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The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the golden hamster model A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis no modelo golden hamster  

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Full Text Available New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in this model.Novas alternativas terapêuticas contra a leishmaniose são ainda uma prioridade. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Leishmania major foi anteriormente demonstrada. Diferentes respostas entre as espécies de Leishmania fazem com que um screening de drogas específicas para espécies seja necessário. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis foi avaliada em Golden hamsters infectados a través de injeções de promastigotas metacíclicas e comparando com controles sem tratamento e animais tratados com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina. Foram analisadas a espessura da pata, a cultura das lesões e disseminação para órgãos internos. A azitromicina oral em dose de 450mg/kg não teve atividade contra a infecção por Leishmania ( Leishmania amazonensis. Para infecções devidas à Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, a azitromicina teve uma atividade significativa em relação aos controles sem tratamento, mas foi inferior ao antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina quanto ao controle do tamanho das lesões. Nenhuma das drogas conseguiu eliminar totalmente os parasitos das lesões. Foi concluído que a azitromicina tem atividade contra Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, mas não tem atividade contra Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis neste modelo.

Ángel Sinagra

2007-12-01

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The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the golden hamster model / A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis no modelo golden hamster  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Novas alternativas terapêuticas contra a leishmaniose são ainda uma prioridade. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Leishmania) major foi anteriormente demonstrada. Diferentes respostas entre as espécies de Leishmania fazem com que um screening de drogas específicas para espécies seja n [...] ecessário. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis foi avaliada em Golden hamsters infectados a través de injeções de promastigotas metacíclicas e comparando com controles sem tratamento e animais tratados com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina. Foram analisadas a espessura da pata, a cultura das lesões e disseminação para órgãos internos. A azitromicina oral em dose de 450mg/kg não teve atividade contra a infecção por Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis. Para infecções devidas à Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a azitromicina teve uma atividade significativa em relação aos controles sem tratamento, mas foi inferior ao antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina quanto ao controle do tamanho das lesões. Nenhuma das drogas conseguiu eliminar totalmente os parasitos das lesões. Foi concluído que a azitromicina tem atividade contra Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, mas não tem atividade contra Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis neste modelo. Abstract in english New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin agai [...] nst Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in this model.

Sinagra, Ángel; Luna, Concepción; Abraham, David; Iannella, Maria del Carmen; Riarte, Adelina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J..

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Histopatologia da forma localizada de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Histopathology of the localized form of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available São descritas as alterações microscópicas presentes na forma localizada (ulcerada da Leishmaniose cutânea produzida por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Nesse tipo de manifestação, menos conhecido do que a forma anérgica ou difusa devida ao mesmo agente, as lesões são clinicamente idênticas às de leishmaniose cutânea causada por espécies outras de Leishmania, pertencentes ao subgênero Viannia. Na infecção localizada por L. (L. amazonensis, entretanto, há um aspecto peculiar, só recentemente conhecido, ou seja, cerca de 50% dos indivíduos atingidos não reagem ao teste de Montenegro. A principal característica histológica observada foi a acumulação na derme, quase sempre focal, de numerosos macrófagos contendo no citoplasma um grande vacúolo cheio de amastigotas. O quadro é semelhante ao da forma difusa, porém sem o aspecto histiocitomatóide, próprio da última. Afora esses grupos de macrófagos, vêem-se também, na forma localizada, muitas células mononucleares da inflamação, principalmente plasmócitos e macrófagos não parasitados. Os acúmulos de macrófagos com amastigotas, quando volumosos, podem sofrer necrose na parte central; os parasitos, contidos nas células, são destruídos com elas ou liberados, e sua eliminação através da úlcera deve contribuir para a cura do processo. Esse tipo de necrose nunca foi descrito em casos da forma difusa. Não houve grande diferença, no quadro histológico, entre pacientes Montenegro-negativos e positivos. Apenas em alguns casos, do grupo Montenegro-positivo, havia granulomas formados por histiócitos epitelióides sem parasitos. Quanto à persistência das células com parasitos nas lesões, observou-se que aos seis meses ou mais de evolução, em ambos os grupos, ainda estavam elas presentes. Tal achado não é comum na leishmaniose tegumentar por L. (V. braziliensis.The microscopic changes found in the localized form of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis are reported. In this form, less known than the diffuse one caused by the same species, the clinical manifestations are identical to those produced by other Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia. There is, however, in the localized infection by L (L. amazonensis, a peculiar feature, only recently discovered: about 50% of the affected individuals are Montenegro-negatives. The main histologic change observed in the skin sections was the presence of groups of macrophages with a large vacuole in the cytoplasm, containing many amastigotes. The microscopic picture is similar to that found in the diffuse form of the disease, the difference being only quantitative. When in large numbers, the macrophages suffers necrosis, which generally starts at the center of the groups. First, in this process, the membrane of the parasitized cells ruptures, and the amastigotes become free; later, both cells and parasites are destroyed. The picture can be seen either in Montenegro-negative or in Montenegro-positive patients. The macrophages with amastigotes may persist in tissues for as long as 6-7 months, while in the infections due to L (V. braziliensis the parasites usually disappear in a few weeks.

