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1

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

2009-01-01

2

International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these datasets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. Here we collate data from ten populations in nine countries. A total of 224,174 test-day records from parity one to five animals, as well as 1,784 records from growing heifers were available. Random regression models fitted to lactating cow test-day records were used to predict feed intake at 70 days post calving. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70-days post-calving was 0.34 across the entire dataset and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations between countries categorized as North America, Grazing, Other low input, and High input EU. Genetic correlation estimates between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but was stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high input production systems

Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike

2013-01-01

3

Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized.

Kamanzi M; Mapiye C

2012-10-01

4

Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized. PMID:22278082

Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos

2012-01-26

5

Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129

Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; Vandehaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

2013-08-09

6

Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle.

Yao C; Spurlock DM; Armentano LE; Page CD Jr; Vandehaar MJ; Bickhart DM; Weigel KA

2013-10-01

7

Comparative evaluation of equations predicting methane production of dairy cattle from feed characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Techniques that allow direct measurements on animals to quantify methane (CH4) emissions are costly and difficult to transfer to herd level. Mathematical approaches have been developed to predict methane emissions of cattle based on diet and intake characteristics, which were calibrated against largely varying calorimetry data. In this study, nine CH4 prediction equations were applied to five typical Central European dairy cow diets in order to compare their applicability. The five diets differed in respect of forage proportion and type. In a first attempt, regression equations were selected containing easily accessible data such as dry matter intake (DMI, kg/d) forage proportion, as well as neutral and acid detergent fibre that can also be extracted from on-farm datasets. Smallest differences to mean values were observed with the application of equations using neutral detergent fibre, while standard deviations were highest. Therefore, the best capability to differentiate between diets was shown, when using equations that operated with forage proportion and DMI. Nevertheless, the role of CH4 prediction equations should not be overestimated. The differences in CH4 estimates show that frequently used equations are still inaccurate and may only serve as implications to locate trends. It should be taken into consideration to expand datasets, involving future CH4 measurements, on animal and herd level, feeding typical, up-to-date regional diets in order to get more precise equations, suitable for a greater range of estimations. To ease and simplify the future applications, the prediction equations could be classified into groups, clearly stating by which data they were derived, for example, regional origin and diet composition.

Hippenstiel F; Pries M; Büscher W; Südekum KH

2013-08-01

8

Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years. When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention in soil of C over decades to centuries appears to be similar whether the initial turnover of plant biomasses occurs in the soil, in the digestive tract of ruminants, in an anaerobic reactor or in a combination of the latter two.

Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, JØrgen E

2013-01-01

9

Evaluation of an economical total mix ration for dairy cattle with locally available feed resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy sector is considered as the most important of all livestock sub sectors. This is mainly because of the influence it can make on the rural economy. The domestic milk production only constitutes about 17 percent of the annual requirement of the country and the rest is imported. According to the Ministry of livestock development, the government policy on dairy development is aimed at producing 50% of country’s requirement of milk by the year 2015. The productivity of Sri Lankan Dairy sector has gone down mainly due to the unavailability of economically feasible feed types in the market targeting the small holders. The animal feed prices have gone up mainly because of the imported raw materials. Currently around 85-90% of feed raw material requirements are being imported. So it is important to substitute these imported materials with high quality local materials that will cost less. In that case this type of a full mixed ration could act as a very good solution in terms of both nutritional values and cost.Zea maize which is commonly known as Maize is grown in Sri Lanka especially in the Dry zone under Chena type cultivation systems. But it is the grain that is used by the feed millers and humans. But the crop residuals of the Maize plant after harvesting is also a very good source of nutrients for the animals. This study was done to identify the best combination of powdered Maize plant residuals and dried Gliricedia Makulata Leaves to produce a low cost animal feed for ruminants.Five types of rations were prepared using different combinations of maize plant residuals, Gliricedia leaves, rice bran and urea. The digestibility of these rations was studies using the in vitro gas production technique. Results suggested that the ration containing 60% Gliricedia, 40% Maize, 0.25% Urea and 15% Rice bran as the best combination both nutritional and economic bases.Currently the government is trying to increase the amount of Maize grown within the country to reduce the large amount of corn that is imported every year mainly for the production of animal feed. So if the corn production increases the raw materials needed to produce this proposed feed type will also go up.

Sampath, W.A.K.; Perera, A.N.F.; Gamika A. Prathapasinghe

2009-01-01

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Soil ingestion by dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

Darwin, R.

1990-02-15

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Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Body condition score (BCS) around calving, and the typical BCS loss for up to 100 d after parturition, is associated with both production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. In addition, there is public concern that thin cows may have impaired welfare, particularly in early lactation where feed demand exceeds pasture growth, and a lag exists between peak milk energy requirements and intake. The aim of this experiment was to determine how BCS at calving influences behavioral and physiological responses to a short-term feed restriction at 47 DIM. Body condition score (on a 10-point scale) at calving was manipulated by modifying the diets in the previous lactation of healthy dairy cattle to generate 3 treatment groups: low BCS (3.4; n=17), medium BCS (4.6; n=18), or high BCS (5.4; n=20). Cows were tested in 4 groups for 8 consecutive days; testing consisted of different levels of feed allocation (d 1 and 2: 100%; d 3 and 4: 75%; d 5: 50%; d 6 to 8: 125%), where 100% was 15kg of DM/cow per day. All BCS groups had similar and marked behavioral and physiological responses to feed restriction. For example, they increased vocalization, time spent eating silage and grazing, aggressive behavior, and fat metabolism (as measured by concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids), and reduced milk production. Body condition affected some of these responses. Fewer cows with low BCS engaged in aggressive interactions in a feed competition test (trough filled with silage that could be consumed in 15 min) on the first day of feed restriction (low: 32%; medium: 74%; high: 64%; standard error of difference=15.4%). High BCS cows had greater concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids throughout the experimental period, which suggests more fat mobilization; however, plasma leptin and fecal glucocorticosteroid metabolite concentrations were unaffected by BCS. Whereas cows demonstrated marked responses to feed restriction, the results suggest that a BCS of 3.4, 4.6, or 5.4 in healthy cows at calving does not overwhelmingly influence this response at 47 DIM.

Schütz KE; Cox NR; Macdonald KA; Roche JR; Verkerk GA; Rogers AR; Tucker CB; Matthews LR; Meier S; Webster JR

2013-07-01

12

Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015±0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG).

1993-01-01

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ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

14

Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) (50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P

2010-01-01

15

National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2): 43-55 (1999) KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

K Diwyanto; Anneke Anggraeni

1999-01-01

16

[Mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most important characteristics of Mycoplasma mastitis on dairy farms are described, based on two case studies. Clinical symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, and a plan of action are presented. In the herds investigated, Mycoplasma mastitis was characterized by multiple affected quarters unresponsive to treatment with antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory agents. Most striking were a sandy sediment, brown colouring, and rice-like structure of the milk of affected animals. Clinical symptoms differed in the two affected herds. Diagnosis was based on bacteriological investigation of samples of milk and synovial fluid taken from infected cows. Affected animals were culled immediately, and the herds were monitored by repeated testing of bulk milk samples. It was concluded that a consequence of the increasing size of cattle herds in the Netherlands is that subclinical/clinical Mycoplasma mastitis may be diagnosed more frequently than in the past. In the case of Mycoplasma mastitis, farmers and veterinary practitioners are advised to draw up a plan of action together, incorporating aspects such as diagnostics at cow level, direct culling of affected animals, hygiene during milking, including post-milking teat disinfection, and routine monitoring of bulk milk. Unpasteurized milk should not be given to calves.

Tolboom RK; Snoep JJ; Sampimon OC; Sol J; Lam TJ

2008-02-01

17

Deuterium oxide dilution can be used to determine the net energy content of feeds for dairy cattle and goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores a technique for measuring the energy (NEL) value of feeds without respiration calorimetry or slaughter. The objectives were to compare results obtained from goats with those from cows, and to describe factors which limited the precision of these NEL estimates. One lactating Alpine doe and one lactateing Holstein cow were assigned to each of six different sequences of three 56-d feeding treatments consisting of low, medium, and high doses of the basal diet, rice bran, or hominy feed. This resulted in 30 observations of the basal diet and 12 of each byproduct feed for each species and utilized a total of 18 cows and 18 does. The NEL values of the basal diet, rice bran, and hominy feed were calculated as the sum of milk energy, change in body energy, and estimated fasting heat production per kilogram of feed dry matter. Milk energy was determined by bomb calorimetry and body energy from live body weight and deuterium oxide space. The NEL (MJ/kg) determined in this manner were basal diet, 5.73 and 5.98; rice bran, 7.11 and 7.07; and hominy feed, 6.99 and 8.20 for cows and goats, respectively.

Dan L. Brown

2013-01-01

18

Salmonella Dublin infection in Queensland dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of Salmonella Dublin in Queensland cattle. DESIGN: An epidemiological study using diagnostic laboratory information and farm records. PROCEDURE: Outbreaks of gastroenteritis or pneumonia in calves, and abortions and enteritis in cows were routinely investigated for the presence of salmonellae. Where S Dublin was isolated, attempts were made to gather further epidemiological information. RESULTS: Prior to 1983 only two outbreaks of S Dublin have been recorded in Queensland dairy cattle. In 1983 S Dublin abortions were diagnosed in dairy heifers introduced from southern Australia to south-east Queensland. Sampling indicated that at least 10% of the 500 introduced heifers were faecal excretors of S Dublin. On 3 of the 7 farms from which S Dublin was recorded, infection spread to other cattle that were in contact. From February 1985 to February 1996, 29 outbreaks of S Dublin in cattle occurred on 29 farms (28 in south east Queensland and 1 in north Queensland). Calves were primarily affected. Continuing outbreaks were confirmed on only 4 of these 29 farms. On 15 farms S Dublin infections were associated with the purchase of infected calves or cows, while another farm adjoined 2 previously infected farms. No source of S Dublin was evident for the other 13 farms, where histories were often inadequate. CONCLUSION: There has been a marked increase in S Dublin outbreaks in Queensland dairy cattle since 1983. Introduction of S Dublin carrier and aborting dairy heifers from southern Australia, where S Dublin is not uncommon, was associated with the initial outbreaks.

Trueman KF; Thomas RJ; Mackenzie AR; Eaves LE; Duffy PF

1996-11-01

19

Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

1990-01-01

20

Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in dairy and beef cattle: 11 cases (2001 to 2003)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common cl...

Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Radostits, Otto M.

 
 
 
 
21

Seasonal changes in airborne fungi and bacteria at a dairy cattle concentrated animal feeding operation in the southwest United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a dairy located in the arid southwest United States to determine the concentrations and seasonal variation of airborne fungi and bacteria and to determine the percentage of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The authors used two-stage ambient air sampling systems to measure the culturable airborne fungal organisms and bacteria on a monthly basis. The authors recovered the most fungal, bacterial, and S. aureus organisms during the spring months. The most common fungi identified were Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Stemphylium, which were most common in the spring and least common in the summer. S. aureus made up 4.2% to 5.5% of the total bacteria, and greater than 50% of this bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, or cefaclor, with the greatest incidence of antibiotic resistance occuring in the fall. The incidence of S. aureus resistant to at least two antibiotics ranged from 14% in the spring to 54% in the fall.

Alvarado CS; Gandara A; Flores C; Perez HR; Green CF; Hurd WW; Gibbs SG

2009-05-01

22

Seasonal changes in airborne fungi and bacteria at a dairy cattle concentrated animal feeding operation in the southwest United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a dairy located in the arid southwest United States to determine the concentrations and seasonal variation of airborne fungi and bacteria and to determine the percentage of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The authors used two-stage ambient air sampling systems to measure the culturable airborne fungal organisms and bacteria on a monthly basis. The authors recovered the most fungal, bacterial, and S. aureus organisms during the spring months. The most common fungi identified were Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Stemphylium, which were most common in the spring and least common in the summer. S. aureus made up 4.2% to 5.5% of the total bacteria, and greater than 50% of this bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, or cefaclor, with the greatest incidence of antibiotic resistance occuring in the fall. The incidence of S. aureus resistant to at least two antibiotics ranged from 14% in the spring to 54% in the fall. PMID:19452834

Alvarado, Carla S; Gandara, Angelina; Flores, Carissa; Perez, Hernando R; Green, Christopher F; Hurd, William W; Gibbs, Shawn G

2009-05-01

23

Cellulase and Dairy Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of cellulase is of great significance in present day biotechnology. Cellulose biodegradation by cellulases, produced by numerous microorganisms is very important in several agricultural and waste treatment processes. The development of microbial strains, media composition and process control has including submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation all contributed to achievements of high levels of cellulases for subsequent applications. One of these important applications is supplementing diets of farm animals with cellulases to improve feed utilization and animal performance by enhancing fiber degradation. Dairy cows feed forge treated with a cellulase enzyme preparations ate more feed and produced 5-25% more milk. This review provides an over view of the main variables to be considered for cellulase production from agricultural residues for animal feeding.

H.A. Murad; H.H. Azzaz

2010-01-01

24

Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions and maintain the genetic vaiability in the breed.

Thomasen, JØrn Rind

2013-01-01

25

Factors associated with cattle cleanliness on Norwegian dairy farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal cleanliness in dairy herds is essential to ensure hygienic milk production, high microbial quality of carcasses, good hide quality, and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to identify on-farm factors associated with dairy cattle cleanliness. The study also examined differences in risk factors and preventive factors between contrasting herds regarding cattle cleanliness. In total, 60 dairy herds, selected from a national database, were visited by 2 trained assessors during the indoor feeding period in February and March 2009. In Norwegian abattoirs, cattle are assessed and categorized according to hide cleanliness, based on national guidelines, using a 3-category scale. Dirty animals result in deductions in payment to farmers. "Dirty" herds (n=30) were defined as those that had most deductions in payment registered due to dirty animals slaughtered in 2007 and 2008. "Clean" herds (n=30) were those that had similar farm characteristics, but slaughtered only clean animals during 2007 and 2008, and thus had no deductions in payments registered. The dairy farms were located in 4 different areas of Norway. Relevant information, such as housing, bedding, feeding, and management practices concerning cleaning animals and floors, was collected during farm visits. In addition, the cleanliness of each animal over 1 yr of age (4,991 animals) was assessed and scored on a 5-point scale, and later changed to a dichotomous variable during statistical analysis. Milk data (milk yield and somatic cell counts) were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. Factors associated with dirty animals in all 60 herds were, in ranked order, high air humidity, many dirty animals slaughtered during the previous 2 yr, lack of preslaughter management practices toward cleaning animals, animal type (heifers and bulls/steers), housing (freestalls and pens without bedding), manure consistency, and lack of efforts directed toward cleaning the animals throughout the year. Additional factors associated with dirty animals in the dirty herds were water leakage from drinking nipples/troughs into lying areas, bedding type, and feed type. In the clean herds, additional risk factors were water leakage from drinking nipples/troughs and low milk yield.

Hauge SJ; Kielland C; Ringdal G; Skjerve E; Nafstad O

2012-05-01

26

DEVICE FOR AUTOMATICALLY DISTRIBUTING CATTLE FEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a device for automatically supplying feed (silage mixtures, powdered feed) to domestic animals with four stomachs, such as native Korean cattle, milk cows, fattened beef cattle, deer, sheep and the like, which chew cud and are classified as ruminants.Said device is a device for uniformly and automatically supplying feed at a predetermined time, thereby greatly reducing labor needed for feeding.

SEO KWANG SIK

27

Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI), were fed in two successive die...

G. Lorenzini; A. Martini; C. Lotti; M. Casini; S. Gemini; F. Riccio; S. Squilloni; A. Rovida; R. Tocci

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METHOD TO DETERMINE DAIRY CATTLE RATING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of livestock farming. The method includes selection of cows, determination of the average value of rating parameters sum: quantity of fat, protein content in cow's milk. Dairy cattle rating is determined by the average value of the sum of rating indices: content of fat and protein in daily yield of milk during the period of increased milking capacity per unit of live mass, stress resistance and completeness of milk release according to the following formula: ^ ^ where Q - quantity of rating indices Y - daily yield of milk in the period of increased milking capacity, kg F, P - fat and protein content in milk, % W - live weight of cows, kg SI - index of cow's stress resistance, which is determined in the following manner: ^ ^ where Q - quantity of rating indices Y0, Yk, F0, Fk, MRI0, MRIK - single yield of milk (kg), fat content in milk (%), milk release intensity (kg/min.) in experimental and reference groups of animals Mres, Fres - residual milk (kg) and fat content (%) in the experimental group of animals MRC - index of milk release completeness is determined from the following expression: ^ ^ where YM, - machine yield (kg). ^ EFFECT: method makes it possible to provide comprehensive and objective assessment of certain dairy cattle breeds. ^ 2 tbl, 1 ex

SAFIULLIN NAIL AKHMETOVICH; KABIROV GALIMZJAN FAZYLZJANOVICH; SHARIPOV DELJUS RINATOVICH; KAJUMOV RUBIN RASIKHOVICH; ZAGIDULLIN LENAR RAFIKOVICH; SUSHENTSOVA MARINA ANATOL EVNA; BLAGOVESHCHENSKAJA TALINA IVANOVNA; LEBEDEV VLADIMIR PAVLOVICH; NASYBULLIN IL NAR IL DAROVICH

29

Detection of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in a dairy feed component by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A dairy feed that contained barley malt screenings caused hyperthermia in dairy cattle. The feed was suspected of containing ergot and was subsequently analyzed to determine the ricinoleate component, a special and prominent feature of oil-rich ergot tissue. Triglyceride oil was extracted by organic solvents from the dairy feed, and the oil was saponified to release fatty acids. Ricinoleate, as a methyl ester, was selectively resolved from other fatty acids by silica gel chromatography and was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which demonstrated the presence of the methyl ricinoleate molecule and proved that the feed contained ergot. The methodology may be refined to monitor for ergot in powdered dairy feed more routinely.

Mantle PG

1996-11-01

30

Genotype by environment interaction in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G × E)from reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems. Methods applied to deal with G × E (controlledexperiments and large data modeling) were discussed. A G × E was confirmed essentially when high differences betweenproduction environments and/or genotypes (genetically distant genotypes) were observed. Environmental effects wereaggregated in most studies and identification of the components of the environment was largely unresolved, with only a fewstudies based on more definite-descriptors of environment. The implications of G × E on breeding decisions are discussed.Breeders should select genotypes on production traits within environmental conditions comparable to where candidate animalsare intended to perform.

Hammami H.; Rekik B.; Gengler N.

2009-01-01

31

Neospora caninum infection dynamics in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neospora caninum is considered in many countries as one of the key abortion agents in cattle. This study aims to investigate the parasite behavior in dairy cattle in the municipality of Avaré, SP, Brazil, where abortions frequently occur. An ELISA was performed to compare two samplings on a total of 615 animals; tests were performed in the same herds with a gap of 3 years. An increase in the percentage of reactive animals was observed, ranging from 21.6% at the first sampling to 38.9% at the second sampling. Of the 176 animals tested at both samplings, 61.93% retained a non-reactive status, 15.9% retained a reactive status, 19.88% switched from non-reactive to reactive and 2.27% switched from reactive to non-reactive. Of the 100 animals with reproductive disturbances, 50% presented anti-Neospora antibodies, thereby indicating the presence of the protozoa. When comparing cows and their respective female offspring, a predominance of horizontal infection was observed. Moreover, considering the significant percentage of animals that switched from non-reactive to reactive and the abundant presence of dogs among the herds, the N. caninum transmission may be attributed to presence of carnivores.

Piagentini M; Moya-Araujo CF; Prestes NC; Sartor IF

2012-08-01

32

Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. METHODS: Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. PMID:23261308

Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

2012-12-20

33

Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. METHODS: Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms.

Huang CC; Wang LC; Pan CH; Yang CH; Lai CH

2012-12-01

34

Survey of lameness in British dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1977 a survey was undertaken by practising veterinary surgeons of the incidence of different lesions causing lameness in dairy cattle. Forty-eight veterinary practices participated and they treated 7526 cases of lameness in 1821 herds. The average incidence of lameness among all cows was 5.5 per cent and the annual incidence among practices ranged from 1.8 to 11.8 per cent. Most lesions (88.3 per cent) occurred in the feet; the commonest were foul of the foot (16.7 per cent), white line abscess (15.6 per cent), sole ulcer (13.6 per cent), punctured sole and pus (10.4 per cent) and underrun heel (8.7 per cent). These proportions varied in different parts of the country. Eighty-four per cent of foot lesions occurred in the hind feet and of these lesions 85 per cent occurred in the outer claw; 42 per cent of foot lesions occurred in abnormally shaped claws. The remaining 11.7 per cent of lesions occurred in the legs and trunk, 76 per cent of which occurred in the hindlimb. Trauma was the main cause of leg lesions, which occurred most frequently in the joints and ligaments. PMID:7135783

Russell, A M; Rowlands, G J; Shaw, S R; Weaver, A D

1982-08-21

35

Survey of lameness in British dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During 1977 a survey was undertaken by practising veterinary surgeons of the incidence of different lesions causing lameness in dairy cattle. Forty-eight veterinary practices participated and they treated 7526 cases of lameness in 1821 herds. The average incidence of lameness among all cows was 5.5 per cent and the annual incidence among practices ranged from 1.8 to 11.8 per cent. Most lesions (88.3 per cent) occurred in the feet; the commonest were foul of the foot (16.7 per cent), white line abscess (15.6 per cent), sole ulcer (13.6 per cent), punctured sole and pus (10.4 per cent) and underrun heel (8.7 per cent). These proportions varied in different parts of the country. Eighty-four per cent of foot lesions occurred in the hind feet and of these lesions 85 per cent occurred in the outer claw; 42 per cent of foot lesions occurred in abnormally shaped claws. The remaining 11.7 per cent of lesions occurred in the legs and trunk, 76 per cent of which occurred in the hindlimb. Trauma was the main cause of leg lesions, which occurred most frequently in the joints and ligaments.

Russell AM; Rowlands GJ; Shaw SR; Weaver AD

1982-08-01

36

Residual feed intake in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

J P.F. Arthur; R.M. Herd

2008-01-01

37

New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required.

Boichard D; Brochard M

2012-04-01

38

New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268

Boichard, D; Brochard, M

2012-04-01

39

Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE).

Ismael, Ahmed; LØvendahl, Peter

2012-01-01

40

International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Higher reliabilities from larger genotype files promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be exchanged across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) to account for correlated residuals originating from the use of foreign evaluations, or by multi-trait analysis of genotypes for countries that use the same reference animals. Methods Traditional MACE assumes independent residuals because each daughter is measured in only one country. Genomic MACE could account for residual correlations using daughter equivalents from genomic data as a fraction of the total in each country and proportions of bulls shared. MACE methods developed to combine separate within-country genomic evaluations were compared to direct, multi-country analysis of combined genotypes using simulated genomic and phenotypic data for 8,193 bulls in nine countries. Results Reliabilities for young bulls were much higher for across-country than within-country genomic evaluations as measured by squared correlations of estimated with true breeding values. Gains in reliability from genomic MACE were similar to those of multi-trait evaluation of genotypes but required less computation. Sharing of reference genotypes among countries created large residual correlations, especially for young bulls, that are accounted for in genomic MACE. Conclusions International genomic evaluations can be computed either by modifying MACE to account for residual correlations across countries or by multi-trait evaluation of combined genotype files. The gains in reliability justify the increased computation but require more cooperation than in previous breeding programs.

VanRaden Paul M; Sullivan Peter G

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Effects of feeding roasted safflower seeds (variety IL-111) and fish oil on dry matter intake, performance and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Safflower seed has the highest concentration of linoleic acid among 80 oilseeds but little information exists on the effective use of SS for lactation cows. It was hypothesised that a diet supplemented with an Iranian SS variety (IL-111) in combination with fish oil (FO) would result in higher concentrations of trans-18:1 (including vaccenic acid) and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat than feeding an unsupplemented control diet. Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing: (i) Control: (C); (ii) 25 g of roasted SS IL-111 (RSS); (iii) 20 g FO and (iv) 25 g RSS + 10 g FO (RSS + FO) per kilogram of dietary DM on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, milk production and fatty acid profile. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The experiment had four periods of 21 days. Milk Fat percentage was lower (p < 0.01) with FO supplementation and averaged 19.0 and 21.5 g/kg milk with FO and RSS + FO compared with 30.3 and 32.5 g/kg with C and RSS. Feed intake also was lower (p < 0.01) with FO vs. C (23.1 vs. 24.5 kg/day) but feeding RSS resulted in greater feed intake compared with other treatments (26 kg/day). Despite lower feed intake with FO, milk production did not change from controls but feeding RSS + FO resulted in greater milk yield than controls (42.6 vs. 39.3 kg/day). Ruminal pH was greater (p < 0.01) in cows fed FO than other treatments. Supplemental FO alone or in combination with RSS resulted in dramatic increases (p < 0.01) in c9,t11-18:2 in milk fat (12.7 and 13.2 g/day vs. 5.8 and 7.02 with C and RSS). It was surprising to note that 25 g/kg RSS can improve feed intake.

Alizadeh AR; Alikhani M; Ghorbani GR; Rahmani HR; Rashidi L; Loor JJ

2012-06-01

42

Effects of feeding roasted safflower seeds (variety IL-111) and fish oil on dry matter intake, performance and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safflower seed has the highest concentration of linoleic acid among 80 oilseeds but little information exists on the effective use of SS for lactation cows. It was hypothesised that a diet supplemented with an Iranian SS variety (IL-111) in combination with fish oil (FO) would result in higher concentrations of trans-18:1 (including vaccenic acid) and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat than feeding an unsupplemented control diet. Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing: (i) Control: (C); (ii) 25 g of roasted SS IL-111 (RSS); (iii) 20 g FO and (iv) 25 g RSS + 10 g FO (RSS + FO) per kilogram of dietary DM on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, milk production and fatty acid profile. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The experiment had four periods of 21 days. Milk Fat percentage was lower (p < 0.01) with FO supplementation and averaged 19.0 and 21.5 g/kg milk with FO and RSS + FO compared with 30.3 and 32.5 g/kg with C and RSS. Feed intake also was lower (p < 0.01) with FO vs. C (23.1 vs. 24.5 kg/day) but feeding RSS resulted in greater feed intake compared with other treatments (26 kg/day). Despite lower feed intake with FO, milk production did not change from controls but feeding RSS + FO resulted in greater milk yield than controls (42.6 vs. 39.3 kg/day). Ruminal pH was greater (p < 0.01) in cows fed FO than other treatments. Supplemental FO alone or in combination with RSS resulted in dramatic increases (p < 0.01) in c9,t11-18:2 in milk fat (12.7 and 13.2 g/day vs. 5.8 and 7.02 with C and RSS). It was surprising to note that 25 g/kg RSS can improve feed intake. PMID:21595757

Alizadeh, A R; Alikhani, M; Ghorbani, G R; Rahmani, H R; Rashidi, L; Loor, J J

2011-05-20

43

Reproducibility of pulmonary mechanics measurements in dairy cattle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reproducibility of pulmonary mechanics measurements in dairy cattle was examined using two study designs. In design A measurements were made with six cows on two days, and in design B measurements were made with four cows on six days. The mean coefficients of variation for within-day measurement...

Gallivan, G J; McDonell, W N

44

Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle excluding dairy cows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methane production in The Netherlands from 1990 to 2002 was calculated via the IPCC-GPG Tier 2 (Good Practice Guidance) method. In this calculation no nutritional mechanistic approach can be used to decrease the methane production. Therefore, the calculation of the methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows is recently carried out with dynamic modelling. Another model has been used which is based on a rumen model. The input for the intake of feed in the model for dairy cows in milk and in calf is based on the intake figures of the requirement of energy (i.e. VEM or feed unit of lactation) system. In order to be in line with the dairy cows, the calculation of methane production of the other cattle categories should be also be based on the VEM system. The goal of the study is to calculate the methane production from enteric fermentation in all cattle categories excluding dairy cows, based on the VEM system.

Smink, W. [Feed Innovation Services FIS, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

45

Patterns of Genomic Diversity among three Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For each of three Danish dairy cattle breeds, Danish Holstein, Danish Red Dairy Cattle and Danish Jersey Cattle approximately 30 key ancestors were sequenced to a depth of about 10X. These key ancestors were chosen to maximize their contributions to present day populations. The three breeds are compared with respect to differences in amount of sequence variation observed. The observed patterns in and differences between breeds are interpreted in the light of known individual and population histories. Also, patterns of occurrence of short indels are compared. Particular attention is paid to variants that occur in several of the breeds. Regions occurring in multiple breeds and suspected of harboring lethal or sub lethal sequence variants are examined for similarities across breeds in occurrence of sequence variants.

Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens SandØ

2012-01-01

46

Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment period length did not significantly modify the monensin effects in dairy cow or beef steer studies. Overall, monensin had stronger antimethanogenic effects in beef steers than dairy cows, but the effects in dairy cows could potentially be improved by dietary composition modifications and increasing the monensin dose.

Appuhamy JA; Strathe AB; Jayasundara S; Wagner-Riddle C; Dijkstra J; France J; Kebreab E

2013-08-01

47

The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

Nicolò P.P. Macciotta; Corrado Dimauro; Salvatore P.G. Rassu; Roberto Steri; Giuseppe Pulina

2011-01-01

48

Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in dairy and beef cattle: 11 cases (2001 to 2003).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a "ping" and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 cases, 10 cases were euthanized, and 1 died. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal contents from 7 of 7 cases. At necropsy, the characteristic finding was a varying length of a dark purple-red distended jejunum with an intraluminal blood clot. Histologically, there was segmental necrosis, ulceration, and mucosal and transmural hemorrhage of the jejunum. This is a sporadic disease of adult cattle characterized by mechanical obstruction of the small intestines by a large blood clot with a case fatality of almost 100%.

Abutarbush SM; Radostits OM

2005-08-01

49

International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS), non-return rate at 56 days (NR56) and calving interval (CI). Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

S. Biffani; F. Canavesi

2010-01-01

50

Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

Paz e Silva FM; Lopes RS; Araújo JP Jr

2012-02-01

51

Effect of cattle dung from farms with different feeding strategies on germination and initial root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cattle dung from four farms with different feeding strategies was used in a bioassay to determine phytotoxicity. The first farm was an extensive organic farm (ORGE) with young steers grazing on a highly biodiverse sward. Second, an intensive organic farm (ORGI) was included with dairy cattle grazing...

Hoekstra, N.J.; Bosker, T.; Lantinga, E.A.

52

Welfare problems in alpine dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (Eastern Italian Alps)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation aims to highlight the main welfare problems of dairy cattle farms in Alto Adige (North Eastern Italy) by means of animal based indicators. The relationship between animal based and resource based (housing and management) indicators were investigated in order to obtain useful information for improving welfare levels in mountain husbandry systems. We highlighted some welfare problems, especially in tie-stalls, mainly related to stall and feed trough dimensions and design; however, in these situations good stockmenship seems to be able to compensate for structural lacks.

Silvana Mattiello; Christine Klotz; Daniela Baroli; Michela Minero; Valentina Ferrante; Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

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Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets  

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Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI), were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A), and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B). We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker) of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A) than in diet (B) (71,6% vs 67,3%). In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability) could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

G. Lorenzini; A. Martini; C. Lotti; M. Casini; S. Gemini; F. Riccio; S. Squilloni; A. Rovida; R. Tocci

2010-01-01

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Dairy cows use and prefer feed bunks fitted with sprinklers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sprinklers reduce heat load in cattle, but elicit variable behavioral responses: cows readily use water in some studies, but in others either avoid it or show no preference. Nevertheless, on US dairies, a common way to cool cows is with nozzles mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray (i.e., 5min on, 10min off, as in this study) animals' backs while they feed. The objectives of this study were to determine how this type of sprinkler system affects behavior (single-treatment phase), and to assess preferences when cows were allowed to choose between feed bunks with or without sprinklers (choice phase). Data were collected 24h/d for lactating Holsteins tested in groups of 3 cows (n=8 groups) in warm ambient conditions [air temperature (mean ± standard deviation): 24-h average=24.5±2.5°C, maximum=36.0±3.5°C]. In the single-treatment phase, cows were fed from shaded bunks with or without sprinklers for 2 d/treatment, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When sprinklers were present, cows spent more time at the bunk, both feeding [sprinkler vs. no sprinkler: 3.5 vs. 2.5h/24h, standard error (SE)=0.12h] and standing without feeding (4.3 vs. 2.3h/24h, SE=0.32h) than when no sprinklers were present. Sprinklers lowered the average 24-h core temperature (38.8 vs. 39.2°C, SE=0.08°C), particularly on warmer days. Water cooling also mitigated the effects of weather on feeding time, which decreased with increasing heat load (air temperature and temperature-humidity index) when cows did not have sprinklers, but was unchanged when sprinklers were provided. In the choice phase, feed was provided ad libitum in both treatments for 5 d and preference was assessed. All groups preferred the feed bunk with sprinklers (78 vs. 22% of time spent near both feed bunks, SE=3.9%), and the magnitude of this preference increased linearly with heat load. In both phases of the study, cows protected their heads from direct spray when head position was elective (i.e., standing without feeding): cows were more likely to put their heads through the head gates when the sprinklers were on than off (single-treatment phase: 78 vs. 59%, respectively, of time spent standing without feeding, SE=2.8%; choice phase: 71 vs. 52%, SE=2.0%). In conclusion, although cows avoided wetting their heads, this is the first study to demonstrate that cattle readily use and clearly prefer sprinklers mounted above the feed bunk, possibly due to the cooling provided by this resource.

