factors coupled to the individual animal.
Soyeurt, Hélène; Dehareng, Frédéric; Mayeres, Patrick; Bertozzi, Carlo; Gengler, Nicolas
The endogenous production of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), particularly some monounsaturated FA (%MONO) and nearly all conjugated linoleic acids, is regulated by the 9-desaturase activity. The aims of this study were to assess the variation of this enzymatic activity within lactation, across dairy breeds, and to estimate its genetic parameters. The ratios of C14:1 cis-9 to C14:0, C16:1 cis-9 to C16:0, and C18:1 cis to C18:0 were calculated from FA contents predicted b...
Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by the two groups of cows (7.0 vs 6.6 kg/cow/d for Soy-free and Control, respectively, their total time spent eating and ruminating was not affected by the diet. Based on these findings, extruded peas can be considered a valuable alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of cattle raised for organic milk production in the Alpine region.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows held in dairy farms in Slovakia. 368 milk samples were taken in total from cows of 5 different breeds, namely Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120, Pinzgau (P, n = 74, Slovak Pied (S, n = 61, and Braunvieh (B, n = 8. Single milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose content, minerals and fatty acid composition of milk fat using gas chromatography, where 54 FAs were identified and expressed relatively in percentage of peak areas (% and evaluated in segments in accord with their biosynthetic origine. The combination of acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, as expressed in the sum HCHFA (46.86% for S and 47.35% for P, and also the value of the so-calculated. atherogenic index (2.82 for S and 3.10 for P are the lowest, and thus the most favorable for human health at the breeds S and P. Medically desirable MUFA (27.11% for the S and 25.84% for P and PUFA (3.55% for S and 3.26% for P in these breeds are represented in the highest percentage shares. We conclude that among the observed breeds of dairy cows the Pinzgau and Simental breeds showed a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective.
Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret
Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.
Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y
Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. PMID:21504844
An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.
Calvin B. Parnell
Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.
Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V
Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis. PMID:24920089
Abdolahad Shadparvar; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi
The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy...
Sørensen Lars P; Janss Luc; Madsen Per; Mark Thomas; Lund Mogens S
Abstract Background Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related traits such as mammary disease traits in dairy cattle. Methods Data on progeny means of six traits related to mastitis resistance in dairy cattle (general mastitis resistance and five pathog...
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.
Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH, King Grass (KG, Corn stover (CS, Elephan Grass (EG, Rice Straw (RS, Soja Straw (SS, Corn Straw (CST, Glyricidea (Gli, and Caliandra (Cal. The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. The results showed that DM and OM intakes were significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin ranged from the lowest (Gli of 29.55 g DMI/kg0.75 to the highest (CS of 94.88 g/kg0.75. OM intake of buffaloes was higher than that of ongole cattle supported by organic matter (OM digestibility data (61.51 vs 59.51. The digestibility of nutrient was significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. OM digestibility of SS were lowest while the highest were CST of 54.56 and 71.66% respectively. Digestibility of CP was also significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. The lowest Digestible Crude Protein was CST and the highest was PH of 44.10 and 67.99% respectively. The digestibility of NDF and ADF were significantly influenced by feed stuffs. The lowest NDF and ADF digestibilities were Cal of 40.84 and 33.19% and the highest digestibility of NDF and ADF were CST of 68.53 and 63.57%. It can be concluded that there were an important variation of feed compositions and digestibility of fibrous feeds. Buffalo were better than cattle on capacity of ingestion and utilization of fibrous feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 86-90 (2010Key Words: fibrous feeds, intake, digestibility, ongole cattle, buffaloes
Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B
Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship training sessions. In conclusion, cattle handling skills are considered important by Minnesota dairy producers to ensure worker safety and cow flow. Limited availability of time, language barrier, and a perceived lack of training materials were considered challenges during the training of workers on farms. PMID:24835968
Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)
Full Text Available The goal of the present epidemiological research was the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in order to determine the presence and prevalence of neosporosis in dairy cattle herds at 8 counties from the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A total of 33 herds and 371 animals were included. Detection of Neospora caninum was performed using a commercial kit observed prevalence was 45%. This result allowed the conclusion that animals which are seropositive for the protozoan Neospora caninum do exist in Nuevo Leon. Serological evidence was found in animals at milk-production stage indicating that the presence of emerging diseases in the region is a fact therefore, sanitary measurements should be re-evaluated or reinforced in order to keep the cattle free from pathogens that have a negative impact in the production of food from animal origin used for the human consumption.
M. Cassandro; G. de Jong; Dal Zotto, R.; A. Cecchinato; Penasa, M.
This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF), Dutch Friesian (DF), Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY), and F1 crossbreds (DFxHF and MRYxHF) were considered. According to cows’ year of calving, productive records from animals calving from 1980 to 2004 were divided in five periods, while SCS record...
Wiggans, G. R.; Thornton, L. L. M.; Neitzel, R. R.; Gengler, Nicolas
Genetic parameters and relative breeding values were estimated for milking speed of US Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Owner-recorded milking-speed scores on a scale of 1 (slow) to 8 (fast) were collected by the Brown Swiss Association as part of its linear type appraisal program starting in 2004. Data were 7,366 records for 6,666 cows in 393 herds. The pedigree file included information for 21,458 animals born in 1985 or later. Six unknown-parent groups that each included 4 birth years were define...
Alessandro Bagnato; Vincenzo Russo; Valeria La Mattina; Fausta Schiavini; Luca Fontanesi; Emilio Scotti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the allele frequency distribution at the DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphic site in seven Italian dairy and dual purpose cattle breeds. On the whole, 651 animals belonging Italian Holstein (116), Italian Brown (105), Italian Simmental (95), Valdostana Red Pied (95), Rendena (62), Reggiana (128) and Modenese (50) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Sequencing was carried out to confirm results of the genotyping protocol. The DGAT1 p.232K allele was identified in Italian Ho...
Krehbiel, C R; Stock, R A; Herold, D W; Shain, D H; Ham, G A; Carulla, J E
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on subacute acidosis in cattle. In Exp. 1, 60 individually fed yearling steers (270 +/- 22 kg BW) were used in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were assigned to one of five dietary treatments: 1) dry-rolled corn (DRC), 2) 35% WCGF fed d 1 to 132, 3) 86.5% WCGF fed d 1 reduced to 35% WCGF by d 19 and increasing the proportion of DRC, 4) 86.5% WCGF fed d 1 to 132, or 5) 94.5% WCGF fed d 1 to 132. Final diets for Treatments 1 through 4 contained 92% concentrate and 8% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Treatment 5 was a 100% concentrate diet. All diets were fed with or without the addition of escape protein. During d 19 to 24, steers fed WCGF had less (P .10) In Exp. 2, three ruminally fistulated steers (615 +/- 36 kg BW) were used in a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. On d 14 of each period, 7.9 kg (DM) of 100% DRC, 50% DRC:50% WCGF, of 100% WCGF was intraruminally dosed as an acidosis challenge. Area within the curve below ruminal pH 6.0 was greater (P < .05) over a 24-h period for steers dosed with 100% DRC than for steers dosed with 50% DRC: 50% WCGF or 100% WCGF. In addition, more (P < .05) ruminal VFA accumulated over 24 h for steers dosed with 100% DRC. These data suggest that feeding WCGF does nor eliminate ruminal acidosis but may reduce the length of time cattle are exposed to the insult. PMID:8617663
Matope, Gift; Bhebhe, Evison; Muma, John Bwalya; Oloya, James; Madekurozwa, Rachel L; Lund, Arve; Skjerve, Eystein
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and the associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Gokwe, Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Nharira, Rusitu and Wedza areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 1,440 cattle from 203 herds were tested serially for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal test and the competitive ELISA. Weighted seroprevalence estimates were calculated and risk factors in individual cattle investigated using logistic regression analysis. The overall individual animal brucellosis seroprevalence was low, with mean of 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4%, 6.8%). Gokwe had the highest individual (12.6%; 95% CI, 3.9%, 21.4%) and herd-level (40.0%; 95% CI, 22.1%, 58.0%), while Wedza had the lowest individual (2.3%; 95% CI, 0%, 5.3%) and herd-level (8.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%, 18.9%) brucellosis seroprevalence, respectively. In individual cattle, the area of origin, age and history of abortion were independently associated with brucellosis seroprevalence. While the seroprevalence was independent of sex, it decreased with increasing age. Cattle 2-4 years old had higher odds (odds ratio (OR)?=?3.2; 95% CI, 1.1%, 9.1%) of being seropositive compared to those >7 years. Cows with a history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive (OR?=?7.9; 95% CI, 3.1, 20.1) than controls. In conclusion, the area-to-area variation of brucellosis may be linked to ecological factors and differences in management practices. The implementation of stamping out policy, bleeding and testing animals before movement and promoting the use self-contained units are likely to significantly reduce the public health risks associated with Brucella infections in cattle. PMID:21327714
Adwoa, Asante-Poku; Kwame G, Aning; Bashiru, Boi-Kikimoto; Dorothy, Yeboah-Manu.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT). Positive reac [...] tors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30%) yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb) and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT). Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.
Full Text Available The increasingly frequent use of nuclear energy in peacetime, experimental nuclear and thermo-nuclear explosions, as well as accidents in nuclear plants lead to an increased and unequal distribution of radioactive substances in the environment. Mankind is in this way threatened not only by environmental irradiation, but also by consuming contaminated food and water which contain radionuclides whose concentrations are above the level of natural radioactivity. From the aspect of the veterinary profession, the most important task is to organize the protection of domestic animals and their products from radioactive contamination. This work presents the results obtained by measurements of the activity level of 137Cs in products of animal origin and cattle feed, in samples obtained from border crossings in Yugoslavia and partly in Macedonia during the period from 1990 until 1999. Examined import samples were taken from cheese, prok, and corn and the activity level of 137Cs was within the permitted legal levels - less than 1 Bq/kg. However, powdered milk was found to contain an activity level of 137Cs from 1,22-7,27 Bq/kg, and saltwater fish from 1,10-3,30 Bq/kg, so that these products could not be released for sale under the Official Gazette of the FRY, Number 53/91.
Mc Hugh, N; Meuwissen, T H E; Cromie, A R; Sonesson, A K
Genomic selection has the potential to increase the accuracy of selection and, therefore, genetic gain, as well as reducing the rate of inbreeding, yet few studies have evaluated the potential benefit of the contribution of females in genomic selection programs. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on genetic gain, accuracy of selection, generation interval, and inbreeding, of including female genotypes in a genomic selection breeding program. A population of approximately 3,500 females and 500 males born annually was simulated and split into an elite and commercial tier representation of the Irish national herd. Several alternative breeding schemes were evaluated to quantify the potential benefit of female genomic information within dairy breeding schemes. Results showed that the inclusion of female phenotypic and genomic information can lead to a 3-fold increase in the rate of genetic gain compared with a traditional BLUP breeding program and decrease the generation interval of the males by 3.8 yr, while maintaining a reasonable rate of inbreeding. The accuracy of the selected males was increased by 73% in the final 3 yr of the genomic schemes compared with the traditional BLUP scheme. The results of this study have several implications for national breeding schemes. Although an investment in genotyping a large population of animals is required, these costs can be offset by the greater genetic gain achievable through the increased accuracy of selection and decreased generation intervals associated with genomic selection. PMID:21787946
Full Text Available Sejumlah penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menyelidiki faedah pemecahan batang alfalfa pada saat dipanen di daerah prairi terhadap lama pengeringan, sifat-sifat nutrisi pada saat disimpan dan nilai nutrisi pakan. Alfalfa pada awal pertumbuhan bunga dipanen menggunakan salah satu dari dua mesin. : mesin convensional, (CONV atau dengan mesin pemecah batang yang mempunyai empat tingkat pemecahan (LIGHT : ringan,LIGHT + : agak berat, SEVERE : berat dan SEVERE+ : sangat berat. Selama pengeringan, perlakuan LIGHT + s.d. SEVERE+ mencapai kadar Bahan Kering (BK 45 % dan 80% dalam waktu masing-masing hanya sekitar 2 jam dan 9-11 jam, dibanding CONV, yang mencapai kadar BK tersebut berturut-turut dlm waktu 6 dan 54 jam. Padet sapi pedaging mengonsumsi BK silase 13 % lebih banyak dan memperoleh pertambahan bobot badan harian 22.7% lebih berat (P<0.05 jika batang alfalfa dipecah pada saat dipanen(SEVERE, dibanding tidak (CONV , pada awal pertumbuhan selama 21 hari. Sapi perah Holstein betina awal laktasi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung silase dan hay dari alfalfa yang batangnya dipecah pada saat dipanen memproduksi susu dengan kandungan gizi yang sama disbanding batang. Namun demikian, kelompok sapi yang diberi ransum yang mengandung alfalfa yang terpecah batangnya memberikan bobot hidup yang lebih berat dan nilai kondisi tubuh yang lebih baik (P<0.05 pada saat akhir penelitian laktasi selama 14 minggu. (Animal Production 3(2: 83-90 (2001 Key Words : Alfalfa, maceration, wilting time, silage, hay, dairy, beef.
Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.
Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.
A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)
Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.
Walker, S.L.; Smith, R. F.; Routly, J.E.; Jones, D N; Morris, M.J.; Dobson, H
The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 ± 1.4 d postpartum) were monitored on a commercial dairy farm for 5 d following estrus synchronization. Overall, lame cows (n = 39) spent proportionately less ...
Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane
In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1°C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1°C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the thermoneutral zone and temperature effects outside this zone is of primary interest for farmers because it can help determine when to implement appropriate preventive and mitigation measures. PMID:26005951
Stark, A; Wellnitz, O; Dechow, C; Bruckmaier, R; Baumrucker, C
Colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) is of major importance for the newborn calf because epitheliochorial placentae do not provide transport in utero. The formation of colostrum occurs in the later stages of pregnancy. Our objectives were to induce lactation in non-pregnant dairy cows and (i) to determine the changes of IgG in serum and mammary secretions during the induction process and (ii) to establish ?-lactalbumin (?LA) and prolactin (Prl) alterations to monitor the changing mammary epithelial tight junction status and development pattern. Estradiol-17? (E2) and progesterone (P4) injections in a 1-7 days series were combined with a 3-day injection series (day 21-23) of dexamethasone (DEX). Blood and both front quarter secretion samples were collected daily. Milking started 24 days after the start of the experiment. Results show that the mammary secretory IgG1 was increased at >7 days after the start of steroid injections and depicted a bimodal pattern reaching a high of 16 mg/ml at 21 day compared with 3.2 mg/ml in the serum. There was a small increase in secretory IgG2 that did not correlate with tight junction status, but never reached the serum concentration. The injections of DEX resulted in constriction of tight junctions. Secretory ?LA was immediately increased with steroid injections, dropped precipitously after 7 days and then began a steady increase until the start of milking. Changes in serum ?LA are related to mammary tight junctions while serum Prl gradually increased from 30 to >60 ng/ml after the steroid injections stopped. These results provide insights into the mechanisms and timing of colostrogenesis during an induced lactation protocol. PMID:24828984
Romero, C.; Pardo, M; Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Diaz, R; Blasco, J.M.; Lopez-Goñi, I
A study was performed to evaluate the previously described PCR (C. Romero, C. Gamazo, M. Pardo, and I. López-Goñi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:615-617, 1995) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle. Milk samples from 56 Brucella milk culture-positive cattle and from 37 cattle from Brucella-free herds were examined for Brucella DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificities of both tests were 100% when testing the milk sam...