Mário A. P. Moraes

1994-10-01

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The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the golden hamster model A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis no modelo golden hamster  

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New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with unt...

2007-01-01

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Persistence of Leishmania antigen in C57Bl/6j inbred mice infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Persistência do antígeno da Leishmania no camundongo isogênico C57Bl/6j infectado com a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE. To develop an animal model for studying mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS. The hind footpad of C57Bl/6j inbred mice was experimentally infected with 10(7 Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and the skin was studied through light and electron transmission microscopy and immunohistochemistry (PAP techniques. RESULTS. There were morphological evidences of cellular immune mechanisms and hypersensitivity reaction after eight weeks of infection and metastasis and well shaped parasites at ultrastructural level by fifty-one weeks post infection. Relapse of infection with mucosa lesions occurred around the 50th week after inoculation. CONCLUSION. The use of this animal model in long term follow up could be an useful experimental model for human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.OBJETIVO. Desenvolver um modelo experimental para o estudo da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. MÉTODOS. O coxim plantar traseiro de camundongos isogênicos C57Bl/6j foi inoculado com 10(7 formas promastigotas da Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e a pele foi estudada através da microscopia óptica e eletrônica e de técnica imunohistoquímica (PAP. RESULTADOS. Ocorreram evidências morfológicas de mecanismos imunes mediados por células, concomitantemente ao de reação de hipersensibilidade, após a oitava semana de infecção e a presença de parasitas com ultraestrutura preservada na quinquagésima primeira semana após a infecção. Houve recidiva da infecção com surgimento de lesões mucosas por volta da 50a semana pós inoculação. CONCLUSÃO. Este modelo animal, com um período de tempo de seguimento prolongado, poderia ser empregado como modelo para o estudo experimental da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa.

C. Vasconcellos

1999-07-01

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Persistence of Leishmania antigen in C57Bl/6j inbred mice infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Persistência do antígeno da Leishmania no camundongo isogênico C57Bl/6j infectado com a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO. Desenvolver um modelo experimental para o estudo da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. MÉTODOS. O coxim plantar traseiro de camundongos isogênicos C57Bl/6j foi inoculado com 10(7) formas promastigotas da Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e a pele foi estudada através da microscopia óptica e el [...] etrônica e de técnica imunohistoquímica (PAP). RESULTADOS. Ocorreram evidências morfológicas de mecanismos imunes mediados por células, concomitantemente ao de reação de hipersensibilidade, após a oitava semana de infecção e a presença de parasitas com ultraestrutura preservada na quinquagésima primeira semana após a infecção. Houve recidiva da infecção com surgimento de lesões mucosas por volta da 50a semana pós inoculação. CONCLUSÃO. Este modelo animal, com um período de tempo de seguimento prolongado, poderia ser empregado como modelo para o estudo experimental da leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. Abstract in english PURPOSE. To develop an animal model for studying mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS. The hind footpad of C57Bl/6j inbred mice was experimentally infected with 10(7) Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigote and the skin was studied through light and electron transmission microscopy and immu [...] nohistochemistry (PAP) techniques. RESULTS. There were morphological evidences of cellular immune mechanisms and hypersensitivity reaction after eight weeks of infection and metastasis and well shaped parasites at ultrastructural level by fifty-one weeks post infection. Relapse of infection with mucosa lesions occurred around the 50th week after inoculation. CONCLUSION. The use of this animal model in long term follow up could be an useful experimental model for human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

C., Vasconcellos; M.R., Kauffman; M. N., Sotto.