Chen JM; Schütz KE; Tucker CB

2013-08-01

55

The Genome Response to Artificial Selection: A Case Study in Dairy Cattle  

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Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and...

Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sébastien; Jaffrézic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis

56

Genomic dairy cattle breeding : risk and opportunities for cow welfare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but during the past couple of decades more emphasis has been placed on a few rough, but useful, measures of traits relevant to cow welfare, including calving ease score and 'clinical disease or not'; the aim being to counteract the unfavourable genetic association with production traits. However, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values.

Mark, Thomas; SandØe, Peter

2010-01-01

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A herd level analysis of urinary tract infection in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystitis, urethritis and pyelonephritis in cattle most commonly result from ascending urinary tract infection with Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium cystidis, Corynebacterium pilosum or Escherichia coli. We describe the clinical, bacteriological, clinical-pathological and epidemiological findings in a dairy cattle herd with urinary tract infection (UTI). Blood and urine samples from 17 calves and 19 cows were submitted to laboratory examinations. Depression, muscle wasting, weakness and frequent urine dribbling were the main characteristics of UTI in calves. Affected cows showed weight loss and an abrupt reduction in feed intake and milk production. Enlargement of the left kidney and loss of normal lobulation were evident on rectal examination. E. coli was the most frequent cause of UTI but C. renale, alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. and Oligella urethralis were isolated as well. Differences in total protein and several protein fractions were found between affected and healthy animals. PMID:16310382

Yeruham, I; Elad, D; Avidar, Y; Goshen, T

2005-11-28

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A herd level analysis of urinary tract infection in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cystitis, urethritis and pyelonephritis in cattle most commonly result from ascending urinary tract infection with Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium cystidis, Corynebacterium pilosum or Escherichia coli. We describe the clinical, bacteriological, clinical-pathological and epidemiological findings in a dairy cattle herd with urinary tract infection (UTI). Blood and urine samples from 17 calves and 19 cows were submitted to laboratory examinations. Depression, muscle wasting, weakness and frequent urine dribbling were the main characteristics of UTI in calves. Affected cows showed weight loss and an abrupt reduction in feed intake and milk production. Enlargement of the left kidney and loss of normal lobulation were evident on rectal examination. E. coli was the most frequent cause of UTI but C. renale, alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. and Oligella urethralis were isolated as well. Differences in total protein and several protein fractions were found between affected and healthy animals.

Yeruham I; Elad D; Avidar Y; Goshen T

2006-01-01

59

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.

Seo S; Larkin DM; Loor JJ

2013-03-01

60

Investigations concerning the influence of the supply of dairy cattle with stable iodine on the transfer of I-131 from feed to milk. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Versorgung von Milchkuehen mit stabilem Jod auf dem Transfer von I-131 vom Futter in die Milch  

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The work had the objective to quantify the influence of the variation of stable iodine administration in feed on the rate of excretion of radioactive iodine 131 in milk. Under the prevailing conditions, i.e., as long as dairy cattle are adequately supplied with stable iodine, the investigated variations of iodine supply definitely had no effect. Irrespective of supplementary iodine administration (10 to 100 g of stable iodine per day), a milk transfer factor of 0.015[+-]0.002 d/L was established for all cows. Consequently, increased iodine administration as a means of reducting milk contamination after accidents at nuclear plants involving the release of radioactive iodine can be dispensed with. By contrast, cows in iodine deficiency areas are likely to respond if additionally supplied with stable iodine. (orig./UG)

Voigt, G.; Probstmeier, G.; Roehrmoser, G.

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that cause a wide range of significant diseases in humans and animals worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses. Chlamydial infection in cattle has been reported in many countries including China. However, there has been no survey of chlamydial infection of dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine the chlamydial seroprevalence in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China by using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy cattle was 7.25% (29/400). Greater than or equal to eight-yr-old dairy cattle had the highest seroprevalence (10.34%), followed by those that were???6 years old or?dairy cattle (10.20%), although there were no statistically significant differences among different groups (P?>?0.05). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (10.81%). These results indicate that chlamydial infection was present in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, subtropical southern China, and integrated strategies and measures should be executed to control and prevent chlamydial infection and disease outbreak in the study region.

Zhou DH; Zhao FR; Xia HY; Xu MJ; Huang SY; Song HQ; Zhu XQ

2013-01-01

62

Ethological aspects on water supply for dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available In order to identify appropriate alternatives for the provision of water to dairy cattle, the preference of dairy cows among three types of water troughs used in pasturebased systems was evaluated. The fi rst water trough was round, had a diameter of 120cm, was 60cm high and held 500L (500C); the second was a round water trough, 60cm in diameter, 60cm high, and held 125L (125C); the last trough was rectangular, 30cm high and 100cm long, and held 100L (100R). Individual preference tests were carried out with 17 dairy cows. The cows preferred to drink 67% of the time from the 500C trough, 18% of the time from the 100R trough, and 15% of the time from the 125C trough (p<0.001). Also, these animals drank more water (p<0.001), took more sips (p<0.001) and spent more time drinking (p<0.001) from the 500C trough than from the other two troughs. When the 125C and 100R troughs were compared, no differences in the cows’ preferences were found. Considering the known effects of water consumption on dairy cow milk production, it was concluded that the water trough preferred by the cows should be recommended.

Dayane Lemos Teixeira; Maria José Hötzel; Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho; Daniel Enriquez Hidalgo; José Daniel Cazale

2009-01-01

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Determining the heritable component of dairy cattle foot lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lameness and hoof health affect dairy cows as an animal welfare issue, in decreased milk production, and in premature culling. Selection schemes for dairy cattle focus on sire contribution to milk production, with little consideration of the cow's physical structure or disease probability. On 3 commercial California dairies, 6 phenotypic binary hoof traits that contribute to lameness were recorded: white line disease, sole ulcer, other claw horn lesions, foot rot (interdigital phlegmon), foot warts (digital dermatitis), and other lesions. Monthly lactation records were collected from December 2006 to April 2009 with weekly observations of hoof lesions for lame and dry cows. In addition to hoof lesion information, data on cows (n=5,043) included parentage, birth date, freshening date, lactation number, and date of lameness diagnosis. The prevalence of hoof lesions ranged from a low of 2.2% (foot rot) to a high of 17.1% (foot warts). The farm environment increased the odds ratio depending upon the lesion. Lameness was more common in early lactation and as lactation number increased. Using a threshold model, heritabilities and repeatabilities were estimated for each binary trait. The heritability for risk varied by lesion, with the higher estimates being 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.67) for digital dermatitis and 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.63) for sole ulcer. Including terms to account for cow productivity on either a 305-d mature-equivalent basis or a per-lactation basis had minimal effect on the heritability estimates, suggesting that selection for hoof health is not correlated with response to selection for greater milk production and that improvement could be made for both traits. The genetic component lends support for further genetic studies to identify loci contributing to some of the lesion phenotypes such as foot warts or sole ulcers, 2 of the top 3 causes of lameness in dairy cattle.

Oberbauer AM; Berry SL; Belanger JM; McGoldrick RM; Pinos-Rodriquez JM; Famula TR

2013-01-01

64

First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from dairy cattle in Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fecal specimens were obtained from a total of 70 dairy calves less than two months old on 11 municipalities in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and sucrose flotation, specimens were subjected to PCR to detect the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PCR revealed a 14.3% of prevalence for E. bieneusi with 10 positive calves from 7 municipalities. Gene sequence analysis conducted in all samples positives by PCR revealed the presence of six genotypes; four previously reported in cattle as well as humans (D, I, J, and BEB4), one never reported in cattle before but previously reported in humans (EbpC), and one novel genotype (BEB10). These results constitute the first molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in Argentina, and suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission in this area.

Del Coco VF; Córdoba MA; Bilbao G; de Almeida Castro P; Basualdo JA; Santín M

2013-09-01

65

A novel test for measuring and managing potential phosphorus loss from dairy cattle feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution of waters resulting from phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural land receiving long-term manure application is one of the most serious threats to water quality in many regions of the world. Of various approaches to alleviate the problem, reducing P surplus on animal farms through optimizing P intake and minimizing P excretion in manure offers a great opportunity. Here, we present a fecal P test method that has the potential to identify over-feeding of P in dairy cattle. Previous research has suggested that water-extractable P in dairy cow feces closely reflects dietary P changes and may indicate the animal's P status (adequate vs excessive). However, the notion was somewhat confounded when a subsequent study found other factors (pH and Ca content as well as sample handling method) also affecting P extractability in water. In the present work, we hypothesize that the impact of those factors on P extractability can be overcome by selecting dilute acid solutions to replace deionized water as the extractant. Using samples from 25 commercial dairy farms, we tested an array of acid solutions (including HCI, citric acid, and acetic acid) and found that 0.1% HCI is the most suitable extractant. Inorganic P (P(i)) released in 0.1% HCl closely reflected dietary P changes among the farms (R2 = 0.69) and was independent of pH, Ca, or sample handling method. Knowledge of P metabolism and partitioning in dairy cows and our experimental data suggest that excess P intake by the animal leads to greater amounts of bioavailable but unabsorbed P, which is excreted in feces. Its relative magnitude may be estimated by measuring P(i) extractable in 0.1% HCl. This novel and simple fecal P test could potentially be used as an indicator of the animal's P supply utilization status and thus serve as a screening tool for the presence of P over-feeding on dairy farms. PMID:17626437

Dou, Zhengxia; Ramberg, Charles F; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Toth, John D; Wang, Yu; Munson, Robert J; Wu, Zhiguo; Chase, Larry E; Kohn, Richard A; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ferguson, James D

2007-06-15

66

Climate Change Concern to Cattle Feed in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available This research focuses the climate change concerns for livestock feeding management in Bangladesh as it causes strange behavior and variation of cattle diets and feed shortages in the last two decades. It is obvious from the recent literature that Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable country of the world to climate change. It causes cattle feed shortages, modification in major production of yields, alteration in a variety composition of rangeland and edifying variety of cattle feed setback. The climate change concern to cattle feed in Bangladesh are now real and need to overcome the problems by the subject to current research effort and value. Therefore, in this study specific justification is used to figure out the factors that are responsible and discussed the national lacking, required action, limitation and possible alternative options. Moreover, following on the national lacking, required action and limitations, this study incorporated a framework of approach and strategies for the policy makers of Bangladesh.

Ferdous Ahmed; Abul Quasem Al-Amin; Gazi Mahabubul Alam; Che Hashim Hassan

2012-01-01

67

Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed energy for maintenance and growth also become efficient at converting feed energy to milk. Future research will also be necessary to identify the consequences of selection for RFI on other traits (especially fertility and other fitness traits) and if any interactions exist between RFI and feeding level.

Williams YJ; Pryce JE; Grainger C; Wales WJ; Linden N; Porker M; Hayes BJ

2011-09-01

68

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle in southern China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350). Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.

Zhou Dong-Hui; Zhao Fu-Rong; Lu Ping; Xia Hui-Yan; Xu Min-Jun; Yuan Li-Guo; Yan Chao; Huang Si-Yang; Li Shou-Jun; Zhu Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

69

Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms that differed in size (range 40 to 285 cows) and milk production level (4000 to 9300 kg per cow per year). Different scenarios were employed to estimate costs associated directly with AI and NS as well as potentially extended calving intervals (ECI) due to AI. Results showed that bull maintenance costs for NS were €1440 to €1670 per year ($1,820 to $2,111). Direct AI costs were higher than those for NS for farms with more than 30 cows and ECI constituted a considerable additional burden. In fact, amongst the factors that affected the amount of milk needed to cover total extra AI costs, number of days open was the dominant one. Semen, feed and heifer prices had a very small effect. When, hypothetically, use of NS bulls results in a calving interval of 12 months, AI daughters with a calving interval of 13.5 months have to produce about 705 kg of additional milk in order to cover the extra cost. Their actual milk production, however, exceeds this limit by more than 25%. When real calving intervals are considered (13.0 v. 13.7 months for NS and AI, respectively) AI daughters turn out to produce more than twice the additional amount of milk needed. It was concluded that even under less than average management conditions, AI is more profitable than the best NS scenario. The efficient communication of this message should be a primary concern of the AI industry. PMID:22444295

Valergakis, G E; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

2007-03-01

70

Comparison of artificial insemination and natural service cost effectiveness in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive efficiency in the dairy herd is the most important factor for its economic success and a major concern for dairy farmers when using artificial insemination (AI) or natural service (NS). Our objectives were to estimate, compare and analyse the costs associated with breeding cattle by do-it-yourself (DIY) AI and NS and identify the factors that influence them, under typical dairy farming conditions in Greece. A simulation study was designed based on data from 120 dairy cattle farms that differed in size (range 40 to 285 cows) and milk production level (4000 to 9300 kg per cow per year). Different scenarios were employed to estimate costs associated directly with AI and NS as well as potentially extended calving intervals (ECI) due to AI. Results showed that bull maintenance costs for NS were €1440 to €1670 per year ($1,820 to $2,111). Direct AI costs were higher than those for NS for farms with more than 30 cows and ECI constituted a considerable additional burden. In fact, amongst the factors that affected the amount of milk needed to cover total extra AI costs, number of days open was the dominant one. Semen, feed and heifer prices had a very small effect. When, hypothetically, use of NS bulls results in a calving interval of 12 months, AI daughters with a calving interval of 13.5 months have to produce about 705 kg of additional milk in order to cover the extra cost. Their actual milk production, however, exceeds this limit by more than 25%. When real calving intervals are considered (13.0 v. 13.7 months for NS and AI, respectively) AI daughters turn out to produce more than twice the additional amount of milk needed. It was concluded that even under less than average management conditions, AI is more profitable than the best NS scenario. The efficient communication of this message should be a primary concern of the AI industry.

Valergakis GE; Arsenos G; Banos G

2007-03-01

71

Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established in dairy cattle. Many studies focused on polygenic variation of the trait, by estimating heritabilities and genetic correlation among phenotypic traits related to mastitis such as somatic cell counts and clinical cases. The role of Major Histocompatibility Complex in the susceptibility or resistance to intrammamary infection is also well documented. Finally, development from molecular genome mapping led to accumulating information of quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to mastitis resistance and better understanding of the genetic determinism of the trait. From economic and genetic analyses, and according to welfare and food safety considerations and to breeders and consumer's concern, there is more and more evidence that mastitis should be included in breeding objective of dairy cattle breeds. Many countries have implemented selection for mastitis resistance based on linear decrease of somatic cell counts. Given biological questioning, potential unfavourable consequences for very low cell counts cows are regularly investigated. Improvement of selection accuracy for mastitis resistance is ongoing and includes: advances in modelling, optimal combination of mastitis related traits and associated predictors, such as udder morphology, definition of global breeding objective including production and functional traits, and inclusion of molecular information that is now available from QTL experiments.

Rupp R; Boichard D

2003-09-01

72

Assessing protein availability of different bioethanol coproducts in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioethanol production has led to the production of considerable quantities of different coproducts. Variation in nutrient profiles as well as nutrient availability among these coproducts may lead to an imbalance in the formulation of diets. The objectives of this study were to fractionate protein and carbohydrates by an in situ approach, to determine ruminal availability of nutrients for microbial protein synthesis and to determine protein availability to dairy cattle for three types of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS; 100% wheat DDGS (WDDGS); DDGS blend1 (BDDGS1, corn to wheat ratio 30 : 70); DDGS blend2 (BDDGS2, corn to wheat ratio 50 : 50)) and for different batches within DDGS type using the 2010 DVE/OEB protein evaluation system. The results indicated that all DDGS types are quantitatively good sources of true protein digested and absorbed in the small intestine (DVE values; 177, 184 and 170 g/kg dry matter (DM) for WDDGS, BDDGS1 and BDDGS2, respectively). Rumen degraded protein balances (OEB) values were 159, 82, 65 g/kg DM in WDDGS, BDDGS1 and BDDGS2, respectively. Despite the differences in ruminal availability of nutrients among the different batches of DDGS, the DVE values only differed between the batches of BDDGS1 (194 v. 176 g/kg DM). In conclusion, when DDGS is included in the rations of dairy cattle, variation in its protein value due to factors such as DDGS batch should be taken into consideration.

Azarfar A; Jonker A; Yu P

2013-02-01

73

Model of Hyperalgesia Associated with Lameness in Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The nociceptive response was evaluated in dairy cattle after injection of a solution of formalin (4%) in the the external claw hoof. The nociceptive response in cows exhibited a biphasic time course behavior to pain stimulus similar to the one described in trials of formalin test in different laboratory animals. The cortisol plasma concentration after injections of formalin was high during the two phases of the pain response showing a correspondence with clinical nociceptive behaviors. The 4 % formalin injections in claw hoof in cows can be used to evaluate the possible mechanisms of anti-nociceptive drugs of central and peripheral actions. Besides, it is a reversible model; it does not need complicated equipment and it is simple to be carried out by personnel with certain experience in cow lameness. This nociceptive model might be useful to research the therapeutic role of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs of short half life in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.

E.O. Confalonieri; A.L. Soraci; M. Becaluba; C.Bianchi; M.A. Aba; O.Tapia

2006-01-01

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Treatment of peunomovaginitis in dairy cattle by caslick operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome. Vulvoplasty or caslick operation was performed under local analgesia. Two third of vulva lips were apposed and the distal third was left open for ease of urination. The vulva lips had an angle of 30° from the vertical plane in 10 (37.0%) cows and an angle of 45° degree in 17 (62.9%) cases. The vulvoplasty was healed very well in 24 (88.8%) cases and required another attempt in 3 (11.11%) cases. Caslick operation described in this study helped to improve fertility and reduce repeat breeder syndrome in Holstein dairy cows treated. Artificial insemination is advised for cows with caslick operation and a week prior to delivery the vaginal fissure should be reopened manually for ease of normal parturition.

S. N. Dehghani,; M. Yavari; M. Kafi

2011-01-01

75

Seroprevalence of Neospora Caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora can­inum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and ab­orted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to de­tect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cat­tle are recommended.

A Nematollahi; R Jaafari; Gh Moghaddam

2011-01-01

76

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

Michael P. Combrink; Graham Carr; Ben J. Mans; Frances Marais

2012-01-01

77

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended. PMID:23327323

Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances

2012-12-06

78

Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ? 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ? 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

Combrink MP; Carr G; Mans BJ; Marais F

2012-01-01

79

Effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on treatment technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Differences in biodegradability can affect the treatment of slurry before its use in spraying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on different biological treatment technologies. This research involved monthly sampling (number/composition) for 1 year of 24 swine farms (16%), cattle farms (38%), and mixed swine and cattle farms (46%). The results obtained showed differences in feeding (3 l water kg(-1) food for cattle and 5 l water kg(-1) food for swine) and assimilation (0.6 kg food kg (-1) milk produced and 3 kg kg(-1) weight gain), which may influence the generation of slurry (57 l animal(-1)d(-1) in cattle and 31 l animal(-1) d(-1) in swine) and its composition. In addition, the composition of swine slurry [23 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1), 3 g total nitrogen (TN) l(-1)] is significantly different (P < 0.01) to cattle slurry (4 g COD l(-1), 0.3 g TN l(-1)). Finally, the composition and the S index applied to swine slurry [COD N(-1) = 8, biological oxygen demand (BOD)5 COD(-1) = 0.3, S index > 0] and cattle slurry (COD N(-1) = 16, BOD5 COD(-1) = 0.6, S index < 0) show a difference on the biodegradability of both slurries. Suitability of anaerobic and aerobic treatment was assessed based on the findings.

Villamar CA; Rodríguez DC; López D; Peñuela G; Vidal G

2013-08-01

80

Genetic evaluation of reproductive performance in Canadian dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size). The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.

F. Miglior

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Milk coagulation ability of five dairy cattle breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples of herd milk (506) were analyzed to assess sources of variation for milk coagulation properties (MCP) for 5 different dairy cattle breeds. Data were recorded in 55 single-breed dairy herds in the Trento province, a mountain area in northeast Italy. The 5 cattle breeds were Holstein-Friesian (8 herds), Brown Swiss (16 herds), Simmental (10 herds), Rendena (13 herds), and Alpine Gray (8 herds). Herd milk samples were analyzed for the MCP traits, milk rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness (a30), as well as protein and fat percentages, somatic cell count, Soxhlet-Henkel acidity, and bacterial count. An ANOVA was performed to study the effect of breed, herd within breed, DIM, month of lactation, protein and fat percentages, somatic cell score, titratable acidity, and log bacterial count within breed on MCP. Breed was the most important source of variation. In particular, the Rendena breed showed the best MCP traits at 13.5 min and 27.0 mm for RCT and a30, respectively. The Holstein-Friesian breed had the worst coagulation properties at 18.0 min and 17.5 mm for RCT and a30, respectively. The other 3 breeds showed intermediate coagulation properties. The RCT values were better at the beginning of lactation, whereas RCT and a30 values were better in September and October (14.3 min and 25.7 mm, respectively). Among the composition traits, only the titratable acidity affected MCP traits of herd milk positively.

De Marchi M; Dal Zotto R; Cassandro M; Bittante G

2007-08-01

82

Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dense SNP panel was used to predict the genetic merit of an individual for selection in livestock. The accuracy of genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular the number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip. A total of 648,219 SNPs passed the quality control criteria for genotypes from the high density SNP panel. All the 4,200 individuals’ genotypes were imputed to the high density SNP panel using the software Beagle. The associations between the phenotypes and SNPs were estimated by a linear mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis

Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

83

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

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Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahreko...

A Jafari Dehkordi; HR Shahbazkia; N Ronagh

84

Sweet clover poisoning in dairy cattle in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight of 600 Holstein heifers and cows died after ingestion of sweet clover silage (Melilotus sp) that contained excessive concentrations of dicumarol caused by mold infestation. The cattle developed subcutaneous hemorrhages and bled from the vagina, became weak, were unable to move, and died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sweet clover poisoning in cattle from California and is discussed in light of previous findings in the Midwest and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning is caused by dicumarol, a fungal metabolite produced from substrates in sweet clover, and is a common livestock problem in the Northern Plains and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning should be considered in livestock animals with clinical evidence of hemostatic dysfunction, prolonged coagulation times, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and hemorrhagic abortions. Definite diagnosis of moldy sweet clover poisoning can be accomplished by analysis of serum and feed samples for dicumarol concentrations. PMID:9530428

Puschner, B; Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Palazoglu, M

1998-03-15

85

Sweet clover poisoning in dairy cattle in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight of 600 Holstein heifers and cows died after ingestion of sweet clover silage (Melilotus sp) that contained excessive concentrations of dicumarol caused by mold infestation. The cattle developed subcutaneous hemorrhages and bled from the vagina, became weak, were unable to move, and died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sweet clover poisoning in cattle from California and is discussed in light of previous findings in the Midwest and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning is caused by dicumarol, a fungal metabolite produced from substrates in sweet clover, and is a common livestock problem in the Northern Plains and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning should be considered in livestock animals with clinical evidence of hemostatic dysfunction, prolonged coagulation times, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and hemorrhagic abortions. Definite diagnosis of moldy sweet clover poisoning can be accomplished by analysis of serum and feed samples for dicumarol concentrations.

Puschner B; Galey FD; Holstege DM; Palazoglu M

1998-03-01

86

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first ...

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

87

Food Security and Dairy Cow Feeding: The Necessity for a Paradigm Shift  

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Full Text Available Previously, cattle were fed almost exclusively feeds that were unsuitable for human consumption. The availability of cheap fossil energy for the production of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the cultivation of land and long-distance shipping of crops has made it possible and even profitable to feed even ruminants enormous amounts of grain and pulses. As a result, highly intensive animal production systems have emerged.Grain and pulses, however, are potentially edible for humans. This means that these supposedly highly efficient animal production systems contribute to the increasing competition for arable land for crops. In dairy farming, to attain lactation of 10,000 kg/year and beyond, the amount of concentrates in the ration has to be maximized. Most of these concentrates are grain and pulse products.This kind of dairy cow feeding is not only contradictory to the evolutionary adaptation of cattle, which allows these animals to be able to digest fibrous plant substrate, but has also resulted in an increasingly unfavorable food balance (i.e. animal-derived food per unit of feed input potentially edible to humans). The potential of ruminants to efficiently convert forages from grasslands, pastures, and fiber-rich by-products from the processing of plant-derived foods into milk and meat will soon be of great significance, because arable land is becoming scarce and the demand for human food is growing. The use of highly productive arable land to produce animal feed results in a net loss for the potential global food supply.

Wilhelm Knaus

2013-01-01

88

Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System  

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Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat) by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

I. Soliman

2010-01-01

89

The impact of feeding line on dairy production revenue  

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Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002). Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015), and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists) were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.

Vesna O?i?; Branka Šaki? Bobi?; Zoran Grgi?

2012-01-01

90

Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding cattle manure (CM) for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO), bakery by-products (BBP) and tallow (TW) was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1) control: CM and MO; 2) LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3) HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4) LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5) HTW: CM, BBP and high level of TW. Ensiling CM with BBP had the lowest silage losses. Silages were part of diets, which were fed to lambs fitted with ruminal cannulas. Nutrient intake and N balance did not differ in lambs across all experimental diets, but the NDF digestion of diets with BBP and TW was lower than with MO or BBP. Ensiling CM with BBP offered less silage losses as compared to MO.

José Luis Bórquez; Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodríguez; Sergio Segundo González; Ignacio Domínguez; Ricardo Bárcena; Germán Mendoza; Mario Cobos

2010-01-01

91

Drinking water for dairy cattle: always a benefit or a microbiological risk?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drinking water can be considered an essential nutrient for dairy cattle. However, because it comes from different sources, its chemical and microbiological quality does not always reach accepted standards. Moreover, water quality is not routinely assessed on dairy farms. The microecology of drinking water sources and distribution systems is rather complex and still not fully understood. Water quality is adversely affected by the formation of biofilms in distribution systems, which form a persistent reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria. Saprophytic microorganisms associated with such biofilms interact with organic and inorganic matter in water, with pathogens, and even with each other. In addition, the presence of biofilms in water distribution systems makes cleaning and disinfection difficult and sometimes impossible. This article describes the complex dynamics of microorganisms in water distribution systems. Water quality is diminished primarily as a result of faecal contamination and rarely as a result of putrefaction in water distribution systems. The design of such systems (with/ without anti-backflow valves and pressure) and the materials used (polyethylene enhances biofilm; stainless steel does not) affect the quality of water they provide. The best option is an open, funnel-shaped galvanized drinking trough, possibly with a pressure system, air inlet, and anti-backflow valves. A poor microbiological quality of drinking water may adversely affect feed intake, and herd health and productivity. In turn, public health may be affected because cattle can become a reservoir of microorganisms hazardous to humans, such as some strains of E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni. A better understanding of the biological processes in water sources and distribution systems and of the viability of microorganisms in these systems may contribute to better advice on herd health and productivity at a farm level. Certain on-farm risk factors for water quality have been identified. A practical approach will facilitate the control and management of these risks, and thereby improve herd health and productivity.

Van Eenige MJ; Counotte GH; Noordhuizen JP

2013-02-01

92

Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

Gates MC

2013-08-01

93

Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during the night (0000-0600 h) than the least-efficient animals. In summary, correlations between RFI and feeding behavior were weak. Small differences in feeding behavior were observed between the most- and least-efficient animals but adverse behavioral effects associated with such selection in growing dairy heifers are unlikely.

Green TC; Jago JG; Macdonald KA; Waghorn GC

2013-05-01

94

Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h) was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253). There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583) between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456). Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414) and composite (R2 = 0.262) milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008) and udder half samples (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054) and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R2 = -0.379).

I.M. Petzer; E.F. Donkin; E. Du Preez; J. Karzis; T.J. Van der Schans; J.C. Watermeyer; R. Van Reenen

2010-01-01

95

ANATOMOPATHOLOGY OF PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY CATTLE FROM RESENDE - RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis. The purpose of this work was to report the anatomopathology of three cases of paratuberculosis in autochthonous dairy cattle from Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Animals presented characteristic clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis and were seroreactive to ELISA. They were euthanized and necropsied. Small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and ileocecal valve samples were collected and processed for histopathology and bacteriology. Tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed for paraffin inclusion, and stained by HE (haemathoxilin-eosin) and ZN (Ziehl-Neelsen). Macroscopic alterations such as small intestine wall segmental thickness, mucosal hyperaemia, and corrugation were observed. Ileocaecal valve emaciation, evident mesenteric lymphadenomegally, and lymphangiectasy were also present. The main histopathological findings were enteritis, lymphangitis and granulomatous lymphadenitis. Intestinal lesions were mainly restricted to mucosa and submucosa of jejune and ileum, characterized by inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, and scarce giant Langhan’s–type cells. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were observed into macrophages on the top of villi, lamina propria and lymph nodes parenchyma. Anatomopathology was characteristic for the disease and was considered a valuable tool for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Ana Bárbara Freitas Rodrigues; Paula Carvalhal Lage von Buettner Ristow; Alessa Siqueira Oliveira Santos; Walter Lilenbaum; Cláudio Baptista Carvalho; Eulógio Carlos Queiróz Carvalho

2012-01-01

96

Fermentation of cattle waste for animal feeding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cattle waste was mixed with green maize and wheat bhoosa in the ratio of 2:2:1 respectively, on a fresh weight basis. The premix was enriched with urea (0, 0.5 and 1%) and molasses (0, 1 and 2%) prior to ensiling in miniature silos. The urea adversely affected the wastage characteristics, while molasses had a beneficial effect on the fermentation process. For nutritional studies, the wastage was prepared in stainless steel tower silos. Cattle waste, green oat and wheat bhoosa (2:2:1) were enriched with urea (0.5%) and molasses (5%). After fermentation for 2 months the wastage was fed to sheep by replacing oat hay at three levels-0, 50 and 100%. The digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, cell contents, hemicellulose and soluble ash decreased with increasing levels of wastage in the diet. The nitrogen balance was found to be reduced with increased level of wastage in the ration.

Jakhmola, R.C.; Kamra, D.N.; Singh, R.; Pathak, N.N.

1984-01-01

97

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P

1999-01-01

98

Availability Analysis of A Cattle Feed Plant Using Matrix Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth – death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.

Deepika Garg; Jai Singh; Kuldeep Kumar

2009-01-01

99

Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. RESULTS: Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.

Baines D; Erb S; Turkington K; Kuldau G; Juba J; Masson L; Mazza A; Roberts R

2011-01-01

100

Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, acted as a mycotoxin binder in vitro and interfered with the progression of disease.

Baines Danica; Erb Stephanie; Turkington Kelly; Kuldau Gretchen; Juba Jean; Masson Luke; Mazza Alberto; Roberts Ray

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Feed supplement for dairy cows, calves and heifers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food concentrate for cattle and goats improves energy conversion to milk and meat A food concentrate for dairy cattle, milk goats, calves and young beef cattle consist of a sweet-flavored Yucca palm extract, active and inactive yeast combined with a suitable substrate. A farm animal food concentrate additive consists of a sweet flavored plant extract such as Yucca palms, together with an active yeast , an inactive yeast and a substrate. The concentrate also contains a micro-biological additive especially Saccharomyces serevisiae IP 1077 at a concentration of 5 x 10(9 KBE/kg total weight. The concentrate also contains trace elements copper (68 mg/kg), selenium (100 mg/kg) or cobalt (80 mg/kg). In lieu of the inactive yeast the mixture may contain vitamins A (5,900 I.E./kg), D3 (1,350 I.E.(kg) or E (10,000 mg/kg). The concentrate also contains an emulsifier such as lutein and tartracin.

Gerstädt Peter Dr.

102

Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were tested repeatedly over a period of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ECF lateral flow test does not accurately identify nonpregnancy in dairy cattle. PMID:17824326

Ambrose, Divakar J; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A; Goonewardene, Laksiri A

2007-08-01

103

Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.

2008-01-01

104

Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

Khan MA; Chander M; Bardhan D

2013-02-01

105

Evaluation of PCR and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on milk samples for diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was performed to evaluate the previously described PCR (C. Romero, C. Gamazo, M. Pardo, and I. López-Goñi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:615-617, 1995) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle. Milk samples from 56 Brucella milk culture-positive cattle and from 37 cattle from Brucella-free ...

Romero, C; Pardo, M; Grillo, M J; Diaz, R; Blasco, J M; Lopez-Goñi, I

106

Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population.

Sanad YM; Closs G Jr; Kumar A; LeJeune JT; Rajashekara G

2013-03-01

107

Volatile fatty acids in stored dairy-cattle slurry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content of dairy-cattle liquid manure slurry during its storage in covered concrete tanks, 12.3 x 7.2 x 3.0m deep, were studied. Slurry was stored from January to October (285 days) in two tanks and, similarly, from June to November (146 days). Slurry samples were collected at regular intervals from each of the tanks at two locations at depths of 0.3, 1.0, 1.8 and 2.5 m below the slurry surface. A centrifuged supernatant of the slurry was analysed for VFA. The temperature history of the stored slurry greatly influenced the VFA concentrations. In all four tanks for all VFA except iso-valeric acid, concentrations were significantly lower at the 0.3 m depth than at greater depths after about 50 days of storage. Concentrations increase during storage in all tanks except that in one of the two winter-filled tanks, total VFA concentration decreased at all depths during the last two months of storage, probably due to a shift in microbial activity. The mean concentrations of VFA in all the tanks were substantially in excess of those normally associated with steadily operated methane digesters. Acetic acid was the dominant VFA in every tank, and changes in its concentration set the trend for changes in the concentration of total VFA in the slurry stored in that tank. On a molar basis, concentrations decreased in the order of acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric, iso-butyric and valeric acid in all the four tanks. The last three acids accounted for only 6-8% of the total VFA.