In this paper, results of a two year experiment conducted with cross-bred cattle grazing natural herbage under coconut with the objective of alleviating feed shortage and improving the quality by feeding tree fodder and a low cost concentrate with critical nutrients are discussed. The experiment was conducted in a coconut plantation at Kotawila, Matara district (WIZ) of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. There were four treatments, coconut only with out fertilizer (T1); coconut only + fertilizer (recommended levels) (T2); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers (165 kg ± 25) grazed natural herbage + urea treated straw during dry period (T3); coconut + tethered cross-bred heifers grazed natural herbage +tree fodder (2 kg/d fresh) + concentrate supplement (250 g/d) +urea treated straw during dry season (T4) arranged in a randomized block design with 3 replicates with a stocking rate of 2 heifers / 0.4 ha. The concentrate supplement contained Rice bran 400 g, Molasses 400 g, urea 100 g and minerals 80 g per kg with minimum amount of water to dissolve as a paste. Herbage dry matter yields in all treatments were positively related to the seasonal rainfall. The highest and lowest average bi-monthly dry matter (DM) yields were 2296 kg/ha/yr for T2 and 1496 kg/ha/yr for T3 respectively. The herbage yields of grazed treatments were marginally sufficient to meet the feed requirements of grazing cattle during the wet season. Botanical composition of herbage increased with grazing due to improved ground cover. In grazing treatments horizontal species such as Axonopus affinis, A. compressus and Puraria were dominant while vertical species such as Veronica cinera and Lantana camara were dominant in ungrazed plots. The differences in dry matter yield between T3 and T4 increased towards the latter stage of the experimental period, probably due to low grazing pressure by animals in T4 receiving supplementation. Similarly, herbage nitrogen content increased in T4 but decreased in T3 due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)
The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs
Liu, Gang; Su, Yan; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhao, Jixue; Zhang, Tianyu; Ahmad, Waqas; Lu, Huijun; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Qijun; Xiang, Mei; Yin, Jigang
Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal parasite responsible for diarrhea in humans and other animals worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of bovine giardiosis and to perform molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in the northeast of China. A total of 655 fecal specimens were collected from dairy cattle in 15 farms located in three different provinces. G.?duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. As a whole, the G.?duodenalis infection rate in dairy cattle was 7.9% (52/655), as determined by Lugol's iodine staining. Two assemblages were identified, namely, the potentially zoonotic assemblage A (n?=?1), the livestock-specific assemblage E (n?=?50), and a mixed infection case of assemblages A and E. Seven distinct subtypes of E assemblages were identified and E-XI, E-I and E-III are the major subtypes. Only subtype A-I was identified in assemblage A. Findings relevant to assemblage A are of public health importance. The results indicated the livestock-specific assemblage E is the major genotype and zoonotic assemblage A or B occurs very seldomly which is significantly different with previous report in the same area. So that determination of genotypes in individual epidemiological setting can make important contributions to public health. PMID:25845754
Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17?-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ? 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ? Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ? Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ? The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ? The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.
Gandini, G; Stella, A; Del Corvo, M; Jansen, G B
Local breeds are rarely subject to modern selection techniques; however, selection programs will be required if local breeds are to remain a viable livelihood option for farmers. Selection in small populations needs to take into account accurate inbreeding control. Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is efficient in controlling inbreeding and maximizes genetic gain. The current paper investigates genetic progress in simulated dairy cattle populations from 500 to 6,000 cows undergoing young bull selection schemes with OCS compared with truncation selection (TS) at an annual inbreeding rate of 0.003. Selection is carried out for a dairy trait with a base heritability of 0.3. A young bull selection scheme was used because of its simplicity in implementation. With TS, annual genetic gain from 0.111 standard deviation units with 500 cows increases rapidly to 0.145 standard deviation units with 4,000 cows. Then, genetic gain increases more slowly up to 6,000 cows. At the same inbreeding rate, OCS produces higher genetic progress than TS. Differences in genetic gain between OCS and TS vary from to 2 to 6.3%. Genetic gain is also improved by increasing the number of years that males can be used as sires of sires. When comparing OCS versus TS at different heritabilities, we observe an advantage of OCS only at high heritability, up to 8% with heritability of 0.9. By increasing the constraint on inbreeding, the difference of genetic gain between the 2 selection methods increases in favor of OCS, and the advantage at the inbreeding rate of 0.001 per generation is 6 times more than at the inbreeding rate of 0.003. Opportunities exist for selection even in dairy cattle populations of a few hundred females. In any case, selection in local breeds will most often require specific investments in infrastructure and manpower, including systems for accurate data recording and selection skills and the presence of artificial insemination and breeders organizations. A cost-benefit analysis is therefore advisable before considering the implementation of selection schemes in local dairy cattle breeds. PMID:24440254
Full Text Available El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumenta [...] r la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that th [...] ere are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) and affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.
Ducheyne, Els; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Rinaldi, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Demeler, Janina; Brandt, Christina; De Waal, Theo; Selemetas, Nikolaos; Höglund, Johan; Kaba, Jaroslaw; Kowalczyk, Slawomir J; Hendrickx, Guy
A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status assessed using an indirect bulk tank milk (BTM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dairy farms were considered exposed when the optical density ratio (ODR) exceeded the 0.3 cut-off. Two ensemble-modelling techniques, Random Forests (RF) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT), were used to obtain the spatial distribution of the probability of exposure to Fasciola hepatica using remotely sensed environmental variables (1-km spatial resolution) and interpolated values from meteorological stations as predictors. The median ODRs amounted to 0.31, 0.12, 0.54, 0.25 and 0.44 for Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and southern Sweden, respectively. Using the 0.3 threshold, 571 municipalities were categorized as positive and 429 as negative. RF was seen as capable of predicting the spatial distribution of exposure with an area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.83 (0.96 for BRT). Both models identified rainfall and temperature as the most important factors for probability of exposure. Areas of high and low exposure were identified by both models, with BRT better at discriminating between low-probability and high-probability exposure; this model may therefore be more useful in practise. Given a harmonized sampling strategy, it should be possible to generate robust spatial models for fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe to be used as input for temporal models and for the detection of deviations in baseline probability. Further research is required for model output in areas outside the eco-climatic range investigated. PMID:25826307
Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with rep period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise
Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil
Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before calving, 2) lying- and feeding behavior during a normal or extended stay in an individual maternity pen during the days aroundcalving, and 3) the calving behavior and calf vitality after calving. A secondary objective was to investigate if dairy cows have a preference for a certain flooring surface during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect of housing on the calving behavior or the vitality signs of the calves. However, cows that were previously housed in straw yards had a faster expulsion phase of the calf, from the stage where the calf legs were visible, which suggests that there may still be beneficial effects of straw yard housing in the dry period. Cows spent more time feeding and lying down when housed for an extended time in the maternity pen compared to cows that were moved back to the 10 lactation group shortly after calving. Cows that had a free choice between different flooring types during the days before calving showed a preference to lie down and give birth on sand or concrete flooring with a thick layer of straw bedding compared to rubber mats with a thick layer of straw bedding. These results show that; 1) straw yards facilitate a more flexible lying behavior, 2) additional time in individual maternity pens may have positive effects on lying- and feeding behavior after calving, and 3) a thick layer of straw is sufficient to provide a comfortable lying area on sand or concrete during the time close to calving. This PhD suggests that there are beneficial behavioral aspects by housing dairy cows on straw during the transition period. Further investigation is needed to find the best way of accommodating dairy cow comfort during the transition period
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.
E., van Marle-Köster; C., Visser; D.P., Berry.
Full Text Available The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selecti [...] on (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by using marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.
E.F, Dzomba; K.A, Nephawe; A.N, Maiwashe; S.W.P, Cloete; M, Chimonyo; C.B, Banga; C.J.C, Muller; K, Dzama.
Full Text Available Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation cu [...] rve for cows in similar contemporary groups and homogeneity of additive genetic variances across lactation and for its inability to account for persistency of lactation. The random regression test-day model has been suggested as a more appropriate method and is currently implemented by several Interbull member-countries. This review traces the development of random regression methods and their adoption in test-day models. Comparisons are drawn with the fixed regression test-day model. The paper discusses reasons for suggesting the adoption of the random regression approach for dairy cattle evaluation in South Africa and identifies the key areas where research efforts should focus.
We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...
Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn
The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller's grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (pNet income was meaningfully increased (pnet income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183
Lucia Bailoni; Valerio Bondesan; Silvia Miotello
The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B), time of sampling (ST) and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI), diet...
This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)
Romero, C; Pardo, M; Grillo, M J; Diaz, R; Blasco, J M; Lopez-Goñi, I
A study was performed to evaluate the previously described PCR (C. Romero, C. Gamazo, M. Pardo, and I. López-Goñi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:615-617, 1995) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle. Milk samples from 56 Brucella milk culture-positive cattle and from 37 cattle from Brucella-free herds were examined for Brucella DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificities of both tests were 100% when testing the milk samples from Brucella-free cattle. The milk samples from 49 infected cattle were positive by PCR (87.5% sensitivity), and 55 were positive by ELISA (98.2% sensitivity). A PCR-positive sample was negative by ELISA, and 7 ELISA-positive samples were PCR negative, yielding an observed proportion of agreement of 0.91 for the two tests. Although the results suggest that ELISA is a better screening test than PCR, the combined sensitivity of the two assays was 100%, and their simultaneous application could be more useful than one test alone for a rapid screening of brucellosis in dairy cattle. PMID:8586702
Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo. PMID:23403190
Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digesti...
Paulo Henrique, Cancian; Rodrigo da Costa, Gomes; Fernando Ricardo, Manicardi; Andrea Cristina, Ianni; Marina de Nadai, Bonin; Paulo Roberto, Leme; Saulo da Luz e, Silva.
Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS) and ultrasound (US) for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to eva [...] luate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US) and feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP) and retail product yield (RPY) in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male), 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST]) were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old) and finishing phases (21-month old). Visual scores of conformation (C), precocity (P) and muscling (M) were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT), rump fat thickness (URFT) and ribeye area (UREA) were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio and residual feed intake (RFI) were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle
Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2 are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able to demonstrate that livestock with its detailed records of family structure, genetic, and environmental factors as well as extensive trait recording can be a good model organism for research aspects related to humans.
Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brügemann, K; Simianer, H; König, S
This study presents an approach combining phenotypes from novel traits, deterministic equations from cattle nutrition, and stochastic simulation techniques from animal breeding to generate test-day methane emissions (MEm) of dairy cows. Data included test-day production traits (milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen), conformation traits (wither height, hip width, body condition score), female fertility traits (days open, calving interval, stillbirth), and health traits (clinical mastitis) from 961 first lactation Brown Swiss cows kept on 41 low-input farms in Switzerland. Test-day MEm were predicted based on the traits from the current data set and 2 deterministic prediction equations, resulting in the traits labeled MEm1 and MEm2. Stochastic simulations were used to assign individual concentrate intake in dependency of farm-type specifications (requirement when calculating MEm2). Genetic parameters for MEm1 and MEm2 were estimated using random regression models. Predicted MEm had moderate heritabilities over lactation and ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, with highest heritabilities around DIM 100. Genetic correlations between MEm1 and MEm2 ranged between 0.91 and 0.94. Antagonistic genetic correlations in the range from 0.70 to 0.92 were found for the associations between MEm2 and milk yield. Genetic correlations between MEm with days open and with calving interval increased from 0.10 at the beginning to 0.90 at the end of lactation. Genetic relationships between MEm2 and stillbirth were negative (0 to -0.24) from the beginning to the peak phase of lactation. Positive genetic relationships in the range from 0.02 to 0.49 were found between MEm2 with clinical mastitis. Interpretation of genetic (co)variance components should also consider the limitations when using data generated by prediction equations. Prediction functions only describe that part of MEm which is dependent on the factors and effects included in the function. With high probability, there are more important effects contributing to variations of MEm that are not explained or are independent from these functions. Furthermore, autocorrelations exist between indicator traits and predicted MEm. Nevertheless, this integrative approach, combining information from dairy cattle nutrition with dairy cattle genetics, generated novel traits which are difficult to record on a large scale. The simulated data basis for MEm was used to determine the size of a cow calibration group for genomic selection. A calibration group including 2,581 cows with MEm phenotypes was competitive with conventional breeding strategies. PMID:26026753
van Lingen, H J; Crompton, L A; Hendriks, W H; Reynolds, C K; Dijkstra, J
Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4 production and milk FA concentration induced by dietary lipid supplements. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to quantify relationships between CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Data from 8 experiments encompassing 30 different dietary treatments and 146 observations were included. Yield of CH4 measured in these experiments was 21.5 ± 2.46 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI) and 13.9 ± 2.30 g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Correlation coefficients were chosen as effect size of the relationship between CH4 yield and individual milk FA concentration (g/100g of FA). Average true correlation coefficients were estimated by a random-effects model. Milk FA concentrations of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C16:0, and C16:0-iso were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Concentrations of trans-6+7+8+9 C18:1, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, cis-12 C18:1, cis-13 C18:1, trans-16+cis-14 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Milk FA concentrations of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0-iso, C14:0, cis-9 C14:1, C15:0, and C16:0 were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Concentrations of C4:0, C18:0, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-9 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Mixed model multiple regression and a stepwise selection procedure of milk FA based on the Bayesian information criterion to predict CH4 yield with milk FA as input (g/100g of FA) resulted in the following prediction equations: CH4 (g/kg of DMI)=23.39 + 9.74 × C16:0-iso - 1.06 × trans-10+11 C18:1 - 1.75 × cis-9,12 C18:2 (R(2) = 0.54), and CH4 (g/kg of FPCM) = 21.13 - 1.38 × C4:0 + 8.53 × C16:0-iso - 0.22 × cis-9 C18:1 - 0.59 × trans-10+11 C18:1 (R(2) = 0.47). This indicated that milk FA profile has a moderate potential for predicting CH4 yield per unit of feed and a slightly lower potential for predicting CH4 yield per unit of milk. PMID:25218750
Sidibe, M.; Boly, Hamidou; Lakouetene, T.; Leroy, Pascal; R. H. Bosma
Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled, and 4% transhumant. In total, they held 4558 dairy cows, of which 32% lactated during the study. The prevalence of mastitis (55%) increased (p 60 cattle) had advanced breeding strategies. Bulls an...
Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20 targeted region, however, there was indication on differences in the causal factor(s) across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene showed strong association with milk, fat, protein yields. In HOL, the highest peaks for milk yield and susceptibility to mastitis were separated by over 3.5 Mb (3.8 Mb by haplotype analysis, 3.6 Mb by single SNP analysis), suggesting separate genetic variants for the traits. Further analysis yielded 2 candidate mutations for the mastitis QTL, at 33,642,072 bp (rs378947583) in an intronic region of the caspase recruitment domain protein 6 gene (CARD6) and 35,969,994 bp (rs133596506) in an intronic region of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR). These findings suggest that it may be possible to separate these beneficial and detrimental genetic factors through targeted selective breeding
Emanuel Senyael Swai; Luuk Schoonman
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structu...