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Clonaje de la proteína de choque térmico de 20 kDa de Leishmania amazonensis Cloning of 20 kDa heat shock protein of Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la inducción de las proteínas de choque térmico constituyen un mecanismo homeostático que protege a las células del efecto destructivo del calor u otras condiciones de estrés ambiental, paralelamente, ellas cumplen importantes funciones celulares. La proteína de choque térmico de 20 kDa se reportó recientemente en Leishmania amazonensis. OBJETIVO: describir la metodología utilizada para realizar el clonaje de las proteínas de choque térmico, lo que permitió acometer estudios de algunas propiedades biológicas. MÉTODOS: la región codificante del gen hsp20 se amplificó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con cebadores adecuados. El producto amplificado se clonó inicialmente en el vector pCR2.1 (Invitrogen y después en el vector de expresión en procariotas pET-28b (Novagen, para obtener proteína recombinante. De manera paralela, el mismo fragmento se clonó en el vector de expresión en eucariotas pcDNA3 (Invitrogen para obtener un posible preparado vacunal de ADN. Se realizó la secuenciación nucleotídica de los clones obtenidos, con la finalidad de verificar su fidelidad. RESULTADOS: se obtuvieron plásmidos recombinantes que codifican la HSP20 de Leishmania, y permiten la obtención de proteína recombinante y de ADN en forma masiva. CONCLUSIONES: ambos plásmidos fueron útiles para estudiar algunas de las propiedades biológicas de esta proteína. Este acercamiento puede ser de interés en otros trabajos de esta índole y constituir una guía metodológica.INTRODUCTION: the induction of heat shock proteins is a homeostatic mechanism that protects cells from the deleterious effects of thermal and other environmental stresses. In addition, they have important cell functions. The 20kDa heat shock protein in Leishmania amazonensis was recently reported. OBJECTIVE: to describe the methodology used for cloning of heat shock proteins, which allowed the study of some biological properties. METHODS: the hsp20 gene coding region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using adequate primers. The amplified product was initially cloned in pCR2.1 vector (Invitrogen and then in pET-28b vector (Novagen, to obtain recombinant protein. The same fragment was cloned also in the eukariote expression vector pcDNA3 (Invitrogen. The nucleotidic sequencing of the different clones was made, in order to verify their fidelity. RESULTS: the recombinant plasmids that encode HSP20 protein in Leishmania and allow obtaining massively recombinant protein and DNA were produced. CONCLUSIONS: both plasmids were useful to study some of the biological properties of this protein. This approach could be useful for similar research and represent a suitable methodological guideline.

Ana Margarita Montalvo Álvarez

2009-08-01

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Persistence of Leishmania antigen in C57Bl/6j inbred mice infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Persistência do antígeno da Leishmania no camundongo isogênico C57Bl/6j infectado com a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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PURPOSE. To develop an animal model for studying mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS. The hind footpad of C57Bl/6j inbred mice was experimentally infected with 10(7) Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigote and the skin was studied through light and electron transmission microscopy and immunohistochemistry (PAP) techniques. RESULTS. There were morphological evidences of cellular immune mechanisms and hypersensitivity reaction after eight weeks of infection and metastasis and well sha...

Vasconcellos, C.; Kauffman, M. R.; Sotto, M. N.