Patni, N.K.; Jui, P.Y.

1985-01-01

108

Evaluation of factors that affect embryonic loss in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential risk factors for embryonic loss before 35 to 42 days of gestation in dairy cattle. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. ANIMALS: 381 cows. PROCEDURE: Body condition score was determined at the time of artificial insemination (AI; day 0) and on days 20, 23, and 27 and between days 35 and 41; serum progesterone concentration was measured on days 0; 20 or 21; and 23, 24, or 25. Cows were excluded from analyses if day 0 serum progesterone concentration was > or = 1.0 ng/mL and classified as pregnant on day 23 if serum progesterone was > 1.5 ng/mL on day 20 or 21 and day 23, 24, or 25. Cows were examined via transrectal ultrasonography on day 27 or 28 and rectally palpated for pregnancy on days 35 to 41. RESULTS: 39% of cows that were pregnant on day 23 lost their embryo by day 27, and 18% of cows that were pregnant on day 27 or 28 were not pregnant on days 35 to 41. Breeding a pregnant cow posed the greatest risk for embryonic loss at both time periods. Mean serum progesterone concentrations on day 21 or 22 and day 23, 24, or 25 were lowest for cows that lost an embryo between days 24 and 28. Cows with a linear somatic cell count score > 4.5 before AI were twice as likely to lose the embryo by 35 to 41 days, compared with cows with a score < 4.5. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that embryonic loss could be reduced by more accurate estrus detection, reducing mastitis, and strategies to improve progesterone concentration after breeding.

Moore DA; Overton MW; Chebel RC; Truscott ML; BonDurant RH

2005-04-01

109

The sustainability challenge to the dairy sector – The growing importance of non-cattle milk production worldwide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Globally, 16.9% of milk consumed by humans comes from species other than cattle. Non-cattle milk is linked more to territories than cows’ milk: sheep in the Mediterranean basin, horse in Central Asia, yak in Himalayas, camel in desert regions. These links contribute to the building of dairy ecosystems including specific dairy species, traditional products, farmer know-how, landscape maintenance, cultural activities, market sector and identity markers. According to the variability of milk composition, nutritional and medicinal properties (true or postulated) could be potentially an important added value for producers and dairy sector. Most of non-cattle milk production occurs in emerging or developing countries where population growth and protein demand are increasing. It is not necessary to adapt the western model for intensive dairy production (Holstein-soya-silage) – non-cattle dairy systems, whether intensive or not, appear to be a sustainable alternative to meet the increasing demand both in terms of quantity and quality.

Faye B; Konuspayeva G

2012-06-01

110

Nationwide Survey of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection among Dairy and Beef Breeding Cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

Murakami K; Kobayashi S; Konishi M; Kameyama K; Tsutsui T

2013-09-01

111

Nationwide Survey of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection among Dairy and Beef Breeding Cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan. PMID:23563620

Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

2013-04-08

112

Nationwide Survey of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection among Dairy and Beef Breeding Cattle in Japan from 2010-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2010-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV. The intra-herd seroprevalence in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1-year-old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan, with BLV seroprevalence approximately 10- and 4-fold higher respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

Murakami K; Kobayashi S; Konishi M; Kameyama KI; Tsutsui T

2013-04-01

113

Ruminant Mineral Feed Additive  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A ruminant mineral feed additive for dairy cattle and ruminant animals includes a unique combination of zeolite and dolomitic hydrate mineral fines that are prilled and hydrothermally reacted to produce a valuable dietary supplement for control of acidosis.

PETERSON STEPHEN L

114

RUMINANT MINERAL FEED ADDITIVE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A ruminant mineral feed additive for dairy cattle and ruminant animals includes a unique combination of zeolite and dolomitic hydrate mineral fines that are prilled and hydrothermally reacted to produce a valuable dietary supplement for control of acidosis.

PETERSON STEPHEN L

115

Determinación de la calidad nutritiva, fermentación In Vitro y metabolitos secundarios en arvenses y rastrojo de maíz utilizados para la alimentación del ganado lechero/ Nutritive value, In Vitro fermentation and secondary metabolites of weeds and maize straw used for feeding dairy cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero. El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas c (more) on el rastrojo de maíz en diferentes proporciones. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas del Valle de Toluca en los meses de Agosto a Octubre de 2007, se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas para las variables proteína cruda (PC), fibra detergente neutro (FDN), fibra detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidad de la materia seca (dMS) y digestibilidad de la fibra detergente neutro (dFDN).Para el caso de los metabolitos secundarios se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar en donde las especies fueron los tratamientos. El efecto negativo más notorio en cuanto al aporte de proteína debido al estado de madurez se presentó en el periodo 3 (p Abstract in english In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion) in a diet based on maize straw. The present study (more) was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P

Martínez-Loperena, R.; Castelán-Ortega, O. A.; González-Ronquillo, M.; Estrada-Flores, J. G

2011-08-01

116

Effect of crossbreeding on milk yield traits and somatic cell score in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF), Dutch Friesian (DF), Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY), and...

M. Penasa; R. Dal Zotto; A. Cecchinato; G. de Jong; M. Cassandro

117

Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF tes...

Ambrose, Divakar J.; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.

118

LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS AND ADHESION MOLECULE EXPRESSION IN MILK AND BLOOD OF PERIPARTURIENT DAIRY CATTLE  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen Holstein dairy cattle were monitored for lymphocyte subsets and expression of adhesion molecules on cells in milk and blood at parturition and at intervals up to 21 days postpartum. Using flow cytometry, we determined percentages of T cells (CD4+, CD8+, gamma/delta) and B cells from milk an...

119

Breeding without Mendelism : theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the...

Theunissen, L.T.G.

120

Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow’s ability to move as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the...

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol ...

del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos

122

Neospora caninum and Leptospira serovar serostatus in dairy cattle in Ontario  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No significant association existed between Neospora caninum titer and serostatus to Leptospira serovar hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, or pomona in cattle on 78 dairy herds in Ontario. Leptospira titer increased with parity. Amongst herds not vaccinated against Leptospira, the proportions of herds with...

Peregrine, Andrew S.; Martin, S. Wayne; Hopwood, Douglas A.; Duffield, Todd F.; McEwen, Beverly; Hobson, Jamie C.

123

Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available.

Schingoethe DJ; Kalscheur KF; Hippen AR; Garcia AD

2009-12-01

124

Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated

2003-01-01

125

Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children.

Wyatt AJ; Yount KM; Null C; Ramakrishnan U; Webb Girard A

2013-08-01

126

Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep  

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Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

Marcella Avondo

2010-01-01

127

Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

Barlow J

2011-12-01

128

A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent improvement in technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. The goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for feed intake. Weaning weight (WWT), postweaning BW gain (PGN), subcutaneous fat depth (SQF), and feed intake data were accumulated by the American Angus Association from a variety of cooperators and augmented with data collected for routine genetic evaluation of Angus cattle. The feed intake data were standardized (SFI, mean 0 and variance 1) within contemporary groups. Numbers of animals with observed phenotypes were 18,169, 7,107, 4,976, and 4,215 for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. The 4-generation pedigree for animals with records contained 45,120 individuals. (Co)variance components were estimated with ASREML, fitting a 4-trait animal model with fixed contemporary groups for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI. Heritability estimates were 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.04, and 0.42 ± 0.05 for direct genetic effects on WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. Genetic correlations of WWT and PGN with SFI were 0.40 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.10, respectively, and indicate their value as indicator traits in predicting EPD for feed intake. The genetic correlation of SQF and SFI was not different from 0. For all animals with a recorded feed intake phenotype, accuracy of their EPD for feed intake ranged from 0.16 to 0.64 with a mean of 0.26. However, 9,075 animals had an accuracy that was equal to or exceeded 0.2 for their feed intake EPD. Postanalysis calculation of measures of efficiency EPD was pursued. This work demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a national cattle evaluation for feed intake using indicator traits to reduce opportunity for selection bias, increase accuracy of the evaluation for a substantial number of animals, and ultimately facilitate calculation of selection indexes including feed intake.

MacNeil MD; Lopez-Villalobos N; Northcutt SL

2011-12-01

129

A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent improvement in technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. The goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for feed intake. Weaning weight (WWT), postweaning BW gain (PGN), subcutaneous fat depth (SQF), and feed intake data were accumulated by the American Angus Association from a variety of cooperators and augmented with data collected for routine genetic evaluation of Angus cattle. The feed intake data were standardized (SFI, mean 0 and variance 1) within contemporary groups. Numbers of animals with observed phenotypes were 18,169, 7,107, 4,976, and 4,215 for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. The 4-generation pedigree for animals with records contained 45,120 individuals. (Co)variance components were estimated with ASREML, fitting a 4-trait animal model with fixed contemporary groups for WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI. Heritability estimates were 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.04, and 0.42 ± 0.05 for direct genetic effects on WWT, PGN, SQF, and SFI, respectively. Genetic correlations of WWT and PGN with SFI were 0.40 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.10, respectively, and indicate their value as indicator traits in predicting EPD for feed intake. The genetic correlation of SQF and SFI was not different from 0. For all animals with a recorded feed intake phenotype, accuracy of their EPD for feed intake ranged from 0.16 to 0.64 with a mean of 0.26. However, 9,075 animals had an accuracy that was equal to or exceeded 0.2 for their feed intake EPD. Postanalysis calculation of measures of efficiency EPD was pursued. This work demonstrates the feasibility of conducting a national cattle evaluation for feed intake using indicator traits to reduce opportunity for selection bias, increase accuracy of the evaluation for a substantial number of animals, and ultimately facilitate calculation of selection indexes including feed intake. PMID:21764839

MacNeil, M D; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Northcutt, S L

2011-07-15

130

A study on the prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in farmed dairy cattle in Himachal Pradesh  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted on 440 dairy cattle in six organized dairy farms in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India using tuberculin skin testing (TST) to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. An overall animal prevalence of 14.31% (63 of 440 animals) and a farm prevalence of 16.67% (1 of 6 farms) were recorded in 6 dairy farms by the TST. Of the six dairy farms studied, one of the farms showed prevalence of 34.42% (63/183). There were also marked differences in the prevalence of the disease within the breeds (pure bred and their crosses) and the different age groups. The findings were also corroborated with isolation of the organism and IFN-ã assay. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in one farm under study signifies potential health risk. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000): 408-413

Aneesh Thakur; Mandeep Sharma; Vipin C. Katoch; Prasenjit Dhar; R. C. Katoch

2010-01-01

131

Raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technology of the invention relates to a raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle, belonging to the technical field of traditional agriculture and mainly applied to rural areas in which farmland ridge cattle raising is the main mode of farm cattle raising. By stopping the cattle graze on farmland ridges, eliminating weeds and shrubs other than forage grass from the farmland ridges and growing the fine-quality forage grass, the aim of changing the raising mode of farmland ridge cattle graze into the raising mode of cutting the grass to feed the cattle can be achieved. The technology is characterized by eliminating the work for grazing the cattle, reducing the loss of crops due to the stealthy crop eating of the cattle on the farmland ridges, expanding the forage grass growing quantity and growing area, increasing the number of the raised cattle and improving the conditions of the farmland and the dry farms.

BAOPING LIU

132

Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (100% indicate sorting for, whereas values NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of feed sorting in the weeks after transition to a common ration. PMID:23684036

Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

2013-05-16

133

In vitro efficacy of the novel peptide CECT7121 against bacteria isolated from mastitic dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To evaluate the in vitro bactericidal activity of the novel antimicrobial peptide (AP) CECT7121 against Gram-positive bacteria from mastitic dairy cattle. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 15 Staphylococcus aureus, 10 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 7 Strep. uberis, 1 Strep. agalactiae strains were isolated from 33 different mastitic dairy cattle, sourced from two dairies in Tandil-Argentina. Isolates from each of the bacterial species screened which developed the lowest inhibition zones in response to the peptide, were further evaluated in a series of time-killing curve studies. No survivors were detected in whole strains (from the three Streptococcal species isolated) within 120 min of incubation in presence of the peptide. The Staph. aureus isolates were less sensitive but, nevertheless, a drop in viable counts to below the detection limit was achieved for all the test strains by the final postincubation sampling point at 180 min. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of the AP-CECT7121 against a variety strains of Gram positives isolated from mastitic dairy cattle. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: There is urgent global interest in the development of natural alternatives for the control and prevention of mastitis. Confirmation of the in vitro activity of the novel AP-CECT7121 against Gram-positive isolates encourages further research.

Sparo MD; Jones DG; Sánchez Bruni SF

2009-02-01

134

Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with most of the micro-organisms detected in the air of cattle farms. The results showed that potential airborne microbial risks in beef cattle sheds were greater than in dairies.

Amr M.M. Abd-Elall; Mohamed E.M. Mohamed; Maysa A.I. Awadallah

2009-01-01

135

Molecular detection and occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' in dairy cattle of Southern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine hemoplasmas are bacteria found on the erythrocyte surface or free in the plasma of cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') in Holstein and Jersey cattle raised in Londrina and surroundings, northern region of the State of Parana, Southern Brazil. PCR testing directed to 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed to investigate the occurrence and characterize the molecular identity of 'C. M. haemobos'. A total of 264/433 (60.97%) blood samples were positive by PCR. Further alignment of 500-bp amplicons to available sequences at the GenBank database showed high identity (100%) to 'C. M. haemobos'. To the author's knowledge, this is the first molecular confirmation of the hemoplasma 'C. M. haemobos' in cattle from Brazil. Moreover, 'C. M. haemobos' was observed in high occurrence in dairy cattle, and may have significant impact in livestock production.

Girotto A; Zangirólamo AF; Bogado AL; Souza AS; da Silva GC; Garcia JL; Vilas Boas LA; Biondo AW; Vidotto O

2012-07-01

136

Molecular detection and occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' in dairy cattle of Southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine hemoplasmas are bacteria found on the erythrocyte surface or free in the plasma of cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') in Holstein and Jersey cattle raised in Londrina and surroundings, northern region of the State of Parana, Southern Brazil. PCR testing directed to 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed to investigate the occurrence and characterize the molecular identity of 'C. M. haemobos'. A total of 264/433 (60.97%) blood samples were positive by PCR. Further alignment of 500-bp amplicons to available sequences at the GenBank database showed high identity (100%) to 'C. M. haemobos'. To the author's knowledge, this is the first molecular confirmation of the hemoplasma 'C. M. haemobos' in cattle from Brazil. Moreover, 'C. M. haemobos' was observed in high occurrence in dairy cattle, and may have significant impact in livestock production. PMID:23070456

Girotto, Aline; Zangirólamo, Amanda Fonseca; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; Souza, Arnaldo Sotero Luz E; da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Garcia, João Luis; Vilas Boas, Laurival Antônio; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

137

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

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Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID) and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY) traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

2004-01-01

138

Effect of a soybean hull:soy lecithin:soapstock mixture on ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and lactating dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3% soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7% supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P < .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows. PMID:8389347

Shain, D H; Sindt, M H; Grant, R J; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

1993-05-01

139

Factors affecting economics of using sexed semen in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of sexed semen in the dairy industry has grown rapidly. However, high costs and low fertility have limited the use of this potentially valuable tool. This study used simulation to evaluate 160,000 combinations of key variables in 3 spheres of influence related to profit feasibility: (1) market (e.g., milk and calf prices), (2) dairy farm management (e.g., conception rates), and (3) technology (e.g., accuracy of sexing). These influential variables were used to determine the most favorable circumstances in which managers or technicians can effect change. Three distinct scenarios were created to model 3 initiatives that a producer might take with sexed semen: (1) using sexed semen on heifers, (2) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and (3) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and breeding all other cows with beef semen. Due to the large number of management, market, and technology combinations, a response surface and interpretive graphs were created to map the scope of influence for the key variables. Technology variables such as the added cost of sexed semen had relatively little effect on profitability, defined as net present value gain per cow, whereas management variables such as conception rate had a significant effect. Milk price had relatively little effect within each scenario, but was important across scenarios. Profitability was very sensitive to the price of dairy heifer calves, relative to beef and dairy bull calves. Scenarios 1 and 2 added about $50 to $75 per cow in net present value, which ranged from $0 to $200 and from $100 to $300, respectively. Scenario 3 usually was not profitable, primarily because fewer excess dairy replacement heifers were available for sale. Dairy heifer price proved to be the most influential variable, regardless of scenario.

McCullock K; Hoag DL; Parsons J; Lacy M; Seidel GE Jr; Wailes W

2013-10-01

140

Effects of meloxicam on milk production, behavior, and feed intake in dairy cows following assisted calving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parturition is a necessary event for production in dairy cattle, and assistance at calving is common. There is limited use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the alleviation of calving pain and a paucity of research on the effects of these drugs on postpartum health and performance. This randomized triple blind clinical trial involved Holstein cows (n=42) and heifers (n=61) that experienced an assisted parturition. These animals received either 1 injection of meloxicam (0.5mg/kg of body weight) or placebo subcutaneously 24h following calving. Outcome measures included dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production for the first 14d in milk, blood metabolites sampled over 12d, health events for the first 60d in milk, as well as lying and feeding behavior 24h following injection. Continuous data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Binary outcomes were analyzed using a mixed logistic model with cow modeled using a random intercept. This study failed to show any significant effects of treatment on DMI, milk production, blood metabolites, or health events. A possible explanation for the lack of treatment differences could be that the meloxicam was administered too late after calving. Meloxicam increased feeding time as well as bunk visit frequency in the 24h following injection. Regardless of treatment, animals that had retained fetal membranes produced less milk and had higher serum haptoglobin concentrations. Future research is warranted to examine the effects of antiinflammatory drugs administered closer to the time of calving on health and production. PMID:23567050

Newby, Nathalie C; Pearl, David L; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Duffield, Todd F

2013-04-05

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of meloxicam on milk production, behavior, and feed intake in dairy cows following assisted calving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parturition is a necessary event for production in dairy cattle, and assistance at calving is common. There is limited use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the alleviation of calving pain and a paucity of research on the effects of these drugs on postpartum health and performance. This randomized triple blind clinical trial involved Holstein cows (n=42) and heifers (n=61) that experienced an assisted parturition. These animals received either 1 injection of meloxicam (0.5mg/kg of body weight) or placebo subcutaneously 24h following calving. Outcome measures included dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production for the first 14d in milk, blood metabolites sampled over 12d, health events for the first 60d in milk, as well as lying and feeding behavior 24h following injection. Continuous data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Binary outcomes were analyzed using a mixed logistic model with cow modeled using a random intercept. This study failed to show any significant effects of treatment on DMI, milk production, blood metabolites, or health events. A possible explanation for the lack of treatment differences could be that the meloxicam was administered too late after calving. Meloxicam increased feeding time as well as bunk visit frequency in the 24h following injection. Regardless of treatment, animals that had retained fetal membranes produced less milk and had higher serum haptoglobin concentrations. Future research is warranted to examine the effects of antiinflammatory drugs administered closer to the time of calving on health and production.

Newby NC; Pearl DL; Leblanc SJ; Leslie KE; von Keyserlingk MA; Duffield TF

2013-06-01

142

Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011-2012.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011-January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%-100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country.

Elbers AR; Loeffen WL; Quak S; de Boer-Luijtze E; van der Spek AN; Bouwstra R; Maas R; Spierenburg MA; de Kluijver EP; van Schaik G; van der Poel WH

2012-07-01

143

Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011-January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%-100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country. PMID:22709656

Elbers, Armin R W; Loeffen, Willie L A; Quak, Sjaak; de Boer-Luijtze, Els; van der Spek, Arco N; Bouwstra, Ruth; Maas, Riks; Spierenburg, Marcel A H; de Kluijver, Eric P; van Schaik, Gerdien; van der Poel, Wim H M

2012-07-01

144

Small intestine histomorphometry of beef cattle with divergent feed efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The provision of feed is a major cost in beef production. Therefore, the improvement of feed efficiency is warranted. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency. METHODS: From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI (superior feed efficiency) and 12 with high-RFI (inferior feed efficiency) at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at 13.79 ± 1.21 months of age. Within 1.5 h of slaughter the gastrointestinal tract was collected and segments from duodenum and ileum were harvested. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under 1000x magnification. For each animal 100 intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments. Images were analyzed using the software ImageJ(®). The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Data were analyzed using general linear model and correlation procedures of SAS(®). RESULTS: Efficient beef steers (low-RFI) have a greater cellularity (indicated by nuclei number) in the small intestinal crypts, both in duodenum and ileum, than less efficient beef steers (high-RFI) (P < 0.05). The mean values for the nuclei number of the low-RFI and high-RFI groups were 33.16 and 30.30 in the duodenum and 37.21 and 33.65 in the ileum, respectively. The average size of the cells did not differ between feed efficiency groups in both segments (P ? 0.10). A trend was observed (P ? 0.10) for greater crypt area and crypt perimeter in the ileum for cattle with improved feed efficiency. CONCLUSION: Improved feed efficiency is associated with greater cellularity and no differences on average cell size in the crypts of the small intestine in the bovine. These observations are likely to lead to an increase in the energy demand by the small intestine regardless of the more desirable feed efficiency.

Montanholi Y; Fontoura A; Swanson K; Coomber B; Yamashiro S; Miller S

2013-01-01

145

Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi), total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON), and deoxynivalenol (DON), as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21), silage of whole maize plant (n=18), beet pulp (n=4), brewer's malt (n=2), alfalfa and grass (n=1), alfalfa hay (n=12), meadow hay (n=7), pea and oat hay (n=1), and red clover hay (n=1) originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt) to 12 x 104 (concentrate). Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100%) was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 ?g kg-1) and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 ?g kg-1). Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 ?g kg-1) and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 ?g kg-1). DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 ?g kg-1) and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 ?g kg-1), while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 ?g kg-1). In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20%) and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26) with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36) and DON (r=0,60). Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22) was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

Krnjaja Vesna; Novakovi? Željko; Stojanovi? Ljiljana; Ostoji?-Andri? Dušica; Staniši? Nikola; Nikši? Dragan; Mandi? Violeta

2013-01-01

146

The diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in a vaccinated dairy cattle herd in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that occurs worldwide with substantial economic impact on beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in persistently infected (PI) animals identified in a highly productive, regularly vaccinated, dairy cattle herd presenting with reproductive failure. Serum samples were collected from all animals within the herd (n?=?692) and used to detect the presence of BVDV RNA. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, 29 cows were identified as transiently infected, three animals (two cows and one calf) as persistently infected, and one calf as putative BVDV PI animal. The sequences of 5'UTR and/or N(pro) gene of BVDV used in phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three PI animals were infected by three different BVDV subgenotypes (BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-1d). These results demonstrated that in an open dairy cattle herd, regular vaccination against BVDV by itself is not able to prevent viral circulation in the herd. Furthermore, depending on the frequency of the acquisition of heifers and/or cows for replacement, several BVDV subgenotypes may co-exist simultaneously in the same herd.

Otonel RA; Alfieri AF; Dezen S; Lunardi M; Headley SA; Alfieri AA

2013-07-01

147

Black Quarter in crossbred dairy cattle- A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: A sporadic incident of Clostridial disease that affected Holstein Friesian (HF) cross bred cows (n=8) at an organized dairy farm was investigated. Materials and Methods: Detailed clinical investigations and treatment were carried out on all the affected animals. Complete blood count (CBC) and p...

Umar Nazir Zahid; S. Mathan Kumar; Sarnarinder Singh Randhawa, Swaran Singh Randhawa; Mir. Nadeem Hassan

148

The Risk of Mycotoxins Contamination of Dairy Feed and Milk on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004). This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37). Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2%) had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%), Kitui (9.6%), Thika (3.9%), and Machakos (2.9%). Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities), then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.

T.P. Lanyasunya; L.W. Wamae; H.H. Musa; O. Olowofeso; I.K. Lokwaleput

2005-01-01

149

Impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations in healthy lactating Holstein dairy cattle. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional survey. ANIMALS: 311 healthy lactating Holstein dairy cattle from herds in Michigan (n = 2), Wisconsin (1), Iowa (1), and Pennsylvania (1). PROCEDURES: Whole and anticoagulated (EDTA) blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibody against BLV by use of an ELISA. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations were measured in EDTA blood samples with an automated hematology analyzer and manual differential cell counts. RESULTS: 208 cows tested positive and 103 cows tested negative for anti-BLV antibodies. Neutrophil concentration was not significantly different between BLV-positive versus BLV-negative cattle. The distribution of lymphocyte concentration was positively skewed for the entire cow population (n = 311) and the BLV-positive subset (208). In contrast, lymphocyte concentration distribution was approximately normal for BLV-negative cows (n = 103). Consequently, the presence or absence of BLV infection strongly influenced the calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte concentration ratio. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that absolute lymphocyte concentration is significantly affected by BLV infection in dairy cattle. Accordingly, hematologic reference intervals should be derived from healthy animals that are not infected with BLV and patient BLV status must be considered for meaningful interpretation of lymphocyte concentration. We recommend that the calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio be abandoned because it does not provide more information than direct comparison of patient absolute leukocyte concentration with updated reference intervals from healthy BLV-negative cattle.

Swenson CL; Erskine RJ; Bartlett PC

2013-07-01

150

Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows) in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200). The occurrence in calves (26%) was significantly higher than in cows (2%). Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%), C. bovis in three (11.1%), and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%). The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.

Silva FM; Lopes RS; Araújo-Junior JP

2013-03-01

151

Financial analysis of various strategies for the control of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Switzerland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was conducted to estimate the direct losses due to Neospora caninum in Swiss dairy cattle and to assess the costs and benefits of different potential control strategies. A Monte Carlo simulation spreadsheet module was developed to estimate the direct costs caused by N. caninum, with and without control strategies, and to estimate the costs of these control strategies in a financial analysis. The control strategies considered were "testing and culling of seropositive female cattle", "discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows", "chemotherapeutical treatment of female offspring" and "vaccination of all female cattle". Each parameter in the module that was considered to be uncertain, was described using probability distributions. The simulations were run with 20,000 iterations over a time period of 25 years. The median annual losses due to N. caninum in the Swiss dairy cow population were estimated to be euro 9.7 million euros. All control strategies that required yearly serological testing of all cattle in the population produced high costs and thus were not financially profitable. Among the other control strategies, two showed benefit-cost ratios (BCR) >1 and positive net present values (NPV): "Discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows" (BCR=1.29, NPV=25 million euros ) and "chemotherapeutical treatment of all female offspring" (BCR=2.95, NPV=59 million euros). In economic terms, the best control strategy currently available would therefore be "discontinued breeding with offspring from seropositive cows".

Häsler B; Regula G; Stärk KD; Sager H; Gottstein B; Reist M

2006-12-01

152

Environmental sampling for evaluating verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157: H7 status in dairy cattle herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe disease in human beings. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacterium. The objective of the current study was to compare environmental sampling (consisting of dust, overshoe, and pooled pat samples) with pooled, individual fecal sampling for determining the cattle herd status under field conditions in naturally infected dairy herds. Thirty-one dairy cattle farms in Sweden, where verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 had been previously detected, were visited. On each farm, dust, overshoe, and pooled pat sampling were performed in each of 3 different age categories: calves, young stock, and adults. In addition, up to 140 individual fecal samples were collected and analyzed as pooled samples. In total, 3,763 individual fecal and 270 environmental samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7. Overshoe sampling, alone or in combination with dust and pooled pat sampling, correctly classified 20 of the 24 (0.83, 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) herds detected with at least 1 positive pool. On 1 farm, a dust sample was positive although all other samples were negative. In 6 of the 31 farms, the bacteria could not be detected in any of the individual fecal samples or in the environmental samples. The results establish that environmental sampling is a reliable method for identifying cattle herds with animals shedding verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7.

Widgren S; Eriksson E; Aspan A; Emanuelson U; Alenius S; Lindberg A

2013-03-01

153

System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit for quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the chamber air. The system constitutes of four chambers, flow meters and gas sensors for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The outside measurements of chambers are approximately 1.45 * 3.9 * 2.45 meters. Inside there is a platform to give the cows a comfortable laying area, space for feeding bin, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio, USA), which can measure flow rates up to 3000 standard liters per minute. After the air has passed the flow meter an air sample is drawn. A manifold, drying system, oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, methane sensor, and data program for management were delivered by Columbus instruments (Ohio, USA). Methane and carbon dioxide are measured by infra red sensors and oxygen by a paramagnetic sensor. The system has five channels; one for each chamber and one for measuring the background in the barn. Each measuring cycle take twelve and half minute, flushing two minutes and measuring a half minute. The recoveries of methane and carbon dioxide have been checked and found to be 100% ± 10% (min-max). As chambers are placed in the barn the background level vary and need to be considered. The system has been workingfor four months and although we still work on improving the system, it seems to fulfill our expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural.

Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

154

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

1995-01-01

155

Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970`s. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed.

Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stetson, L.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1995-07-01

156

Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems. Dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major difference between dairy cattle waste and swine, poultry or beef wastes is the considerably smaller fraction which is biodegradable. Thus, methane yields for dairy waste, when compared with beef, swine and poultry waste at identical operating conditions, are much lower, of the order of 50% of beef waste yields. The VS reduction is similarly about half that of beef and a third that of swine and poultry. This assumes the dairy herd is fed a roughage diet. Two temperatures were studied for dairy waste: 35 degrees C and 60 degrees. As with beef, considerable literature reports exist for both these temperatures, but all full scale operations now use 35 degrees C. The simulations lead to the following recommended designs for operation in the mesophilic and thermophilic ranges, respectively: temperatures - 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C; influent VS concentrations - 82.5 and 103 g/litre and detention times - 8 and 6 days. Since dairy waste is only about half as biodegradable as beef waste, considerable differences exist in start-up and recovery techniques. The minimum detention times as determined by these simulations are 8, 6 and 4 days for 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 60 degrees C operation, respectively. (Refs. 10).

Hill, D.T.

1983-04-01

157

Dairy producer attitudes to pain in cattle in relation to disbudding calves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure performed on farm to ensure safer handling of cattle. A questionnaire on disbudding-related opinions and practices was sent to 1,000 Finnish dairy producers (response rate: 45%). Attitudes toward disbudding were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale and attitudes to cattle pain scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Principal components analysis was used to assess the loadings, which were further tested for differences between producer gender and housing systems with Mann-Whitney U-tests, and between herd milk yield, herd size, and age and work experience of producers with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Four main factors were identified: factor I ("taking disbudding pain seriously"), factor II ("sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases"), factor III ("ready to medicate calves myself"), and factor IV ("pro horns"). Female producers took disbudding pain more seriously, were more sensitive to pain caused to cattle by diseases, and were more ready to medicate disbudded calves than male producers. Producers with tie-stalls favored horns over producers with freestalls. Male producers with tie-stalls were sensitive to cattle pain and preferred horns over male producers with freestalls. Female producers with freestalls were more ready to medicate calves, but did not prefer horns more than female producers with tie-stalls. Taking disbudding seriously correlated with sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases. Producers with low-milk-yielding herds were less willing to medicate calves and more willing to keep cattle with horns than producers with higher-yielding herds. Older producers were more sensitive to cattle pain than middle-aged and younger producers. No effect was established for taking disbudding pain seriously: the pro-horn factor was associated with work experience, age, and herd size. Women rated pain higher and were more positive toward pain medication for animals than men. Maintaining horns are more important for producers with tie-stalls than for those with freestalls.

Wikman I; Hokkanen AH; Pastell M; Kauppinen T; Valros A; Hänninen L

2013-11-01

158

The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

1999-01-01

159

Milk fat saturation and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells due to a lack of desaturase enzymes. Combined with their limited supply to the small intestines, UFA have been proposed as nutraceuticals to ameliorate dairy cow fertility. However, field studies based on a large number of animals are lacking on this subject. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze a large dataset containing individual cow fertility records from dairy herds and link fertility key-performance-indicators like conception rate to first insemination (CRFI), days in milk to first insemination (DIMFI) and days in milk to conception (DIMCONC), to the level of UFA in bulk tank samples, the latter being a proxy for the dietary fatty acid profile on these herds. Within the two year study period, information from 15,055 lactations and 35,433 bulk tank milk samples was collected on 90 herds. The multilevel logistic regression model used, revealed a decreased CRFI on herds with a higher bulk tank UFA level. The decrease in CRFI was larger for higher producing herds. Increased bulk tank UFA was furthermore associated with higher DIMFI which, together with the lower CRFI, subsequently increased DIMCONC. Interestingly, higher variability in UFA, expressed by an increased coefficient of variation, was associated with an increased CRFI and decreased DIMFI and DIMCONC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increasing the UFA content of milk should not be a goal as such when supplementing UFA to dairy cows as higher bulk tank UFA are associated with worsened fertility results.