Boussini, H; Traoré, A; Tamboura, H H; Bessin, R; Boly, H; Ouédraogo, A
A study of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis was conducted in dairy cattle farms in and around the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It reveals the potential economic and health impact of these two major zoonoses in the study area. Three farming systems were included in the study. A total of 1,420 cattle were tested for tuberculosis and 1,689 cattle were tested for brucellosis. The intradermal tuberculin test was used for tuberculosis, and the buffered antigen test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for brucellosis. The overall prevalence rate is estimated to be 6.05% for tuberculosis and 3.61% for brucellosis. The prevalence rates of tuberculosis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou were found to be high. As these two production-linked diseases are zoonotic, they could pose a major risk to human health and contribute significantly to reducing animal production and productivity in the areas covered by the study. Animals should be checked systematically prior to introducing them into dairy herds, with the ultimate goal of eradicating these two zoonoses. PMID:23520747
van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic prediction across breed
Thomasen, JØrn Rind; SØrensen, Anders Christian
A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain.
O'Grady, D; Byrne, W; Kelleher, P; O'Callaghan, H; Kenny, K; Heneghan, T; Power, S; Egan, J; Ryan, F
To investigate the usefulness of culture for the confirmation of brucellosis in cattle, a comparison of culture and serology was undertaken on 248 animals in four dairy herds where the disease was active. Paired supramammary (SM), retropharyngeal (RP), and internal iliac (IL) lymph nodes were cultured, and five serological tests were deployed: the microserum agglutination test (MSAT), complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect (iELISA) and competitive ELISA, and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA). Brucella abortus was isolated from 86.8% of animals on combined culture of all three lymph nodes. Individually, the highest isolation rate was from the RP (90.5% of culture positives). Of culture positive animals, 13.7% and 6.2% were positive from the RP and SM alone, respectively. Approximately half of the positive cultures yielded brucellosis. While the MSAT and FPA were the most sensitive serological tests, a significant percentage of infected animals were undetectable using these standard serological assays. PMID:24507882
Daniela Souza Rajão
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was genetic parameter estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss crossbred dairy population. The performance of Brown Swiss crossbred cattle in Iran was considered across years 1991-2003. Variance component were estimated using animal model (single trait and Derivative-free restricted Maximum Likelihood method for different traits. The estimation of the heritability for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage and milk days were 0.24, 0.163, 0.175 and 0.334, respectively for single models. Repeatability estimation for mentioned traits was 0.41, 0.31, 0.18 and 0.334. The result showed that the additive genetic variance share in milk yield and milk day’s traits and permanent environmental variance in milk and fat yield are high.
Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.
Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002. Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969, but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995. In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.
Hugo, Imaizumi; Flávio Augusto Portela, Santos; Carla Maris Machado, Bittar; Paulo Sérgio, Correia; Júnio César, Martinez.
Full Text Available O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB), adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína metabolizável ( [...] PM) (NRC, 2001) com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5%) . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação) foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001). O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5) para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5) para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05) pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p Abstract in english Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP), adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable [...] protein (MP) according to NRC (2001), with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk) were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5) to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5) to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05). Milk protein content decreased (p
POLAT, Nebahat; Gül, Mehmet
Aflatoxin in roughage, concentrates and compound feed from dairy farms located in Erzurum province, and the presence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFLM1) in the milk of animals fed with these feeds were determined in four different seasons. The mean level of Aflatoxin M1 detected in milk samples was 0.03 ppb. Aflatoxin M1 levels in the milk samples taken from the holdings were lower in autumn and summer (0.02 ppb) compared to winter and spring (0.04 ppb). The total aflatoxin levels in feed samples were hi...
Elwakeel Eman A
Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant diets.
Ansari-Mahyari, S; SØrensen, A C
This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates
Shoor Vir Singh
Full Text Available Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5% were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’ of MAP, 24 (92.3% and 14 (60.8% were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900, 5 (35.7% were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk, reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.
Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frédéric; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W
Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the microclimatic conditions in stables in three climactic regions (East, Mediterranean, and Central of Croatia as well as to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI values on the daily production of dairy cattle. With that purpose, 1675686 test-day records collected from January 2005 until April 2010 were extracted from HPA (Croatian Agricultural Agency database. For estimation of the effect of THI on daily production of dairy cows fixed-effect model that took into account the effects of lactation stage, breed, calving season, measuring season, and THI group (T1 - THI?72; T2 - THI>72 was used. Model was applied to each class of parity (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 and region. During the analysed period, the highest monthly averages of ambient temperature were determined in Mediterranean region, the highest monthly averages of relative humidity were observed in Central region, while the highest monthly mean values of temperature-humidity index (THI were determined in Mediterranean region. Heat stress conditions indicated with mean daily values of THI>72 were determined during spring and summer season in all analysed regions. Absence of heat stress conditions during autumn and winter season also characterised all three regions. Highly significant (P<0.01 decrease of daily milk yield as well as of daily fat and protein content due to enhanced THI was observed in all cows regardless the parity class and in all three climatic regions. Furthermore, the most deteriorate effect of heat stress was observed in East region. During heat stress period, with the aim of minimization of the effects of heat stress, it is necessary to regulate management strategies in the dairy herd.
Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.
Sugiura, Katsuaki; Kikuchi, Eisaku; Onodera, Takashi
Following the detection of the first case of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan in September 2001, nine million cattle were tested for BSE up to the end of 2008. As a result, a further 28 cases were detected in dairy cattle. Using the mathematical model previously developed and surveillance data up to the end of 2008, we estimated the prevalence of BSE-infected animals within each birth cohort for the years 1995-2001. We predicted historic and future trends in the number of BSE-infected animals to be culled and anticipated BSE cases from each birth cohort. The results indicate that more infected animals (428 (95% CI: 59-727)) than previously estimated would have been culled from 1995 to 2001, and more cases (53 (95% CI: 25-101)) than previously predicted would have been detected during this period with a higher peak in 2001, if a BSE surveillance program as comprehensive as the present one was applied. In and after 2009, 0-2 cases of BSE would likely to be detected. As previously predicted, the BSE epidemic should be eradicated by 2012. PMID:19356815
V. B. Dongre
Full Text Available India possesses one of the largest livestock wealth in the world which comprises of 199 million cattle, 105.3 million buffaloes, 140 million goats and 71.5 million sheep. Even though, India is the largest milk producing country in the world, productivity per animal is less than 50 % of the world average. This is mainly due to poor level of nutrition and low genetic potential for milk production and health care. With ever increasing per capita consumption of milk in the country, there is increase in the domestic demand of milk. Hence therefore, crossbreeding is receiving more importance to overcome this gap. Crossbreeding of zebu cattle with exotic bulls of high merit for increasing productivity was initiated as a part of our breeding policy. The present economic condition demands that not only the individual animal be high producer but should be profitable too. However, the improvement of milk production in past few decades has not necessarily resulted in proportionate increase in profits to dairy farmers as animals with high milk production are prone to increased risk of exposure to health disorders.
Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 placentas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and perivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of hemorrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "n Conclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neospora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.
Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W
Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 ?g/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram-positive mastitis pathogens when used according to label (once per day) in cows milked 3 times per day. PMID:25547305
S M Mutua; Bebe, B.O.; A.K. Kahi; A Y Guliye
Predictive functions for milk yield, dry matter intake, and phosphorous-manure derived from the National Research Council 2001 and the present study were incorporated in the development of a multiple objective dairy feed formulation software program (MoF-Dairy Edition-2010); that attempted to optimise feed cost, milk yield and profits while minimising Phosphorous-excretion in manure. Important objects in the feed milling industry considered in the program development were feed millers, dairy ...
Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla
Smallholder dairy farmers in Rwanda use diversity of resources to cope with endemic feed shortages. However, there is inadequate real farm data to support farmer decisions on choices of options. The main objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of feed types that farmers use in different agro-ecological zones of Rwanda. Samples of feed types were collected from 90 randomly selected households in the low- and mid-high-altitude zones of Rwanda and analysed for proximate composition, contents of metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFd). Rumen fermentation characteristics and efficiency of energy utilisation were examined by determining partitioning factor (PF). Results showed that only five out of 24 feed types were common in both districts. Chemical composition, OMD, ME, NDFd and PF of these feed types differed significantly (P?Rwanda. PMID:25921293
ZHANG, Q; Boichard, D.; Hoeschele, I.; Ernst, C.; Eggen, A.; Murkve, B; Pfister-Genskow, M; Witte, L A; Grignola, F E; Uimari, P.; Thaller, G.; Bishop, M D
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production and health of dairy cattle were mapped in a very large Holstein granddaughter design. The analysis included 1794 sons of 14 sires and 206 genetic markers distributed across all 29 autosomes and flanking an estimated 2497 autosomal cM using Kosambi's mapping function. All families were analyzed jointly with least-squares (LS) and variance components (VC) methods. A total of 6 QTL exceeding approximate experiment-wise significance threshol...
Jensen Just; Madsen Per; Sorensen Daniel; Klemetsdal Gunnar; Heringstad Bjørg; Øegård Jørgen; Gianola Daniel; Detilleux Johann
Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out ...
Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M. H. T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.
The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage and detailed FA contents in milk (14 individual FA and 14 groups of FA) predicted from mid-infrared spectra were used. Mid-infrared spectrometry profiles were collected during regular milk recordi...
Egger-Danner, C.; Cole, J B; Pryce, J.E.; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B.; Bradley, A; Stock, K. F.
For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such ...
Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav
This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM.
Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency
Masson Luke; Juba Jean; Kuldau Gretchen; Turkington Kelly; Erb Stephanie; Baines Danica; Mazza Alberto; Roberts Ray
Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage S...
Kovács, L; Jurkovich, V; Bakony, M; Szenci, O; Póti, P; T?zsér, J
Heart rate (HR) measurements have been used to determine stress in livestock species since the beginning of the 1970s. However, according to the latest studies in veterinary and behaviour-physiological sciences, heart rate variability (HRV) proved to be more precise for studying the activity of the autonomic nervous system. In dairy cattle, HR and HRV indices have been used to detect stress caused by routine management practices, pain or milking. This review provides the significance of HR and HRV measurements in dairy cattle by summarising current knowledge and research results in this area. First, the biological background and the interrelation of the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function, stress, HR and HRV are discussed. Equipment and methodological approaches developed to measure interbeat intervals and estimate HRV in dairy cattle are described. The methods of HRV analysis in time, frequency and non-linear domains are also explained in detail emphasising their physiological background. Finally, the most important scientific results and potential possibilities for future research are presented. PMID:24308850
Chelikani, P K; Ambrose, J D; Keisler, D H; Kennelly, J J
We determined the effects of short-term fasting and refeeding on temporal changes in plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), in early lactating cows, non-lactating pregnant cows, and postpubertal heifers. In experiment 1, Holstein cows in early lactation were either fed ad libitum (Control, n=5) or feed deprived for 48 h (Fasted, n=6). Plasma leptin, insulin, and glucose concentrations rapidly declined (P0.10) within 2h of refeeding. Plasma NEFA and GH concentrations were elevated (P0.10) by 8 and 24h after refeeding, respectively. In experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated pregnant non-lactating Holstein cows were used in a cross-over design and were fasted for 48 h (Fasted) or fasted with partial evacuation of rumen contents (Fasted-Evac). The plasma variables measured did not differ (P>0.10) between Fasted and Fasted-Evac cows. Plasma leptin, insulin, and IGF-1 concentrations were reduced by 10, 6, and 24h of fasting, respectively, in Fasted-Evac cows; and these variables were reduced by 24h in Fasted cows (P0.10) affected by fasting. Collectively, our data provide evidence that plasma leptin concentrations are reduced with short-term fasting and rebound on refeeding in dairy cattle with the response dependent on the physiological state of the animals. Compared to the rapid induction of hypoleptinemia with fasting of early lactation cows, the fasting-induced hypoleptinemia was delayed in non-lactating cows and postpubertal heifers. PMID:14732451
Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Odo, Primavesi; Magda Aparecida, Lima; Rosa, Frighetto; Simone Gisele de, Oliveira; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli.
Full Text Available Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas [...] secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, [...] 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu) ¼), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p
Full Text Available Field observations undertaken during October 1995 to April 2001 in agricultural areas and nature reserves of the central Free State, indicate that cattle egrets mainly feed in commensalistic association with ungulates or even farm implements. A higher percentage farm animals than game was involved herewith. Based on calculated preference indices only three species, namely cattle, buffalo and white rhino, qualified as key hosts. Eland, gemsbok, impala and horses were classified as major hosts, while the rest of the thirteen observed host species were identified as minor hosts. More than half of all feeding associations (58,4% occurred during the early mornings followed by a decrease during the middle of the day with a slight increase again later in the afternoon. Depending on the host species involved, notable differences occurred in the time of association. Cattle were the only host species with which cattle egrets associated during any time of the day. Evidently, cattle egrets associated most often with larger host species which were actively grazing. In grassland habitats the birds mainly fed in front of grazing hosts, but behind those that moved too fast.
Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of feeding preferences of ruminants may help to define diet supplementation, achieve an efficient exploitation of natural resources and preserve normal body condition of the animal. Thereafter, such knowledge may enable to improve reproductive and productive performance as well as product quality. Ruminants generally develop preferences for feed that are richer in energy, providing them a high satiety level rapidly (Provenza, 1995. Nevertheless, physical characteristics, accessibility and palatability properties of feed per se can stimulate or depress hedonic behaviour and........
Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.
Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992
Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc
The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during May 2004-March 2005 for 7 times approximately at monthly intervals from dairy cows (n=80) stationed at the Chamau research farm of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Switzerland. Benefits of KF were demonstrated using random walk models via simulations. Breeding values were predicted over days in milk for BCS by KF-RW. Variance components were predicted by Gibbs sampling. Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) and KF-RW were compared under different longitudinal experimental designs, and results showed that KF-RW gave more reasonable estimates especially for lower smoother span of LOWESS. Estimates of variance components were found more accurate when the number of observations and number of subjects increased and increasing these quantities decreased standard errors. Fifty subjects with 10 observations each, started to give reasonable estimates. Posterior means for variance components were found (with standard errors) 0.03 (0.006) for animal genetic variance 0.04 (0.007) for permanent environmental variance and 0.21 (0.02) for error variance. Since KF gives online estimation of breeding values and does not need to store or invert matrices, this methodology could be useful in animal breeding industry for obtaining online estimation of breeding values over days in milk.
Schultz, N.; Capion, N.
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M
Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator. Farmers perceived crossbreeding as success and recommended it. We conclude that farmers can realize income increase with crossbreeding. The complexity of this technology, high initial investment and the need for support services and external production inputs are probable reasons why crossbreeding uptake is low. Improving the availability of semen and/or bulls must be the top priority for breeding service providers to enable farmers to follow a breeding strategy and reach a suitable and sustainable herd performance. Access to investment capital, input supply, strong technical support and market linkages are crucial for successful crossbreeding. PMID:25230246
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1 the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV, and 2 prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.
Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Grant, J; Ibrahim, T G; Fenton, O
Chemical amendment of dairy cattle slurry has been shown to effectively reduce incidental phosphorus (P) losses in runoff; however, the effects of amendments on incidental nitrogen (N) losses are not as well documented. This study examined P and N losses in runoff during three simulated rainfall events 2, 10 and 28 days after a single application of unamended/chemically amended dairy cattle slurry. Twenty-five hydraulically isolated plots, each measuring 0.9 m by 0.4 m and instrumented with runoff collection channels, were randomly assigned the following treatments: (i) grass-only, (ii) slurry-only (the study-control), (iii) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid alum comprising 8% Al?O?, (iv) slurry amended with industrial grade liquid poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) comprising 10% Al?O?, and (v) slurry amended with lime. During the first rainfall event, lime was ineffective but alum and PAC effectively reduced dissolved reactive P (DRP) (by 95 and 98%, respectively) and total P (TP) flow-weighted-mean-concentrations (by 82 and 93%, respectively) in runoff compared to the study-control. However, flow-weighted-mean-concentrations of ammonium-N (NH?--N) in runoff were increased with alum- (81%) and lime-treated (11%) slurry compared to the study-control whereas PAC reduced the NH?--N by 82%. Amendments were not observed to have a significant effect on NO?--N losses during this study. Slurry amendments reduced P losses for the duration of the study, whereas the effect of amendments on N losses was not significant following the first event. Antecedent volumetric water content of the soil or slope of the plots did not appear to affect runoff volume. However, runoff volumes (and consequently loads of P and N) were observed to increase for the chemically amended plots compared to the control and soil-only plots. This work highlights the importance of considering both P and N losses when implementing a specific nutrient mitigation measure. PMID:23137978
N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.
Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.
Full Text Available Information on effects of weather conditions on milk production of dairy cows is rather scarce. Legislation exists in some countries saying when and how protection should be available for cows on pasture. Producers refer to the extra costs, and are not always convinced of the return of investment. Therefore, (reproduction variables of high producing dairy cows were reviewed in relation to weather conditions in a mild climate. The objective was to understand mechanisms cows are using for acclimatization, which might affect (reproduction, and to propose managing tools. An overall critical dry air temperature seems to be about 16 °C, with cumulative interactions from relative humidity, wind speed, radiation and rain fall. The explanation is related to the cow’s thermoregulatory physiology associated with her heat and energy balance, as a primary need. Modulating factors, such as breed, individual capacity, feed composition and farm management have to be taken into account. The effects have to be considered as important at herd level, especially in a system with year round calving, since production might be below peak production up to six months of the year. Planning of day of calving should avoid peak production during summer, since mild heat stress might counteract the expression of genetic progress for (reproduction. However, since the most important factor seems to be the level of dry air temperature, the effects will be independent of protection or not. Hence, there will be no direct return of investment moneywise, but indirectly as appreciation from society for animal welfare.
Jones, P J; Marier, E A; Tranter, R B; Wu, G; Watson, E; Teale, C J
There has been growing concern about bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in the farmed livestock sector. Attention has turned to sub-optimal use of antimicrobials as a driver of resistance. Recent reviews have identified a lack of data on the pattern of antimicrobial use as an impediment to the design of measures to tackle this growing problem. This paper reports on a study that explored use of antibiotics by dairy farmers and factors influencing their decision-making around this usage. We found that respondents had either recently reduced their use of antibiotics, or planned to do so. Advice from their veterinarian was instrumental in this. Over 70% thought reducing antibiotic usage would be a good thing to do. The most influential source of information used was their own veterinarian. Some 50% were unaware of the available guidelines on use in cattle production. However, 97% thought it important to keep treatment records. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to identify dairy farmers' drivers and barriers to reduce use of antibiotics. Intention to reduce usage was weakly correlated with current and past practice of antibiotic use, whilst the strongest driver was respondents' belief that their social and advisory network would approve of them doing this. The higher the proportion of income from milk production and the greater the chance of remaining in milk production, the significantly higher the likelihood of farmers exhibiting positive intention to reduce antibiotic usage. Such farmers may be more commercially minded than others and thus more cost-conscious or, perhaps, more aware of possible future restrictions. Strong correlation was found between farmers' perception of their social referents' beliefs and farmers' intent to reduce antibiotic use. Policy makers should target these social referents, especially veterinarians, with information on the benefits from, and the means to, achieving reductions in antibiotic usage. Information on sub-optimal use of antibiotics as a driver of resistance in dairy herds and in humans along with advice on best farm practice to minimize risk of disease and ensure animal welfare, complemented with data on potential cost savings from reduced antibiotic use would help improve poor practice. PMID:26123631
Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB) including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL) i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF) (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls) in the VAL dataset Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB) dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls) was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls) though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs) and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs) were found genome-wide significant Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P < 0.05 Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive
Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences
Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4 pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.
Odo, Primavesi; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi, Frighetto; Márcio dos Santos, Pedreira; Magda Aparecida de, Lima; Telma Teresinha, Berchielli; Pedro Franklin, Barbosa.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4) pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6), em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da [...] raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã) adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4) emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and [...] dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI) varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.
Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding strategies; MR1, MR2-E or MR2-L. Cows fed according to the MR1 strategy were allowed one medium energy ration during the whole lactation. Cows on the MR2 strategies were allowed a high energy ration during early lactation, followed by an early (MR2-E) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows into a second period of mobilization, whereas cows continued to gain live weight in response to late reduction of ration energy concentration. In general results from the present experiment indicate that feeding according to live weight can be used to manipulate the extent and the duration of the mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition metabolism. Additionally the results suggest that the transition period from mobilization to deposition is relatively short. Udgivelsesdato: December
Maillard, R; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S; Chomel, B; Delcroix, T; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Halos, L; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Boulouis, H-J
Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnancy status. The putative impact of Bartonella infection on production performance (individual milk cell count, milk yield) and reproductive status (success of artificial insemination [AI], placental retention, embryonic death, and abortion) was also assessed. The overall mean prevalence of B. bovis bacteremia was 59%, with the highest prevalence in heifers (92.5%). No B. chomelii was isolated, and 95% (114/120) of the B. bovis strains isolated and tested by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism belonged to type I. The level of bacteremia was higher in pregnant cows than in nonpregnant cows (P = 0.05), and the level of bacteremia rose during the last two-thirds of gestation (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between bacteremia and milk yield, individual milk cell count, success of first AI, interval between two calvings, or incidence of abortion and embryonic death. The interval from calving to first AI was shorter and the incidence of placental retention was lower in bacteremic animals than in nonbacteremic ones (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). PMID:16390945
Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF, Dutch Friesian (DF, Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY, and F1 crossbreds (DFxHF and MRYxHF were considered. According to cows’ year of calving, productive records from animals calving from 1980 to 2004 were divided in five periods, while SCS records from animals calving from 1990 to 2004 were divided in four periods. Data were processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA according to a linear model which included effects of herd, season of calving, age at calving, and the genotype by period of calving interaction effect. Moreover, a linear covariate of sire’s estimated breeding value (EBV for 305-d milk yield was added to the model for yield traits. Heterosis values for productive traits were positive but decreased over time. For 305-d milk yield these values changed from 7.5 to 3.0% in the DFxHF crossbreds, and from 9.0 to 1.0% in the MRYxHF crossbreds. Average heterosis for SCS (-1.2% was small and negative with a favourable trend over years.
Wenz, J R; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Elia, R; Prentice, D; Dinsmore, R P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (i.m.) ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg) on important outcomes of systemically mild clinical mastitis episodes in lactating dairy cattle. Cows with clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to a treatment group: pirlimycin intramammary (i.m.m.) (n = 35), pirlimycin i.m.m. and ceftiofur i.m.m. (n = 36), cephapirin i.m.m. (n = 40), cephapirin i.m. and ceftiofur i.m. (n = 33). Sixty-nine, 22, and 9% of initial cultures were gram-negative, gram-positive, and mixed, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant associations between treatment groups and loss of quarter, recurrence, or culling. Mixed infections, positive milk culture at 7 d after leaving hospital pen, decreased rumen motility, and absence of udder firmness were associated with increased odds of mastitis recurrence. The results suggest that i.m. ceftiofur treatment has no beneficial effects on the outcome of systemically mild clinical mastitis. PMID:16162523
van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier
The increasing number of sequenced individuals makes the use of sequences for genomic prediction feasible. With the current SNP chips, the accuracy of genomic selection is limited in populations with low linkage disequilibrium, as is the case in across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. Sequence data is more likely to contain causative mutations and therefore increase the prediction accuracy in such populations. We studied the potential advantage of using real sequence data for prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations using sequence data of chromosome 1 for 122 Holstein, 27 Jersey, 28 Montbéliarde, 23 Normande and 24 Danish Red bulls. Different scenarios varying the number of causative mutations (10, 50, 100 or 250), minor allele frequency of causative mutations and prediction markers, and sets of prediction markers were used. Prediction markers were either SNP on the 50K and HD chips, or two 1 Kb intervals on both sides of each causative mutation, varying the distance between causative mutations and intervals from 1 base to 1 Mb. Subsequently, the regression coefficient of the genomic relationships at prediction markers on the genomic relationships at causal loci was used to quantify the reduction in prediction R2 resulting from the use of prediction markers rather than the causative mutations. The reduction in prediction R2 was lowest when a limited number of variants close to the causative mutations was used and increased when more variants were added or the distance to the causative mutations increased. This increase was larger across breed than within breed
Santolaria, P; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Nogareda, C; Mezo, M; Gonzalez-Warleta, M; Castro-Hermida, J A; Pabón, M; Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F
The antigen-specific IgG subclass response may be a convenient indicator of the underlying nature of T helper cell regulation. The aim of the present study was to identify possible differences in Neospora caninum-specific total plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels in purebreed and crossbreed pregnancies throughout gestation in beef and dairy cattle chronically infected with N. caninum. Comparisons were also made between aborting and non-aborting dams. The population examined comprised 96 pregnant parous cows seropositive for N. caninum. Plasma antibodies were determined on Days 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation or until abortion. Of the 96 pregnancies examined, 12 ended in abortion. None of the 14 Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows inseminated with HF semen (HF-HF group) aborted, whereas 6 (11.0%) of the 54 HF cows inseminated with Limousin semen (HF-L group) and 6 (21.4%) of the 28 Rubia Gallega (RG) beef cows inseminated with RG semen (RG-RG group) aborted. In the 84 non-aborting cows, a significant positive effect of gestation day was observed on total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies levels (Pcattle. PMID:21216103
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ? 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ?36 m, lactation period of ? 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.
Full Text Available Abstract A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease. These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allele frequency distribution at the DGAT1 p.K232A polymorphic site in seven Italian dairy and dual purpose cattle breeds. On the whole, 651 animals belonging Italian Holstein (116, Italian Brown (105, Italian Simmental (95, Valdostana Red Pied (95, Rendena (62, Reggiana (128 and Modenese (50 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Sequencing was carried out to confirm results of the genotyping protocol. The DGAT1 p.232K allele was identified in Italian Holstein (25.4%, Reggiana (17.2%, and with very low frequency in Italian Simmental, Valdostana Red Pied and Rendena (1%. In Italian Brown and Modenese, this allele was not detected. These results indicated that this polymorphic site can be considered for association studies only in Italian Holstein and Reggiana breeds. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the Reggiana breed (P<0.01 in which there was an excess of heterozygous sires and absence of animals with the p.232KK genotype. This result should be further evaluated because the analysed sires represented almost all bulls available for artificial insemination in this breed. Comparison of allele frequencies at the DGAT1 locus with several other Holstein populations showed a wide range of variability, probably due to different selection strategies adopted.
Kuhnert, Peter; Dubosson, Christoph R; Roesch, Markus; Homfeld, Esther; Doherr, Marcus G; Blum, Jürg W
Cattle are a natural reservoir for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), however, no data are available on the prevalence and their possible association with organic or conventional farming practices. We have therefore studied the prevalence of STEC and specifically O157:H7 in Swiss dairy cattle by collecting faeces from approximately 500 cows from 60 farms with organic production (OP) and 60 farms with integrated (conventional) production (IP). IP farms were matched to OP farms and were comparable in terms of community, agricultural zone, and number of cows per farm. E. coli were grown overnight in an enrichment medium, followed by DNA isolation and PCR analysis using specific TaqMan assays. STEC were detected in all farms and O157:H7 were present in 25% of OP farms and 17% of IP farms. STEC were detected in 58% and O157:H7 were evidenced in 4.6% of individual faeces. Multivariate statistical analyses of over 250 parameters revealed several risk-factors for the presence of STEC and O157:H7. Risk-factors were mainly related to the potential of cross-contamination of feeds and cross-infection of cows, and age of the animals. In general, no significant differences between the two farm types concerning prevalence or risk for carrying STEC or O157:H7 were observed. Because the incidence of human disease caused by STEC in Switzerland is low, the risk that people to get infected appears to be small despite a relatively high prevalence in cattle. Nevertheless, control and prevention practices are indicated to avoid contamination of animal products. PMID:15964720
Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M
Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530
Giuseppe De Rosa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto- cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat- tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col- lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame- ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con- cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat- tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52 to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P stepping (P nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance (P that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus less feasible.
Sanderson, Michael W.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Renter, David G.; Griffin, D. Dee; Smith, Robert A.
The objective of this study was to investigate coliform counts in feedlot cattle water and feed rations and their associations with management, climate, fecal material, and water Escherichia coli O157 using a cross-sectional study design. Coliform counts were performed on feed samples from 671 pens on 70 feedlots and on water samples from 702 pens on 72 feedlots in four U.S. states collected between May and August 2001. Management and climate factors were obtained by survey and observation. M...
Full Text Available Feeding extra protein as an attempt to increase amino acid flux to the intestine may increase lactational performance of dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare lactating dairy cow diets containing 16% crude protein (CP, adequate in rumen degradable protein (RDP and metabolizable protein (MP according to NRC (2001, with diets containing 17.5% CP. Forty-two Holstein cows (27 primiparous and 15 multiparous, with 172 days in milk were used in a 3 ´ 3 Latin Square design with 14 replicates. Control diet consisted of 16% CP, adequate in RDP and MP . Crude protein content of diets was increased to 17.5% by feeding extra soybean meal and cottonseed meal (SBCS17.5 to increase diet MP, or extra urea (U-17.5 to increase diet RDP. The experiment was carried out during 60 days with three periods. Animals were group-fed a total mixed ration and milked twice a day. Dry matter intake was higher for the U-17.5 diet (p 0.05. Milk protein content decreased (p O fornecimento de dietas com maior teor de proteína para aumentar o fluxo de aminoácidos para o intestino pode aumentar o desempenho lactacional. Compararam-se dietas para vacas em lactação contendo 16% de proteína bruta (PB, adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína metabolizável (PM (NRC, 2001 com dietas com maiores teores de PB (17,5% . Quarenta e duas vacas (27 primíparas e 15 multíparas, com 172 dias em lactação foram utilizadas em um delineamento do tipo Quadrado Latino 3 ´ 3, com 14 repetições. A dieta controle continha 16% de PB e era adequada em PDR e PM de acordo com o NRC (2001. O teor de PB das dietas foi aumentado para 17,5% através do aumento no fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão (SBCS-17,5 para aumentar a PM, ou uréia (U-17,5 para aumentar a PDR. O experimento teve duração de 60 dias com três subperíodos. Os animais foram alimentados em grupo com ração completa e ordenhados duas vezes ao dia. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para a dieta U-17,5 (p 0,05 pelos tratamentos. O teor de proteína foi reduzido (p < 0,01 pelo maior fornecimento de uréia (U-17,5; enquanto maior produção de proteína do leite (p < 0,01 foi observada para o tratamento SBCS-17,5. Para vacas produzindo em torno de 29 kg d-1, aumentar o teor de PB para 17,5%, por meio do maior fornecimento de farelo de soja e de algodão, acima das recomendações do NRC (2001 para PDR e PM, resultou em aumentos na produção de leite, leite corrigido para gordura e de proteína do leite.
Duncan, A. J.; Teufel, N.; Mekonnen, K.; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B.
Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of ...
Nielsen, H. M.; Groen, A. F.; Ostergaard, S.; Berg, P.
The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production and health in a dairy herd. Because of indirect effects between traits, the phenotypic levels of (related) traits can change as a result of genetic changes. Economic values for milk production and b...
Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy seasons to determine basic reproductive parameters in dairy cows maintained under management and environmental conditions prevailing in Cuba. RIA procedures were used to determine levels of progesterone (P4) and to assist in the measurement of: (1) length of oestrus and time of ovulation in Holstein heifers; (2) functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and their relationship to plasma P4 levels; (3) ovarian activity, uterine involution and P4 levels in Holstein cows post-partum; (4) causes of infertility or subfertility. Length of oestrus, time of ovulation and pre-ovulatory LH peaks in heifers occurred 16.3±0.47, 28.2+-0.3 and 0-6 h after the onset of oestrus respectively. In both dry and rainy seasons, the morphological changes during the oestrus cycle correlated well with plasma P4 levels. The levels of P4 during oestrus were higher during the rainy than the dry season; 0.13 vs. 0.62 ng/mL, 2-4 days post-oestrus (p.o.); 1.53 vs. 4.06 ng/mL, 6-10 days p.o.; and 2.5 vs. 5.1 ng/mL, 14-18 days p.o. During the last 10 days of pregnancy, P4 levels in cows were similar to basal levels during physiological anoestrus (14-21 days post-partum). Silent ovulations and anovulatory heats occurred in 27.4% and 11.1% of animals respectively during the dry season, whilst during the rainy season these parameters were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studs were 32.7% and 13.1% respectively. Studies on repeat breeder cows revealed that 9.2% of them cycled without ovulating. 7.7% were artificially inseminated in the luteal phase, 21.6% had endocrine asynchrony, 7.7% had uterine infections and 9.2% were infertile. It is concluded that the determination of hormonal levels in dairy cattle contributes to an improved understanding of their reproductive behaviour and is of practical value to both the veterinarian and the livestock farmer. (author). 31 refs, 8 tabs
van Pelt, M L; Meuwissen, T H E; de Jong, G; Veerkamp, R F
Longevity, productive life, or lifespan of dairy cattle is an important trait for dairy farmers, and it is defined as the time from first calving to the last test date for milk production. Methods for genetic evaluations need to account for censored data; that is, records from cows that are still alive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these methods also need to take account of survival being genetically a different trait across the entire lifespan of a cow. The data set comprised 112,000 cows with a total of 3,964,449 observations for survival per month from first calving until 72mo in productive life. A random regression model with second-order Legendre polynomials was fitted for the additive genetic effect. Alternative parameterizations were (1) different trait definitions for the length of time interval for survival after first calving (1, 3, 6, and 12mo); (2) linear or threshold model; and (3) differing the order of the Legendre polynomial. The partial derivatives of a profit function were used to transform variance components on the survival scale to those for lifespan. Survival rates were higher in early life than later in life (99 vs. 95%). When survival was defined over 12-mo intervals survival curves were smooth compared with curves when 1-, 3-, or 6-mo intervals were used. Heritabilities in each interval were very low and ranged from 0.002 to 0.031, but the heritability for lifespan over the entire period of 72mo after first calving ranged from 0.115 to 0.149. Genetic correlations between time intervals ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the genetic effect were more sensitive to the trait definition than to whether a linear or threshold model was used or to the order of Legendre polynomial used. Cumulative survival up to the first 6mo predicted lifespan with an accuracy of only 0.79 to 0.85; that is, reliability of breeding value with many daughters in the first 6mo can be, at most, 0.62 to 0.72, and changes of breeding values are still expected when daughters are getting older. Therefore, an improved model for genetic evaluation should treat survival as different traits during the lifespan by splitting lifespan in time intervals of 6mo or less to avoid overestimated reliabilities and changes in breeding values when daughters are getting older. PMID:25892695
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-recorded register data from dairy herds are available in almost all Nordic countries. These databases can be used for research purposes, and one of the research areas is animal welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate if pre-recorded register data could be used to identify herds with good welfare, and to investigate if a combination of register data sets could be used to be able to more correctly distinguish between herds with good welfare and herds with welfare deficiencies. Methods As a first step, nine animal-based measurements on calves, young stock and cows in 55 randomly selected herds were performed on-farm as the basis for a classification of welfare at the herd level. The definition for being a case herd with “good welfare” was no score lying among the 10% worst in any of the nine welfare measurements. Twenty-eight of the 55 herds were cases according to this definition. As a second step, 65 potential welfare indicators, based on register data in a national dairy database, were identified by expert opinion. In the final step, the extent to which the suggested welfare indicators predicted farms’ as having good welfare according to the stated definition was assessed. Moreover, the effect of combining in sequence a previously developed model that identified herds with poor welfare with the present model identifying herds with good welfare was investigated. Results The final set of welfare indicators used to identify herds with good animal welfare included two fertility measures, cow mortality, stillbirth rate, mastitis incidence and incidence of feed-related diseases (including gastrointestinal disturbances but excluding paralyses and cramps. This set had a test sensitivity of correctly classifying herds with no score lying among the 10% worst of the nine welfare measurements of 96 %. However, the specificity of the test was only 56% indicating difficulties for the test to correctly classifying herds with one or more scores lying among the 10% worst. Combining the previously developed model with the present model, improved the welfare classification. Conclusions This study shows that pre-collected register data may be used to give approval to dairy farms with “good welfare” and that combining different sets of register data can improve the classification of herd welfare.
Streit, M; Neugebauer, N; Meuwissen, T H E; Bennewitz, J
The present study investigated putative interaction effects between the DGAT1 K232A mutation and the polygenic term (i.e., all genes except DGAT1) for 5 milk production traits in the German Holstein dairy cattle population. Mixed models were used, and the test for interaction relied on the comparison of polygenic variance components depending on the sire's genotypes at DGAT1 K232A. Substitution effects were highly significant for all traits. Significant interaction effects were found for milk fat and protein percentage. PMID:21338826
Full Text Available In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in Southeastern Mexico, traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production have great potential for conversion to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the potential of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. Researchers studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives: RPS Grijalva (RPS-G: n = 35, RPS Pomarroza (RPS-P: n = 22 and RPS Malpaso (RPS-M: n = 18. For this, researchers used as a guide the multi-criteria methodology of the Organic Livestock Proximity Index (OLPI proposed by Mena adapting it to suit the purposes. In the current study, researchers designed a new OLPI with 35 variables which integrate 10 indicators. Information was obtained through direct observation and a questionnaire applied to producers. Statistical analysis of the results of 10 indicators used did not show significant differences among rural production societies. The same was true for the organic conversion index (p>0.05: RPS-G = 62.5%; RPS-M = 63.4% and RPS-P = 64.6%. The data suggest that all cattle farms need to substantially improve veterinary care, safety of milking, quality of milk and dairy products, ecological management and sustainable grassland management. In general, producers of the three rural production societies should be trained in a variety of organic cattle production and management techniques so that cattle farms may achieve a closer approximation to the organic model of production and thus may be certified.
SØrensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard
Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase in the annual genetic gain of 2.1% when used on the best CD and 2.7% when used on all heifers, but only the latter was statistically significant. The increased annual genetic gain was caused by a larger contribution from the CD to the BD. Use of sexed semen together with MOET on BD increased the annual genetic gain by 1.8–2.5% compared with schemes without sexed semen and MOET on all BD. Performing MOET on all BD enables selection of offspring with high Mendelian deviations, which increase the annual genetic gain. Use of sexed semen decreased the genetic lag between the sires and the CD by 12–14% when used on the best CD and by 6% when used to all heifers. The decrease in the genetic lag is caused by the increased selection intensity of the cow dams
van den Berg, Irene; Rodrigue<, Sabrina
The present availability of sequence data gives new opportunities to narrow down from QTL (quantitative trait locus) regions to causative mutations. Our objective was to decrease the number of candidate causative mutations in a QTL region. For this, a concordance analysis was applied for a leg conformation trait in dairy cattle. Several QTL were detected for which the QTL status (homozygous or heterozygous for the QTL) was inferred for each individual. Subsequently, the inferred QTL status was used in a concordance analysis to reduce the number of candidate mutations. Methods Twenty QTL for rear leg set side view were mapped using Bayes C. Marker effects estimated during QTL mapping were used to infer the QTL status for each individual. Subsequently, polymorphisms present in the QTL regions were extracted from the whole-genome sequences of 71 Holstein bulls. Only polymorphisms for which the status was concordant with the QTL status were kept as candidate causative mutations. Results QTL statuscould be inferred for 15 of the 20 QTL. The number of concordant polymorphisms differed between QTL and depended on the number of QTL statuses that could be inferred and the linkage disequilibrium in the QTL region. For some QTL, the concordance analysis was efficient and narrowed down to a limited number of candidate mutations located in one or two genes, while for other QTL a large number of genes contained concordant polymorphisms. Conclusions For regions for which the concordance analysis could be performed, we were able to reduce the number of candidate mutations. For part of the QTL, the concordant analyses narrowed QTL regions down to a limited number of genes, of which some are known for their role in limb or skeletal development in humans and mice. Mutations in these genes are good candidates for QTN (quantitative trait nucleotides) influencing rear leg set side view.
Lillehammer, M; Meuwissen, T H E; Sonesson, A K
Different dairy cattle breeding schemes were compared using stochastic simulations, in which the accuracy of the genomic breeding values was dependent on the structure of the breeding scheme, through the availability of new genotyped animals with phenotypic information. Most studies that predict the gain by implementing genomic selection apply a deterministic approach that requires assumptions about the accuracy of the genomic breeding values. The achieved genetic gain, when genomic selection was the only selection method to directly identify elite sires for widespread use and progeny testing was omitted, was compared with using genomic selection for preselection of young bulls for progeny testing and to a conventional progeny test scheme. The rate of inbreeding could be reduced by selecting more sires every year. Selecting 20 sires directly on their genomic breeding values gave a higher genetic gain than any progeny testing scheme, with the same rate of inbreeding as the schemes that used genomic selection for preselection of bulls before progeny testing. The genomic selection breeding schemes could reduce the rate of inbreeding and still increase genetic gain, compared with the conventional breeding scheme. Since progeny testing is expensive, the breeding scheme omitting the progeny test will be the cheapest one. Keeping the progeny test and use of genomic selection for preselection still has some advantages. It gives higher accuracy of breeding values and does not require a complete restructuring of the breeding program. Comparing at the same rate of inbreeding, using genomic selection for elite sire selection only gives a 13% increase in genetic gain, compared with using genomic selection for preselection. One way to reduce the costs of the scheme where genomic selection was used for preselection is to reduce the number of progeny tested bulls. This was here achieved without getting lower genetic gain or a higher rate of inbreeding. PMID:21183061
Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette
The objective of this study was to use a system biology approach to identify biological mechanisms involved on feed efficiency in Nellore cattle and its possible regulator genes. Two modules of co-expressed and highly inter-connected genes correlated to feed efficiency were identified as well as five regulator genes.
Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F
For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784
BARAN, Murat Sedat; DEM?REL, Ramazan; DEM?REL, Dilek ?ENTÜRK
It is very important to know the feeding value and metabolizable energy content of feedstuffs for balancing animal diets. Feeding value and energy content of animal feeds change according to maturity stage, soil conditions, fertilization, climate, processing methods, etc. There are no adequate tables that show the basic feeding values of feedstuffs grown in different regions of Turkey; therefore, the present study analyzed 8 different feedstuffs and 56 dairy and beef cattle mixed feeds to det...
Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R
In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585
Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil / Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná
L., Ogawa; R.L., Freire; O., Vidotto; L.F.P., Gondim; I.T., Navarro.
Full Text Available Foram analisadas, por meio da imunofluorescência indireta, 385 amostras de soros de vacas, pertencentes a 90 propriedades leiteiras de 12 municípios da região Norte do estado do Paraná. Foram observados 45 (12%) sororeagentes ao Neospora caninum e 102 (26%) ao Toxoplasma gondii. Apenas quatro animai [...] s apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para ambos os coccídios. Não foi observada diferença significativa na associação entre a sorologia do N. caninum e as variáveis relacionadas ao manejo, produção de leite, problemas reprodutivos, alimentação, presença de cães, gatos e roedores. Os resultados sugerem que neosporose e toxoplasmose estão disseminadas nos rebanhos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná, e a freqüência simultânea de anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii, demonstra sua ocorrência independente em vacas leiteiras. Abstract in english Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12%) samples wer [...] e seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26%) samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was observed between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.
Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná
Full Text Available Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12% samples were seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26% samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was observed between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.Foram analisadas, por meio da imunofluorescência indireta, 385 amostras de soros de vacas, pertencentes a 90 propriedades leiteiras de 12 municípios da região Norte do estado do Paraná. Foram observados 45 (12% sororeagentes ao Neospora caninum e 102 (26% ao Toxoplasma gondii. Apenas quatro animais apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para ambos os coccídios. Não foi observada diferença significativa na associação entre a sorologia do N. caninum e as variáveis relacionadas ao manejo, produção de leite, problemas reprodutivos, alimentação, presença de cães, gatos e roedores. Os resultados sugerem que neosporose e toxoplasmose estão disseminadas nos rebanhos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná, e a freqüência simultânea de anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii, demonstra sua ocorrência independente em vacas leiteiras.
ELGERSMA, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.
Product quality and a sustainable food chain of ruminant products are largely determined by animal nutrition, in which forage is the major feed source. Forages and grasslands play a unique role in agriculture because they contribute through animals to our food supply and to the abatement of environmental problems. Interest in grassland management and grass utilization for dairy production in temperate and subtropical regions has recently led to considerable research efforts. In the past this ...
Computer simulations were made of the radioactive iodine content of cow's milk following farm contamination of radioiodine. The effectiveness of several proposed countermeasures was simulated. Most effective would be blocking of the dairy cow's thyroid gland prior to contamination. A shift to suitable stored, uncontaminated feed could minimize milk radioiodine. Milking as soon as practical after contamination would be expected to reduce the milk radioiodine causing relatively more to be excreted by other routes
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.
Weinhäupl, I; Schöpf, K C; Khaschabi, D; Kapaga, A M; Msami, H M
A study between August 1995 and December 1997 included 343 dairy cattle on 20 farms in the Dar es Salaam region and 2289 zebu cattle on 39 bomas in the Lugoba area (coast region). The aim was to establish the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus). In the single intradermal tuberculin test (SIT), 0.9% (3/343) of the animals in Dar es Salaam tested positive and 1.2% (4/343) were doubtful. Positive reactors were found in 10% (2/20) of the farms. In the Lugoba area, 0.6% (14/2206) were positive and 6.8% (149/2206) doubtful, positive cases being found in 21% (8/39) of all bomas. In the slow agglutination test (SAT) for B. abortus, 14.1% (48/341) of the serum samples reacted positively in Dar es Salaam and 2.3% (8/341) were doubtful. Positive SAT reactors were identified on 25% (5/20) of the dairy cattle farms. In the Lugoba area, 12.3% (273/2221) proved to be positive SAT reactors and doubtful reactions were observed in 2.9% (64/2221). SAT-positive animals were detected on 87% (34/39) of all bomas. The prevalence in single herds in Dar es Salaam varied from 4.3% to 5.3% for the SIT and from 2.2% to 50% for the SAT. The prevalence in single herds in Lugoba area was between 1.1% and 2.9% for SIT and from 1.4% up to 62.1% for SAT. The two cattle populations differed significantly (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of both bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. Two cows that were positive reactors were slaughtered and subjected to post-mortem examination, and organ samples were bacteriologically cultured. The occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both cows. PMID:10907285
Sittisak Khampa; Pala Chaowarat; Uthai Koatdoke; Rungson Singhalert; Metha Wanapat
Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate...