Hostens M; Fievez V; Leroy JL; van de Burgwal EJ; Van Ranst B; Vlaeminck B; Opsomer G

2013-10-01

160

Milk fat saturation and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells due to a lack of desaturase enzymes. Combined with their limited supply to the small intestines, UFA have been proposed as nutraceuticals to ameliorate dairy cow fertility. However, field studies based on a large number of animals are lacking on this subject. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze a large dataset containing individual cow fertility records from dairy herds and link fertility key-performance-indicators like conception rate to first insemination (CRFI), days in milk to first insemination (DIMFI) and days in milk to conception (DIMCONC), to the level of UFA in bulk tank samples, the latter being a proxy for the dietary fatty acid profile on these herds. Within the two year study period, information from 15,055 lactations and 35,433 bulk tank milk samples was collected on 90 herds. The multilevel logistic regression model used, revealed a decreased CRFI on herds with a higher bulk tank UFA level. The decrease in CRFI was larger for higher producing herds. Increased bulk tank UFA was furthermore associated with higher DIMFI which, together with the lower CRFI, subsequently increased DIMCONC. Interestingly, higher variability in UFA, expressed by an increased coefficient of variation, was associated with an increased CRFI and decreased DIMFI and DIMCONC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increasing the UFA content of milk should not be a goal as such when supplementing UFA to dairy cows as higher bulk tank UFA are associated with worsened fertility results.

Hostens M; Fievez V; Leroy JL; van de Burgwal EJ; Van Ranst B; Vlaeminck B; Opsomer G

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

Clarke, D.L.

1985-05-01

162

Drivers of post-partum uterine disease in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post-partum uterine disease has a detrimental effect on dairy cow fertility; affected cows require more serves per conception, have reduced conception rates and are more likely to be culled for infertility. Furthermore, the detrimental effects on fertility remain even after clinical resolution of disease. There are many factors that influence a cow's resistance to or development of post-partum disease, and the key drivers determining disease outcome are uterine microbial load, regulation of inflammation and immune responses peripherally and at a local level, production pressure, and metabolic (energy) status. These factors are intricately interlinked, which makes assessment of their individual effects difficult. It is clear, however, that the period surrounding calving is a key transition phase and events during this time point will influence uterine disease outcome and subsequent fertility. Good peripartum management and accurate diagnosis are critical to facilitate the use of the most effective treatment and limit the negative impact of post-partum uterine disease on fertility. If we can improve our understanding of the underlying causes of disease, then we can identify 'at risk' animals and implement management and breeding strategies to prevent uterine disease or reduce its severity. Thus, this article aims to summarize the key factors that drive uterine disease in the post-partum dairy cow.

Williams EJ

2013-09-01

163

The Genome Response to Artificial Selection: A Case Study in Dairy Cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing FST values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the FST value of SNPs localized close or within them. To that end we performed a comprehensive network analysis which suggested a central role of somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in the response to selection. Altogether, these observations shed light on the antagonism, at the genome level, between milk production and reproduction traits in highly producing dairy cows.

Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sebastien; Jaffrezic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Gautier, Mathieu

2009-01-01

164

Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene) and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively). The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25). Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking) is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

Ilahi Houcine; Kadarmideen Haja N

2004-01-01

165

Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

Lassen B; Viltrop A; Järvis T

2009-10-01

166

Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus CPD 'enriched' partner with a postgraduate cattle qualification; there was CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature. PMID:23887976

Higgins, H M; Huxley, J N; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

2013-07-25

167

Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus <5 per cent chance for a CPD 'enriched' partner with a postgraduate cattle qualification; there was <1 per cent chance this assistant would be involved with Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature.

Higgins HM; Huxley JN; Wapenaar W; Green MJ

2013-09-01

168

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

2011-12-31

169

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

Morovati H; Shirvani E; Noaman V; Lotfi M; Kamalzadeh M; Hatami A; Bahreyari M; Shahramyar Z; Morovati MH; Azimi M; Sakhaei D

2012-08-01

170

Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements.

Marañón E; Salter AM; Castrillón L; Heaven S; Fernández-Nava Y

2011-08-01

171

A cattle complete mixing daily ration automatic feeding vehicle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a cattle complete mixing daily ration automatic feeding vehicle, which comprises a driving component, a power-transmitting part, a ground-engaging element and a material dispersing box, wherein the material dispersing box comprises a box body with an open top and a material dispersing device set inside the box the material dispersing device comprises a broken component and a material dispersing component the broken component is set above the material dispersing component, characterized in that the material dispersing device also comprises a material averaging component set above the broken component the material averaging component also comprises a material averaging revolution axis set inside the box and a plurality of oar blades set on the material averaging revolution axis. The power-transmitting part comprises a traction power, a hydraulic station that connects with an output shaft of the traction power, a power dispersing station that connects with the hydraulic station, and a power transmission component that connects with an output end of the power dispersing station a broken revolving shaft of the broken component, a material dispersing chief axis of the material dispersing component, and a material averaging revolution axis of the material averaging component are driven by power transmission component respectively. The utility model is provided with features like automatic material dispersing, long mechanical equipment service life which improves work efficiency and guarantees TMR feeding effect.

GUOCAI ZHOU

172

Characterization of rupture of abdominal artery aneurysm in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this retrospective study, the authors describe the gross and histologic changes associated with rupture of an abdominal artery aneurysm in 33 mature female Holstein cattle between January 1980 and June 2005 from 29 farms in upstate New York and northern Pennsylvania. Over this period, there was an increase in the number of cases submitted for necropsy per year, and a seasonal trend did not exist. Affected animals ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 years of age. Grossly affected cattle exhibited marked hemoabdomen. There was marked dilation and rupture of the abdominal aorta or one of its branches, including the mesenteric, left gastric, celiac artery, right ruminal artery, or left ruminal artery. Histologically, the tunica media of the affected arteries was often thin and irregular in width with disrupted, fragmented, and coiled elastin. Granulation tissue and hemorrhage was localized at the site of rupture. There was mild-to-marked hyperplasia of the tunica intima that was irregular and disorderly with adjacent smooth-muscle hyperplasia within the tunica media. In addition, in a fraction of cases, there was mild-to-moderate mucinous change (48%) and mineralization (30%) within the tunica media. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of the gross and histologic changes in Holstein cows with abdominal artery aneurysm and rupture.

Lamm CG; Guard CL; Erb HN; Njaa BL

2007-05-01

173

Characterization of rupture of abdominal artery aneurysm in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this retrospective study, the authors describe the gross and histologic changes associated with rupture of an abdominal artery aneurysm in 33 mature female Holstein cattle between January 1980 and June 2005 from 29 farms in upstate New York and northern Pennsylvania. Over this period, there was an increase in the number of cases submitted for necropsy per year, and a seasonal trend did not exist. Affected animals ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 years of age. Grossly affected cattle exhibited marked hemoabdomen. There was marked dilation and rupture of the abdominal aorta or one of its branches, including the mesenteric, left gastric, celiac artery, right ruminal artery, or left ruminal artery. Histologically, the tunica media of the affected arteries was often thin and irregular in width with disrupted, fragmented, and coiled elastin. Granulation tissue and hemorrhage was localized at the site of rupture. There was mild-to-marked hyperplasia of the tunica intima that was irregular and disorderly with adjacent smooth-muscle hyperplasia within the tunica media. In addition, in a fraction of cases, there was mild-to-moderate mucinous change (48%) and mineralization (30%) within the tunica media. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of the gross and histologic changes in Holstein cows with abdominal artery aneurysm and rupture. PMID:17459856

Lamm, Catherine G; Guard, Charles L; Erb, Hollis N; Njaa, Bradley L

2007-05-01

174

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs) from ground level area sources (GLAS) at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area), loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd?1 d?1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) hd?1 d?1), respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd?1 d?1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1), respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd?1 d?1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from the compost pile and runoff pond. The pen surface alone contributed about 93% and 84% of the aggregate CO2 and N2O emission, respectively. Abatement and management practices that address GHG emissions from these sources will likely be most effective for reducing facility emissions.

Md Saidul Borhan; Sergio C. Capareda; Saqib Mukhtar; William B. Faulkner; Russell McGee; Calvin B. Parnell

2011-01-01

175

Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency) and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input). The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg) and longevity ($/month) were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed), were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Abdolahad Shadparvar

2010-01-01

176

Effect of a soybean hull:soy lecithin:soapstock mixture on ruminal digestion and performance of growing beef calves and lactating dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a soybean hull, soy lecithin, and soapstock mixture on ruminal fiber and protein digestion, growth efficiency of beef calves, and lactational performance of dairy cattle. An initial mixing experiment determined that a 4:1 ratio (DM basis) of soy lecithin:soapstock could be added to soybean hulls at 15% (wt/wt, DM basis); this mixture had acceptable mixing and handling characteristics. Dietary addition of a mixture of 85% soybean hulls, 12% soy lecithin, and 3% soapstock (DM basis; SLS) to provide 0, 3, 5, or 7% supplemental fat resulted in a linear (P < .01) decrease in in situ rate of ruminal NDF digestion with no effect on rate of CP digestion. Daily gain, DMI, and feed efficiency (kilograms of gain/kilogram of DMI) of growing beef calves were not affected (P > .10) as graded levels of SLS replaced corn grain. However, as graded levels of SLS replaced soybean hulls, daily gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P < .01). Based on the results of these trials, Holstein dairy cattle were fed four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets that contained either high levels of nonfiber carbohydrates (43%) and no added fat, 1% ruminally inert fat, a 6% level of SLS, or a 12% SLS level (all on DM basis). Efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk production (kilograms of milk/kilogram of DMI) was greatest for cows fed SLS at 6% of dietary DM. The SLS mixture was an excellent source of fiber and vegetable fat, comparable in feeding value to corn grain, for inclusion in the diets of beef calves and dairy cows.

Shain DH; Sindt MH; Grant RJ; Klopfenstein TJ; Stock RA

1993-05-01

177

Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN). PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50%) and Pomona (37.5%). The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

A Jafari Dehkordi; HR Shahbazkia; N Ronagh

2011-01-01

178

Genetic detection of Campylobacter lanienae in fecal matter and stored manure from swine and dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tracking sources of contamination is an issue related to food safety. In a preliminary study conducted to evaluate the distribution of thermophilic Campylobacter in the environment surrounding dairy cattle and swine production, a number of Campylobacter lanienae were directly detected by PCR. The amplicons came from dairy cows and pig fecal samples, as well as from stored manure. DNA sequencing of a 360-bp fragment of C. lanienae 16S rRNA gene was performed. Alignment of sequences confirmed the bacterial identification as sequences shared 99-100% homology with C. lanienae 16S rRNA gene sequences available in GenBank. Interestingly, bioinformatics analyses also revealed two different genetic clusters depending on the animal reservoir. More samples and other molecular techniques need to be tested in order to characterize and evaluate the distribution of this microorganism in the agri-food chain.

Guévremont E; Normand V; Lamoureux L; Côté C

2008-06-01

179

Dairy Cattle Breeding Simulation Program: a simulation program to teach animal breeding principles and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A dairy cattle breeding simulation program (DCBSP v.4.9) has been developed to teach undergraduate and graduate students animal breeding principles associated with selection for multiple traits in dairy cattle. The current version of the program was written in FORTRAN 90, and a web-based interface was developed for the students to interact with the program in the teaching environment. This software simulates a population of dairy cattle herds and artificial insemination bulls through several generations by integrating students' decisions about mating, culling, and selection of new heifers and bulls based on a multivariate animal mixed model evaluation and marker-assisted selection. All simulation parameters (e.g., number of herds and cows per herd, variance components, effect of genetic markers) can be defined by the administrator of the program in relation to the animal breeding course. During each running period, the program simulates the composition of each herd during a virtual year, generating new calves and new productive records and performing a genetic evaluation for all productive traits. A herd-specific productive summary of all demographic, productive, and genetic data is provided to the students at the end of each simulation period. After several running periods, the genetic trend can be evaluated, providing a realistic experience for the development of animal breeding skills that will be relevant to students with a basic knowledge of animal breeding. Earlier versions of this program have been used at several universities where it has proven to be a very useful teaching tool to illustrate the theoretical basis of animal breeding in livestock.

Medrano JF; Ahmadi A; Casellas J

2010-06-01

180

Factors associated with seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in southeastern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to N. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immunofluorescence tests (IFAT 1:200). Association between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity in cattle was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. The true herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum was 95 % (83.3-99.1), while the individual-level true seroprevalence was 21.6 % (19.2-24.2). Several reproductive abnormalities were significantly associated with seropositivity to N. caninum: occurrence of repeated estrus (p=0.02; OR=3.84; 95 % CI=1.239-11.893), repeated miscarriages (p=0.001; OR=2.54; 95 % CI=1.423-5.402), and temporary anestrus (p=0.001; OR=3.44; 95 % CI=1.976-5.994). Furthermore, loose dogs (p=0.041; OR=2.20; 95 % CI=1.033-4.672) when fed raw meat (p=0.001; OR=1.91; 95 % CI=1.443-2.519) are risk factors for N. caninum infection. We observed that seropositivity to N. caninum in cattle increases risk of miscarriage by almost twice throughout the reproductive life of cows (p=0.004; OR=1.978; 95 % CI=1.249-3.131). Serologic evidence in this study indicates that N. caninum infection is widely distributed among dairy herds and significantly associated with reproductive disorders, especially miscarriage, repeated estrus, and temporary anestrus.

Bruhn FR; Daher DO; Lopes E; Barbieri JM; da Rocha CM; Guimarães AM

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139

Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

2008-11-01

182

Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle.

Liu Z; Jaitner J; Reinhardt F; Pasman E; Rensing S; Reents R

2008-11-01

183

Genes of the RNASE5 pathway contain SNP associated with milk production traits in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of the processes and mutations responsible for the large genetic variation in milk production among dairy cattle has proved challenging. One approach is to identify a biological process potentially involved in milk production and to determine the genetic influence of all the genes included in the process or pathway. Angiogenin encoded by angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family 5 (RNASE5) is relatively abundant in milk, and has been shown to regulate protein synthesis and act as a growth factor in epithelial cells in vitro. However, little is known about the role of angiogenin in the mammary gland or if the polymorphisms present in the bovine RNASE5 gene are associated with lactation and milk production traits in dairy cattle. Given the high economic value of increased protein in milk, we have tested the hypothesis that RNASE5 or genes in the RNASE5 pathway are associated with milk production traits. First, we constructed a "RNASE5 pathway" based on upstream and downstream interacting genes reported in the literature. We then tested SNP in close proximity to the genes of this pathway for association with milk production traits in a large dairy cattle dataset. RESULTS: The constructed RNASE5 pathway consisted of 11 genes. Association analysis between SNP in 1 Mb regions surrounding these genes and milk production traits revealed that more SNP than expected by chance were associated with milk protein percent (P < 0.05 significance). There was no significant association with other traits such as milk fat content or fertility. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a role for the RNASE5 pathway in milk production, specifically milk protein percent, and indicate that polymorphisms in or near these genes explain a proportion of the variation for this trait. This method provides a novel way of understanding the underlying biology of lactation with implications for milk production and can be applied to any pathway or gene set to test whether they are responsible for the variation of complex traits.

Raven LA; Cocks BG; Pryce JE; Cottrell JJ; Hayes BJ

2013-01-01

184

Short communication: lying behavior of lactating dairy cows is influenced by lameness especially around feeding time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lameness is considered one of the most common welfare and productive problems in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in lying behavior between moderately lame and nonlame lactating cows under commercial conditions. Data were collected from 10 free-stall commercial herds, which were feeding on exactly the same ration once daily. All lactating cows were scored for lameness according to a 1 to 5 locomotion scoring system. Only cows with a lameness score between 1 and 4 were considered in the study. In each herd, between 10 and 15 lame cows (scored as 3 or 4) were chosen, and for each lame cow, a nonlame cow (scored as 1) within the same parity and similar days in milk was also selected. Pendant data loggers were then placed on the right hind leg of each cow for 10 d to record lying behavior at 1-min intervals. In addition, the time of feed delivery was recorded in each herd on a daily basis. Total daily lying time, daily number of lying bouts, lying bout duration, laterality (side of recumbence), and lying behavior around feed delivery time were evaluated using a mixed-effects model that accounted for the fixed effects of lameness, days in milk, parity, and the interaction between parity and lameness, plus the random effects of herd. Total daily lying time (721±24.2 min/d) tended to increase with days in milk, but it was not affected by lameness or parity. Likewise, no differences were found in the number of lying bouts (9.6±0.49/d) or laterality (47±2.6% of time lying on the right side). However, the mean bout duration was longer in lame (89.3±3.89 min) compared with nonlame (80.7±3.90 min) cows. It is interesting that lame cows stood up 13 min later than nonlame cows relative to the time when the ration was delivered. In addition, lame cows lay down 19 min earlier than nonlame ones after the feed was delivered, which implies that nonlame cows spent more time standing, and probably eating, than did lame cows. It was concluded that lame cows have longer lying bouts than nonlame animals, and that lying behavior around feed delivery time may be an effective proxy to identify moderately lame cows.

Yunta C; Guasch I; Bach A

2012-11-01

185

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern Romania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. Conventional serological techniques, such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies. In Romania, infection with N. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and central parts of the country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain additional seroepidemiological data on infection with N. caninum on dairy farms from the south of Romania. A total of 258 blood samples was analyzed from 230 dairy cows and 28 calves from 9 dairy farms in southern Romania; the presence of specific IgG antibodies against N. caninum was determined using an indirect ELISA test. The average seroprevalence was 40.3%, but the within-herd prevalence ranged between 11.5 and 80.0%; the seroprevalence in dairy cows was 41.7%, while in calves it was 28.6%. Of the positive samples, 74.0% (77/104) had a high positive reaction (S/P ratio more than 1.0), while 26.0% (27/104) had a low positive reaction (S/P ratio between 0.5 and 1.0). This study indicates that N. caninum infection is widespread in the south of Romania, which could explain the causes of abortions registered in some herds in the studied area. However, a serological screening across the country is planned in order to assess the actual national prevalence of N. caninum infection, followed by implementation of a prevention and control program. PMID:21955278

Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Radulescu, Ruxandra; Ionita, Mariana

2011-09-28

186

Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part I: morphometric analysis  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION – The study of the morphometric parameters of milk fat globules can aid in increasing our knowledge of the relationship between the number and dimensions of globules and the chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of milk and its by-products. It is well-known that the fat globules secreted from the mammary cell are of heterogeneous dimensions, and at present the process of their synthesis in the cell is not yet entirely clear (Keenan, 2001). The few studies previously carried out on livestock mainly concern dairy cattle....

M. Martini; F. Cecchi; C. Scolozzi; R. Leotta; P. Verità

2011-01-01

187

Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in industrialized nations have mostly shown a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IIa subtypes in pre-weaned calves. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes in various age groups of dairy cattle in developing countries. In this study, we examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in four Nile River delta provinces in Egypt. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast microscopy was used to screen for Cryptosporidium oocysts in 1,974 fecal specimens from animals of different ages on 12 farms. Positive fecal specimens were identified from all studied farms with an overall prevalence of 13.6%. By age group, the infection rates were 12.5% in pre-weaned calves, 10.4% in post-weaned calves, 22.1% in heifers, and 10.7% in adults. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of microscopy-positive fecal specimens revealed the presence of four major Cryptosporidium species. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was most common (30/69 or 43.5%), but Cryptosporidium ryanae (13/69 or 18.8%), Cryptosporidium bovis (7/69 or 10.2%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (7/69 or 10.2%) were also present at much higher frequencies seen in most industrialized nations. Mixed infections were seen in 12/69 (17.4%) of genotyped specimens. In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (193/195 or 99.0%) in post-weaned calves and older animals. Subtyping of C. parvum based on sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene showed the presence of subtypes IIdA20G1 in nine specimens, IIaA15G1R1 in 27 specimens, and a rare subtype IIaA14G1R1r1b in one specimen. The common occurrence of non-C. parvum species and IId subtypes in pre-weaned calves is a distinct feature of cryptosporidiosis transmission in dairy cattle in Egypt. The finding of the same two dominant IIa and IId C. parvum subtypes recently found in humans in Egypt suggests calves can be potential reservoirs of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

Amer S; Zidan S; Adamu H; Ye J; Roellig D; Xiao L; Feng Y

2013-09-01

188

Comparison of the epidemiology of epizootic haemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in dairy cattle in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in cattle in Israel in 2006 enabled a comparison of the spatial distribution of epidemic exposure to EHDV with that of exposure to bluetongue virus (BTV), which is endemic in the country. The seroprevalence of both viruses was examined in 1650 serum samples collected from 139 farms representative of the spatial distribution of dairy cattle in Israel. A significant association between exposure to EHDV and BTV was demonstrated in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Recent exposure to BTV and EHDV (demonstrated by seroprevalence in calves) was clustered in different geographical locations, indicating that the two viruses had different patterns of spread, that of EHDV being influenced by winds and terrain barriers and that of BTV by herd immunity.

Kedmi M; Galon N; Herziger Y; Yadin H; Bombarov V; Batten C; Shpigel NY; Klement E

2011-10-01

189

Prevalence of Antibodies Against of Neospora caninum in Dairy Cattle in Nuevo Leon, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The goal of the present epidemiological research was the detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in order to determine the presence and prevalence of neosporosis in dairy cattle herds at 8 counties from the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A total of 33 herds and 371 animals were included. Detection of Neospora caninum was performed using a commercial kit observed prevalence was 45%. This result allowed the conclusion that animals which are seropositive for the protozoan Neospora caninum do exist in Nuevo Leon. Serological evidence was found in animals at milk-production stage indicating that the presence of emerging diseases in the region is a fact therefore, sanitary measurements should be re-evaluated or reinforced in order to keep the cattle free from pathogens that have a negative impact in the production of food from animal origin used for the human consumption.

J.A. Salinas-Melendez; J.J. Zarate-Ramos; R. Avalos-Ramirez; J.J. Hernandez-Escareno; G. Hernandez-Vidal; C.S. Gonzalez-Hernandez; V.M. Riojas-Valdes

2011-01-01

190

Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from cattle feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the frequency with which feed ingredients or mixed feeds in cattle feedlots were contaminated with Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and (2) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-type-specific Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. recovered from feed ingredients or mixed feeds. Approximately 30 individual samples were collected from each of several feed commodities present on two cattle feedlots each month for 1 year. Half of the samples were cultured for Escherichia coli, and the other half were cultured for Salmonella spp. E. coli was recovered from 48.2% (516/1070) of the samples and from all feed ingredient types at least once. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.3% (57/1070) of samples. Overall, 40.3% (207/514) of E. coli isolates and 54.4% (31/57) of Salmonella spp. isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested in the panel. Bacterial contamination of feed ingredients used at cattle feedlots with enteric bacteria is relatively common. In some cases, the enteric organisms are resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Feed ingredients may be a source of genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance for feedlot cattle. To be successful in minimizing foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in the cattle feedlot setting, it is important to consider the myriad of potential sources of these organisms or genetic elements. PMID:16366856

Dargatz, David A; Strohmeyer, Rachel A; Morley, Paul S; Hyatt, Doreene R; Salman, Mo D

2005-01-01

191

Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5cm) offered ad libitum at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. All calves received the MIX diet in wk 9 to 11 and, subsequently, a novel total mixed ration (TMR; containing 40.5% corn silage, 22.0% haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of feed sorting in the weeks after transition to a common ration.

Miller-Cushon EK; Bergeron R; Leslie KE; Mason GJ; Devries TJ

2013-07-01

192

Radiation-hygiene control of imported foodstuffs and cattle feed  

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Full Text Available The increasingly frequent use of nuclear energy in peacetime, experimental nuclear and thermo-nuclear explosions, as well as accidents in nuclear plants lead to an increased and unequal distribution of radioactive substances in the environment. Mankind is in this way threatened not only by environmental irradiation, but also by consuming contaminated food and water which contain radionuclides whose concentrations are above the level of natural radioactivity. From the aspect of the veterinary profession, the most important task is to organize the protection of domestic animals and their products from radioactive contamination. This work presents the results obtained by measurements of the activity level of 137Cs in products of animal origin and cattle feed, in samples obtained from border crossings in Yugoslavia and partly in Macedonia during the period from 1990 until 1999. Examined import samples were taken from cheese, prok, and corn and the activity level of 137Cs was within the permitted legal levels - less than 1 Bq/kg. However, powdered milk was found to contain an activity level of 137Cs from 1,22-7,27 Bq/kg, and saltwater fish from 1,10-3,30 Bq/kg, so that these products could not be released for sale under the Official Gazette of the FRY, Number 53/91.

Slavata Branislava; Vitorovi? Gordana; Džoni? Slobodan

2002-01-01

193

Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding  

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Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Deschamps, F.C. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

1995-12-31

194

Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1.2), increased the risk of removal from herd by a factor of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8), and was associated with a decrease in milk production by 0.5 kg/d for the first 30 DIM. These results show that time of onset and BHBA concentration of first SCK-positive test are important indicators of individual cow performance.

McArt JA; Nydam DV; Oetzel GR

2012-09-01

195

Effect of Difference Tropical Fibrous Feeds on Feed Intake and Digestibility in Swamps Buffaloes Compared to Ongole Cattle  

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Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of difference fibrous feeds on feed intake and digestibility in swamps buffaloes compared to ongoles cattles. Twelve ongole and twelve buffaloes were used in in vivo digestibility. Ten feeds were used in this experiment, namely Peanut Haulm (PH), King Grass (KG), Corn stover (CS), Elephan Grass (EG), Rice Straw (RS), Soja Straw (SS), Corn Straw (CST), Glyricidea (Gli), and Caliandra (Cal). The observed variabels were intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF. The results showed that DM and OM intakes were significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin ranged from the lowest (Gli) of 29.55 g DMI/kg0.75 to the highest (CS) of 94.88 g/kg0.75. OM intake of buffaloes was higher than that of ongole cattle supported by organic matter (OM) digestibility data (61.51 vs 59.51). The digestibility of nutrient was significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. OM digestibility of SS were lowest while the highest were CST of 54.56 and 71.66% respectively. Digestibility of CP was also significantly influenced by feed stuffs origin. The lowest Digestible Crude Protein was CST and the highest was PH of 44.10 and 67.99% respectively. The digestibility of NDF and ADF were significantly influenced by feed stuffs. The lowest NDF and ADF digestibilities were Cal of 40.84 and 33.19% and the highest digestibility of NDF and ADF were CST of 68.53 and 63.57%. It can be concluded that there were an important variation of feed compositions and digestibility of fibrous feeds. Buffalo were better than cattle on capacity of ingestion and utilization of fibrous feed. (Animal Production 12(2): 86-90 (2010)Key Words: fibrous feeds, intake, digestibility, ongole cattle, buffaloes

BP Widyobroto; SPS Budhi

2010-01-01

196

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC), 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC) and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA). Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens) analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01) by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01) by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05) of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

Mukson; Isbandi; S.I. Santosa; Sudjadmogo; A. Setiadi

2012-01-01

197

Duodenal obstruction caused by duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus in dairy cattle: 29 cases (2006-2010).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To characterize duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus (DSFV) and determine the prognosis for affected cattle undergoing surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 29 dairy cattle. PROCEDURES: The medical records were analyzed for history, signalment, clinical signs, medical management, surgical findings, and outcome. RESULTS: 29 cattle were determined to have DSFV between December 2006 and August 2010. Twenty cattle had had an omentopexy or pyloropexy performed 1 day to 2 years before initial evaluation. Cattle were afebrile, tachycardic, and moderately dehydrated, with a small zone of percussion with a ping at the 10th to 12th right intercostal spaces and associated succussion. Biochemical changes were a severe hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L; median, 3.1 mmol/L; range, 2.08 to 3.92 mmol/L), hypochloremic (mean, 69.7 ± 11.1 mmol/L; median, 71.7 mmol/L; range, 49.1 to 94.1 mmol/L) metabolic alkalosis (mean total CO(2), 44.5 ± 7.4 mmol/L; median, 45.3 mmol/L; range, 31.5 to 59.6 mmol/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (mean, 32.4 ± 29.0 ?mol/L; median, 20.5 ?mol/L; range, 7.8 to 107 ?mol/L). Surgical findings for DSFV included an empty descending duodenum adjacent to a dorsally displaced and dilated cranial segment of the duodenum, distended abomasum and gallbladder, and a tight volvulus at the base of the duodenal sigmoid flexure. Manual reduction was considered successful if the descending duodenum filled after cranial duodenal massage. Twenty-two patients were successfully treated; the remaining 7 died or were euthanized within 4 days after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A condition clinically resembling abomasal volvulus but affecting the duodenal sigmoid flexure has been recognized in dairy cattle. When a focal, dorsal right-sided ping and succussion are present combined with severe hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and high bilirubin concentration, DSFV should be suspected, especially when there is a history of prior abomasal fixation. After surgical correction, the prognosis is fair to good.

Vogel SR; Nichols S; Buczinski S; Desrochers A; Babkine M; Veillette M; Francoz D; Doré E; Fecteau G; Bélanger AM; Badillo M

2012-09-01

198

Mastitis Causing Pathogens within the Dairy Cattle Environment  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions from the bedding and from the teats of a representative sample of each herd. These were thenplated to isolate numbers of the environmental bacteria, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli (E. coli), and toconduct a total viable count for comparison. Statistical analysis showed that six of the nine relationships tested resultedin a P<0.05. The microbial test results also showed that the straw bedding hosted the lowest total number of bacteria at8.5 x 10. When compared with the incidence of mastitis infections within the herd, the straw bedding had aconsiderably higher number of infections than from the sand or sawdust with thirty-one cases recorded. In conclusion,minimising pathogen growth within the bedding material, results in lower numbers of pathogens being transmitted ontothe cow's teats thereby reducing the possibility of intrammamary infections. It is recommended that further work iscarried out through repeating the study on a larger number of farms to identify whether the relationship between thebacterial numbers exists on further farms. In addition to this, it is also recommended that further analysis of thepathogens responsible for the mastitis within the herds be undertaken to identify if the environmental pathogens areresponsible for these intrammamary infections.

Ayuba Caleb Kudi; M. P. Bray; Aziwo. T. Niba; Demo. J.U. Kalla

2009-01-01

199

Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding  

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Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E) and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra) between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (?6,000 kg herd average) and intensive (?9,000 kg herd average) farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC). For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed) and animal (genetic, random) was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89) while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

Birgit Fuerst-Waltl; Hermann Schwarzenbacher; Christian Fuerst

2013-01-01

200

Preliminary studies on the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in dairy in cattle in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A highly sensitive and specific PCR (MB-PCR) was used in preliminary studies to detect M. bovis in milk samples to investigate its association with high somatic cell count (SCC), an indicator of subclinical mastitis and one of the factors in down grading the quality of milk. A total of 186 and 167 herds were tested with 43% and 62% of herds positive for M. bovis in Victoria and North Queensland, respectively. The quarter milks from 52 cows with persistently high SCC were tested by MB-PCR and culture to investigate the association of M. bovis with major mastitis pathogens (MMP). M. Bovis was detected in 77% of cows of which 19% alone had M. bovis without any other bacteria, 17% had M. bovis in combination with major mastitis pathogens and 40% had M. bovis in combination with non-major mastitis pathogens. We believe that M. bovis is widespread in dairy cattle and has the potential to produce disease alone or to predispose the udder to disease caused by major mastitis and environmental pathogens. These studies have revealed a hitherto unrecognised high prevalence of M. bovis in dairy cattle in North Queensland and Victoria in Australia. These initial studies also give a clear association between M. bovis and elevated somatic cell counts.

Ghadersohi A; Hirst RG; Forbes-Faulkener J; Coelen RJ

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Use of bovine myeloperoxidase as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme protein consisting of both large and small polypeptide subunits. In mammals the role of MPO in defending against microbes is well documented. To evaluate the potential of using MPO in the diagnosis of udder infections in dairy cattle we developed a specific enzyme immunoassay for bovine MPO in milk. Antibodies against bovine MPO were produced using the purified enzyme. The ELISA utilizes two specific antibodies: one that is anti-MPO monoclonal and one that is anti-MPO polyclonal. For a total of 141 milk samples the correlation coefficient between the somatic cell count and MPO concentrations determined using the ELISA was 0.91. The ELISA showed good precision and accuracy in measuring MPO in milk, with a total variation of ca. 10%. The recoveries of known amounts of MPO from milk were satisfactory. Thus the stability of the enzyme in milk was judged to be good. Microorganisms were isolated in ca. 85% of the milk samples with elevated concentrations of MPO. Microorganisms were not isolated from more than 90% of non mastitic milk samples with low somatic cell counts where MPO was not detectable using ELISA. The results clearly show that the quantitative analysis of the amount of MPO in mastitic milk can be used to detect intramammary infections in dairy cattle.