The research has been carried out to study and evaluate application of technical management (reproduction, feeding, and daily management) on various small holders dairy Farm scales in Garut regency, West Java. This research used the survey method, and the number of respondent was 82 small holder dairy farms which were divided into 37 respondents on the first dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 1-3 cows, 33 respondents on second dairy cattle farm scales with the ownership of 4-6 cow...
The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)
HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; Nagahata, Hajime
This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC, with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. VTEC has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VETEC in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in Najaf, Iraq."nMaterials and Methods: 326 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were collected for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC isolates. Non-sorbitol fermentation, enterohemolysin phenotype, and slide agglutination with antisera were used for screening and detection of these serotypes."nResults: Nineteen (5.8% non-sorbitol fermenting and 3 (0.9% enterohemolysin-producing E. coli were obtained. Only 9 were agglutinated with available antisera and none of them belonged to the O157:H7 serotype. Three were found to be verotoxin positive on Vero cell monolayers. These included serotype O111 (2 isolates and serotype O128 (1 isolate. All three VTEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. Two exhibited adherence phenotype on HEp-2 cells."nConclusion: E. coli O157:H7 serotype is not prevalent in diarrheic dairy calves, and VTEC is not a frequent cause of diarrhea in calves in Najaf/ Iraq.
Progesterone hormone is a key indicator of ovarian activity in both human and animal systems. This attribute makes the hormone (as conjugated with a protein carrier, BSA) and ideal ligand for antibody production which serves as the basis for the development of immunoassay kits, such as radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. This study shows on -field application of progesterone RIA : liquid- (LPRIA) and solid-phase (SPRIA) techniques, for monitoring and evaluating reproductive performance of dairy cattle under smallholder management in Laguna (n=67; in 8 villages in Sta. Cruz and 1 village in Pagsinjan), and Quezon (n=36): Bgy. Concepcion, Sariaya). Fat-free milk/serum samples are collected on the day of breeding and on the third week (day 19-23) after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating to diagnose the reproductive success of each cow. With an envisioned integrated network mechanism of sample collection in collaboration with the dairy farmers, efficient transport by land/air, and centralized laboratory analysis, this sensitive and reliable nuclear technique, having distinct advantages over other clinical methods currently used, can shorten calving intervals thus improving reproductive efficiency of the cows and our local dairy industry. (author)
Geraldo Márcio da Costa
Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimentadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença.An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.
Geraldo Márcio da, Costa; Sandro César, Salvador; Marcos Neves, Pereira.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimen [...] tadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença. Abstract in english An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows [...] were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.
McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F; Grexton, Bill
The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative associatio...
Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E; Schrooten, C; Hayes, B J
In dairy cattle, the rate of genetic gain from genomic selection depends on reliability of direct genomic values (DGV). One option to increase reliabilities could be to increase the size of the reference set used for prediction, by using genotyped bulls with daughter information in countries other than the evaluating country. The increase in reliabilities of DGV from using this information will depend on the extent of genotype by environment interaction between the evaluating country and countries contributing information, and whether this is correctly accounted for in the prediction method. As the genotype by environment interaction between Australia and Europe or North America is greater than between Europe and North America for most dairy traits, ways of including information from other countries in Australian genomic evaluations were examined. Thus, alternative approaches for including information from other countries and their effect on the reliability and bias of DGV of selection candidates were assessed. We also investigated the effect of including overseas (OS) information on reliabilities of DGV for selection candidates that had weaker relationships to the current Australian reference set. The DGV were predicted either using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for the bulls with daughters in Australia, or using this information as well as OS information by including deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull for bulls with only OS daughters in either single trait or bivariate models. In the bivariate models, DTD and DRP were considered as different traits. Analyses were performed for Holstein and Jersey bulls for milk yield traits, fertility, cell count, survival, and some type traits. For Holsteins, the data used included up to 3,580 bulls with DTD and up to 5,720 bulls with only DRP. For Jersey, about 900 bulls with DTD and 1,820 bulls with DRP were used. Bulls born after 2003 and genotyped cows that were not dams of genotyped bulls were used for validation. The results showed that the combined use of DRP on bulls with OS daughters only and DTD for Australian bulls in either the single trait or bivariate model increased the coefficient of determination [(R(2)) (DGV,DTD)] in the validation set, averaged across 6 main traits, by 3% in Holstein and by 5% in Jersey validation bulls relative to the use of DTD only. Gains in reliability and unbiasedness of DGV were similar for the single trait and bivariate models for production traits, whereas the bivariate model performed slightly better for somatic cell count in Holstein. The increase in R(2) (DGV,DTD) as a result of using bulls with OS daughters was relatively higher for those bulls and cows in the validation sets that were less related to the current reference set. For example, in Holstein, the average increase in R(2) for milk yield traits when DTD and DRP were used in a single trait model was 23% in the least-related cow group, but only 3% in the most-related cow group. In general, for both breeds the use of DTD from domestic sources and DRP from Interbull in a single trait or bivariate model can increase reliability of DGV for selection candidates. PMID:25771052
Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Choudhary, Poonam; Malik, Anushree; Vijay, Virendra Kumar
In the present work four algae were tested for their biomass production potential in neat livestock wastewater. Chroococcus sp.1 was found to be the best for biomass production under controlled (2.13 g L(-1)) and outdoor conditions (4.44 g L(-1)) with >80% of nutrients removal. The produced biomass was then digested with cattle dung as cosubstrate. Interestingly, up to 291.83 ± 3.904 mL CH4 g(-1) VS fed was produced during codigestion studies (C/N ? 13.0/1). In contrast to this, only 202.49 ± 11.19 and 141.70 ± 2.57 mL CH4 g(-1) VS fed was recorded with algae (C/N ? 9.26/1) and cattle dung (C/N ? 31.56/1) alone, respectively. The estimated renewable power generation potential of the investigated coupled process was around 333.79-576.57 kW h d(-1) for a dairy farm with 100 adult cattle. However, further scale-up and testing is needed to make this process a reality. PMID:24994683
Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M.D.
Contrary to the majority of European countries, antiparasiticides are on prescription only in Denmark, thus treatment requires a proper diagnosis made by a veterinarian, and therefore relies on adequate diagnostic procedures. This study was performed to obtain information about presence of Eimeria spp. in Danish cattle herds, and secondly to improve awareness and proper diagnosis of these infections. Collection of samples was initiated in October 2010 from dairy herds with ?50 cows and known diarrhea problems among calves. From each herd individual faecal samples were taken once from approximately 10 calves aged 3 weeks to 6 months. Veterinarians were instructed to collect samples 3-4 weeks following relocation to common pens, and from groups with reduced growth, uneven appearance and diarrhea. Oocyst excretion was analyzed using a modified McMaster technique. Eimeria spp. were identified based on morphology, and oocysts from highly positive specimens were sporulated for additional species verification. Furthermore faecal consistency was scored on a scale from 0 (firm) to 5 (watery with blood and/or mucus). Currently (March 2011) 42 herds and a total of 356 calves have been analyzed. Eimeria spp. were detected in 95.2% of the herds, and 90.5% were positive for the known pathogenic spp. E. bovis and/or E. zuernii. Of the individual calves 56% were shedding oocysts at the time of sampling, and 39% were excreting E. bovis and/or E. zuernii. A total of 11 different spp. have been identified so far. Of the faecal samples included in the study 7% had a firm/ normal consistency, 81% were soft to liquid, and 12 % were watery with blood and/or mucus. Oocyst excretion above 5000 oocysts per gram (OPG) was found in 6.5% of the calves, whereas 12.0% excreted 500-5000 OPG. Clinical coccidiosis was diagnosed in 11 of 42 herds based on detection of pathogenic Eimeria spp. and the following criteria: one or more samples with ?5000 OPG; mean OPG >2500; one or more samples with >2500 OPG and clinical signs. Moderate to massive excretion of the less studied species E. subspherica and E. auburnensis was in several cases correlated to diarrhea. These cases however were not diagnosed as coccidiosis. The results warrants further pathogenicity studies of the different Eimeria spp. In addition, it was shown that correct diagnosis of coccidiosis is a challenge and knowledge of the management system is essential for interpreting laboratory findings. In many cases these findings do not support diagnosis of coccidiosis either because there is no real coccidiosis problem or because feacal samples were obtained at the wrong time.
Andersen-Ranberg, I M; Klemetsdal, G; Heringstad, B; Steine, T
Data from 1,815,581 first insemination records from daughters of 2697 Norwegian Dairy Cattle (NRF) sires were analyzed. A multitrait model was used to estimate genetic parameters and genetic change for 56-d nonreturn rate in virgin heifers (NR56D0), for 56-d nonreturn rate in first lactation cows (NR56D1L), for interval from calving to first insemination (CFI1L), and for protein yield (PY(305)1L). The heritabilities for NR56D0, NR56D1L, CFI1L, and PY(305)1L were 1.08, 0.99, 3.01, and 20.80%, respectively. Genetic correlation between heifer and cow fertility was high and favorable between NR56D0 and NR56D1L (0.54) and moderate and unfavorable between NR56D0 and CFI1L (0.24). The genetic correlations between NR56D1L and CFI1L and between NR56D0 and PY(305)1L were 0.08 and 0.04, respectively. A small, unfavorable genetic correlation between NR56D1L and PY(305)1L (-0.18) was found, while the genetic correlation between PY(305)1L and CFI1L was strongly unfavorable (0.47). Since 1972, NRF sires have been selected for NR56D0 using breeding values estimated from large progeny groups and with considerable weight in the total merit index. A linear regression analysis of sire PTA on year of first insemination of daughters showed an annual genetic change of 0.14% units for NR56D0. Selection was able to stabilize the genetic change of NR56D1L (0.03%/yr) but an undesirable change for CFI1L (0.11 d/yr) was found. The change of sire PTA for PY(305)1L was 0.63 kg/yr. PMID:15591399
Weller, J I; Stoop, W M; Eding, H; Schrooten, C; Ezra, E
The objectives were to investigate the accuracy of genomic evaluations obtained for a small dairy cattle population (Israeli Holsteins) via joint evaluation with a larger population (Dutch Holsteins), and to evaluate the use of pedigree data from foreign bulls computed by Interbull without daughter records in Israel. The training population included 4,010 Dutch bulls and 713 Israeli bulls. The validation population included 185 Israeli bulls with daughter records for milk production traits and slightly fewer bulls for the nonproduction traits. Milk, fat, and protein yields, somatic cell score, longevity, female fertility, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal stillbirth, and the Israeli breeding index were analyzed. The genomic prediction model was based on the Bayesian multi-QTL model of Meuwissen and Goddard, where the effects of dense single nucleotide polymorphisms across the whole genome are fitted directly, without the use of haplotypes or identical-by-descent probabilities. Correlations of May 2014 estimated breeding values (EBV14) with genomic EBV (GEBV) were higher than the correlations of EBV14 with parent averages (PA) computed from the June 2009 evaluation for all traits. For the Israel selection index, the difference between EBV14 and GEBV correlation on the one hand and EBV14 and PA computed using Interbull data on the other hand was 15 percentage points. For protein, the difference between the corresponding correlations was 14 percentage points. Generally, correlations of EBV14 with PA based on Israeli EBV only were similar to correlations of EBV14 with PA including Interbull evaluations. Relative to EBV14, milk production traits were biased upwards for both GEBV and PA, but the bias was greater for PA. The Y-intercepts of regressions of EBV14 were significantly different from zero for regression on GEBV for all 3 milk production traits and the Israeli selection index. This was not the case for regression of EBV14 on PA. The regression line intersected with the line of unbiased estimation near the EBV of the bulls with highest values. Because only bulls with high evaluations are of interest for selection, GEBV for these bulls were less biased compared with that of bulls with lower evaluations. The difference in mean EBV14 between bulls born during 2007-2008 selected by GEBV and PA was 65 units. If half of all inseminations are by young bulls, then the annual genetic gain obtained by implementation of genomic evaluation will be 8 units per year (65/8). Because annual gain is currently 107 units, this is a gain of 7%. PMID:25935250
A simulation study Using Matrix formulation was used to asses the flow of genes from the nucleus to the commercial population for three nucleus dairy cattle crossbreeding schemes involving indigenous (Zebu or native ) and exotic (European) animals under Kenyan conditions: Artificial insemination (A.I.) or natural mating F1 production, continuous crossbred (F2 inter se) production and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) F1 production. The latter two schemes used MOET in the nucleus. cumulative discounted expressions (CDES) and cumulative discounted Revenues (CDR) were calculated to rank these schemes. The Pathways considered were sires and dams to produce sires and dams. The evaluation Criterion was milk production measured in age class 3 through 10 in F1 and F2 cow populations. the schemes were evaluated over a 30-year projected period with assumed interest rates of 0% and 10%. Further, the genetic level between the indigenous nucleus animals, the F1 males and commercial female population was calculated by defining the incidence vector h as the difference between the three groups. The F1 A.I. or natural scheme had higher CDES of 0.978 and 0.161 at 0% and 10% interest rates respectively. The corresponding values for F1 MOET scheme were 0.735 and 0.070 and those of F2 inter se were 0.676 and 0.079 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively. For a nucleus with 64 ates, respectively. For a nucleus with 64 dams, CDR (US$) were 95.50 and 15.80 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively for F1 A.I. or natural scheme. The F1 MOET scheme had corresponding values of 62.05 and 6.90 while F2 inter se had 66.10 and 7.75. Under both interest rates, the F1 A.I. or natural mating schemes had higher CDES and CDR than the other two schemes and is faster in dissemination of genes to the commercial population. F2 inter se was intermediate. The genetic level of nucleus animal is higher than of F1 male and females because indigenous nucleus females contribute 50% of the genes. F2 cows are expected to lag behind F1 males genetically because the latter are used as parents of F2 cows. In conclusion, although CDES and CDR are higher for the F1 A.I. or natural mating schemes using inter se mating are promising in terms of logistics and combination of breed effects as indicated in other studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a multi-breed reference population might be a way of increasing the accuracy of genomic breeding values in small breeds. Models involving mixed-breed data do not take into account the fact that marker effects may differ among breeds. This study was aimed at investigating the impact on accuracy of increasing the number of genotyped candidates in the training set by using a multi-breed reference population, in contrast to single-breed genomic evaluations. Methods Three traits (milk production, fat content and female fertility were analyzed by genomic mixed linear models and Bayesian methodology. Three breeds of French dairy cattle were used: Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande with 2976, 950 and 970 bulls in the training population, respectively and 964, 222 and 248 bulls in the validation population, respectively. All animals were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 array. Accuracy of genomic breeding values was evaluated under three scenarios for the correlation of genomic breeding values between breeds (rg: uncorrelated (1, rg = 0; estimated rg (2; high, rg = 0.95 (3. Accuracy and bias of predictions obtained in the validation population with the multi-breed training set were assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2 and by the regression coefficient of daughter yield deviations of validation bulls on their predicted genomic breeding values, respectively. Results The genetic variation captured by the markers for each trait was similar to that estimated for routine pedigree-based genetic evaluation. Posterior means for rg ranged from ?0.01 for fertility between Montbéliarde and Normande to 0.79 for milk yield between Montbéliarde and Holstein. Differences in R2 between the three scenarios were notable only for fat content in the Montbéliarde breed: from 0.27 in scenario (1 to 0.33 in scenarios (2 and (3. Accuracies for fertility were lower than for other traits. Conclusions Using a multi-breed reference population resulted in small or no increases in accuracy. Only the breed with a small data set and large genetic correlation with the breed with a large data set showed increased accuracy for the traits with moderate (milk to high (fat content heritability. No benefit was observed for fertility, a lowly heritable trait.
Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that ...
Improvement of livestock production in the African region has been embarked on in many countries with support from their own resources as well as from external donors. Although artificial insemination (AI) has been applied for cattle breeding for many years in Africa as a means of accelerated genetic improvement of the indigenous stock, the overall productivity of this sector has continued to be low. Some of the factors that contribute to the poor output include inadequate management practices, poor nutrition, occurrence of reproductive disorders, systemic diseases and parasites. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has taken a keen interest in supporting efforts to improve livestock production in Africa through national and regional technical cooperation projects. In the recent past, two successive regional projects were implemented under the framework of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement (AFRA) programme. The first was entitled Development and Field Evaluation of Animal Feed Supplementation Packages and had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'self-coating' Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The second was entitled Increasing and Improving Milk and Meat Production and had the objectives of: (a) assessing and improving AI programmes for small-scale dairy farmers; (b) establishing sustainable early non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services based on RIA; and (c) harmonizing managerial and field practices within the region. Some of the issues, among others, which have been identified through the above projects as being responsible for low productivity of cattle in Africa include: (a) inadequate follow-up of offspring arising from AI (e.g. poor calf management leading to retarded growth or even death, and failure to record the performance of improved genotypes); (b) lack of appropriate selection criteria for breeding stock for improved productivity; (c) inadequate management practices coupled with poor nutrition and absence of disease control measures; and (d) lack of regular programmes for training and continued education for extension workers and farmers. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the project activities of Increasing and Improving Milk and Meat Production. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences
H.M Salim; Halim, M A; N. Akter; M.H.Rashid
In the present study the evaluation of the adoption status of artificial insemination (A.I.) technology in 5 villages of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Evidence showed that the proportion of households rearing cattle was 47.17%. Forty four percent of those households have adopted the A.I. technology. The proportion of cross-bred cattle population was about 34%. It varied among farm sizes, herd sizes and categories. The distribution of cattle holdings over the households was less unequal t...
Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
Based on individual cow live weight gain, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems, and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH), and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). The objective of the present paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake and automatic weighing of the cows. All cows had 3 kg of individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in addition to a mixed ration (MR). Cows were either allowed a medium energy MR during whole lactation (strategy MR1) or a high energy MR during early lactation, which was reduced to a low energy MR either early or late (strategy MR2-E and MR2-L). The early and late changes were defined as a live weight gain after live weightminimum at 15 and 35 kg, respectively, for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg, respectively, for DJ. When MR energy concentration was changed, cows on the MR2 strategies were offered 3 kg per day of extra concentrate. The total allowance of 6 kg ISC was stepwise reduced to 3 kg per day as live weight continued to increase until 50 and 35 kg for DR/DH and DJ, respectively. Compared to feeding the MR1 strategy, the analysis showed that feeding the MR2 strategies did not significantly affect milk yield within primiparous DR and DH or within any DJ, as total lactation feed energy intake within these groups of cows was not significantly affected by the feeding strategy. Results obtained for multiparous DH showed that it is possible to increase milk yield without reducing the milk:feed ratio, when MR2 strategies were applied compared to the MR1 strategy. Feeding high energy rations during early lactation caused a higher peak feed energy intake within multiparous cows of DH and DR, but only multiparous DH obtained higher peakECM yield in response to higher feed energy intake in early lactation. Across breed the results suggested that cows offered the MR2-E strategy might obtain higher lactation ECM yield compared to cows offered the MR2-L strategy due to a higher ECM yield persistency obtained by cows offered the MR2-E strategy. Results on feed intake and live weight changes presented in a companion paper indicated, that cows offered the MR2 strategies obtained a lower extent of mobilization compared to cows offered the MR1 strategy, and feeding the MR2-E strategy significantly increased duration of the mobilization period, which might have increased MR2-E cows' ability to maintain a high milk production during mid lactation.
Rodrigo da Costa Gomes
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI, after feed deprivation. Twenty?month?old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to and following the withdrawal period. Hematological analyses included total and differential white blood cell count, red blood cell count and morphology, and plasma glucose concentration. Variation in RFI did not influence plasma glucose concentration or blood cell profiles. Glucose concentrations in bulls decreased from 114 to 97 mg dL?1, but remained unchanged in steers, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased from 0.39 to 0.57 following deprivation. Hematological profiles do not differ between more and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI.
Purnomoadi, A.; Rianto, E. [Diponegoro Univ., Semarang (Indonesia). Faculty of Animal Sciences; Kurihara, M. [National Inst. of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
Livestock in the tropics can produce higher methane per unit of dry matter intake due to the high lignification of forages. The low quality forage leads to high dry matter intake (DMI) to fulfill the nutrient requirements per unit animal production. One of the proven methods to reduce methane production involves improving feed quality, which normally improves feed efficiency. This can be achieved by several methods, such as supplementation with better quality feedstuffs and increasing the feeding frequency. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the effects of feeding frequency of concentrate on reduction of methane using eight Ongole Crossbreed young bulls. Bulls were kept in individual pens and allowed a diet of Napier grass and concentrate feed at a 40:60 ratio to meet the dry matter intake of 3.5 per cent of liveweight. The cattle were separated into two groups: one was given concentrate once a day, the other was given concentrate twice a day. The grass for both groups was given twice a day. The parameters of collected data included daily intake of dry matter, gross energy intake, methane production, and liveweight gain. The methane production was measured by facemask method equipped with airflow meter and a methane analyzer that continuously recorded and was connected to a computer. It was concluded that increasing feeding frequency of concentrate could reduce methane production, provide better feed utilization, and increase the animal productivity. Therefore, this method could be adopted to mitigate methane production in the tropics, where more than half of the global livestock population is raised. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.
Full Text Available 24 Holstein cows and 16 Holstein heifers in close-up period were used to evaluate the effects of ground wheat grain in prepartum diets on health and performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked based on parity (three groups and then randomly assigned to two experimental diets. Study rations included a treatment containing wheat with 1.62Mcal/kg NEL, 14.8%CP, 42.1%NFC, and –64meq/Kg DCAD and another treatment was composed of barley and wheat bran with 1.59Mcal/kg NEL, 14.8%CP, 38.2%NFC, and –48meq/Kg DCAD. Cows were fed experimental diets in group, on average 24%4 days prior to parturition, and they were fed the same ration up to day 21 postpartum. Average feed intake prior to confining, milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, feeding and chewing activity, urine and feces pH, placenta weight and time of its omitted, pregnancy duration, parturition status, body weight and BCS, and metabolic disorders were evaluated in this research. Average feed intake for wheat treatment was more than barley and wheat bran treatment (11.56 in contrast to 10.74, Kg DM, but it was not statistically significant. Milk production in wheat treatment had no significant increase. Milk fat yield in wheat treatment had a higher value compared to barley and wheat bran treatment (P
Liang, D; Cabrera, V E
This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net return to management and decreased GHG emissions. PMID:25682149
Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J
The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates. PMID:19521793
Full Text Available The aim of this research note is to evaluate the variability of the physical measurements obtained by a separator of feeds for dairy cows based on particle size. Fresh samples of total mixed ration (TMR and corn silage were collected from four dairy units and were immediately fractionated using a particle separator (NASCO®, Pennsylvania State University com- posed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom. Repeatability expressed as standard devi- ation was similar between fractions (>19, 8-19 and +1.7 and +1.5% for corn silages, but when expressed as coefficient of variation there were, for both samples, large dif- ferences between the values for fraction exceeding 19 mm (44.7 and 35.1 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and the middle (3.9 and 2.5 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and bottom fractions (3.7 and 5.6 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages. The between operator reproducibility was very close to repeatability and this indicates that the operator’s contribution to the overall variability is marginal in comparison with residual variability. In conclusion, differ- ent operators properly trained in the use of the NASCO® separator can produce satisfactory repeatable and reproducible values for the middle and the bottom fractions.
SØrensen, Lars Peter; Janss, Luc
BACKGROUND: Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related traits such as mammary disease traits in dairy cattle. METHODS: Data on progeny means of six traits related to mastitis resistance in dairy cattle (general mastitis resistance and five pathogen-specific mastitis resistance traits) were analyzed using a bivariate Bayesian SNP-based genomic model with a common prior distribution for the marker allele substitution effects and estimation of the hyperparameters in this prior distribution from the progeny means data. From the Markov chain Monte Carlo samples of the allele substitution effects, genomic (co)variances were calculated on a whole-genome level, per chromosome, and in regions of 100 SNP on a chromosome. RESULTS: Genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits. Genomic correlations were lower than pedigree-based genetic correlations and they were highest between general mastitis and pathogen-specific traits because of the part-whole relationship between these traits. The chromosome-wise genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits, with some chromosomes explaining higher or lower values than expected in relation to chromosome size. Few chromosomes showed pleiotropic effects and only chromosome 19 had a clear effect on all traits, indicating the presence of QTL with a general effect on mastitis resistance. The region-wise patterns of genomic variances differed between traits. Peaks indicating QTL were identified but were not very distinctive because a common prior for the marker effects was used. There was a clear difference in the region-wise patterns of genomic correlation among combinations of traits, with distinctive peaks indicating the presence of pleiotropic QTL. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to estimate, genome-wide and region-wise genomic (co)variances of mastitis resistance traits in dairy cattle using multivariate genomic models.
Marcos Aurélio, Lopes; Luciana Andrade, Lage; Fernando César Ferraz, Lopes; Carlos Gustavo Santos, Ribeiro; Marco Antônio Sundfeld da, Gama; Norberto Mario, Rodriguez.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet [...] DM). The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic) was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21). Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.
Marcos Aurélio Lopes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet DM. The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21. Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.
Höjer, A; Adler, S
Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with ?-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494?g/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226?g/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of ?-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered.
Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B
Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy-derived income is on the increase in high market quality sites. This is accompanied by a strong increase in stall feeding at the expense of grazing. The study indicates that the first constraint to intensification of dairy production in Ethiopia is the genetic quality of the herd. There is less scope for improved AI provision in India since the cross-bred herd is mainly serviced by AI already. However, as for Ethiopia, there is considerable scope for closing yield gaps in India through improved feed use and supply. Results strongly show that well-developed markets with good procurement arrangements are key for sustainable dairy intensification. PMID:24103418
Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Morignat, Eric; Baron, Thierry; Calavas, Didier
Until recently, epidemiological studies on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) were based on Mandatory Reporting Systems (MRS) of clinically suspect bovines only, but rapid diagnostic tests were validated in 1999 and are used for targeted surveillance in Switzerland, France and other countries, as a complementary and secondary tool. Data on 30491 cattle issued from a French pilot program targeted at cattle having died on the farm, subjected to euthanasia or sent for emergency slaughter, did not show any significant difference in BSE risk between dairy and beef suckler breeds. The data also revealed that part of the clinical cases of BSE escaped the MRS, which permitted to detect more dairy than beef suckler affected cattle compared to the targeted surveillance in the same period (from August to December 2000) and region (Bretagne, Pays de la Loire and Basse Normandie regions). Analyzing together the data of the targeted surveillance and mandatory reporting system programs with a non-conditional logistic regression, we found that the odds of a dead cow being a BSE case among all dead cattle was 3.2 times higher for dairy breeds compared to beef suckler breeds. This confirmed British findings but points out to the fact that considering either MRS or targeted surveillance data alone may possibly create biases in epidemiological studies on BSE. PMID:12657210
Gusha, Jacob; Manyuchi, Clive Rolex; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Hamandishe, Vimbayi Rangaridzo; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy
The effects of supplementing crossbred cows with non-conventional protein sources on dry matter intake, milk yield parameters and economic returns were investigated. Twenty-five lactating F1 Holstein-Mashona crossbreds averaging 115?±?24 days in milk were used. Five treatments, total mixed ration (TMR), urea-treated maize stover, untreated maize stover, Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro) hay and veld hay, were randomly assigned to cows and replicated five times in a completely randomised design. Nutrient composition, intake, milk yield and economic returns were determined. M. atropurpureum hay, urea-treated maize stover and TMR had equal crude protein content. Daily dry matter intake and yield differed significantly among the treatment diets (P?atropurpureum consumed more (P?atropurpureum hay increased (P?atropurpureum hay and urea-treated maize stover. Urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum can therefore be used as a replacer protein supplements for dairy cattle in Zimbabwe. PMID:24077922
Full Text Available Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested.
Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A
Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM. PMID:16183219
Christy E. Manyi-Loh; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Golden Makaka; Michael Simon
Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were with...
Val-Arreola, D.; E. Kebreab; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.
Accurate knowledge of lactation curves has an important relevance to management and research of dairy production systems. A number of equations have been proposed to describe the lactation curve, the most widely applied being the gamma equation. The objective of this work was to compare and evaluate candidate functions for their predictive ability in describing lactation curves from central Mexican dairy cows reared under 2 contrasting management systems. Five equations were considered: Gaine...
Darío Cedeño Q.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in non-vaccinated dairy cattle against infectious agents of reproductive syndrome in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods. Farms over 2527 meters over sea level were selected, a total of 238 serum samples of Holstein cows were collected and analyzed using the indirect ELISA test to determine N. caninum seropositivity. An epidemiological survey was realized in each herd which included variables related to health and management measures of cattle. A multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression was used with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05 using SPSS19® program. Results. The estimated prevalence of N. caninum was 76.9%. The risk factors associated to neosporosis infection in the analyzed farms are as follows: residues of abortions generally left outdoors and not buried (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.5 - 9.6; dogs fed with leftovers (OR 15.44 IC 95% 1.94-123.22 and bulls allowed to mate with cows (OR 19.68, 95% CI 2.34 - 165.52. Conclusions. The high prevalence of N. caninum and the low abortion rate in dairy herds of the municipality of Pasto corroborated no existence of the disease in all animals serologically positive, but it did suggest that at some point in their lives they were exposed to N. caninum. From the identified risk factors in this study, recommendations can be provided for an effective control of reproductive diseases like Neosporosis present in this region.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from loamy and clay soils fertilized with liquid or solid dairy cattle manures and synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers were measured in this study in order to determine if the use of manure for silage maize production increased N2O emissions when compared with the application of N-based fertilizers. Manures and ammonium nitrate were applied on the soil surface and sampled. Silage corn was then planted over a period of 2 years between 2002 and 2003. Soil-surface fluxes of N2O were measured using non-flow through, non-steady-state chambers. Measurements were taken weekly over the study period, and all air samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture levels were also recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were used to examine the effects of manure type on soil N2O concentrations; soil-surface N2O fluxes; soil mineral N content; soil temperature; and soil water content. Results of the study showed that between 60 and 90 per cent of N2O emissions occurred during the first 40 days of fertilizer application. The fertilization of the silage corn crop with dairy cattle manure resulted in N2O emissions greater than, or equal to, soils amended with synthetic N. Maize yields were also lower in the manured fields. No difference in N2O emissions was observed between the liquid and the solid manures. It was concluded that the main source of N20 was nitrification in the loamy soils, and denitrification in clay soils. 41 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs
João Cruz, Reis Filho; Fábio Luiz Buranelo, Toral; Rui da Silva, Verneque; Anibal Eugênio, Vercesi Filho; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Ricardo Frederico, Euclydes.