Cooray R

1994-12-01

202

Use of SNP genotyping to determine pedigree and breed composition of dairy cattle in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of inbreeding in East African dairy cattle are a potential concern because of use of a limited range of imported germplasm coupled with strong selection, especially by disease, and sparse performance recording. To address this, genetic relationships and breed composition in an admixed population of Kenyan dairy cattle were estimated by means of a 50K SNP scan. Genomic DNA from 3 worldwide Holstein and 20 Kenyan bulls, 71 putative cow-calf pairs, 25 cows from a large ranch and 5 other Kenyan animals were genotyped for 37?238 informative SNPs. Sires were predicted and 89% of putative dam-calf relationships were supported by genotype data. Animals were clustered with the HapMap population using Structure software to assess breed composition. Cows from a large ranch primarily clustered with Holsteins, while animals from smaller farms were generally crosses between Holstein and Guernsey. Coefficients of relatedness were estimated and showed evidence of heavy use of one AI bull. We conclude that little native germplasm exists within the genotyped populations and mostly European ancestry remains. PMID:20831558

Gorbach, D M; Makgahlela, M L; Reecy, J M; Kemp, S J; Baltenweck, I; Ouma, R; Mwai, O; Marshall, K; Murdoch, B; Moore, S; Rothschild, M F

2010-10-01

203

Study Participation of Dairy Cattle Famers in Pollution Control Management to the Product of Milk  

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Full Text Available Based on activity, the population on dairy cattle, can be divided into two kinds i.e. pollution around the farm and pollution on the product of milk. In order to eliminate the potency of the pollution, then, the manages to control it is urgently needed. The research was conducted by the farmers in banyumas Regency, Central Java Province, the has aids dairy cattle from government. The aim of the research was to know of participation to pollution control management on the product of milk. Survey method and descriptive analysis were used in this research. The technique of sampling used to collected data by Multy Stage Purposive Random Sampling from Sutrisno (1981). The independent variable of this research was social characteristic of the farmers i.e. mean of livelihood, income of cattlemen, participation of cattlemen on social institution and type of animal production, meanwhite, the dependent variable was the manages of pollution control the product of milk. To know the level of participation control of pollution the milk product by crossing of the between variable table. Based on the analyses, it was found that the participation farmers to the manages to pollution control on the product of milk was in the level of “good”. (Animal Production 1(2): 63-74 (1999) Key Words: Participation levels, pollution, milk.

Eko Hendarto; Sri Mastuti

1999-01-01

204

Dairy cattle welfare/ Bienestar animal en bovinos lecheros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El bienestar de los animales de granja ha sido tema importante de investigación en los últimos años. El propósito principal de estas investigaciones es desarrollar métodos apropiados de evaluación, que permitan a los productores tomar medidas para el mejoramiento del bienestar, con el fin de aumentar la productividad de los animales. En esta revisión, se muestran las diferentes aproximaciones que existen para evaluar el bienestar de los animales: el funcionamiento (more) biológico (salud, producción), la naturalidad de su vida (comportamiento normal, ambiente naturales) y el estado afectivo (dolor, sufrimiento). De esta forma, mientras más de las necesidades se cubran, mayor será el estatus de bienestar. Se mencionan también los esquemas de aseguramiento de calidad en las granjas, los cuales hacen distintos énfasis dependiendo de quienes los han desarrollado: industria, ganaderos o investigadores. Estos esquemas deben incluir estándares previamente acordados y estos estándares en bienestar animal deben ser evaluados a través de los recursos entregados, el manejo zootécnico de los animales, los registros de las actividades con los animales y el estado de bienestar desde la perspectiva del animal. Finalmente en base a las 5 libertades o necesidades definidas por la OIE, se presentan algunos ejemplos de cómo se altera el bienestar de las vacas lecheras cuando estas libertades no se cumplen en los sistemas productivos. Abstract in english The welfare of farm animals has been important research topic in recent years. The main purpose of this research is to develop appropriate assessment methods, which allow farmers to take measures to improve welfare in order to increase the productivity of animals. In this review, it is shown that there are different approaches to assess the welfare of animals: the biological functioning (health, production), the naturalness of life (normal behavior, natural environment) a (more) nd affective states (pain, suffering). Thus, the more needs are met, the higher the status of welfare. It is also mentioned the quality assurance schemes on farms, which have different emphasis depending on those who have developed: industry, farmers and researchers. These schemes should include agreed-upon standards and these standards in animal welfare should be evaluated through the resources provided, the husbandry of animals, records of activities with animals and the welfare state from the perspective of the animal. Finally, based on the 5 freedoms or needs identified by the OIE, examples of how to alter the welfare of dairy cows when these freedoms are not met in production systems are shown.

Tadich, Néstor

2011-09-01

205

Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference  

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A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation i...

Gianola, Daniel; Øegård, Jørgen; Heringstad, Bjørg; Klemetsdal, Gunnar; Sorensen, Daniel; Madsen, Per; Jensen, Just

206

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS: BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SENSITIVITY OR CHRONIC PAIN FOLLOWING TAIL-DOCKING IN DAIRY CATTLE  

Science.gov (United States)

Tail-docking of dairy cattle causes mild to moderate behavior changes and physiological indicators of acute pain, but no studies have investigated the possibility of tail-docking leading to chronic pain. In human amputees, incidence of increased limb surface temperature is associated with phantom l...

207

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (

2012-01-01

208

Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle in farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was present in all dairy herds, in 9/10 beef herds and in calves from 10/11 herds examined. Prevalence rates were 40% and 41% for cows in tie- and free-stall herds, respectively, and 27% for beef cows. Zoonotic Assemblage A was found in 12.2% of calves concomitantly infected with Assemblage E. All successfully sequenced samples (114/128) from cows corresponded to Assemblage E. Giardia duodenalis is highly prevalent in cattle herds in Prince Edward Island and Assemblage A in calves is a potential public health concern.

Uehlinger FD; Greenwood SJ; O'Handley R; McClure JT; Coklin T; Dixon BR; de Boer M; Zwiers H; Barkema HW

2011-09-01

209

Bayesian genetic analysis of milk yield in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic determinism of 305-d milk yield and its genetic parameters were investigated in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population through Bayesian segregation analyses using a Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) method. Data included 49,709 records of 305-d milk yield collected between 1996 and 2003 from 114 dairy herds. The postulated major gene was assumed to be additive biallelic locus with Mendelian transmission probabilities and priors used for variance components were uniform. Gibbs sampling was used to generate a chain of 500,000 samples, which were used to obtain posterior means of genetic parameters. Estimated marginal posterior means ± posterior standard deviations of variance components of milk yield were 402866.28 ± 23629.97, 271256.66 ± 34477.83, 68276.83 ± 233027.62 and 1098855.75 ± 10009.52 for polygenic variance (?2u), permanent environmental variance (?2ne), major gene variance (?2G) and error variance (?2e), respectively. The main finding of this paper showed the postulated major locus was not significant, since the 95% highest posterior density regions (HPDs95%) of most major gene parameters included 0, and particularly for the major gene variance. Estimated transmission probabilities for the 95% highest posterior density regions (HPDs95%) were overlapped. Genetic parameters of 305-d milk yield were very similar under both mixed inheritance and polygenic models. These results indicated that the genetic determinism of milk yield in Tunisian Holstein dairy cattle population is purely polygenic. Based on 50,000 Gibbs samples, heritability and repeatability estimates using polygenic model were h2 = 0.22 ± 0.012 and r = 0.38 ± 0.006, respectively.

Houcine Ilahi; Mohamed Ben Hammouda; Mohamed Houcine Othmane

2012-01-01

210

Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

2002-01-01

211

Polymorphisms of the ATP1A1 gene associated with mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis affects the concentrations of potassium and sodium in milk. Since sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of these two ions, and is involved in cell apoptosis and pathogenesis, we presumed that polymorphism of the ATP1A1 gene, which encodes the bovine Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ?1 subunit could be associated with mastitis. The ATP1A1 gene was analyzed in 320 Holstein cows using PCR low ionic strength single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods. A C/A SNP was identified at nucleotide position -15,739 in exon 17 of the ATP1A1 gene, but it did not induce any change in amino acids. We examined a possible association of polymorphism of the ATP1A1 gene with somatic cell score and 305-day milk yields. Individuals with genotype CC in ATP1A1 had significantly lower somatic cell scores and 305-day milk yields than those with genotype CA. We also examined changes in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of red cell membranes. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in dairy cows with genotype CC compared to the other two genotypes, and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of the resistant group was significantly higher than that of the susceptible group in dairy cows. We conclude that this polymorphism has potential as a marker for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle.

Liu YX; Xu CH; Gao TY; Sun Y

2012-01-01

212

Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI?) or from the current data (REI?). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI?, 0.30 for REI?, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI?: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI?: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI? was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI?: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation.

Mäntysaari P; Liinamo AE; Mäntysaari EA

2012-06-01

213

A review of genomic selection - Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The major advancements in molecular technology over the past decades led to the discovery of DNA-markers, sequencing and genome mapping of farm animal species. New avenues were created for identifying major genes, genetic defects, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately applying genomic selection (GS) in livestock. The identification of specific regions of interest that affect quantitative traits aimed to incorporate markers linked to QTL into breeding programs by us (more) ing marker assisted selection (MAS). Most QTL explained only a small proportion of the genetic variation for a trait with limited impact on genetic improvement. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers created the possibility to genotype cattle in a single assay with hundreds of thousands of SNPs, providing sufficient genomic information to incorporate into breeding value estimation. Genomic selection is based on the principle of associating many genetic markers with phenotypic performance. A large database of genotyped animals with relevant phenotypes pertinent to a production system is therefore required. South Africa has a long history of animal recording for dairy and beef cattle. The challenge for implementation of GS would be the establishment of breed-specific training populations. Training populations should be genotyped using a high density SNP panel, and the most appropriate genomic prediction algorithm determined. The suitability of commercially available genotyping platforms to South African populations should be established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments that occurred over the past two decades to lay the foundation for genomic selection with special reference to application in the South African beef and dairy cattle industry.

van Marle-Köster, E.; Visser, C.; Berry, D.P.

2013-01-01

214

Assessment of the Microbial Ecology of Ruminal Methanogens in Cattle with Different Feed Efficiencies?  

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Cattle with high feed efficiencies (designated “efficient”) produce less methane gas than those with low feed efficiencies (designated “inefficient”); however, the role of the methane producers in such difference is unknown. This study investigated whether the structures and populations of methanoge...

Zhou, Mi; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo

215

Effects of age and breed on the prevalence of Neospora caninum in commercial dairy cattle from Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neospora caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide. A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of exposure to N. caninum in dairy cattle based on age and breed from Punjab and Sindh provinces, Pakistan. Serum samples from 641 animals from 12 herds from Punjab (n = 7) and Sindh (n = 5) provinces were tested for antibodies against N. caninum using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive reactions to N. caninum were seen in 277 (43%) of the 641 of the samples. Seropositive animals were present in all 12 herds. Animals over 2 yr of age (47%) and crossbreds (55%) were more likely to be seropositive than the other cattle examined. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among dairy cattle in Pakistan.

Nazir MM; Maqbool A; Khan MS; Sajjid A; Lindsay DS

2013-04-01

216

The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

2013-06-15

217

The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available.

Arias MS; Sanchís J; Francisco I; Francisco R; Piñeiro P; Cazapal-Monteiro C; Cortiñas FJ; Suárez JL; Sánchez-Andrade R; Paz-Silva A

2013-10-01

218

Effects of grain, fructose, and histidine feeding on endotoxin and oxidative stress measures in dairy heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ruminal endotoxin and plasma oxidative stress biomarker concentrations were studied in dairy heifers challenged with grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. Holstein-Friesian heifers [n = 30; average body weight (BW) of 359.3 ± 47.3 kg] were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [crushed triticale at 1.2% of BW dry matter intake (DMI)]; (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI); (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI) + histidine (6 g/head); and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI) + histidine (6 g/head). Rumen samples were collected by stomach tube 5, 65, 115, 165, and 215 min after diet consumption and blood samples at 5 and 215 min after consumption. Rumen fluid was analyzed for endotoxin concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of the following oxidative stress biomarkers: reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), advanced oxidation protein products, and ceruloplasmin, and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Dietary treatment had no effect on concentrations of endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarkers. We observed no interactions of treatment by time. Ruminal concentrations of endotoxin decreased during the sampling period from 1.12 × 10(5) ± 0.06 to 0.92 × 10(5) endotoxin units/mL ± 0.05 (5 and 215 min after diet consumption, respectively). Concentrations of dROM and the oxidative stress index (dROM/BAP × 100) increased over the sampling period, from 108.7 to 123.5 Carratelli units (Carr U), and from 4.1 to 4.8, respectively. Ceruloplasmin concentrations markedly declined 5 min after the consumption of diets, from 190 to 90 mg/L over the 215-min sampling period. Overall, a single feeding challenge for dairy cattle with grain, fructose, and histidine, and combinations thereof, may not be sufficient to induce marked changes in endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarker concentrations.

Golder HM; Lean IJ; Rabiee AR; King R; Celi P

2013-10-01

219

Lungworm Infections in German Dairy Cattle Herds - Seroprevalence and GIS-Supported Risk Factor Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n?=?19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2) values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures. PMID:24040243

Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J; Staubach, Christoph; Fröhlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

2013-09-05

220

Lungworm Infections in German Dairy Cattle Herds -- Seroprevalence and GIS-Supported Risk Factor Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n?=?19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J.; Staubach, Christoph; Frohlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Strube, Christina

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Study of nutritional and reproductive constraints of Friesian dairy cattle in the Mitidja area of Algeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)

1999-01-01

222

Evaluation of PCR and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on milk samples for diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was performed to evaluate the previously described PCR (C. Romero, C. Gamazo, M. Pardo, and I. López-Goñi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:615-617, 1995) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle. Milk samples from 56 Brucella milk culture-positive cattle and from 37 cattle from Brucella-free herds were examined for Brucella DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificities of both tests were 100% when testing the milk samples from Brucella-free cattle. The milk samples from 49 infected cattle were positive by PCR (87.5% sensitivity), and 55 were positive by ELISA (98.2% sensitivity). A PCR-positive sample was negative by ELISA, and 7 ELISA-positive samples were PCR negative, yielding an observed proportion of agreement of 0.91 for the two tests. Although the results suggest that ELISA is a better screening test than PCR, the combined sensitivity of the two assays was 100%, and their simultaneous application could be more useful than one test alone for a rapid screening of brucellosis in dairy cattle.

Romero C; Pardo M; Grillo MJ; Diaz R; Blasco JM; Lopez-Goñi I

1995-12-01

223

Genetic and crossbreeding parameters for incidence of recorded clinical lameness in New Zealand dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To estimate genetic and crossbreeding parameters for the incidence of recorded clinical lameness in New Zealand dairy cattle. METHODS: Herd records from 76,357 cows, collected during the 2005/06 to 2008/09 milking seasons from 155 herds in the Livestock Improvement Corporation young sire progeny test scheme, were used to estimate genetic parameters and breed effects for incidence of recorded clinical lameness in HolsteinFriesian, Jersey and crossbred dairy cattle. Recorded clinical lameness was coded "1" for cows that presented at least one event of clinical lameness at any day during the season and "0" for unaffected cows. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model across breeds considering all and then only first lactation records. Heritability and repeatability of recorded clinical lameness were calculated from the variance component estimates both with and without logit transformation. RESULTS: The mean incidence of recorded clinical lameness per herd was 6.3 (min 2, max 34)%. The incidence of recorded clinical lameness in Holstein Friesian cows (mean 6.8, SE 0.24%) was higher than the incidence of recorded clinical lameness in crossbred (mean 6.1, SE 0.19%) and Jersey cows (mean 6.0, SE 0.28%) (p=0.0002). There was no difference in incidence between crossbred and Jersey cows (p=0.96). Estimates of the heritability of recorded clinical lameness as an untransformed trait were 0.053 (SE 0.014) for first lactation records and 0.016 (SE 0.003) for all lactation records. As a transformed (logit) trait heritabilities were 0.067 (SE 0.024) and 0.044 (SE 0.016) for first and all lactation records, respectively. The repeatability estimates of recorded clinical lameness were 0.071 (SE 0.005) and 0.107 (SE 0.011) for untransformed and logit transformed lactation records, respectively. Sire estimated breeding values for recorded clinical lameness showed the lowest values in Jersey sires, and ranged between -5 and 8%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low heritability of recorded clinical lameness, this study provided evidence that there is significant exploitable animal genetic variation. Selection of specific sires across and within breeds could be an option for increasing genetic resistance to lameness in New Zealand dairy cattle.

Chawala AR; Lopez-Villalobos N; Margerison JK; Spelman RJ

2013-09-01

224

Evaluating markers in selected genes for association with functional longevity of dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Longevity expressed as the number of days between birth and death is a trait of great importance for both human and animal populations. In our analysis we use dairy cattle to demonstrate how the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within selected genes with longevity can be modeled. Such an approach can be extended to any genotyped population with time to endpoint information available. Our study is focused on selected genes in order to answer the question whether genes, known to be involved into the physiological determination of milk production, also influence individual's survival. Results Generally, the highest risk differences among animals with different genotypes are observed for polymorphisms located within the leptin gene. The polymorphism with a highest effect on functional longevity is LEP-R25C, for which the relative risk of culling for cows with genotype CC is 3.14 times higher than for the heterozygous animals. Apart from LEP-R25C, also FF homozygotes at the LEP-Y7F substitution attribute 3.64 times higher risk of culling than the YY homozygotes and VV homozygotes at LEP-A80V have 1.83 times higher risk of culling than AA homozygotes. Differences in risks between genotypes of polymorphisms within the other genes (the butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 gene, BTN1A1; the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene, DGAT1; the leptin receptor gene, LEPR; the ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, ABCG2) are much smaller. Conclusions Our results indicate association between LEP and longevity and are very well supported by results of other studies related to dairy cattle. In view of the growing importance of functional traits in dairy cattle, LEP polymorphisms should be considered as markers supporting selection decisions. Furthermore, since the relationship between both LEP polymorphism and its protein product with longevity in humans is well documented, with our result we were able to demonstrate that livestock with its detailed records of family structure, genetic, and environmental factors as well as extensive trait recording can be a good model organism for research aspects related to humans.

Szyda Joanna; Morek-Kope? Ma?gorzata; Komisarek Jolanta; ?arnecki Andrzej

2011-01-01

225

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo.

Mohan MS; Anand S; Kalscheur KF; Hassan AN; Hippen AR

2013-04-01

226

Dairy farm worker exposure to awkward knee posture during milking and feeding tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Musculoskeletal disorders are common among agricultural workers, particularly among dairy farm workers. Specifically, dairy farm workers have been identified as being at risk for knee osteoarthritis. Physical risk factors that may contribute to knee osteoarthritis include awkward postures of the knee, such as kneeling or squatting. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposure to awkward knee posture among dairy farm workers during milking and feeding tasks in two common types of milking facilities (stanchion and parlor). Twenty-three dairy farm workers performed milking and feeding tasks; 11 worked in a stanchion milking facility, and 12 worked in a parlor milking facility. An electrogoniometer was used to measure knee flexion during 30 min of the milking and feeding tasks. Milking in a stanchion facility results in a greater duration of exposure to awkward posture of the knee compared with milking in a parlor facility. Specifically, the percentage of time in >or=110 degrees knee flexion was significantly greater in the stanchion facility (X = 17.7; SE 4.2) than in the parlor facility (X = 0.05; SE 0.04; p feeding tasks. This study supports previous findings that working in stanchion milking facility results in greater exposure to awkward knee posture compared with working in a parlor milking facility. PMID:20521198

Nonnenmann, M W; Anton, D C; Gerr, F; Yack, H J

2010-08-01

227

Dairy farm worker exposure to awkward knee posture during milking and feeding tasks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Musculoskeletal disorders are common among agricultural workers, particularly among dairy farm workers. Specifically, dairy farm workers have been identified as being at risk for knee osteoarthritis. Physical risk factors that may contribute to knee osteoarthritis include awkward postures of the knee, such as kneeling or squatting. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposure to awkward knee posture among dairy farm workers during milking and feeding tasks in two common types of milking facilities (stanchion and parlor). Twenty-three dairy farm workers performed milking and feeding tasks; 11 worked in a stanchion milking facility, and 12 worked in a parlor milking facility. An electrogoniometer was used to measure knee flexion during 30 min of the milking and feeding tasks. Milking in a stanchion facility results in a greater duration of exposure to awkward posture of the knee compared with milking in a parlor facility. Specifically, the percentage of time in >or=110 degrees knee flexion was significantly greater in the stanchion facility (X = 17.7; SE 4.2) than in the parlor facility (X = 0.05; SE 0.04; p feeding tasks. This study supports previous findings that working in stanchion milking facility results in greater exposure to awkward knee posture compared with working in a parlor milking facility.

Nonnenmann MW; Anton DC; Gerr F; Yack HJ

2010-08-01

228

A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus in dairy cattle in the central valley of California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in California dairy cattle was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution by age and season of BTV group-reactive antibodies and to look for possible associations between the presence of antibodies and cattle age or breed and farm. Between December 1985 and March 1987, a sample of cattle was tested at approximately two-month intervals for BTV group-reactive antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data taken during the month of December 1986 were used to evaluate possible associations between a positive antibody test and certain intrinsic (age, breed) and extrinsic (farm) factors. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the chi-square test for associations and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were carried out for possible associations between positive antibody tests to BTV and each factor of interest. The strengths of the associations were determined using estimates of the odds ratio. Of the 3774 serum samples tested, 238 (6.3%) were from calves, 1045 (27.6%) were from heifers and 2492 (66.0%) were from cows. Seroprevalence varied from nil in calves on two occasions to over 90% on several occasions in cows. Cows consistently had higher prevalence rates than heifers or calves across all test dates (p less than 0.05). The seroprevalence of BTV group-reactive antibodies also showed a seasonal fluctuation, with the highest rates occurring during the warmer months of the year. These highest prevalence rates coincided with heavy activity of the known vector of BTV, Culicoides spp. Breed and farm effects were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). With the exception of one farm, all cattle were of the Holstein breed, which reduced confidence in assessing any breed effect in this study. Relative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of BTV ELISA were 87% and 100% respectively, compared to the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The observations support previous findings of seasonal distribution of BTV antibodies and suggest an age relationship, whereby older cattle are more likely to be positive to BTV group-reactive antibodies than younger cattle.

Uhaa IJ; Riemann HP; Thurmond MC; Franti CE

1990-01-01

229

Investigation of the aetiology of udder-thigh dermatitis in French dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Udder-thigh dermatitis (UTD) is a common disease in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to define UTD incidence, its risk factors and the involved pathogens. Of 74 respondents, 72 (97%) reported having had the disease. On those farms the incidence was 5.3 cases per 100 cow years. The odds ratio (OR) of UTD in primiparous compared to multiparous cows was 23.4 (95% CI 17.3-33.8). Compared to tied stalls, the ORs of UTD were 0.65 (95% CI 0.45-0.92) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.71) for free stalls and straw yards, respectively. Udder oedema was reported in 98.3% of cows with UTD. The most common bacteria isolated from affected skin were Fusobacterium spp. (12/14 cases). This study suggests that UTD management should focus on local treatment, reducing udder oedema and increasing exercise.

Roy C; Roque JL; François PM; Ferrieres A; Raboisson D

2012-07-01

230

Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part II: relationship to fatty acid composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995). The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002). Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969), but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995). In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.

F. Cecchi; M. Martini; C. Scolozzi; R. Leotta; P. Verità

2011-01-01

231

Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.

I. Yeruham; S. Perl

2012-01-01

232

Prevalence of mastitis among dairy cattle in Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mastitis is a major disease that infects the mammary gland of dairy cattle and adverselyaffects the quantity and quality of milk produced by cows. This study described the socio-economiccharacteristics of herdsmen and examined the prevalence rate of mastitis in White Fulani cows in KanamLocal Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Four districts were randomlyselected from the LGA (among 10 districts) and twenty herdsmen were randomly selected from each ofthese four districts, making a total of eighty herdsmen. Primary data were collected from the eightyherdsmen using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The resultsshowed that majority of the herdsmen (78%) were illiterate and the prevalence rate of mastitis in thestudy area was 64%. Proper health management measures and vigorous enlightenment campaign byveterinary extension workers were recommended.

Charles O. Ebojei; Gyang C. Davou; Blessing A. Salman; Victoria O. Mosimabale

2010-01-01

233

Heritability and Repeatability Estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss Crossbred Dairy Cattle Population  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was genetic parameter estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss crossbred dairy population. The performance of Brown Swiss crossbred cattle in Iran was considered across years 1991-2003. Variance component were estimated using animal model (single trait) and Derivative-free restricted Maximum Likelihood method for different traits. The estimation of the heritability for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage and milk days were 0.24, 0.163, 0.175 and 0.334, respectively for single models. Repeatability estimation for mentioned traits was 0.41, 0.31, 0.18 and 0.334. The result showed that the additive genetic variance share in milk yield and milk day’s traits and permanent environmental variance in milk and fat yield are high.

A. Gorbani; R. Salamatdoust Nobar; U. Mehman Navaz; J. Gyasi; H. Agdam Shahryar; K. Nazer Adl

2011-01-01

234

Association between milk production, somatic cell count and bacterial dermatoses in three dairy cattle herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlations between three bacterial dermatoses in cattle, milk production and bulk-milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). DESIGN: Field observations in three dairy cattle herds. METHODS: Milk production, BMSCC, fertility and all herd diseases were recorded by computerised dairy management systems. Each herd was visited twice weekly and the clinical signs, course of diseases and morbidity and culling rates were noted. Bulk-tank milk was sampled twice monthly and analysed for somatic cell count. Bacteriological and histological examinations were carried out from samples collected from affected animals in the respective herds. RESULTS: The acute exudative form of dermatophilosis was diagnosed only in first-calving cows. The morbidity rate was 53% and the culling rate was 16% of the affected animals. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 2.4 times, and there was an average loss of milk production of 30%/cow/day in affected animals. Ulcerative lymphangitis was diagnosed in first-calving cows (22%) and older cows (15%). The culling rate was 28%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 17.3 times, and the average loss of milk production was 5.5%/affected animal/day. Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) was diagnosed in first-calving cows (25%) and in older cows (18%). The culling rate was 8%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of two times, and the average loss of milk production was 1.7%/affected animal/day. CONCLUSIONS: The correlations between three skin diseases (ulcerative lymphangitis, dermatophilosis, papillomatous digital dermatitis), milk production and BMSCC have been found to be unfavourable.

Yeruham I; Friedman S; Elad D; Perl S

2000-04-01

235

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. RESULTS: The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.

Jensen J; Su G; Madsen P

2012-01-01

236

Across-Family Marker-Assisted Selection Using Selective Genotyping Strategies in Dairy Cattle Breeding Schemes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at the 2 different genotyping levels and compared with random selection of candidates for genotyping and complete genotyping of the potential candidates. All selective genotyping strategies at the same proportion of genotyping showed similar cumulative genetic level. The frequency of the favorable QTL allele increased faster with more animals genotyped. Extra response in total genetic effect (polygenic and QTL) was not significantly different between genotyping all candidates (100%), 20%, and 50% genotyping (except for yr 13), but all MAS strategies resulted in significantly higher response than BLUP until yr 18. With 50% (20%) genotyping of candidates for selection within a population, 95% (89%) of maximum cumulative QTL response was achieved in yr 13. All MAS schemes resulted in a 19% decrease in the rate of inbreeding compared with the BLUP scheme. Therefore, it is possible to use selective genotyping in practical dairy cattle breeding and decrease the genotyping costs with a minimal loss of response compared with complete genotyping of the potential candidates

Ansari-Mahyari, S; SØrensen, A C

2008-01-01

237

The importance of haplotype lenght and heritability using genomic selection in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated to investigate reliability of GEBV over time. A genome with 5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at distances of 0.1 cM and 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) was simulated, and a Bayesian variable selection model was implemented to predict GEBV. Highest reliabilities were obtained for 10 SNP haplotypes. At optimal haplotype size, reliabilities in generation 1 without phenotypes ranged from 0.80 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.93 for h2 = 0.30, and in the seventh generation without phenotypes ranged from 0.69 for h2 = 0.02 to 0.86 for h2 = 0.30. Reliabilities of GEBV were found sufficiently high to implement dairy selection schemes without progeny testing in which case a data time-lag of two to three generations may be present. Reliabilities were also relatively high for low heritable traits, implying that genomic selection could be especially beneficial to improve the selection on, e.g. health and fertility

Villumsen, T M; Janss, L

2009-01-01

238

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli on bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fecal samples, boot swabs, and dust samples were analyzed for ESBL-producing E. coli using selective media. PCR was performed to screen for CTX-M and ampC resistance genes. A total of 598 samples yielded 196 (32.8%) that contained ESBL-producing E. coli, originating from 39 (86.7%) of 45 farms. Samples obtained from mixed farms were significantly more likely to be ESBL-producing E. coli positive than samples from beef cattle farms (fecal samples, P < 0.001; boot swabs, P = 0.014; and dust samples, P = 0.041). A total of 183 isolates (93.4%) of 196 ESBL-producing E. coli-positive strains harbored CTX-M genes, CTX-M group 1 being the most frequently found group. Forty-six additional isolates contained ampC genes, and 5 of the 46 isolates expressed a blaCMY-2 gene. The study shows that ESBL-producing E. coli strains are commonly found on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of blaCMY-2 in cattle in Germany.

Schmid A; Hörmansdorfer S; Messelhäusser U; Käsbohrer A; Sauter-Louis C; Mansfeld R

2013-05-01

239

Molecular and Pathological Study of Bovine Aborted Fetuses and Placenta from Neospora caninum Infected Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 pla­centas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and pe­rivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of he­morrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "n Conclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neos­pora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.

N Salehi; H Haddadzadeh; J Ashrafihelan; P Shayan; A Sadrebazzaz

2009-01-01

240

Incidence of post parturient utero-vaginal complications in dairy cattle: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India possesses one of the largest livestock wealth in the world which comprises of 199 million cattle, 105.3 million buffaloes, 140 million goats and 71.5 million sheep. Even though, India is the largest milk producing country in the world, productivity per animal is less than 50 % of the world average. This is mainly due to poor level of nutrition and low genetic potential for milk production and health care. With ever increasing per capita consumption of milk in the country, there is increase in the domestic demand of milk. Hence therefore, crossbreeding is receiving more importance to overcome this gap. Crossbreeding of zebu cattle with exotic bulls of high merit for increasing productivity was initiated as a part of our breeding policy. The present economic condition demands that not only the individual animal be high producer but should be profitable too. However, the improvement of milk production in past few decades has not necessarily resulted in proportionate increase in profits to dairy farmers as animals with high milk production are prone to increased risk of exposure to health disorders.

V. B. Dongre; Balasundaram, B.; A. K. Gupta

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from high-excreting young dairy calves in dairy cattle herds in Western France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety-two Cryptosporidium sp.-positive fecal samples of dairy diarrheic or non-diarrheic calves from 30 cattle herds in Normandy (France) were selected. Here, the aim was to investigate the species of Cryptosporidium excreted as well as the subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum found in 7-17-day-old dairy calves. Excretion levels were comprised between 2?×?10(4) and 4?×?10(7) oocysts per gram of feces. Here, a nested 18S SSU rRNA PCR associated with sequencing was performed for identification of Cryptosporidium species and revealed the presence of C. parvum in most cases (80/82), except for two animals which were infected with Cryptosporidium bovis. Then, C. parvum samples were submitted to gp60 PCR. For 39 samples from 24 different herds, a multilocus analysis based on four mini-microsatellites loci (MM19, MM5, MSF, and MS9-Mallon) were conducted. These results were combined with sequence analysis of the gp60 to obtain multilocus types (MLTs). Here, C. parvum gp60 genotyping identified three subtypes in the IIa zoonotic allele family: IIaA15G2R1 (88 %), IIaA16G3R1 (10 %), and IIaA19G2R1 (2 %), and we identified 12 MLTs. The MS9-Mallon locus was reported as the most polymorphic (five alleles). The most common MLT was MLT 1 with 15 samples in 10 farms: (MS9-M: 298, MSF: 165, MM5: 264, MM19: 462, and gp60 subtype: IIaA15G2R1). When comparing diarrheic and non-diarrheic fecal samples, no difference was seen for distribution of Cryptosporidium species, C. parvum gp60 subtypes, and MLTs. Here, in a range of oocyst excretion of 10(4)-10(7) opg, both in diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves, infection was mainly due to C. parvum and to the zoonotic subtype: IIaA15G2R1.

Rieux A; Chartier C; Pors I; Delafosse A; Paraud C

2013-10-01

242

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from high-excreting young dairy calves in dairy cattle herds in Western France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-two Cryptosporidium sp.-positive fecal samples of dairy diarrheic or non-diarrheic calves from 30 cattle herds in Normandy (France) were selected. Here, the aim was to investigate the species of Cryptosporidium excreted as well as the subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum found in 7-17-day-old dairy calves. Excretion levels were comprised between 2?×?10(4) and 4?×?10(7) oocysts per gram of feces. Here, a nested 18S SSU rRNA PCR associated with sequencing was performed for identification of Cryptosporidium species and revealed the presence of C. parvum in most cases (80/82), except for two animals which were infected with Cryptosporidium bovis. Then, C. parvum samples were submitted to gp60 PCR. For 39 samples from 24 different herds, a multilocus analysis based on four mini-microsatellites loci (MM19, MM5, MSF, and MS9-Mallon) were conducted. These results were combined with sequence analysis of the gp60 to obtain multilocus types (MLTs). Here, C. parvum gp60 genotyping identified three subtypes in the IIa zoonotic allele family: IIaA15G2R1 (88 %), IIaA16G3R1 (10 %), and IIaA19G2R1 (2 %), and we identified 12 MLTs. The MS9-Mallon locus was reported as the most polymorphic (five alleles). The most common MLT was MLT 1 with 15 samples in 10 farms: (MS9-M: 298, MSF: 165, MM5: 264, MM19: 462, and gp60 subtype: IIaA15G2R1). When comparing diarrheic and non-diarrheic fecal samples, no difference was seen for distribution of Cryptosporidium species, C. parvum gp60 subtypes, and MLTs. Here, in a range of oocyst excretion of 10(4)-10(7) opg, both in diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves, infection was mainly due to C. parvum and to the zoonotic subtype: IIaA15G2R1. PMID:23820609

Rieux, A; Chartier, C; Pors, I; Delafosse, A; Paraud, C

2013-07-03

243

Relationship between indocyanine green clearance test and feed intake and impaired hepatic function in dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purposes of this study were 1) to examine changes in the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance by feeding and 4-day fasting in dry cows, and (2) to investigate the relationship between ICG clearance and blood chemistry profile in postpartum cows. In 3 dry cows, post-feeding ICG half-life (T(1/2)) was shorter than the pre-feeding value, and post-fasting T(1/2) was longer than pre-feeding and post-feeding values. In 16 lactating cows, T(1/2) value at 2 weeks postpartum showed positive correlations with AST, T-Bil and ?-GTP. These results suggested that ICG clearance correlated with T-Bil and liver enzymes can be sensitive and accurate diagnostic marker for impaired liver function in dairy cows. In addition, ICG clearance is greatly affected by feeding and fasting.

Ono M; Ohtaki T; Tanemura K; Ishii M; Tsumagari S

2011-11-01

244

Relationship between indocyanine green clearance test and feed intake and impaired hepatic function in dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were 1) to examine changes in the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance by feeding and 4-day fasting in dry cows, and (2) to investigate the relationship between ICG clearance and blood chemistry profile in postpartum cows. In 3 dry cows, post-feeding ICG half-life (T(1/2)) was shorter than the pre-feeding value, and post-fasting T(1/2) was longer than pre-feeding and post-feeding values. In 16 lactating cows, T(1/2) value at 2 weeks postpartum showed positive correlations with AST, T-Bil and ?-GTP. These results suggested that ICG clearance correlated with T-Bil and liver enzymes can be sensitive and accurate diagnostic marker for impaired liver function in dairy cows. In addition, ICG clearance is greatly affected by feeding and fasting. PMID:21712638

Ono, Mamiko; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Tanemura, Kouichi; Ishii, Mitsuo; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

2011-06-28

245

[Colonization of the teat skin and the teat canal of lactating dairy cattle by mastitis pathogens].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is the first barrier against mastitis pathogens invading the teat cistern and the udder lumen. However, in several studies it could be shown that the teat skin and the teat canal epithelium are colonized by mainly staphylococci as well as by other pathogenic or facultative pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pathogen pressure on the bovine mammary gland and to establish data on the prevalence of relevant micro-organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 32 randomly selected German dairy farms the colonization of the teat skin and the teat canal by S.aureus (Baird Parker agar), Sc.uberis (modified Rambach agar according to Watts et al. [1993]), enterococci (kanamycin esculin azide agar) and coliforms (ChromoCult Coliform agar) was investigated by the wet/dry swab technique DIN10113-1:1997-07. RESULTS: In total 84.5% of all 1358 investigated teat canals of clinically healthy cattle were colonized by at least one of the four pathogen groups. S.aureus was isolated from 72.2% of the teat canals. For S.aureus , Sc.uberis and E.coli maximum bacterial counts of >10(6) cfu/swab and for other coliform bacteria>10(7) cfu/swab were detected. Correlations could be found between the bacterial counts on the teat skin and in the teat canal within the pathogen groups S.aureus, Sc.uberis, E.coli and other coliforms (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r?0.30, p<0.001) as well as between the environmental udder pathogens Sc.uberis and coliforms (r?0.25, p<0.01). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The variation of the bacterial counts on teat epithelia could be an indicator that the microflora of the teat canal epithelium can be affected by management practices in dairy farms. The results of this study point out that under field conditions the efficiency of hygienic practices (husbandry, milking) can be assessed by sampling of the bovine teat canal by the wet/dry swab technique.

Paduch JH; Krömker V

2011-01-01

246

Geographical distribution modelling for Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cattle farms in northeastern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maximum entropy ecological niche modelling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographical range and to investigate clusters of infections for Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle farms in Catalonia, northeastern Spain, using the Maxent and SaTScan programs, respectively. The geographical distribution of Neospora and Coxiella with the highest level of probability (P > 0·60) covers central Catalonia and spreads towards northeastern Catalonia which contains a high concentration of dairy cattle farms. The most important environmental factor that contributed to the ecological niche modelling was precipitation of driest month followed by elevation. Significant clusters (P < 0·001) were detected for Neospora and Coxiella infections in the western and eastern regions of Catalonia, respectively.

Nogareda C; Jubert A; Kantzoura V; Kouam MK; Feidas H; Theodoropoulos G

2013-01-01

247

Anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos de leite do sudoeste do estado do Paraná/ Antibodies to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Southwest of Paraná State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Since November 2007 until May 2009, 1,778 serum samples of cattle from dairy herds of the Southwest of Paraná State, Brazil, were used for search of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies. The frequency of seropositive animals, assessed by IFAT, was 24.2% (431/1,178), showing a relatively high occurrence in the studied population. These results show that Neospora caninum is widely distributed in the dairy cattle in the Southwest of Paraná State. The presence of Neospora canin (more) um in a herd is worrisome, since this protozoan is closely related with reproductive disorders and low milk production in cattle.

Camillo, G; Cadore, G; Cezar, A.S; Toscan, G; Bräunig, P; Sangioni, L.A; Vogel, F.S.F

2010-12-01

248

Anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos de leite do sudoeste do estado do Paraná Antibodies to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Southwest of Paraná State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since November 2007 until May 2009, 1,778 serum samples of cattle from dairy herds of the Southwest of Paraná State, Brazil, were used for search of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies. The frequency of seropositive animals, assessed by IFAT, was 24.2% (431/1,178), showing a relatively high occurrence in the studied population. These results show that Neospora caninum is widely distributed in the dairy cattle in the Southwest of Paraná State. The presence of Neospora caninum in a herd is worrisome, since this protozoan is closely related with reproductive disorders and low milk production in cattle.

G Camillo; G Cadore; A.S Cezar; G Toscan; P Bräunig; L.A Sangioni; F.S.F Vogel

2010-01-01

249

Improving Carcass Quality of Indigenous Cattle of West Sumatera Fed Local Feed Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lack of adequate nutrition all year round is one of the major causes of the low productivity of ruminants. An operational policy announced by the Indonesian government to achieve the target to be self sufficient on meat demand 2010 is to develop feed and ration for beef industry based on agricultural and industrial-wastes besides exploiting biodiversity that has not been fully implemented by the farmers. A feeding trial with 12 Pesisir cattle, indigenous cattle of West Sumatera weighed 120-150 kg aged 2-3 yrs old were carried out to investigate the effect of feeding local feed resources on their growth performance and carcass characteristics; dressing percentage, rib eye area, lean and fat percentage. Animals were divided into two equal groups of similar average body weight, assigned to Completely Randomized Design and were individually fed for 90 days. The first group was offered control feed as practiced by farmer and the second group was offered treatment diet based on ammoniated rice straw and chipped cassava. This feeding trial was followed by a slaughter experiment on one animal from each group to study of carcass traits. Cattle receiving a treatment diet performed better (p0.05) observed between the two groups with regard to Average Total Body Weight Gain (ATG) and Average Daily Body Weight Gain (ADG) 0.20 kg/d to 0.68 kg/d respectively. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet (52.59%) than in control diet (50.82%). The rib eye area, lean and fat percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet than in control diet. It was concluded that feeding improved low quality local feed resources could have a positive effects on growth performance and carcass traits of indigenous cattle.

Khasrad; R.W.S. Ningrat

2010-01-01

250

Variance component and breeding value estimation for genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in Swedish Holstein dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trait uniformity, or micro-environmental sensitivity, may be studied through individual differences in residual variance. These differences appear to be heritable, and the need exists, therefore, to fit models to predict breeding values explaining differences in residual variance. The aim of this paper is to estimate breeding values for micro-environmental sensitivity (vEBV) in milk yield and somatic cell score, and their associated variance components, on a large dairy cattle data set having more than 1.6 million records. Estimation of variance components, ordinary breeding values, and vEBV was performed using standard variance component estimation software (ASReml), applying the methodology for double hierarchical generalized linear models. Estimation using ASReml took less than 7 d on a Linux server. The genetic standard deviations for residual variance were 0.21 and 0.22 for somatic cell score and milk yield, respectively, which indicate moderate genetic variance for residual variance and imply that a standard deviation change in vEBV for one of these traits would alter the residual variance by 20%. This study shows that estimation of variance components, estimated breeding values and vEBV, is feasible for large dairy cattle data sets using standard variance component estimation software. The possibility to select for uniformity in Holstein dairy cattle based on these estimates is discussed. PMID:23415533

Rönnegård, L; Felleki, M; Fikse, W F; Mulder, H A; Strandberg, E

2013-02-15

251

Variance component and breeding value estimation for genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in Swedish Holstein dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trait uniformity, or micro-environmental sensitivity, may be studied through individual differences in residual variance. These differences appear to be heritable, and the need exists, therefore, to fit models to predict breeding values explaining differences in residual variance. The aim of this paper is to estimate breeding values for micro-environmental sensitivity (vEBV) in milk yield and somatic cell score, and their associated variance components, on a large dairy cattle data set having more than 1.6 million records. Estimation of variance components, ordinary breeding values, and vEBV was performed using standard variance component estimation software (ASReml), applying the methodology for double hierarchical generalized linear models. Estimation using ASReml took less than 7 d on a Linux server. The genetic standard deviations for residual variance were 0.21 and 0.22 for somatic cell score and milk yield, respectively, which indicate moderate genetic variance for residual variance and imply that a standard deviation change in vEBV for one of these traits would alter the residual variance by 20%. This study shows that estimation of variance components, estimated breeding values and vEBV, is feasible for large dairy cattle data sets using standard variance component estimation software. The possibility to select for uniformity in Holstein dairy cattle based on these estimates is discussed.

Rönnegård L; Felleki M; Fikse WF; Mulder HA; Strandberg E

2013-04-01

252

Prenatal muscle fiber development and bundle structure in beef and dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscle fiber development during gestation determines the muscle structure at birth and establishes the conditions for muscle development in growing cattle. Differences in muscle structure among beef cattle breeds and between beef and dairy cattle are obvious already shortly after birth. The objective of the study was to investigate the development of muscle fibers and muscle fiber bundle structure in semitendinosus muscle of divergent cattle breeds from 3 mo of gestation until birth. Fetuses of German Angus (GA), Galloway (GW), Belgian Blue (BB), and Holstein Friesian (HF) were harvested at 3, 4.5, 6, or 9 mo of gestation. Muscle sections were analyzed for fiber size and types as well as for bundle structure. The results confirmed that primary muscle fiber development occurs mainly during the first trimester of gestation. All fibers were initially positive for fetal fast myosin. Slow myosin as a marker for fiber maturation was detected in primary fibers at 3 mo of gestation showing a weak immunostaining. During the second trimester, the intensity of immunostaining strongly increased indicating increased slow myosin protein expression. Concurrently, the shape of primary fibers changed from myotubes to myofibers whereas the size stayed nearly constant. The main increase in muscle mass during the second trimester was caused by secondary fiber development. As an example, the ratio between secondary and primary fibers increased in Holstein Friesian fetuses from 5.9 at 4.5 mo of gestation to 21.6 at 6 mo of gestation. Primary and secondary fibers continued to growth during the third trimester. Regional differences in the density of slow muscle fibers were detected leading to greater variation within the muscle than among breeds. Structural organization of muscle fibers in muscle fiber bundles developed early in fetal life. At first, large main bundles were visible. Smaller structural units defined as primary bundles were measurable at 6 mo of gestation when most fibers were developed. The size of primary bundles nearly doubled from 6 mo of gestation to birth in all breeds. In summary, differences among breeds in the early fetal muscle fiber development were detected in contractile differentiation and partly in muscle fiber bundle structure. A prolonged secondary fiber generation and altered contractile differentiation may be involved in breed differences of postnatal muscle development. PMID:23658343

Albrecht, E; Lembcke, C; Wegner, J; Maak, S

2013-05-08

253

Prenatal muscle fiber development and bundle structure in beef and dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Muscle fiber development during gestation determines the muscle structure at birth and establishes the conditions for muscle development in growing cattle. Differences in muscle structure among beef cattle breeds and between beef and dairy cattle are obvious already shortly after birth. The objective of the study was to investigate the development of muscle fibers and muscle fiber bundle structure in semitendinosus muscle of divergent cattle breeds from 3 mo of gestation until birth. Fetuses of German Angus (GA), Galloway (GW), Belgian Blue (BB), and Holstein Friesian (HF) were harvested at 3, 4.5, 6, or 9 mo of gestation. Muscle sections were analyzed for fiber size and types as well as for bundle structure. The results confirmed that primary muscle fiber development occurs mainly during the first trimester of gestation. All fibers were initially positive for fetal fast myosin. Slow myosin as a marker for fiber maturation was detected in primary fibers at 3 mo of gestation showing a weak immunostaining. During the second trimester, the intensity of immunostaining strongly increased indicating increased slow myosin protein expression. Concurrently, the shape of primary fibers changed from myotubes to myofibers whereas the size stayed nearly constant. The main increase in muscle mass during the second trimester was caused by secondary fiber development. As an example, the ratio between secondary and primary fibers increased in Holstein Friesian fetuses from 5.9 at 4.5 mo of gestation to 21.6 at 6 mo of gestation. Primary and secondary fibers continued to growth during the third trimester. Regional differences in the density of slow muscle fibers were detected leading to greater variation within the muscle than among breeds. Structural organization of muscle fibers in muscle fiber bundles developed early in fetal life. At first, large main bundles were visible. Smaller structural units defined as primary bundles were measurable at 6 mo of gestation when most fibers were developed. The size of primary bundles nearly doubled from 6 mo of gestation to birth in all breeds. In summary, differences among breeds in the early fetal muscle fiber development were detected in contractile differentiation and partly in muscle fiber bundle structure. A prolonged secondary fiber generation and altered contractile differentiation may be involved in breed differences of postnatal muscle development.

Albrecht E; Lembcke C; Wegner J; Maak S

2013-08-01

254

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

He, M; Armentano, L E

2011-05-01

255

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression.

He M; Armentano LE

2011-05-01

256

Impacts of a Limit Feeding Procedure on Variation and Accuracy of Cattle Weights.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cattle weights can be highly variable and are influenced by many factors including time of weighing, ambient temperature, feed intake, and cattle handling. A protocol of limit feeding has been in use since the 1980s that was designed to reduce variation in gut fill due to differences in intakes. Cattle are penned and fed a 50% hay, 50% wet corn gluten feed or grain diet (DM basis) at an estimated 2% of BW for at least 5 d, after which weights are taken on 2 consecutive d and averaged for a limit fed BW (LFW). For this analysis, full fed weights (FFW) also were taken before the limit feeding period while cattle had ad libitum intakes. Data from 18 experiments were used to analyze differences within 2 d LFW and between LFW and FFW. For 10 of the 18 experiments, FFW also were measured on 2 consecutive d. Cattle included in this summary were grazing cornstalks, smooth bromegrass pasture, bermudagrass pasture, fescue pasture, native range, or in a dry lot on a 70% forage diet. The largest differences between FFW and LFW for individual cattle were -39 to +44 kg over all 18 experiments. Differences between 2 consecutive d of LFW were -23 to +24 kg for all 18 experiments. Differences between 2 d of FFW were -14 to +34 kg in the 10 experiments measuring FFW on 2 consecutive d. There was not a clear relationship between FFW and LFW; each weighing scenario had unique environmental conditions that led to different relationships. Differences in both beginning and ending BW were compounded when calculating ADG. Average daily gain was calculated for 15 of the experiments based on either LFW or FFW. Differences between LFW and FFW ADG were -0.29 to +0.31 kg/d. The maximum ADG based on FFW was 1.62 kg/d. This large ADG, on a forage based diet, was likely due to changes in gut fill rather than tissue gain. These data suggest that handling cattle in a similar manner when weighing is more important than limiting intakes in order to decrease variance between weights. However, limiting intake prior to collection of beginning and ending BW better estimates empty body weight (EBW) of cattle, allowing for a more accurate determination of actual body tissue weight gain. Measuring weights accurately becomes especially crucial when evaluating multiple components within a system (e.g., cornstalks to pasture to feedlot). Feeding a standard diet between these components of the system minimizes differences in gut fill due to treatment and allows for a more accurate determination of each component's contribution to the total system.

Watson AK; Nuttelman BL; Klopfenstein TJ; Lomas LW; Erickson GE

2013-09-01

257

Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellipse that resulted from regressing BW gain on DMI were selected. In the first experiment, 113 crossbred steers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Steers were 355 ± 1 d of age and weighed 456 ± 10 kg when they began the study. Steers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 82.8% corn, 12.8% corn silage, and 4.5% supplement [contains 0.065% monensin, 32% CP (28% NPN), 7.5% Ca, 0.8% P, 4.8% NaCl, 1.8% K, and 55,116 IU/kg vitamin A]. Thirty-seven steers were selected to measure CH4 production. In the second experiment, 197 heifers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Heifers were 286 ± 1 d of age and weighed 327 ± 2 kg when they began the study. Heifers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 60% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay, and 10% wet distillers grains with solubles. Forty-seven heifers were selected to measure CH4 production. Methane production was measured with respiration calorimeters. In both experiments, cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and DMI consumed during the 24 h before CH4 production was measured. Methane production was collected for a 6-h period on untrained cattle. Consequently, methane production is not a quantitative measure of daily methane production; rather, it is an index value to rank cattle. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between either BW gain:DMI ratio or residual feed intake (RFI) on CH4 production after adjusting for the previous 24-h DMI. In the steers, BW gain:DMI ratio and previous 24-h feed intake accounted for little of the variance in CH4 production (R(2) = 0.009), and neither did RFI and previous 24-h feed intake (R(2) = 0.001). In the heifers, the BW gain:DMI ratio contributed 28% toward the variance estimate and previous 24-h DMI contributed 72% toward the variance estimate (R(2) = 0.31). As the BW gain:DMI ratio increased, daily CH4 production increased. The regression coefficient for RFI (P = 0.45) did not differ from 0 for CH4 production. Our study does not support our original hypothesis that CH4 production decreases with increased feed efficiency and suggests that CH4 production may increase with increased feed efficiency.

Freetly HC; Brown-Brandl TM

2013-10-01

258

Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1) the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), and 2) prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS) which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.

Hayes Ben J; Bowman Phillip J; Chamberlain Amanda C; Verbyla Klara; Goddard Mike E

2009-01-01

259

Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1) the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), and 2) prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. METHODS: Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS) which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. RESULTS: When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. CONCLUSION: Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.

Hayes BJ; Bowman PJ; Chamberlain AC; Verbyla K; Goddard ME

2009-01-01

260

Evaluation of cattle feeding preferences using short-term trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of feeding preferences of ruminants may help to define diet supplementation, achieve an efficient exploitation of natural resources and preserve normal body condition of the animal. Thereafter, such knowledge may enable to improve reproductive and productive performance as well as product quality. Ruminants generally develop preferences for feed that are richer in energy, providing them a high satiety level rapidly (Provenza, 1995). Nevertheless, physical characteristics, accessibility and palatability properties of feed per se can stimulate or depress hedonic behaviour and........

A. Braghieri; C. Pacelli; G. De Rosa; F. Napolitano; F. Surianello; A. Girolami

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of selenium concentration on feed preferences by cattle and sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to livestock. The objective of this study was to determine if sheep and cattle could discriminate between forages and feeds with different concentrations of Se. In the first study, cattle and sheep preferences for intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens) of varying Se concentrations were assessed. The Se concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 50 parts per million (ppm, DM) in grass, 1.4 to 275 ppm in alfalfa, and 4 to 4,455 ppm in aster. Selenium concentration had no influence (P > 0.05) on the initial or subsequent preferences of sheep or cattle for grass or alfalfa. Cattle developed an aversion to aster after consuming 95% of the plant material during the first brief exposure, and subsequently refused to eat any aster. Sheep consumption of aster was variable, but their preference was not driven by Se concentration. In the next study, cattle and sheep were offered pellets at 1.5% of BW (as fed), which contained increasing concentrations of Se from aster (control, 5-, 25-, 45-, 110-ppm Se). In trial 1, all pellets were offered. In trials 2 and 3, all pellets were offered with the exception of the 5-ppm Se pellet and the 5- and 25-ppm Se pellets, respectively. In trial 1, consumption of the control pellet by cattle was greater on all days compared with other Se pellets (P < 0.001). Cattle ate more (P < 0.001) of the 5-ppm Se pellet than the higher Se pellets on d 3, 4, and 5. Sheep ate greater amounts of the control, 5-, and 110-ppm Se pellets compared with the 25-and 45-ppm Se pellets (P < 0.0001) on d 1, and sheep consumed primarily the control and 5-ppm Se pellets thereafter. In trial 2, cattle and sheep consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the control Se pellet than the 25-, 45-, and 110-ppm Se pellets. In trial 3, cattle consumption of the control, 45-, and 110-ppm Se pellets differed on d 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), except there was no difference (P > 0.95) in cattle consumption of the control and 45-ppm Se pellets on d 1. Sheep consumed primarily the control and 45-ppm Se pellets. We conclude that high Se concentrations in fresh forages had no effect on initial consumption by cattle or sheep. When given Se pellets, initial responses were variable, but the results indicate that cattle and sheep adjusted their intake over time to avoid excessive intake of Se.

Pfister JA; Zane Davis T; Hall JO

2013-10-01

262

Protein synthesis and degradation gene SNPs related to feed intake, feed efficiency, growth, and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

We looked for possible associations of SNPs in genes related to protein turnover, with growth, feed efficiency and carcass traits in feedlot Nellore cattle. Purebred Nellore bulls and steers (N = 290; 378 ± 42 kg body weight, 23 months ± 42 days old) were evaluated for daily feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), gross feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, partial efficiency of growth, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound backfat, rump fat, and ribeye area. Genotypes were obtained for SNPs in the growth hormone receptor (GHR-1 and GHR-2); calpain (CAPN4751); calpastatin (UoGCAST); ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2I (UBE2I-1 and UBE2I-2); R3H domain containing 1 (R3HDM1-1, -2, -3, and -4), ring finger protein 19 (RNF19); proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 13 (PSMD13); ribosomal protein, large, P2 (RPLP2); and isoleucine-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (IARS2) genes. Allelic substitution, additive and dominant effects were tested and molecular breeding values were computed. CAPN4751, GHR-1 and -2, IARS2, R3HDM1-4, and UoGCAST were found to be normally segregating polymorphisms. Additive and dominance effects were observed on BWG, feed efficiency and carcass traits, although dominant effects predominated. Significant allelic substitution effects were observed for CAPN4751, GHR-1 and -2, and UoGCAST on BWG, gross feed efficiency, RFI, and carcass traits, under single- or multiple-marker analyses. Correlations between molecular breeding values and phenotypes were low, excepted for RFI, based on allelic substitution estimates obtained by stepwise linear regression. We conclude that SNPs in genes related to protein turnover are related to economically important traits in Nellore cattle. PMID:24065648

Gomes, R C; Silva, S L; Carvalho, M E; Rezende, F M; Pinto, L F B; Santana, M H A; Stella, T R; Meirelles, F V; Rossi Júnior, P; Leme, P R; Ferraz, J B S

2013-08-12

263

Effect of a monovalent vaccine against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo strain hardjobovis on fertility in Holstein dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccination with a monovalent vaccine against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo strain hardjobovis would improve reproductive efficiency in Holstein cattle in a commercial dairy setting. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS: 1,894 Holstein cows and heifers from a Central California dairy. PROCEDURES: Cattle were assigned to undergo SC administration of a monovalent vaccine against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo strain hardjobovis (n = 986) or a placebo (lactated Ringer's solution; 908). At the end of their lactation period, cows received 2 doses of the vaccine or placebo, 28 to 35 days apart, with the initial dose administered in conjunction with oxytetracycline. Heifers received the same treatments, with the second dose administered at least 2 weeks before their entrance into the heifer breeding pen. Urine and blood samples were collected from randomly selected cattle immediately before and 1 year after the trial began and submitted for fluorescent antibody and microscopic agglutination testing to identify any infecting Leptospira serovar. RESULTS: The initial herd prevalence of active infection with strain hardjobovis was 13% (6/46 tested cattle), followed by 15% (6/40) 1 year after the trial began. The odds of heifers conceiving over the period at risk for conception, regardless of vaccination, was approximately 2.8 times as high as for primiparous and pluriparous cows. Survival analysis of days from parturition to conception revealed that the vaccine protocol had no effect on the probability of conception between the vaccinated and control groups. The vaccine protocol had no impact on pregnancy loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The evaluated vaccination protocol against Leptospira strain hardjobovis was not effective in improving reproductive efficiency in commercial Holstein dairy cows or in decreasing urine shedding of leptospires.

Plunkett AH; Graham TW; Famula TR; Oberbauer AM

2013-06-01

264

Improving the reproductive management of dairy cattle subjected to artificial insemination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cattle and buffalo are an integral part of the mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming systems in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Apart from being a crucial source of high quality food (meat and milk), dairy farming provides employment, sustainable income and social security to millions of smallholder farmers within the region. Also, attaining food security and self-sufficiency in livestock products is a high priority development goal of most countries in this region. The profitability of milk and meat production from cattle and buffaloes depends to a large extent on the efficiency of reproduction. Maximizing reproductive efficiency requires the matching of genotypes to the production environment, together with appropriate husbandry practices, in order to ensure that the intervals from calving to conception are short and the rates of conception to natural or artificial breeding are high. This will result in short calving intervals, yielding more lactations and calves per lifetime of each breeding cow. The outcome will be greater economic benefits to the farmers. Artificial insemination (AI) is widely accepted as a technology that can bring about rapid genetic improvement in cattle and buffaloes. However, optimum conception rates will only be achieved if the quality of semen used is good, the insemination is done at the most appropriate time in relation to the oestrous period, and the technicians have adequate training and skills in the procedure. Although AI is widely used in many Asian countries, the above factors, together with other socio-economic considerations specific to smallholder production systems and inadequate infrastructure for the efficient delivery of AI services, have often led to poor success rates. If these constraints can be overcome, not only would the farmers and service providers benefit, but the technology would also become more widely adopted. Wider adoption of AI could then contribute to better food security and alleviation of rural poverty. This publication contains the results obtained by Member States in the activities of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project dealing with reproduction. It will serve as a source of information for professionals, technicians and extension workers engaged in the provision of AI services, as well as a source of reference for research workers and students in livestock and veterinary sciences

2007-01-01

265

Analyzes of genome-wide association follow-up study for calving traits in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background There is often a pronounced disagreement between results obtained from different genome-wide association studies in cattle. There are multiple reasons for this disagreement. Particularly the presence of false positives leads to a need to validate detected QTL before they are optimally incorporated or weighted in selection decisions or further studied for causal gene. In dairy cattle progeny testing scheme new data is routinely accumulated which can be used to validate previously discovered associations. However, the data is not an independent sample and the sample size may not be sufficient to have enough power to validate previous discoveries. Here we compared two strategies to validate previously detected QTL when new data is added from the same study population. We compare analyzing a combined dataset (COMB) including all data presently available to only analyzing a validation dataset (VAL) i.e. a new dataset not previously analyzed as an independent replication. Secondly, we confirm SNP detected in the Reference population (REF) (i.e. previously analyzed dataset consists of older bulls) in the VAL dataset Results Clearly the results from the combined (COMB) dataset which had nearly twice the sample size of other two subsets allowed the detection of far more significant associations than the two smaller subsets. The number of significant SNPs in REF (older bulls) was about four times higher compare to VAL (younger bulls) though both had similar sample sizes, 2,219 and 2,039 respectively. A total of 424 SNP-trait combinations on 22 chromosomes showed genome-wide significant association involving 284 unique SNPs in the COMB dataset. In the REF data set 101 associations (73 unique SNPs) and in the VAL 24 associations (18 unique SNPs) were found genome-wide significant Sixty-eight percent of the SNPs in the REF dataset could be confirmed in the VAL dataset. Out of 469 unique SNPs showing chromosome-wide significant association with calving traits in the REF dataset 321 could be confirmed in the VAL dataset at P < 0.05 Conclusions The follow-up study for GWAS in cattle will depend on the aim of the study. If the aim is to discover novel QTL, analyses of the COMB dataset is recommended, while in case of identification of the causal mutation underlying a QTL, confirmation of the discovered SNPs are necessary to avoid following a false positive

Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

2012-01-01

266

Influence of sprinklers, used to alleviate heat stress, on faecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Enterococcus in lactating dairy cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the effect of sprinklers on fecal shedding of E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in lactating dairy cattle and examine isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility, sprinklers were applied to lactating dairy cattle on two commercial farms at either the feedbunk or in the holding pen prior to m...

267

Effect of early exposure to mixed rations differing in forage particle size on feed sorting of dairy calves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feed sorting of dairy cattle is influenced by dietary forage particle size. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early exposure to rations differing in forage particle size on development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for 8 wk to 1 of 2 mixed rations containing (on a dry-matter basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3- to 4-cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2-mm) grass hay (FN; n=10), both offered ad libitum. Calves received 8L of milk replacer/d (1.2 kg of dry matter/d), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk, to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the CRS diet and were followed for 3 wk. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice per week. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken on d 1 to 4 of wk 9 and 11 for analysis of feed sorting. Sorting of the ration was assessed through analysis of nutrient intake. Actual intake of each nutrient was expressed as a percentage of predicted intake of that nutrient, based on the concentration in the fresh sample. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments after transition to the common CRS ration (3.20 kg/d, standard error=0.25 kg/d). However, feed efficiency was subject to a treatment-by-week interaction, with calves previously fed the FN diet having an initially greater gain-to-feed ratio than those fed the CRS diet [in wk 9, 0.60 vs. 0.47 kg of average daily gain (ADG)/kg of DMI] and similar feed efficiency in the following weeks (in wk 10, 0.43 vs. 0.43 kg of ADG/kg of DMI). A corresponding tendency was observed for ADG and body weight to evolve differently, depending on treatment, with calves previously fed the FN diet having greater ADG initially (in wk 9, 1.60 vs. 1.32 kg/d) but similar ADG to those fed the CRS diet in the following weeks (in wk 10, 1.39 vs. 1.33 kg/d and in wk 11, 1.32 vs. 1.31 kg/d). Calves previously fed the FN diet consumed less neutral detergent fiber as a percentage of predicted intake and tended to consume less acid detergent fiber and more nonfiber carbohydrates, as a percentage of predicted intakes, than calves previously fed the CRS diet. Given the nutrient compositions of hay and concentrate, this indicates that calves previously fed the FN diet were sorting for concentrate. These results indicate that the pattern and extent of feed sorting may be affected by early experience with rations differing in forage particle size.

Miller-Cushon EK; Montoro C; Bach A; DeVries TJ

2013-05-01

268

Effect of crossbreeding on milk yield traits and somatic cell score in dairy cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate trends of heterosis for milk yield traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the Dutch dairy cattle. First lactation data on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield, and on average 305-d SCS recorded on pure Holstein Friesian (HF), Dutch Friesian (DF), Mosa Reno Yssel (MRY), and F1 crossbreds (DFxHF and MRYxHF) were considered. According to cows’ year of calving, productive records from animals calving from 1980 to 2004 were divided in five periods, while SCS records from animals calving from 1990 to 2004 were divided in four periods. Data were processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) according to a linear model which included effects of herd, season of calving, age at calving, and the genotype by period of calving interaction effect. Moreover, a linear covariate of sire’s estimated breeding value (EBV) for 305-d milk yield was added to the model for yield traits. Heterosis values for productive traits were positive but decreased over time. For 305-d milk yield these values changed from 7.5 to 3.0% in the DFxHF crossbreds, and from 9.0 to 1.0% in the MRYxHF crossbreds. Average heterosis for SCS (-1.2%) was small and negative with a favourable trend over years.

M. Penasa; R. Dal Zotto; A. Cecchinato; G. de Jong; M. Cassandro

2010-01-01

269

Short communication: Efficacy of parenteral ceftiofur for treatment of systemically mild clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (i.m.) ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg) on important outcomes of systemically mild clinical mastitis episodes in lactating dairy cattle. Cows with clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to a treatment group: pirlimycin intramammary (i.m.m.) (n = 35), pirlimycin i.m.m. and ceftiofur i.m.m. (n = 36), cephapirin i.m.m. (n = 40), cephapirin i.m. and ceftiofur i.m. (n = 33). Sixty-nine, 22, and 9% of initial cultures were gram-negative, gram-positive, and mixed, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant associations between treatment groups and loss of quarter, recurrence, or culling. Mixed infections, positive milk culture at 7 d after leaving hospital pen, decreased rumen motility, and absence of udder firmness were associated with increased odds of mastitis recurrence. The results suggest that i.m. ceftiofur treatment has no beneficial effects on the outcome of systemically mild clinical mastitis.

Wenz JR; Garry FB; Lombard JE; Elia R; Prentice D; Dinsmore RP

2005-10-01

270

Application of an integrated outbreak management plan for the control of leptospirosis in dairy cattle herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Two outbreaks of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infection in dairy cattle herds were managed through the application of enhanced biosecurity measures, whole-herd antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Micro-agglutination test antibody titres were determined in paired serum samples at 3 weeks (T1: n = 125, 97% seropositivity, median 800, range 100-12 800) and 24 weeks (T2: n = 110, 88% seropositivity, median 200, range 100-6400) after vaccination and studied in relation to cows' age, herd of origin and sampling time. From T1 to T2, vaccine-elicited antibody titres decreased by 84·7% (95% CI 76·2-90·1). Consistent with increasing immunocompetence in calves (aged <12 months) and immunosenescence in adult cows (aged >36 months) associated with ageing, antibody titres correlated positively with calves' age and negatively with adult cows' age. No cow had cultivable, (histo)pathologically detectable and/or PCR-detectable leptospires in urine or kidney samples after treatment and vaccination. Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis.