Full Text Available Test-day records of milk yields from the first three lactations were used to verify consequences of incorporation of lactation with non-conventional drying-off causes in genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle. The first file (File1) was composed of test-day records of lactations with conventional dr [...] ying-off causes. In the second file (File2), the test-day records of lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes were included, such as drying-off by death or separation of the calf, disease, death or sale of cow, and removal of cow from milking control. Data were analyzed by mixed models, using an autoregressive process to adjust the random effects of long-term and short-term environment. The inclusion of test-day records from lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes increased the number of controls by 12% and the number of cows by 18%, and it generated an increase in the estimates of variance components. These results impacted estimates of heritability, calculated at 0.32, 0.28 and 0.26 for the first, second and third lactations in File1, respectively, while in File2 they were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.28 to the same lactation order. The estimated accuracy of predicted breeding values in File2 were higher in relation to File1, but the Pearson and Spearman correlations between predicted breeding values of animals in the two files were high. Lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes can be incorporated to the routines of genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle, because they provide higher estimates of heritability and accuracy of breeding values, which could raise expectations of genetic gains with selection.
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt
Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions.
Márcio dos Santos Pedreira
Full Text Available Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4 emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6, four animals per category, distributed in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu ¼, maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4 ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de enxôfre (SF6. Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p < 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. Animais da raça holandesa produziram mais metano (299,3 g dia-1 que as mestiças (264,2 g dia-1. Vacas secas e novilhas produzem menos metano (g dia-1 que vacas em lactação. A média de emissão de metano (g dia-1 pelas vacas secas e novilhas foi de 268,8 e 222,6 g respectivamente e as vacas em lactação 353,8 g. Os animais da raça holandesa, com maior potencial de produção de leite, perderam menos CH4 (p < 0,05 por unidade de matéria seca ingerida (19,1 g kg-1 que as mestiças (22,0 g kg-1. A produção de metano pelas novilhas mantidas em pastagens adubadas (sistema intensivo foi de 222,6 g dia-1, maior (p < 0,05 que os animais desta categoria em pastagens não adubadas (179,2 g dia-1. A produção de metano variou em função da categoria de animal e pelo sistema de produção imposto aos animais.
Full Text Available The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B, time of sampling (ST and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI, dietary concentrations of crude protein (CPc, NDF (NDFc, starch (starchc, and use of grazing as linear covariates. Milk urea N was positively affected by DMI (r=3.64; P<0.05 and negatively by starchc (r=-5.91; P<0.05 and total bacterial count increased significantly (P<0.05 with the increase of CPc and starchc. DMI affected positively the milk fatty acid (FA profile by increasing of PUFA (P<0.01, n-3 (P<0.001 and n-6 (P<0.05 acids and decreasing of SFA (P<0.05 levels in milk. Opposite effects on FA profile were observed by CPc, NDFc and starchc. The use of grazing only caused a significant increase (P<0.05 in the content of CLA in milk.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering experimental chlorate products in the feed and water on gut, hide and carcass concentrations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In the experiment, 64 feedlot cattle were randomly assigned to one of eight different treatments wher...
Two different dosages of ivermectin were used to medicate a liquid molasses feed supplement for free-choice consumption by cattle. Calves that fed on supplement medicated at 25 ppm with ivermectin had a 14 day mean consumption of 0.62 ± 0.07 kg supplement/animal/day producing an average dose of 15....
Adult mosquitoes were collected by drop traps to compare blood feeding rates between cattle treated with 2 Python ear tags (10% zeta cypermethrin and 20% piperonyl butoxide) per animal and animals that were untreated. Mosquitoes were collected both 2 and 4 weeks after application of the ear tags. ...
Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Skjerve, E
A cross-sectional study of Neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of Ethiopia. Cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against N. caninum using a commercial ELISA kit. Herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. The overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. In urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprevalence was 14.9%, while 12.9% and 9.8% reactors were found among commercial dairy farms and breeding cattle, respectively. At farm level, 35.7% of urban and peri-urban farms, 47.5% of the commercial farms and five of the breeding farms were found to have at least one infected animal. Purchased cows (OR: 2.3) and cows with history of maternal reproductive disorders (OR: 2.1) were associated with seropositivity at the individual animal level. Crossbred cattle (Holstein-Friesian crossed with indigenous zebu) were associated with lower risk than pure breeds (OR: 0.6). A trend of prevalence increment was observed for large herd sizes (OR: 1.8). Other factors that were associated with seropositivity were: presence of farm dogs for more than 5 years (OR: 1.9), access to farm by wild carnivores (OR: 3.1) and compromised farm hygienic status (OR: 3.4). Abortion, retention of foetal membrane and metritis were the most frequently reported clinical reproductive disorders among seropositive cattle. Together, these finding indicate that N. caninum infection is highly prevalent, widely distributed and clinically important in dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia. N. caninum should be considered an important infectious cause of reproductive disorders in Ethiopian cattle, and the risk factors for exposure identified here should be used as basis for implementing control measures that could limit the transmission of this infection. PMID:23261087
Cutler, Janet H; Shearer, Jan K; Kelton, David F; Cramer, Gerard; Gorden, Pat J; Millman, Suzanne T
Therapeutic hoof blocks have been recommended for treatment of sole ulcers in dairy cattle; however, they are underutilized in the industry. Twenty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive a wooden hoof block applied to the left hind leg (n = 5), to the right hind leg (n = 5), or no hoof blocks (n = 10). Accelerometers were affixed to both hind legs of 10 blocked cows and 5 control cows. Cows were observed for locomotion scores, and milk production was recorded. Mixed models were constructed to determine effects of block application on behavior, milk production, and locomotion. Activity was altered by day, with cows being most active on Day - 1. The mean number of daily lying bouts and lying bout duration did not differ by treatment. Locomotion scores were higher for blocked cows on Days 1, 2, and 3 compared with baseline; however, milk production did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, although block application affected the appearance of locomotion, it did not appear to adversely affect the behavior or milk production of sound dairy cows. PMID:25933055
Li, Longping; Zhang, Zhiying
Mastitis in dairy cattle continues to be an economically important disease. However, control is complicated by a high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics. Phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we have described isolation and characterization of a highly virulent phage SPW from wastewater of dairy farm, which possesses a strong lytic capability against mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus, the most important pathogen in bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis. The phage SPW produced large, round and clear plaques on bacterial culture plates. TEM showed phage SPW has an icosahedral head 62.5 nm in diameter and long tail of 106 nm, head and tail were held together by a connector of 18 ± 1.5 nm long and can be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family. Restriction analysis indicated that phage SPW was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 65-69 kb. One-step growth kinetics showed a short latency period of about 10-15 min and a rise period of 50 min and a relatively small burst size was 44 ± 3 phages particles/infected cell. Moreover, adsorption rates were not influenced by calcium ions and phage SPW was relatively stable in a wide range of temperature and pH values, and resistant to chloroform and isopropanol. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 0.01. When phage SPW was used to infect five other clinically isolated pathogenic isolates, it showed relatively wide spectrum host range. Phage SPW was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of S. aureus, revealing it potentially as an effective approach to prophylaxis or treatment of S. aureus-associated mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:24981924
Abraha, Solomon; Belihu, Kelay; Bekana, Merga; Lobago, Fikre
This study was conducted in South Wollo Zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, to assess the milk yield and reproductive performance of indigenous and crossbred cattle under smallholder management conditions. Questionnaire survey was used to collect retrospective data on the performance of dairy cattle in 186 households. Thirty two postpartum cows (16 indigenous and 16 crossbred) were selected purposively and monitored for five months and milk samples were collected twice per week from each cow to determine postpartum ovarian activity using ELISA techniques. Daily milk yields at all stages of lactation were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in crossbred than indigenous cows. Crossbred cows had significantly (P < 0.01) longer lactation length and shorter age at first calving, while calving interval was significantly shorter in cows that gave previous calves during the wet season than the dry season. Only six cows (18.8%) showed heat signs on an average of 136 days postpartum of which one was a crossbred and five were indigenous. While, 11 cows (34.3%) resumed ovarian activity until 150(th) day postpartum among which three were crossbred and eight were indigenous. PMID:19396564
Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A
This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus feed efficiency. PMID:20817857
Piñero, Alvaro; Barandika, Jesús F; García-Pérez, Ana L; Hurtado, Ana
The genetic diversity of Coxiella burnetii from 36 dairy cattle herds was determined by Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and genotypes from different sources (bulk-tank milk - BTM and surface dust) and sampling time (2009/10 and 2011/12) were compared. A total of 15 different genotypes were identified from 60 BTM and seven dust samples, including seven genotypes reported here for the first time (BN, BO, BP, BQ, BR, BS, BT). The two most prevalent genotypes (J and I), detected both in BTM and dust, accounted for 44.5% of the C. burnetii typed and have been reported infecting cattle worldwide. In 52% of herds more than one genotype was found, and mixed infection with two genotypes was observed in seven BTM samples. Comparison of C. burnetii genotypes at different samplings within each herd detected a change in genotype in 32% of herds, while a persistent genotype was identified in the remaining 68%. In addition, the genotype obtained from dust samples was always identical to that present in the BTM sample. Often persistent genotypes were among the most prevalent types. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes from this and other studies using the minimum spanning tree method separated our C. burnetii strains into two clusters, 10 genotypes clustered within genomic group (GG) III, and the remaining five types (AE, BQ, BR, BS and BT) grouped with GG II, which includes strains implicated in human outbreaks. Although presence in cattle of genotypes closely related to those identified in humans does not seem to be common event, it cannot be neglected and surveillance of genotype distribution is needed to fully understand the epidemiology of Q fever. PMID:25684412
Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina
Background: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well asin Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
SUMMARY This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged =180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds.
Hagiwara, Seiichi; Mori, Kouichiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Shin; Nagahata, Hajime
This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677
Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O
Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows. PMID:25262186
Sargeant, J. M.; Scott, H M; Leslie, K. E.; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A
The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to ma...
The present review, in the first part, deals with the most effective feeding strategies applied to dairy ruminants in order to enhance the healthfulness of milk fat. The largest changes in milk fatty acid (FA) composition have been obtained either by changing the amounts and the nature of forages in the diets of ruminants, particularly pasture, or by adding plant or marine oils to the diet. Alpine and legume based pastures are associated with high levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), ome...
Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.; Crompton, L A; Lopez, S.; Abrahamse, P.A.; Chilibroste, P.; Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.
Grass-based diets are of increasing social-economic importance in dairy cattle farming, but their low supply of glucogenic nutrients may limit the production of milk. Current evaluation systems that assess the energy supply and requirements are based on metabolisable energy (ME) or net energy (NE). These systems do not consider the characteristics of the energy delivering nutrients. In contrast, mechanistic models take into account the site of digestion, the type of nutrient absorbed and the ...
Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti; Ana Paula P. Battaglini; Karen da S. Dunga; Ronaldo Tamanini,
Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...
Höglund, Johanna; Sahana, Goutam
Female fertility is important for the maintenance of the production in a dairy cattle herd. Two QTL regions on BTA04 and on BTA13 previously detected in Nordic Holstein (NH) and validated in the Danish Jersey (DJ) and Nordic Red (NR) were investigated further in the present study to further refine the QTL locations. Refined QTL regions were imputed to the full sequence data. The genes in the regions were then studied to ascertain their possible effect on fertility traits
Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Karzis, Joanne
Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25...
Vincenzo Russo; Roberta Davoli; Francesca Beretti; Stefania Dall'Olio; Marco Tazzoli; Emilio Scotti; Luca Fontanesi
A major QTL for milk production traits was reported in the middle of bovine chromosome 20 and, for its map position, the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene was considered a strong positional and functional candidate gene. A missense mutation in exon VIII (F279Y amino acid substitution) showed highly significant effects mainly on milk composition (protein percentage and fat percentage) as well as on milk yield in several dairy cattle populations. As no information about the frequency of these ...
Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569
DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E
The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen temperature, and milk fat production. PMID:25108867
Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.
Stevan, Stankovski; Gordana, Ostojic; Ivana, Senk; Marija, Rakic-Skokovic; Snezana, Trivunovic; Denis, Kucevic.
Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a better solution [...] in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF) RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.
Levantamento sorológico de Mycobacterium avium subesp. paratuberculosis em bovinos leiteiros no estado do Espírito Santo / Serological survey of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle in Espírito Santo state
J.C.M, Costa; F.A, Pieri; C.F, Souza; I.F, Espeschit; A.G, Felippe; G.M, Santos; F.L, Tobia; A, Silva Junior; M.A.S, Moreira.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was verified in dairy cattle from Espírito Santo state. A total of 1,450 serum samples were analyzed for antibodies anti-MAP, using ELISA. Dairy cattle, males and females, from four regions of Espírito Santo state were [...] used. One hundred sixty-five (11.4%) samples were positive for anti-MAP, 33 (2.3%) were considered suspicious, and 1,252 (86.3%) were negative. In all regions, seropositive animals were found, indicating that the agent is spread by the State, posing a threat to the local dairy farming and neighboring states, as well as public health, since MAP can be involved with Crohn's disease in humans. This result presents the first serologic anti-MAP survey in dairy cattle of Espírito Santo State.
Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.
Feces collected from 541 milking cows on two dairy farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of feces from each cow and DNA was extracted. A two-step ne...
Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...
Rafael, Fagnani; Vanerli, Beloti; Ana Paula P., Battaglini; Karen da S., Dunga; Ronaldo, Tamanini.
Full Text Available Considerando os efeitos tóxicos, agudos e crônicos, para a saúde humana e animal, causados por resíduos de praguicidas em alimentos, este trabalho teve como objetivo a identificação e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa (CG) de resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados (OF) e carbamatos (CB) no le [...] ite cru, nos componentes da alimentação e água dos animais. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite cru da região agreste de Pernambuco e ao mesmo tempo eram coletadas amostras de alimentação e água ofertada aos animais em lactação de cada propriedade, totalizando 109 amostras de alimentação e 38 amostras de água. Das 30 amostras de leite analisadas, seis (20%) estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF, cinco (16,7%) por resíduos de CB e uma amostra por ambos os praguicidas. Das 109 amostras de alimentação ofertada aos animais coletadas, 48 foram analisadas, com 15 amostras (31,25%) apresentando resíduos de OF, seis amostras (12,50%) contaminadas por resíduos de CB e uma amostra positiva para ambos os praguicidas. Das 16 amostras de água analizadas, seis (37,50%) estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF e nenhuma apresentou resíduos de CB. Em quatro propriedades leiteiras os praguicidas detectados no leite foram compatíveis com o princípio ativo detectado na alimentação e/ou na água ofertada aos animais, sugerindo uma possível fonte de contaminação, mas não a única. Abstract in english Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chroma [...] tography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20%) were contaminated with OP, five (16.7%) with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25%) were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50%) with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50%) were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.