Mughini-Gras L; Bonfanti L; Natale A; Comin A; Ferronato A; LA Greca E; Patregnani T; Lucchese L; Marangon S

2013-08-01

271

Nutritive value of potato processing wastes in total mixed rations for dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nutritive value of wet potato processing waste for dairy cattle was determined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, rations contained, on a dry matter basis, 0, 10, 15, and 20% potato waste and were substituted for high moisture corn in diets for 32 lactating Holstein cows for 12 wk. Substituting potato waste for corn did not significantly affect milk yield, milk composition, milk production persistency, or dry matter intake. Cows fed 20% potato waste tended to decrease in milk fat percent and to shift molar proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids toward a decrease in acetate: propionate ratio. In Experiment 2, six steers were used in a 3 X 3 Latin square design to test digestibility and nitrogen utilization of potato waste substituted for high moisture corn at 0, 10, and 20% of the ration dry matter. A second group of four steers with rumen fistulas were used in a 4 X 4 Latin square to test rumen fermentation parameters. Diets contained 0, 10, 20, and 30% potato wastes and were similar to Experiment 1. Potato waste did not significantly affect digestibility of crude protein or dry matter, but at 20% substitution digestibility of acid detergent fiber decreased. Rumen ammonia, acetate, acetate to propionate ratios, and total volatile fatty acids were lower at high intakes of potato waste and pH was increased. The shift in rumen fermentation when large amounts of potatoes were fed explains the depressed butter fat on these rations.

Onwubuemeli C; Huber JT; King KJ; Johnson CO

1985-05-01

272

Nutritive value of potato processing wastes in total mixed rations for dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritive value of wet potato processing waste for dairy cattle was determined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, rations contained, on a dry matter basis, 0, 10, 15, and 20% potato waste and were substituted for high moisture corn in diets for 32 lactating Holstein cows for 12 wk. Substituting potato waste for corn did not significantly affect milk yield, milk composition, milk production persistency, or dry matter intake. Cows fed 20% potato waste tended to decrease in milk fat percent and to shift molar proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids toward a decrease in acetate: propionate ratio. In Experiment 2, six steers were used in a 3 X 3 Latin square design to test digestibility and nitrogen utilization of potato waste substituted for high moisture corn at 0, 10, and 20% of the ration dry matter. A second group of four steers with rumen fistulas were used in a 4 X 4 Latin square to test rumen fermentation parameters. Diets contained 0, 10, 20, and 30% potato wastes and were similar to Experiment 1. Potato waste did not significantly affect digestibility of crude protein or dry matter, but at 20% substitution digestibility of acid detergent fiber decreased. Rumen ammonia, acetate, acetate to propionate ratios, and total volatile fatty acids were lower at high intakes of potato waste and pH was increased. The shift in rumen fermentation when large amounts of potatoes were fed explains the depressed butter fat on these rations. PMID:3842858

Onwubuemeli, C; Huber, J T; King, K J; Johnson, C O

1985-05-01

273

Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine. PMID:21968538

Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

2011-10-04

274

Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

Zadoks RN; Middleton JR; McDougall S; Katholm J; Schukken YH

2011-12-01

275

Short communication: Genetic analysis of dairy bull fertility from field data of Brown Swiss cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and repeatability of dairy bull fertility in Italian Brown Swiss cattle. Bull fertility indicators were calving per service and nonreturn rate at 56 d after service. Data included 124,206 inseminations carried out by 86 technicians on 28,873 heifers and cows in 1,400 herds. Services were recorded from 1999 to 2008 and were performed with semen from 306 AI Brown Swiss bulls. Data were analyzed with a threshold animal model, which included the fixed effects of parity by class of days in milk of the inseminated cow (age at insemination for heifers), year-season of insemination, and status of the service bull at the time of insemination (progeny testing or proven), and the random effects of herd, technician, additive genetic, and permanent environment of inseminated heifer/cow and service bull, and residual. Also, genetic covariance between heifer/cow and service bull effects was considered in the model. Heritability and repeatability were 0.0079 and 0.0100 for nonreturn rate at 56 d after service, and 0.0153 and 0.0202 for calving per service, respectively. The low estimates obtained in the present study indicate that selection for male fertility using field data is hardly pursuable.

Tiezzi F; Maltecca C; Penasa M; Cecchinato A; Bittante G

2013-08-01

276

Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits.

Boichard D; Grohs C; Bourgeois F; Cerqueira F; Faugeras R; Neau A; Rupp R; Amigues Y; Boscher MY; Levéziel H

2003-01-01

277

Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits. PMID:12605852

Boichard, Didier; Grohs, Cécile; Bourgeois, Florence; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Faugeras, Rémi; Neau, André; Rupp, Rachel; Amigues, Yves; Boscher, Marie Yvonne; Levéziel, Hubert

278

Evolution of the genetic variability of eight French dairy cattle breeds assessed by pedigree analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. PMID:22583325

Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E

2011-10-06

279

Within-group contact of cattle in dairy barns and the implications for disease transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevention, control and reduction of livestock diseases require a good understanding of how the underlying causative agents are transmitted. On livestock premises the rate of spread is strongly determined by the contact, both direct and indirect, between infectious and susceptible individuals. Here we consider contact amongst barn-housed dairy cattle, one of the most important UK livestock sectors. A novel observational study of faecal spread indicates that the level of contact an individual animal can have with other herd members via this transmission pathway is very high (80±4% within sub-units). Additional observational studies indicate the possible level of direct physical contact an animal has with other group members (an approximate Poisson distribution with a mean rate of 14.4 distinct individuals per hour), and the potential for indirect transfer via inanimate objects by considering the proportion of the herd that touched a given gatepost in the milking parlour each day (43±6%). Results suggest that mixing may be considered homogeneous for certain pathogens, but that the spread of diseases transmitted along only specific routes requires the incorporation of within group contact structures.

Kleinlützum D; Weaver G; Schley D

2013-10-01

280

Across breed multi-trait random regression genomic predictions in the Nordic Red dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study evaluates reliability of genomic predictions in selection candidates using multi-trait random regression model, which accounts for interactions between marker effects and breed of origin in the Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC). The population structure of the RDC is admixed. Data consisted of individual animal breed proportions calculated from the full pedigree, deregressed proofs (DRP) of published estimated breeding values (EBV) for yield traits and genotypic data for 37,595 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. The analysed data included 3330 bulls in the reference population and 812 bulls that were used for validation. Direct genomic breeding values (DGV) were estimated using the model under study, which accounts for breed effects and also with GBLUP, which assume uniform population. Validation reliability was calculated as a coefficient of determination from weighted regression of DRP on DGV (rDRP,DGV 2), scaled by the mean reliability of DRP. Using the breed-specific model increased the reliability of DGV by 2 and 3% for milk and protein, respectively, when compared to homogeneous population GBLUP. The exception was for fat, where there was no gain in reliability. Estimated validation reliabilities were low for milk (0.32) and protein (0.32) and slightly higher (0.42) for fat.

Makgahlela ML; Mäntysaari EA; Strandén I; Koivula M; Nielsen US; Sillanpää MJ; Juga J

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Metano entérico de bovinos leiteiros em condições tropicais brasileiras Dairy cattle enteric methane measured in Brazilian tropical conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4) pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6), em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã) adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4) emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or 66 to 72 kg/head/year. Methane emission per digestive dry matter intake (DMDI) varied from 42 to 69 g/kg DMDI for lactating cows, 46 to 56 g/kg for dry cows, 45 to 58 g/kg for heifers grazing fertilized grass and 58 to 62 g/kg for heifers in unfertilized grass pasture. The CH4 emission measured on dairy cattle feeding tropical grasses was higher than that observed for temperate climate conditions.

Odo Primavesi; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi Frighetto; Márcio dos Santos Pedreira; Magda Aparecida de Lima; Telma Teresinha Berchielli; Pedro Franklin Barbosa

2004-01-01

282

Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the Southwestern Iran and detection of cutoff point for NEFA and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is simply a condition marked by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies without the presence of the clinical signs of ketosis. Subclinical ketosis can cause economic losses through decreased milk production and association with preparturient diseases. Limited information is available regarding the prevalence of SCK in dairy herds in Southwestern Iran. The objectives of this study were (i) determination of the cutoff point of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of SCK using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (ii) determination of prevalence of subclinical ketosis in apparently healthy dairy cattle in Southwestern Iran. From October to December 2009, a total of 100 clinically healthy multiparous Holstein cows (3-8 years old) were randomly selected from 16 dairy herds around Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran. The cows had two-six lactations, with body weight ranging from 500 to 650 kg. Blood samples for each cow were taken at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition and 3-4h after the morning feeding. The optimal cutoff point was set, by the ROC method, to >0.26 mmol/L for NEFA, and BHB concentrations higher than 1200 ?mol/L were classified as having SCK. In 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition 63%, 68% and 59% of the tested cows were subclinically ketotic. Overall, 97% of tested cows (97/100) were considered subclinically ketotic in at least one sample period. Thirty percent of tested cows (30/100) suffered from subclinical ketosis in all of the 2, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum. The results suggest that, a cut-off point of 0.26 mmol/L for NEFA concentrations can be used during early lactation for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis and making management decisions for prevention and treatment. Glucose cannot be a good criterion for diagnosis of SCK and it does not appear to be useful for monitoring subclinical ketosis. PMID:21439662

Asl, Ardavan Nowroozi; Nazifi, Saeed; Ghasrodashti, Abbas Rowshan; Olyaee, Ahad

2011-03-25

283

EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC) cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75%) fed rice straw treated with urine (RU) (ad libitum) were divided into two groups (each four heads) to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05) on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d), length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d), efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min) and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min). This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

S. Dartosukarno; F. Iskandar; Purnomoadi

2012-01-01

284

Dairy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat Dairy Listen Low-fat Milk and Yogurt Including sources of dairy in your diet is an easy way to get calcium and high-quality protein. Many dairy products, like non-fat light yogurt, can be ...

285

Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements. PMID:23583492

Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

2013-04-10

286

Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

Liu S; Li CX; Feng XL; Wang HL; Liu HB; Zhi Y; Geng GY; Zhao J; Xu HB

2013-07-01

287

On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes). The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking), avoidance distance, lame-  ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con-  cordance (W). In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64), whereas in dairy cat-  tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59) to high (W = 0.64). Behavioural recordings at milking showed  that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52  to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively). Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for  cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51) to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71), whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo  farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W  = 0.62 and 0.66) and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43), whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In  all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor  (farm) was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P  stepping (P  nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance  (P  that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P  criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms, whereas these two  parameters, albeit feasible, seem to have low significance for buffaloes. Although stepping during milking was reliable  and different among cattle farms, its use in on-farm assessment may be difficult because it is more time consuming, thus  less feasible. 

Fabio Napolitano; Fernando Grasso; Aldo Bordi; Carmela Tripaldi; Federica Saltalamacchia; Corrado Pacelli; Giuseppe De Rosa

2010-01-01

288

Comparative mapping of bovine chromosome 27 with human chromosome 8 near a dairy form QTL in cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the absence of a complete and annotated bovine genome sequence, detailed human-bovine comparative maps are one of the most effective tools for identification of positional candidate genes contributing to quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cattle. In the present study, eight genes from human chromosome 8 were selected for mapping in cattle to improve breakpoint resolution and confirm gene order on the comparative map near the 40 cM region of the BTA27 linkage map where a QTL affecting dairy form had previously been identified. The resulting map identified ADRB3 as a positional candidate gene for the QTL contributing to the dairy form trait based on its estimated position between 40 and 45 cM on the linkage map. It is also a functional candidate gene due to its role in fat metabolism, and polymorphisms in the ADRB3 gene associated with obesity and metabolic disease in humans, as well as, carcass fat in sheep. Further studies are underway to investigate the existence of polymorphisms in the bovine ADRB3 gene and their association with traits related to fat deposition in cattle.

Connor EE; Ashwell MS; Schnabel R; Williams JL

2006-01-01

289

Comparative mapping of bovine chromosome 27 with human chromosome 8 near a dairy form QTL in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the absence of a complete and annotated bovine genome sequence, detailed human-bovine comparative maps are one of the most effective tools for identification of positional candidate genes contributing to quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cattle. In the present study, eight genes from human chromosome 8 were selected for mapping in cattle to improve breakpoint resolution and confirm gene order on the comparative map near the 40 cM region of the BTA27 linkage map where a QTL affecting dairy form had previously been identified. The resulting map identified ADRB3 as a positional candidate gene for the QTL contributing to the dairy form trait based on its estimated position between 40 and 45 cM on the linkage map. It is also a functional candidate gene due to its role in fat metabolism, and polymorphisms in the ADRB3 gene associated with obesity and metabolic disease in humans, as well as, carcass fat in sheep. Further studies are underway to investigate the existence of polymorphisms in the bovine ADRB3 gene and their association with traits related to fat deposition in cattle. PMID:16276096

Connor, E E; Ashwell, M S; Schnabel, R; Williams, J L

2006-01-01

290

The Comparison Effects of Bolus and Dietary Supplements on Production, Milk Compositions and Udder Immune System of Holstein Dairy Cattle  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bolus and dietary supplements on production, fat, protein and SNF of milk and the evaluation of the udder immune system by SCC of Holstein dairy cattle. In this study 2 groups containing 30 cattle were selected with an average of milk production 30±2 kg and the same of the parity and days in milk. Both supplements were the same in composition. Dietary supplement was used in control group as TMR and bolus (2 bolus/cow) were used in the treatment group for 6 months. Milk sample was collected 1 week later from the beginning, 3 and 6 months after the examination for analyzed SCC, milk production, percent of fat, protein and SNF of milk. Results indicated that the treatment group lead to a significant increase of milk production compared to the control group and fat and SNF milk were higher than the control group but it wasn’t significant. Also, between the two groups no significant differences were observed on SCC and milk protein at total sampling. It was concluded that bolus supplement had the same effects with dietary supplement in dairy cattle.

A. Pirestani; S. Eghbalsaeed

2011-01-01

291

Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding strategies; MR1, MR2-E or MR2-L. Cows fed according to the MR1 strategy were allowed one medium energy ration during the whole lactation. Cows on the MR2 strategies were allowed a high energy ration during early lactation, followed by an early (MR2-E) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows into a second period of mobilization, whereas cows continued to gain live weight in response to late reduction of ration energy concentration. In general results from the present experiment indicate that feeding according to live weight can be used to manipulate the extent and the duration of the mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition metabolism. Additionally the results suggest that the transition period from mobilization to deposition is relatively short. Udgivelsesdato: December

Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

2009-01-01

292

A longitudinal study of Besnoitia besnoiti infections and seasonal abundance of Stomoxys calcitrans in a dairy cattle farm of southwest France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is commonly reported in some restricted regions of South-Western Europe, and in larger regions of Africa and Asia. This infection is thought to be transmitted by blood feeding insects and is responsible for major economic losses in cattle production. A recent emergence in Europe, notified in the Centre of France, Spain and Germany, has attracted more attention to this disease. Clinical signs could appear in some animals; however, many infected cattle remain asymptomatic or show scleral-conjunctival cysts (SCC) only. Recent development of serological methods allows carrying out seroepidemiological field studies. In this respect, a long-term investigation was performed in a dairy cattle farm localized in an enzootic area of besnoitiosis of South-western France between March 2008 and May 2009. The objective was to estimate the seasonal pattern of B. besnoiti infections based on the presence of SCC and serology (ELISA and Western blot). In parallel, an entomological survey was conducted to describe population dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanidae species. The seroprevalence determined by Western blot in a cohort of 57 animals continuously present during the whole survey increased from 30% in March 2008 to 89.5% in May 2009 and was always higher than the prevalence based on clinically assessed SCC. New positive B. besnoitia seroconversions occurred throughout the year with the highest number in spring. In addition, many seroconversions were reported in the two months before turn-out and could be associated with a high indoors activity of S. calcitrans during this period.

Liénard E; Salem A; Grisez C; Prévot F; Bergeaud JP; Franc M; Gottstein B; Alzieu JP; Lagalisse Y; Jacquiet P

2011-04-01

293

A longitudinal study of Besnoitia besnoiti infections and seasonal abundance of Stomoxys calcitrans in a dairy cattle farm of southwest France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is commonly reported in some restricted regions of South-Western Europe, and in larger regions of Africa and Asia. This infection is thought to be transmitted by blood feeding insects and is responsible for major economic losses in cattle production. A recent emergence in Europe, notified in the Centre of France, Spain and Germany, has attracted more attention to this disease. Clinical signs could appear in some animals; however, many infected cattle remain asymptomatic or show scleral-conjunctival cysts (SCC) only. Recent development of serological methods allows carrying out seroepidemiological field studies. In this respect, a long-term investigation was performed in a dairy cattle farm localized in an enzootic area of besnoitiosis of South-western France between March 2008 and May 2009. The objective was to estimate the seasonal pattern of B. besnoiti infections based on the presence of SCC and serology (ELISA and Western blot). In parallel, an entomological survey was conducted to describe population dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanidae species. The seroprevalence determined by Western blot in a cohort of 57 animals continuously present during the whole survey increased from 30% in March 2008 to 89.5% in May 2009 and was always higher than the prevalence based on clinically assessed SCC. New positive B. besnoitia seroconversions occurred throughout the year with the highest number in spring. In addition, many seroconversions were reported in the two months before turn-out and could be associated with a high indoors activity of S. calcitrans during this period. PMID:21185653

Liénard, E; Salem, A; Grisez, C; Prévot, F; Bergeaud, J P; Franc, M; Gottstein, B; Alzieu, J P; Lagalisse, Y; Jacquiet, P

2010-11-25

294

Feeding activity of cattle egrets and intermediate egrets at different stages of rice culture in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the feeding efficiency of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and the intermediateegret (Ardea intermedia) in relation to the stage of rice culture during two breeding seasons, 2006 and 2007, in Asan city,Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. Cattle egrets caught mainly small invertebrate prey (insects and spiders, 98.4%)during all stages of rice cultivation, and had a higher prey capture rate in the plowing stage (14.98 prey/min) than inother stages (2.82-3.51 prey/min). Therefore, the biomass intake rate of cattle egrets was highest in the plowing stage.The intermediate egret captured both loaches (43.4%) and small invertebrates (50.6%). The prey capture rates of intermediateegrets increased gradually from the flooding stage (0.38 prey/min) to the planting stage (1.09 prey/min), anddecreased in the growing stage (1.04 prey/min). However, intermediate egrets had the highest biomass intake rates in theplowing stage because more loaches were caught in the plowing stage (0.54 loaches/min) than other stages (0.23-0.36loaches/min). Consequently, both intermediate egrets and cattle egrets had high energy intakes in the plowing stage andrice fields provided an important feeding habitat for both species.

Yu-Seong Choi; Sun-Sook Kim; Jeong-Chil Yoo

2010-01-01

295

Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR BWT and WWT, respectively. Thirty-three of them were located on BTA6. At a less stringent significance level (P BWT, appeared to be controlled by 2 groups of SNP; 1 of them affected the traits in same direction, the other worked in opposite direction. This study provides useful information to further assist the identification of chromosome regions and subsequently genes affecting growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle. PMID:23851991

Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

2013-07-12

296

Aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone in dairy feeds in Portugal, 2009-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents 3 years of data (2009-2011) on the occurrence of two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA), in samples of feedstuff for dairy cows (n = 963), ewes (n = 42), and goats (n = 131) produced in Portugal. AFB1 was found in 15 samples of cow feed (1.6%), 3 samples of ewe feed (2.3%) and in 2 samples of goat feed (4.8%). All but two samples contained AFB1 at levels below the European Union maximum level (5 ?g/kg). Nearly half (45%) of the samples were contaminated with ZEA, but its levels were relatively low, at 5-136.9 ?g/kg, well below the European Union guidance value (500 ?g/kg). PMID:23558778

Almeida, Inês F M; Guerra, M Manuela; Martins, Hermínia Marina L; Costa, José Manuel G; Bernardo, Fernando M A

2013-04-05

297

Aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone in dairy feeds in Portugal, 2009-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents 3 years of data (2009-2011) on the occurrence of two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA), in samples of feedstuff for dairy cows (n = 963), ewes (n = 42), and goats (n = 131) produced in Portugal. AFB1 was found in 15 samples of cow feed (1.6%), 3 samples of ewe feed (2.3%) and in 2 samples of goat feed (4.8%). All but two samples contained AFB1 at levels below the European Union maximum level (5 ?g/kg). Nearly half (45%) of the samples were contaminated with ZEA, but its levels were relatively low, at 5-136.9 ?g/kg, well below the European Union guidance value (500 ?g/kg).

Almeida IF; Guerra MM; Martins HM; Costa JM; Bernardo FM

2013-08-01

298

Transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) from contaminated feed to dairy milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is derived that describes the uptake of PFOS from contaminated feed by cows and its subsequent elimination through the cows' milk. Parameter values of the model were estimated by fitting to experimental data of a cow feeding trial. Model calculations showed that almost all PFOS ingested is excreted through the cows' milk. The elimination rate, however, was low as the estimated half-life in the cow was 56days and it may, thus, take a long time after an initial pollution event to produce PFOS-free milk. The derived model can be used to estimate the transfer of PFOS through the dairy food chain and can be used for comparison of various contamination routes. PMID:23790943

van Asselt, E D; Kowalczyk, J; van Eijkeren, J C H; Zeilmaker, M J; Ehlers, S; Fürst, P; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

2013-04-19

299

Rumination and its relationship to feeding and lying behavior in Holstein dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between rumination and feeding and lying behavior in dairy cows. Rumination time was monitored electronically using HR-Tags (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Feeding time and dry matter intake (DMI) were monitored using Insentec feed bins (Insentec BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands). All measures were collected in 2-h periods for 42 mature Holstein cows for a minimum of 9 d in the early dry period. Pearson correlation was used to describe associations, among 2-h periods within cow, first examining the relationship within a single period, and then modeling how this relationship changes when a lag of 2, 4, or 6h was imposed. Periods when cows spent more time ruminating were associated with lower feeding times and lower DMI (r = -0.71 and r = -0.72, respectively), likely because cows were unable to feed and ruminate simultaneously. The correlations with rumination time changed from negative to positive when lags of 2, 4, and 6h were modeled (r = -0.09, 0.24, and 0.15, and r = -0.16, 0.23, and 0.17 for feeding time and DMI at lags of 2, 4, and 6h, respectively). These results indicate that following periods of high feeding times and intakes, cows spent more time ruminating. This relationship peaks at approximately 4h after feeding. Periods of rumination were also associated with time spent lying down. Cows that spent more time ruminating per day, spent less time feeding (r = -0.34) and rumination times did not relate to DMI (r = 0.11). These data indicate that rumination time can be used to estimate within-cow variation in feeding behavior and intake, but daily summaries of rumination behavior are a poor indicator of DMI.

Schirmann K; Chapinal N; Weary DM; Heuwieser W; von Keyserlingk MA

2012-06-01

300

Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Co-digestion of dairy cattle slurry and industrial meat-processing by-products--effect of ultrasound and hygienization pre-treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaerobic co-digestion of a mixture of industrial animal by-products (ABP) from meat-processing in conjunction with dairy cattle slurry (mixed in a ratio of 1:3; w.w.) was evaluated at 35 °C focusing on methane production and stabilization. Three pre-treatments were applied (1) digestion with no pre-treatment (control), (2) ultrasound, and (3) thermal hygienization (70 °C, 60 min). Methane production potentials (MPP) of the untreated, ultrasound pre-treated and hygienized feed mixtures were 300, 340, and 360 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS) added, as determined in the batch experiments. However, the specific methane productions (SMP) achieved in reactor experiments (hydraulic retention time HRT 21 d, organic loading rate OLR 3.0±0.1 kg VS/m(3) d) were 11±2% (untreated and ultrasound pre-treated) and 22±3% (hygienized) lower than the potentials. Ultrasound with the energy input of 1000 kJ/kg total solids (TS) and hygienization of the ready-made feed were the most suitable pre-treatment modes studied.

Luste S; Heinonen-Tanski H; Luostarinen S

2012-01-01

302

Short communication: genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic parameters were estimated for mobility score and 16 linear type traits of Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Mobility is an overall assessment trait that measures a cow's ability to move, as well as the structure of her feet, pasterns, and legs. Scores from 50 to 99 were assigned by appraisers for the Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of the USA beginning in June 2007. Only scores made before 69 mo of age were used. After edits, 32,710 records were available for 19,472 cows in 819 herds. The model included fixed effects for the interaction of herd and appraisal date (2,109 groups), appraisal age within parity (46 groups), and lactation stage within parity (21 groups), as well as random effects for animal, permanent environment, and residual error. A multi-trait analysis was conducted using canonical transformation, multiple diagonalization, and a decelerated expectation-maximization REML algorithm. Heritability was estimated to be 0.21 for mobility and ranged from 0.06 to 0.37 for the other 16 type traits. The traits with the highest genetic correlation with mobility were final score (0.78), rear legs (rear view; 0.74), rear udder width (0.52), and foot angle (0.51). Predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for mobility was calculated using the Brown Swiss multi-trait type evaluation system but included only appraisals for which all traits had been scored. For the 1,868 bulls evaluated, PTA for mobility ranged from 1.6 to -1.8 with a standard deviation of 0.5 and was most highly correlated with PTA for final score (0.88), rear legs (rear view; 0.77), rear udder height (0.70), and rear udder width (0.69), as expected from the trait correlations. When matched with official US national evaluations from August 2011, PTA mobility had moderately high correlations with PTA for milk, fat, and protein yields, as well as productive life (0.31-0.41). The mobility trait may provide a more accurate assessment of the structural soundness required for longevity than does the feet-legs composite.

Wright JR; Wiggans GR; Muenzenberger CJ; Neitzel RR

2013-04-01

303

Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW) exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9%) by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0%) by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64) and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30) adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

Torres-Gonzalez P; Soberanis-Ramos O; Martinez-Gamboa A; Chavez-Mazari B; Barrios-Herrera MT; Torres-Rojas M; Cruz-Hervert LP; Garcia-Garcia L; Singh M; Gonzalez-Aguirre A; Ponce de Leon-Garduño A; Sifuentes-Osornio J; Bobadilla-Del-Valle M

2013-01-01

304

Can pre-collected register data be used to identify dairy herds with good cattle welfare?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-recorded register data from dairy herds are available in almost all Nordic countries. These databases can be used for research purposes, and one of the research areas is animal welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate if pre-recorded register data could be used to identify herds with good welfare, and to investigate if a combination of register data sets could be used to be able to more correctly distinguish between herds with good welfare and herds with welfare deficiencies. Methods As a first step, nine animal-based measurements on calves, young stock and cows in 55 randomly selected herds were performed on-farm as the basis for a classification of welfare at the herd level. The definition for being a case herd with “good welfare” was no score lying among the 10% worst in any of the nine welfare measurements. Twenty-eight of the 55 herds were cases according to this definition. As a second step, 65 potential welfare indicators, based on register data in a national dairy database, were identified by expert opinion. In the final step, the extent to which the suggested welfare indicators predicted farms’ as having good welfare according to the stated definition was assessed. Moreover, the effect of combining in sequence a previously developed model that identified herds with poor welfare with the present model identifying herds with good welfare was investigated. Results The final set of welfare indicators used to identify herds with good animal welfare included two fertility measures, cow mortality, stillbirth rate, mastitis incidence and incidence of feed-related diseases (including gastrointestinal disturbances but excluding paralyses and cramps). This set had a test sensitivity of correctly classifying herds with no score lying among the 10% worst of the nine welfare measurements of 96 %. However, the specificity of the test was only 56% indicating difficulties for the test to correctly classifying herds with one or more scores lying among the 10% worst. Combining the previously developed model with the present model, improved the welfare classification. Conclusions This study shows that pre-collected register data may be used to give approval to dairy farms with “good welfare” and that combining different sets of register data can improve the classification of herd welfare.

Nyman Ann-Kristin; Lindberg Ann; Sandgren Charlotte

2011-01-01

305

Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested.

Gianola D; Ødegård J; Heringstad B; Klemetsdal G; Sorensen D; Madsen P; Jensen J; Detilleux J

2004-01-01

306

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle in Argentina: comparison of sensitivity and specificity of different detection methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle, which develop in three possible pathological forms: asymptomatic course, persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and lymphosarcoma. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show a serological reaction within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease is based on early diagnostic and segregation of the carriers. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. Although Argentina has over 60 million cattle population, no nationwide studies have been conducted yet to determine the prevalence of the infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection in dairy cattle in Argentina, a survey for specific antibodies in >10,000 serum samples from animals over 18 months old, belonging to 363 different herds from the largest dairy production areas of the country, was carried out in our laboratory, along 1999. For this purpose, we developed an ELISA to detect serum antibodies against the BLV virus. The cut-off of the ELISA was established over 339 serum samples, using polymerase chain reaction and southern blot (PCR-SB) as confirmatory test. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was of 97.2 and 97.5%, respectively, while the local official AGID test showed a sensitivity of 79.7% and specificity of 99.0%. To know the seroprevalence of BLV on dairy herds, and also the incidence of the infection within the herd, the serological survey was based on individual serum samples. The results show that the prevalence of infected individuals is of 32.85%, while the percentage of infected herds, harboring one or more infected animals, is of 84%. These results indicate a medium level of seropositive animals when taken individually, but a high prevalence of infected farms, which has been notoriously increased in the last 15 years as shown when compared with previous data from particular geographic areas, indicating that BLV constitutes a serious sanitary problem for dairy producers in Argentina. They also indicate the poor sensitivity of the official AGID test used in the country.

Trono KG; Pérez-Filgueira DM; Duffy S; Borca MV; Carrillo C

2001-11-01

307

AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING FEED SORTING IN TRANSITION DAIRY COWS FED GLYCEROL  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC). Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR) at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) to yield long (>19 mm), medium (8 mm), short (1.18 mm), and fine particles (19 mm) and reduced (P1.18 mm) and fine particles (0.05) the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm). Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm) according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol) and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol). Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm) in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol) as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol). There was no response (P>0.05) of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm) according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol), but did not (P>0.05) according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm) according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol), but did not (P>0.05) according to the alternative methodology. Feeding prepartum glycerol to transition dairy cows increases the preference for the long-stem forage particles of the diet. The alternative methodology proposed in this study is more reliable than the standard methodology to determine feed sorting.

Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho; Milton Luiz Moreira Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; Heather Muse White; Shawn Scott Donkin

2010-01-01

308

Molecular basis of structural makeup of hulless barley in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle: A novel approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To date, no study has been done of molecular structures in relation to nutrient degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to (1) reveal molecular structures of hulless barley affected by structural alteration using molecular spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) as a novel approach, and (2) quantify structure features on a molecular basis in relation to digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in cattle. The modeled feeds in this study were 4 types of hulless barley (HB) cultivars modified in starch traits: (a) normal starch cultivar, (b) zero-amylose waxy, (c) waxy, and (d) high-amylose. The molecular structural features were determined using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (ca. 4,000-800 cm(-1)) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The items assessed included infrared intensity attributed to protein amide I (ca. 1,715-1,575 cm(-1)), amide II (ca. 1,575-1,490 cm(-1)), ?-helix (ca. 1,648-1,660 cm(-1)), ?-sheet (ca. 1,625-1,640 cm(-1)), and their ratio, ?-glucan (ca. 1,445-1,400 cm(-1)), total carbohydrates (CHO; ca. 1,188-820 cm(-1)) and their 3 major peaks, structural carbohydrates (ca. 1,277-1,190 cm(-1)), and ratios of amide I to II and amide I to CHO. The results show that (1) the zero-amylose waxy was the greatest in amide I and II peak areas, as well as in the ratio of protein amide I to CHO among HB; (2) ?-helix-to-?-sheet ratio differed among HB: the high-amylose was the greatest, the zero-amylose waxy and waxy were the intermediate, and the normal starch was the lowest; (3) HB were similar in ?-glucan and CHO molecular structural makeup; (4) altered starch HB cultivars were similar to each other, but were different from the normal starch cultivar in protein molecular makeup; and (5) the rate and extent of rumen degradation of starch and protein were highly related to the molecular structural makeup of HB. In conclusion, the molecular structural makeup on a molecular basis was related to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle. The alteration of starch structure in barley grain affects starch structure and the magnitude of protein and ?-glucan contents, as well as the protein molecular structure of HB.

Damiran D; Yu P

2011-10-01

309

Potential for Conversion of Agrosilvopastoral Systems of Dairy Cattle to the Organic Production Model in South Eastern Mexico  

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Full Text Available In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in Southeastern Mexico, traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production have great potential for conversion to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the potential of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. Researchers studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives): RPS Grijalva (RPS-G: n = 35), RPS Pomarroza (RPS-P: n = 22) and RPS Malpaso (RPS-M: n = 18). For this, researchers used as a guide the multi-criteria methodology of the Organic Livestock Proximity Index (OLPI) proposed by Mena adapting it to suit the purposes. In the current study, researchers designed a new OLPI with 35 variables which integrate 10 indicators. Information was obtained through direct observation and a questionnaire applied to producers. Statistical analysis of the results of 10 indicators used did not show significant differences among rural production societies. The same was true for the organic conversion index (p>0.05: RPS-G = 62.5%; RPS-M = 63.4% and RPS-P = 64.6%). The data suggest that all cattle farms need to substantially improve veterinary care, safety of milking, quality of milk and dairy products, ecological management and sustainable grassland management. In general, producers of the three rural production societies should be trained in a variety of organic cattle production and management techniques so that cattle farms may achieve a closer approximation to the organic model of production and thus may be certified.

J. Nahed-Toral; B. Sanchez-Munoz; Y. Mena; J. Ruiz-Rojas; R. Aguilar-Jimenez; J. Ma. Castel; F. de Asis Ruiz; M. Orantes-Zebadua; A. Manzur-Cruz; J. Cruz-Lopez; C. Delgadillo-Puga

2012-01-01

310

Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase in the annual genetic gain of 2.1% when used on the best CD and 2.7% when used on all heifers, but only the latter was statistically significant. The increased annual genetic gain was caused by a larger contribution from the CD to the BD. Use of sexed semen together with MOET on BD increased the annual genetic gain by 1.8–2.5% compared with schemes without sexed semen and MOET on all BD. Performing MOET on all BD enables selection of offspring with high Mendelian deviations, which increase the annual genetic gain. Use of sexed semen decreased the genetic lag between the sires and the CD by 12–14% when used on the best CD and by 6% when used to all heifers. The decrease in the genetic lag is caused by the increased selection intensity of the cow dams

SØrensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard

2011-01-01

311

Genetic Heterogeneity among Strains of Treponema phagedenis-Like Spirochetes Isolated from Dairy Cattle with Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis in Japan ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is an infectious foot disease of cattle that is prevalent throughout the world. Although it has been prevalent in Japan since the first case was reported in 1992, full epidemiological and bacteriological examinations have not been conducted. We collected 91 lesions of PDD from 80 dairy cattle on 12 farms in eight regions of Japan to isolate the spirochetes that are frequently detected in lesions. We isolated 40 strains of spirochetes from 24 cattle (30.0%) by a simple two-step culture technique, in which the biopsy samples were incubated at 4°C for 48 to 72 h in an enrichment broth supplemented with antibiotics, which improved the rate of isolation, and then inoculated on selective agar plates. All spirochetes examined were catalase positive and oxidase negative and showed weak beta-hemolytic activity. Enzyme activities were identical to those of Treponema phagedenis ATCC 27087. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all strains isolated had >99% identity to those of the T. phagedenis type strain and of T. phagedenis-like strains isolated from PDD lesions in the United States and Europe. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR-based random amplified polymorphism DNA methods revealed considerable diversity among strains isolated not only from different cattle but also from the same individuals. These findings may provide further evidence for the role of these treponemes in the pathogenesis of persistent PDD.

Yano, Takahisa; Yamagami, Ryoko; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Chikara; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yoshitani, Kazunori; Ohtake, Osamu; Misawa, Naoaki

2009-01-01

312

Ruminal methane emission by dairy cattle in Southeast Brazil/ Emissão de metano ruminal por bovinos leiteiros no sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Gases gerados durante o processo de fermantação ruminal, metano em particular, representam não só uma perda parcial de energia da alimentação como também são apontados como importantes fatores do efeito-estufa. Quantificaram-se as taxas de emissão de metano (CH4) ruminal por vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas com idade média de 24 meses, em pastejo sob condições tropicais do sudeste brasileiro, utilizando a técnica do gás traçador hexafluoreto de e (more) nxôfre (SF6). Foram utilizados quatro animais para cada categoria, distribuídos em quatro blocos. As medições foram realizadas em fevereiro e junho de 2002, com animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Holandês ¾ x Gir ¼ - Mestiças, mantidos em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) adubadas, e também novilhas de ambas as raças em pastagens de capim-brachiaria sem adubação, simulando as condições de produção extensiva. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. Foram encontradas diferenças na emissão de metano (p Abstract in english Ruminal gases, particularly methane, generated during the fermentative process in rumen, represent a partial loss of feed energy and are also pointed to as an important factors in greenhouse effect. This study aimed at quantifying methane (CH4) emission rates from lactating and dry cows and heifers, 24 month-old in average, on pasture under Southeast Brazil tropical conditions, using the tracer gas technique, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), four animals per category, distribu (more) ted in four blocks. Measurements were performed in February and June, 2002, with Holstein and Brazilian Dairy Crossbred (Holstein ¾ x Gir (Zebu) ¼), maintained on fertilized Tanzania-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) and fertilized Brachiaria-grass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk) pastures. Heifers of both breeds were maintained on unfertilized Brachiaria-grass to simulate conditions of extensive cattle farming systems. CH4 and SF6 levels were measured with gas chromatography. Differences in CH4 emissions were measured (p

Pedreira, Márcio dos Santos; Primavesi, Odo; Lima, Magda Aparecida; Frighetto, Rosa; Oliveira, Simone Gisele de; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha

2009-12-01

313

Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná  

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Full Text Available Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12%) samples were seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26%) samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was observed between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.Foram analisadas, por meio da imunofluorescência indireta, 385 amostras de soros de vacas, pertencentes a 90 propriedades leiteiras de 12 municípios da região Norte do estado do Paraná. Foram observados 45 (12%) sororeagentes ao Neospora caninum e 102 (26%) ao Toxoplasma gondii. Apenas quatro animais apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para ambos os coccídios. Não foi observada diferença significativa na associação entre a sorologia do N. caninum e as variáveis relacionadas ao manejo, produção de leite, problemas reprodutivos, alimentação, presença de cães, gatos e roedores. Os resultados sugerem que neosporose e toxoplasmose estão disseminadas nos rebanhos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná, e a freqüência simultânea de anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii, demonstra sua ocorrência independente em vacas leiteiras.

L. Ogawa; R.L. Freire; O. Vidotto; L.F.P. Gondim; I.T. Navarro

2005-01-01

314

Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil/ Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram analisadas, por meio da imunofluorescência indireta, 385 amostras de soros de vacas, pertencentes a 90 propriedades leiteiras de 12 municípios da região Norte do estado do Paraná. Foram observados 45 (12%) sororeagentes ao Neospora caninum e 102 (26%) ao Toxoplasma gondii. Apenas quatro animais apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para ambos os coccídios. Não foi observada diferença significativa na associação entre a sorologia do N. caninum e as variáveis (more) relacionadas ao manejo, produção de leite, problemas reprodutivos, alimentação, presença de cães, gatos e roedores. Os resultados sugerem que neosporose e toxoplasmose estão disseminadas nos rebanhos leiteiros da região Norte do estado do Paraná, e a freqüência simultânea de anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii, demonstra sua ocorrência independente em vacas leiteiras. Abstract in english Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12%) samples were seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26%) samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was obser (more) ved between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.

Ogawa, L.; Freire, R.L.; Vidotto, O.; Gondim, L.F.P.; Navarro, I.T.

2005-06-01

315

Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count for jersey dairy cattle in zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0.44, and 0.08, respectively. The corresponding repeatability estimates were 0.39, 0.38, 0.39, 0.49, 0.51, and 0.16, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between different production traits ranged from -0.86 to 0.95 and from -0.88 to 0.98, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits and Log10SCC were weak almost nonsignificantly differentl from zero. The results imply that milk traits for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe are more heritable. Therefore, these traits may be preferred by breeders as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme.

Missanjo E; Imbayarwo-Chikosi V; Halimani T

2013-01-01

316

Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count for jersey dairy cattle in zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0.44, and 0.08, respectively. The corresponding repeatability estimates were 0.39, 0.38, 0.39, 0.49, 0.51, and 0.16, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between different production traits ranged from -0.86 to 0.95 and from -0.88 to 0.98, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits and Log10SCC were weak almost nonsignificantly differentl from zero. The results imply that milk traits for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe are more heritable. Therefore, these traits may be preferred by breeders as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme. PMID:23956868

Missanjo, Edward; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio; Halimani, Tinyiko

2013-07-11

317

[Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813

Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

2008-09-01

318

[Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection.

Signoretti RD; Veríssimo CJ; De Souza FH; Garcia Tda S; De Oliveira EM; De Souza KG; Mourão GB

2008-09-01

319

Toxicosis in cattle from concurrent feeding of monensin and dried distiller's grains contaminated with macrolide antibiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consumption of monensin-containing feed contaminated with macrolide antibiotic residues resulted in the death of cattle from multiple feedlots in south-central Kansas. Cattle were fed milo dried distiller's grains (DDG) with solubles from a common source in conjunction with the ionophore antibiotic, monensin. Deaths occurred as early as 72-96 hours after feeding and were preceded by either no premonitory signs or 1 or more of the following: anorexia, depression, dyspnea, locomotor deficits, and recumbency. Significant gross lesions were pulmonary and mesenteric edema, hepatomegaly, and generalized myocardial and skeletal muscle pallor that was confirmed histologically as acute myodegeneration and necrosis. Other significant histologic lesions included centrolobular hepatocellular necrosis, congestion, and pulmonary interstitial and alveolar edema with fibrin exudation. Animals that survived beyond 6 weeks had poor weight gain and coalescing foci of myocardial fibrosis with residual myocardial degeneration. Analysis of trace mineral supplements for monensin were within the manufacturer's label range. The DDG samples from affected feedlots had 50-1,500 ppm of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and related macrolide antibiotic analogues, which originated in the alcohol residue. In a preliminary feeding trial, cattle fed this contaminated DDG in combination with monensin had clinical signs and died with gross and histologic findings comparable to those of the field cases. Even though rations supplemented with the contaminated DDG contained approved levels of monensin, the clinical and postmortem findings were consistent with those expected for monensin toxicosis. The presence of macrolide antibiotic residues in the contaminated feed appeared to affect the biotransformation of otherwise nontoxic levels of monensin, leading to clinical ionophore toxicosis.

Basaraba RJ; Oehme FW; Vorhies MW; Stokka GL

1999-01-01

320

Molecular Detection and Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Cattle at a Dairy Farm in the Nkonkobe Region of South Africa: A Pilot Study  

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred samples (100 mL each) were obtained from a dairy farm in the Nkonkobe region of Sou...

Silaigwana, Blessing; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and water buffaloes and associated abortions in the plateau of Southern Peninsular India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular India by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of Neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. Out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and organized herds, respectively. The cattle screened were of upgraded Holstein-Friesian and water buffaloes were of graded Surti breed. Significantly (p peninsular India among cattle and water buffaloes and a strong association between the seroprevalence and abortion. PMID:22644733

Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Raghavendra, A G; Honnappa, T G; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

2012-05-30

322

Prevalence of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in a survey of dairy cattle in Najaf, Iraq  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. VTEC has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VETEC in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in Najaf, Iraq."nMaterials and Methods: 326 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were collected for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC isolates. Non-sorbitol fermentation, enterohemolysin phenotype, and slide agglutination with antisera were used for screening and detection of these serotypes."nResults: Nineteen (5.8%) non-sorbitol fermenting and 3 (0.9%) enterohemolysin-producing E. coli were obtained. Only 9 were agglutinated with available antisera and none of them belonged to the O157:H7 serotype. Three were found to be verotoxin positive on Vero cell monolayers. These included serotype O111 (2 isolates) and serotype O128 (1 isolate). All three VTEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. Two exhibited adherence phenotype on HEp-2 cells."nConclusion: E. coli O157:H7 serotype is not prevalent in diarrheic dairy calves, and VTEC is not a frequent cause of diarrhea in calves in Najaf/ Iraq.

A Al-Charrakh; A Al-Muhana

2010-01-01

323

Progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) as a tool in dairy cattle breeding management in Southern Luzon pilot-villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progesterone hormone is a key indicator of ovarian activity in both human and animal systems. This attribute makes the hormone (as conjugated with a protein carrier, BSA) and ideal ligand for antibody production which serves as the basis for the development of immunoassay kits, such as radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. This study shows on -field application of progesterone RIA : liquid- (LPRIA) and solid-phase (SPRIA) techniques, for monitoring and evaluating reproductive performance of dairy cattle under smallholder management in Laguna (n=67; in 8 villages in Sta. Cruz and 1 village in Pagsinjan), and Quezon (n=36): Bgy. Concepcion, Sariaya). Fat-free milk/serum samples are collected on the day of breeding and on the third week (day 19-23) after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating to diagnose the reproductive success of each cow. With an envisioned integrated network mechanism of sample collection in collaboration with the dairy farmers, efficient transport by land/air, and centralized laboratory analysis, this sensitive and reliable nuclear technique, having distinct advantages over other clinical methods currently used, can shorten calving intervals thus improving reproductive efficiency of the cows and our local dairy industry. (author)

1996-01-01

324

Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

1999-01-01

325

Botulismo em bovinos leiteiros no Sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil/ Botulism in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimentadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, rumi (more) nal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença. Abstract in english An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and s (more) oroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.

Costa, Geraldo Márcio da; Salvador, Sandro César; Pereira, Marcos Neves

2008-10-01

326

Botulismo em bovinos leiteiros no Sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil Botulism in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimentadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença.An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.

Geraldo Márcio da Costa; Sandro César Salvador; Marcos Neves Pereira

2008-01-01

327

Host selection by Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus feeding on cattle in Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the Zambezi valley, mosquito females of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected from a hut containing pairs of cattle distinguishable by known DNA markers. DNA was extracted from the blood-fed mosquito abdomens and primer sets for ungulate and mosquito DNA loci were used to identify the mosquito sibling species and individual host source(s) of their bloodmeals. The 67 mosquitoes comprised a mixture of An. arabiensis Patton (31%) and An. quadriannulatus Theobald (69%). DNA from one or both of the cattle present in the hut was detected in 91% of samples. When the hut contained an adult and a calf, the percentage of bloodmeals from the adult, the calf and adult + calf were 58%, 27% and 15%, respectively; the trend towards meals from the adult host was consistent but not always significant. When the pair of cattle comprised two adults of roughly equal size and age, then mosquitoes generally showed no significant bias towards feeding from one individual. There was no significant difference in the pattern of host selection made by An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus but the former had a significantly higher percentage (20%) of mixed meals than An. quadriannulatus (9%). These two members of the An. gambiae complex appear to be less selective in their choice of cattle hosts compared to day-active Diptera such as tsetse and Stomoxys, possibly because the hosts are generally asleep when Anopheles are active and there is therefore less selective pressure to adapt to host defensive behaviour. The slight bias of Anopheles towards older and/or larger cattle may be related to the host's larger surface area.

Prior A; Torr SJ

2002-06-01

328

ARISA analysis of ruminal bacterial community dynamics in lactating dairy cows during the feeding cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bovine rumen undergoes substantial changes in environmental conditions during the animal's feeding cycle, but the effects of these changes on microbial populations have not been examined systematically. Two dairy cows fed a mixed forage/concentrate ration at 12 h intervals over 4 feeding cycles displayed substantial changes in ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of solid- and liquid-associated bacterial populations in samples collected at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding revealed a high degree of bacterial diversity. A total of 155 different amplicon lengths (ALs) were detected across all 83 samples, and 11-74 detected per sample. A substantial proportion (11%) of the ALs was detected in one cow but not in the other. The proportions of ALs that were detected only in the liquid phase or the solid phase were 13.5% and 1.9%, respectively. Correspondence analysis indicated that bacterial community composition differed between cows and between solid or liquid phases, but overall the solid-associated population displayed less change in composition within and across feeding cycles. The data support the notion that cows fed the same diets can have substantial differences in bacterial community composition, and that the solids-associated (biofilm) communities display greater stability than do associated planktonic communities.

Welkie DG; Stevenson DM; Weimer PJ

2010-04-01

329

Investigating a dilution effect between somatic cell count and milk yield and estimating milk production losses in Irish dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased somatic cell counts (SCC) are associated with reduced milk yield. Additionally, it has been hypothesized that as milk yield increases, SCC is diluted in cattle without an intramammary infection (IMI). If the hypothesis is correct, estimates of SCC from high-yielding cattle without an IMI are likely to be lower than those from low-yielding cattle without an IMI. The objectives of this paper were to investigate the presence of a potential dilution effect between SCC and milk yield, overall and by parity, and to estimate lactation milk production losses with increasing SCC in Irish dairy cattle. The data consisted of 100 randomly selected herds from all milk recording herds between 2008 and 2010. The data set comprised 8,229 cows, of which approximately 90% were Holstein or Holstein crossbred animals. Various adjustments were used to investigate the presence of a potential dilution effect between SCC and milk yield; additionally, lactation milk production losses with increasing SCC and parity were estimated. The data had an inherent hierarchical structure, with lactations nested within cows and cows within herds; thus, a linear mixed model with 2 random effects was used. We found no evidence of a dilution effect of SCC with increasing milk yield in Irish dairy cattle. Average milk production losses were estimated, and they increased with increasing SCC compared with the referent of ? 50,000 cells/mL. Additionally, for all SCC values for parities 1 to 3, this production loss increased significantly with increasing parity. Estimated milk losses for parities 4 and 5 did not differ, and differences between parities 3 and 4 were significant only for SCC values <300,000 cells/mL. The estimated milk loss with increasing SCC varies greatly across studies, with the results from the current study exceeding most previously published results (except for results from the UK). Several factors could explain these differences, including geographic factors such as milk yield and predominant mastitis pathogens. The dilution effect warrants further work, as does the effect of prior duration of increased SCC on milk yield and the potential for compensation of milk yield losses over a lactation.

Boland F; O'Grady L; More SJ

2013-03-01

330

Parity-dependent association between TNF-? and LTF gene polymorphisms and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One major problem in dairy cattle husbandry is the prevalence of udder infections. In today's breeding programmes, top priority is being given to making animal evaluation more cost-effective and reliable and less time-consuming. We proposed tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), lactoferrin (LTF) and macrophage-expressed lysozyme (mLYZ) genes as potential DNA markers in the improvement of immunity to mastitis.This study included 588 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows kept on one farm located in the north-western region of Poland. All clinical cases of mastitis in the herd under study were recorded by a qualified veterinarian employed by the farm. The following indicators were applied to determine udder immunity to mastitis in the cows under study: morbidity rate (MR), duration of mastitis (DM) and extent of mastitis (EM). TNF-?, mLYZ and LTF genotypes were identified by real-time PCR method, using SimpleProbe technology. Due to the very low frequency of mLYZ allele T, the gene was excluded from further analysis.A statistical analysis of associations between TNF-? and LTF genes and immunity to mastitis were performed using three models: 1) a parity-averaged model including only additive effects of the genes; 2) a parity-averaged model including both additive and epistatic effects of the genes; and 3) a parity-specific model including only additive effects of the genes. RESULTS: With the first and second models it was revealed that the genes effects on the applied indicators of immunity to mastitis were non-significant whereas with the third one the effects were found to be statistically significant. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that the effects of TNF-? and LTF varied depending on age (parity). The alleles which were linked to high immunity to mastitis in lower parities appeared to be less favourable in higher parities. CONCLUSIONS: These interactions might be related to inflamm-ageing, that is an increased susceptibility to infection due to immune system deregulation that progresses with age. Such pattern of interactions makes it impossible to use the genes in question in marker-assisted selection aimed at reducing heritable susceptibility to mastitis. This is because the immune mechanisms behind resistance to infections proved to be too complex.

Wojdak-Maksymiec K; Szyda J; Strabel T

2013-01-01

331

Efficacy of systemic ceftiofur as a therapy for severe clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of intramuscular administration of ceftiofur to reduce the incidence of case-related death and culling following severe clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cattle. A total of 104 cows with severe clinical mastitis (systemic signs) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Immediately after detection of the case, one group was administered 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur intramuscularly, and the dose repeated at 24-h intervals for a total of five doses. The second group of cows did not receive systemic antibacterial therapy. Additionally, all cows in both treatment groups received intramammary pirlimycin (Pirsue) in the affected quarter every 24 h for a total of up to three doses. Also at the onset of the case, all cows on the trial were administered a supportive therapeutic regimen of fluids and anti-inflammatory agents that varied from farm to farm, but was standard within each herd at the discretion of the herd manager and veterinarian. Of all cases 14/104 (13.5%) resulted in a lost cow (died or culled). The proportion of cases that resulted in a lost cow and were treated with ceftiofur (4/51; 7.8%) did not statistically differ from cows that were not treated with ceftiofur (10/53; 18.9%). However, the proportion of cases that resulted in lost cows was higher for those cases that yielded a coliform organism on culture (14/56; 25.0%) than cases that did not yield coliforms (0/48; 0.0%; P < 0.001). Thus, among coliform cases, cows that were not treated with ceftiofur were more likely to be culled or die (10/27, 37.0%; P < 0.05) than cows treated with ceftiofur (4/29, 13.8%). We conclude that intramuscular administration of ceftiofur did not affect the outcome of severe clinical mastitis when all etiologic agents are included in the analysis. However, for severe clinical mastitis cases caused by coliform organisms, ceftiofur therapy reduced the proportion of cases that resulted in cow death or culling. This benefit may be realized because of the amelioration of bacteremic-related pathogenesis.

Erskine RJ; Bartlett PC; VanLente JL; Phipps CR

2002-10-01

332

Predicted accuracy of and response to genomic selection for new traits in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genomic selection relaxes the requirement of traditional selection tools to have phenotypic measurements on close relatives of all selection candidates. This opens up possibilities to select for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure. The objectives of this paper were to predict accuracy of and response to genomic selection for a new trait, considering that only a cow reference population of moderate size was available for the new trait, and that selection simultaneously targeted an index and this new trait. Accuracy for and response to selection were deterministically evaluated for three different breeding goals. Single trait selection for the new trait based only on a limited cow reference population of up to 10 000 cows, showed that maximum genetic responses of 0.20 and 0.28 genetic standard deviation (s.d.) per year can be achieved for traits with a heritability of 0.05 and 0.30, respectively. Adding information from the index based on a reference population of 5000 bulls, and assuming a genetic correlation of 0.5, increased genetic response for both heritability levels by up to 0.14 genetic s.d. per year. The scenario with simultaneous selection for the new trait and the index, yielded a substantially lower response for the new trait, especially when the genetic correlation with the index was negative. Despite the lower response for the index, whenever the new trait had considerable economic value, including the cow reference population considerably improved the genetic response for the new trait. For scenarios with a zero or negative genetic correlation with the index and equal economic value for the index and the new trait, a reference population of 2000 cows increased genetic response for the new trait with at least 0.10 and 0.20 genetic s.d. per year, for heritability levels of 0.05 and 0.30, respectively. We conclude that for new traits with a very small or positive genetic correlation with the index, and a high positive economic value, considerable genetic response can already be achieved based on a cow reference population with only 2000 records, even when the reliability of individual genomic breeding values is much lower than currently accepted in dairy cattle breeding programs. New traits may generally have a negative genetic correlation with the index and a small positive economic value. For such new traits, cow reference populations of at least 10 000 cows may be required to achieve acceptable levels of genetic response for the new trait and for the whole breeding goal.

Calus MP; de Haas Y; Pszczola M; Veerkamp RF

2013-02-01

333

Short communication: relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Call rates on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) basis and an animal basis are used as measures of data quality and as screening tools for genomic studies and evaluations of dairy cattle. To investigate the relationship of SNP call rate and genotype accuracy for individual SNP, the correlation between percentages of missing genotypes and parent-progeny conflicts for each SNP was calculated for 103,313 Holsteins. Correlations ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 for the BovineSNP50 and BovineLD (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (Neogen Corp., Lincoln, NE) chips, with lower correlations for newer chips. For US genomic evaluations, genotypes are excluded for animals with a call rate of <90% across autosomal SNP or <80% across X-specific SNP. Mean call rate for 220,175 Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss genotypes was 99.6%. Animal genotypes with a call rate of ?99% were examined from the US Department of Agriculture genotype database to determine how genotype call rate is related to accuracy of calls on an animal basis. Animal call rate was determined from SNP used in genomic evaluation and is the number of called autosomal and X-specific SNP genotypes divided by the number of SNP from that type of chip. To investigate the relationship of animal call rate and parentage validation, conflicts between a genotyped animal and its sire or dam were determined through a duo test (opposite homozygous SNP genotypes between sire and progeny; 1,374 animal genotypes) and a trio test (also including conflicts with dam and heterozygous SNP genotype for the animal when both parents are the same homozygote; 482 animal genotypes). When animal call rate was ? 80%, parentage validation was no longer reliable with the duo test. With the trio test, parentage validation was no longer reliable when animal call rate was ? 90%. To investigate how animal call rate was related to genotyping accuracy for animals with multiple genotypes, concordance between genotypes for 1,216 animals that had a genotype with a call rate of ? 99% (low call rate) as well as a genotype with a call rate of >99% (high call rate) were calculated by dividing the number of identical SNP genotype calls by the number of SNP that were called for both genotypes. Mean concordance between low- and high-call genotypes was >99% for a low call rate of >90% but decreased to 97% for a call rate of 86 to 90% and to 58% for a call rate of <60%. Edits on call rate reduce the use of incorrect SNP genotypes to calculate genomic evaluations.

Cooper TA; Wiggans GR; VanRaden PM

2013-05-01

334

Joint genomic evaluation of French dairy cattle breeds using multiple-trait models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a multi-breed reference population might be a way of increasing the accuracy of genomic breeding values in small breeds. Models involving mixed-breed data do not take into account the fact that marker effects may differ among breeds. This study was aimed at investigating the impact on accuracy of increasing the number of genotyped candidates in the training set by using a multi-breed reference population, in contrast to single-breed genomic evaluations. Methods Three traits (milk production, fat content and female fertility) were analyzed by genomic mixed linear models and Bayesian methodology. Three breeds of French dairy cattle were used: Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande with 2976, 950 and 970 bulls in the training population, respectively and 964, 222 and 248 bulls in the validation population, respectively. All animals were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 array. Accuracy of genomic breeding values was evaluated under three scenarios for the correlation of genomic breeding values between breeds (rg): uncorrelated (1), rg = 0; estimated rg (2); high, rg = 0.95 (3). Accuracy and bias of predictions obtained in the validation population with the multi-breed training set were assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2) and by the regression coefficient of daughter yield deviations of validation bulls on their predicted genomic breeding values, respectively. Results The genetic variation captured by the markers for each trait was similar to that estimated for routine pedigree-based genetic evaluation. Posterior means for rg ranged from ?0.01 for fertility between Montbéliarde and Normande to 0.79 for milk yield between Montbéliarde and Holstein. Differences in R2 between the three scenarios were notable only for fat content in the Montbéliarde breed: from 0.27 in scenario (1) to 0.33 in scenarios (2) and (3). Accuracies for fertility were lower than for other traits. Conclusions Using a multi-breed reference population resulted in small or no increases in accuracy. Only the breed with a small data set and large genetic correlation with the breed with a large data set showed increased accuracy for the traits with moderate (milk) to high (fat content) heritability. No benefit was observed for fertility, a lowly heritable trait.

Karoui Sofiene; Carabaño María Jesús; Díaz Clara; Legarra Andrés

2012-01-01

335

Shotgun proteomic analysis of plasma from dairy cattle suffering from footrot: characterization of potential disease-associated factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plasma proteome of healthy dairy cattle and those with footrot was investigated using a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. In total, 648 proteins were identified in healthy plasma samples, of which 234 were non-redundant proteins and 123 were high-confidence proteins; 712 proteins were identified from footrot plasma samples, of which 272 were non-redundant proteins and 138 were high-confidence proteins. The high-confidence proteins showed significant differences between healthy and footrot plasma samples in molecular weight, isoelectric points and the Gene Ontology categories. 22 proteins were found that may differentiate between the two sets of plasma proteins, of which 16 potential differential expression (PDE) proteins from footrot plasma involved in immunoglobulins, innate immune recognition molecules, acute phase proteins, regulatory proteins, and cell adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins; 6 PDE proteins from healthy plasma involved in regulatory proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and coagulation factors. Of these PDE proteins, haptoglobin, SERPINA10 protein, afamin precursor, haptoglobin precursor, apolipoprotein D, predicted peptidoglycan recognition protein L (PGRP-L) and keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KS-PG) were suggested to be potential footrot-associated factors. The PDE proteins PGRP-L and KS-PG were highlighted as potential biomarkers of footrot in cattle. The resulting protein lists and potential differentially expressed proteins may provide valuable information to increase understanding of plasma protein profiles in cattle and to assist studies of footrot-associated factors.

Sun D; Zhang H; Guo D; Sun A; Wang H

2013-01-01

336

Transmission and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, environment, and workers in dairy cattle farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the presence and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in milk, farm environment, and farmers on 22 dairy cattle farms in Korea during 2008-2009. Genetic relatedness among the MRSA isolates was also investigated. Of 1146 samples examined, 35 of 559 (6.3%) quarter milk samples from 371 cows, four of 86 (4.7%) hand and nose samples from 43 farmers, and 6 of 501 (1.2%) farm environment samples were MRSA positive. Except for three isolates, all MRSA were classified into ST72-spa t324-SCCmec IV with PVL negative, the most predominant clonal type among community-associated MRSA in South Korea. All 35 MRSA-positive milk samples from 19 cows were obtained from a single farm (Farm G) out of 22 (4.5%) farms tested. The farm G was revisited 1 year later and milk samples were collected for examination of MRSA again. Two of six previous MRSA-positive cattle that had been kept on the farm still harbored MRSA genetically identical to MRSA strains, which were isolated from the same farm a year ago. The results of this study provide the evidence of transmission of MRSA among cattle, farm environment, and farmers and also long-term persistence of MRSA in animals.

Lim SK; Nam HM; Jang GC; Lee HS; Jung SC; Kim TS

2013-08-01

337

Statistical genetic studies on cattle breeding for dairy productivity in Bangladesh. I. Genetic improvement for milk performance of local cattle populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic parameters for dairy performance traits were estimated, breeding values for the traits of all breeding sires and cows were predicted and the genetic trends were estimated using the breeding values in the Central Cattle Breeding Station (CCBS). A total of 3,801 records for Bangladeshi Local, 756 records for Red Sindhi and 959 records for Sahiwal covering the period from 1961 to 1997 were used in this analysis. Traits considered were total milk production per lactation (TLP), lactation length (LL) and daily milk yield (DMY). The genetic parameters were estimated by the REML using MTDFREML program. The breeding values were predicted by a best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). In all sets of data, the genetic trends for the dairy performance traits were computed as averages of breeding values for cows born in the particular year. The estimates of heritability for TLP (0.26 and 0.27) and DMY (0.28 and 0.27) were moderate in Bangladeshi local and Red Sindhi breed, respectively. Furthermore, the heritability estimate for LL (0.24) was moderate in Red Sindhi. The estimates of heritabilities for all traits were low in Sahiwal. The repeatability estimate was high for TLP, moderate for LL and moderate to high for DMY. All variances estimated in Bangladeshi Local were low, comparing the respective values estimated in both Red Sindhi and Sahiwal. On the other hand, additive genetic variances for the three traits were estimated very low in Sahiwal. The genetic trends for the three dairy production traits have not been positive except for the recent trend in Bangladeshi Local.

Hossain KB; Takayanagi S; Miyake T; Moriya K; Bhuiyan AKFH; Sasaki Y

2002-05-01

338

Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinic...

Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

339

The Milking Profile of Dairy Cattle Farms in Central Macedonia (Greece)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights of the profile of the dairy farms of Central Macedonia (Greece), in terms of their milking practices. The analysis is based on data from a random sample of 123 dairy farms, obtained by means of a survey. The employment of the Categorical Principal Com...

Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Athanasios Ragkos; Vasilios Dotas; Vasilios Skapetas; Vasilios Bambidis; Vasiliki Lagka; Zaphiris Abas

340

Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses-based LF to TMR can be used to decrease feed sorting, enhance DMI, and improve milk yield.

DeVries TJ; Gill RM

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Estimation of (co)variances for genomic regions of flexible sizes: application to complex infectious udder diseases in dairy cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related traits such as mammary disease traits in dairy cattle. METHODS: Data on progeny means of six traits related to mastitis resistance in dairy cattle (general mastitis resistance and five pathogen-specific mastitis resistance traits) were analyzed using a bivariate Bayesian SNP-based genomic model with a common prior distribution for the marker allele substitution effects and estimation of the hyperparameters in this prior distribution from the progeny means data. From the Markov chain Monte Carlo samples of the allele substitution effects, genomic (co)variances were calculated on a whole-genome level, per chromosome, and in regions of 100 SNP on a chromosome. RESULTS: Genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits. Genomic correlations were lower than pedigree-based genetic correlations and they were highest between general mastitis and pathogen-specific traits because of the part-whole relationship between these traits. The chromosome-wise genomic proportions of the total variance differed between traits, with some chromosomes explaining higher or lower values than expected in relation to chromosome size. Few chromosomes showed pleiotropic effects and only chromosome 19 had a clear effect on all traits, indicating the presence of QTL with a general effect on mastitis resistance. The region-wise patterns of genomic variances differed between traits. Peaks indicating QTL were identified but were not very distinctive because a common prior for the marker effects was used. There was a clear difference in the region-wise patterns of genomic correlation among combinations of traits, with distinctive peaks indicating the presence of pleiotropic QTL. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to estimate, genome-wide and region-wise genomic (co)variances of mastitis resistance traits in dairy cattle using multivariate genomic models.

Sørensen LP; Janss L; Madsen P; Mark T; Lund MS

2012-01-01

342

Estimation of (co)variances for genomic regions of flexible sizes : application to complex infectious udder diseases in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related traits such as mammary disease traits in