1999-01-01

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Clonaje de la proteína de choque térmico de 20 kDa de Leishmania amazonensis / Cloning of 20 kDa heat shock protein of Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: la inducción de las proteínas de choque térmico constituyen un mecanismo homeostático que protege a las células del efecto destructivo del calor u otras condiciones de estrés ambiental, paralelamente, ellas cumplen importantes funciones celulares. La proteína de choque térmico de 20 kD [...] a se reportó recientemente en Leishmania amazonensis. OBJETIVO: describir la metodología utilizada para realizar el clonaje de las proteínas de choque térmico, lo que permitió acometer estudios de algunas propiedades biológicas. MÉTODOS: la región codificante del gen hsp20 se amplificó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con cebadores adecuados. El producto amplificado se clonó inicialmente en el vector pCR2.1 (Invitrogen) y después en el vector de expresión en procariotas pET-28b (Novagen), para obtener proteína recombinante. De manera paralela, el mismo fragmento se clonó en el vector de expresión en eucariotas pcDNA3 (Invitrogen) para obtener un posible preparado vacunal de ADN. Se realizó la secuenciación nucleotídica de los clones obtenidos, con la finalidad de verificar su fidelidad. RESULTADOS: se obtuvieron plásmidos recombinantes que codifican la HSP20 de Leishmania, y permiten la obtención de proteína recombinante y de ADN en forma masiva. CONCLUSIONES: ambos plásmidos fueron útiles para estudiar algunas de las propiedades biológicas de esta proteína. Este acercamiento puede ser de interés en otros trabajos de esta índole y constituir una guía metodológica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the induction of heat shock proteins is a homeostatic mechanism that protects cells from the deleterious effects of thermal and other environmental stresses. In addition, they have important cell functions. The 20kDa heat shock protein in Leishmania amazonensis was recently reported. O [...] BJECTIVE: to describe the methodology used for cloning of heat shock proteins, which allowed the study of some biological properties. METHODS: the hsp20 gene coding region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using adequate primers. The amplified product was initially cloned in pCR2.1 vector (Invitrogen) and then in pET-28b vector (Novagen), to obtain recombinant protein. The same fragment was cloned also in the eukariote expression vector pcDNA3 (Invitrogen). The nucleotidic sequencing of the different clones was made, in order to verify their fidelity. RESULTS: the recombinant plasmids that encode HSP20 protein in Leishmania and allow obtaining massively recombinant protein and DNA were produced. CONCLUSIONS: both plasmids were useful to study some of the biological properties of this protein. This approach could be useful for similar research and represent a suitable methodological guideline.

Ana Margarita, Montalvo Álvarez; Cristina, Folgueira Fernández; José María, Requena Rolanía.

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Subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Here we report the subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in axenic promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, using subcellular fractionation, enzymatic assays, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. All fractions were evaluated by transmission electron [...] microscopy and the serine protease activity was measured during the cell fractionation procedure using a-N-r-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-TAME) as substrate, phenylmethylsulphone fluoride (PMSF) and L-1-tosylamino-2-phenylethylchloromethylketone (TPCK) as specific inhibitors. The enzymatic activity was detected mainly in a membranous vesicular fraction (6.5-fold enrichment relative to the whole homogenate), but also in a crude plasma membrane fraction (2.0-fold). Analysis by SDS-PAGE gelatin under reducing conditions demonstrated that the major proteolytic activity was found in a 68 kDa protein in all fractions studied. A protein with identical molecular weight was also recognized in immunoblots by a polyclonal antibody against serine protease (anti-SP), with higher immunoreactivity in the vesicular fraction. Electron microscopic immunolocalization using the same polyclonal antibody showed the enzyme present at the cell surface, as well as in cytoplasmic membranous compartments of the parasite. Our findings indicate that the internal location of this serine protease in L. amazonensis is mainly restricted to the membranes of intracellular compartments resembling endocytic/exocytic elements.

Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Silva-Lopez, Raquel Elisa da; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Maurilio José; Corte-Real, Suzana; De Simone, Salvatore Giovanni.

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Ineficácia in vivo da terbinafina em leishmaniose cutânea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis em camundongos C57BL/6 Terbinafine in vivo inefficacy on cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice  

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Full Text Available Testou-se, em camundongos C57BL/6 inoculados com a cepa MHOM/BR/PH8 de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, terbinafina via oral 100mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias, solução salina 0,9% via oral como controle e stibogluconato de sódio 400mg SbV/kg/dia via subcutânea como padrão-ouro. A terbinafina mostrou-se ineficaz, clínica e parasitologicamente, e pelo ensaio por diluição limitante, quando comparada aos controles.The efficiency of terbinafine was tested in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with the Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis strain MHOM/BR/PH8. The mice were administered: terbinafine at a dose of 100mg/kg/d by via oral; 0.9% saline solution orally as the control; and subcutaneous sodium stibogluconate 400mg SbV/kg/d as gold standard, for 20 days. Terbinafine was demonstrated to be ineffective when compared to the controls, using clinical and parasitological parameters and the limiting dilution assay.

Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio

2003-07-01

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Ineficácia in vivo da terbinafina em leishmaniose cutânea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis em camundongos C57BL/6 / Terbinafine in vivo inefficacy on cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Testou-se, em camundongos C57BL/6 inoculados com a cepa MHOM/BR/PH8 de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, terbinafina via oral 100mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias, solução salina 0,9% via oral como controle e stibogluconato de sódio 400mg SbV/kg/dia via subcutânea como padrão-ouro. A terbinafina mostrou-se [...] ineficaz, clínica e parasitologicamente, e pelo ensaio por diluição limitante, quando comparada aos controles. Abstract in english The efficiency of terbinafine was tested in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis strain MHOM/BR/PH8. The mice were administered: terbinafine at a dose of 100mg/kg/d by via oral; 0.9% saline solution orally as the control; and subcutaneous sodium stibogluconate 400mg S [...] bV/kg/d as gold standard, for 20 days. Terbinafine was demonstrated to be ineffective when compared to the controls, using clinical and parasitological parameters and the limiting dilution assay.

Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Takano, Gustavo Henrique Soares; Malacarne, Ana Cristina Barbieri; Pereira, Tércio Rodrigues; Magalhães, Albino Verçosa de.

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Role of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigote glycosphingolipids in macrophage infectivity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) present in amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis during infection of macrophages was analyzed, with particular emphasis on GSLs presenting the terminal Galpß1-3Galpa disaccharide. Macrophage invasion by L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes was reduc [...] ed by 37% when the disaccharide Galpß1-3Galp (1 mM) was added to the culture medium. The putative macrophage receptor/lectin for ß-Gal-globotriaosylceramide (Galpß1-3Galpa1-4Galpß1-4Glc pß1-1Cer) and other structurally related GSLs from L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes were analyzed by micelles and parasite binding assay to peritoneal macrophage proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions. Micelles containing purified amastigote GSLs or a suspention of L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes fixed with 2% formaldehyde were incubated with nitrocellulose membrane containing the macrophage proteins transferred by Western blotting. Binding of micelles containing purified GSLs from amastigote forms or fixed L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes to nitrocellulose membrane was probed using monoclonal antibody ST-3, which recognizes the glycoepitope Galpß1-3Galpa1-R present either in the micelle preparation or on the amastigote surface. Macrophage protein with molecular mass ~30 kDa bound the amastigote GSL and appeared to be a doublet on electrophoresis. The specificity of this interaction was confirmed using fixed L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes, which do not express GSLs such as ß-Galp-globotriaosylceramides, and which do not bind to 30-kDa protein.

Tanaka, A.K.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Takahashi, H.K.; Straus, A.H..

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Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect o [...] f four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV) were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

Diana Copi, Ayres; Maria Cristina, Marcucci; Selma, Giorgio.

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Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

2000-07-01

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Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Tratamento experimental com stibogluconato de sódio em hamsters infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi e Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazone...

1999-01-01

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Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul associada à infecção por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available São relatados nove casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorridos no ano de 2001 em uma unidade de treinamento militar localizada no município de Bela Vista, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Parasitas obtidos de lesões de seis pacientes foram isolados em cultura e posteriormente identificados através da análise de isoenzimas como sendo Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Esta é a primeira evidência da presença desta espécie de parasita em Mato Grosso do Sul.

Dorval Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros

2006-01-01

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Glycosphingolipid antigens of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes identified by use of a monoclonal antibody.  

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Monoclonal antibodies directed against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes were produced. One monoclonal antibody (1C3) selected by indirect immunofluorescence reacted with both amastigotes and promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis. Glycolipid extraction from L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes and separation by high-performance thin-layer chromatography followed by immunoblotting demonstrated that 1C3 reacts with two glycosphingolipids which migrate chromatographically similarly to ce...

1993-01-01

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Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Tratamento experimental com stibogluconato de sódio em hamsters infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days. Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazonensis com o stibogluconato de sódio (20mg/kg/dia x 20 dias. Somente na infeccção com L. chagasi, o tratamento resultou em completa eliminação dos parasitos do baço. Entretanto, não houve cura parasitologica em hamsters infectados com L. amazonensis.

Elizabeth M. de Figueiredo

1999-04-01

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Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Tratamento experimental com stibogluconato de sódio em hamsters infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi e Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazonensis com o stibogluconato de sódio (20mg/kg/dia x 20 dias). Somente na infeccção com L. chagasi, o tratamento resultou em completa eliminação dos parasitos do baço. Entretanto, [...] não houve cura parasitologica em hamsters infectados com L. amazonensis. Abstract in english The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasit [...] ological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.

Figueiredo, Elizabeth M. de; Silva, Jaime Costa e; Brazil, Reginaldo P..

 
 
 
 
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Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Proteção de camundongos C57BL/10 vacinados por vacinas contituidas pelas combinações de proteínas purificadas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (LLa) with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated...

Mora, Ana Mariela; Mayrink, Wilson; Costa, Roberto Teodoro Da; Costa, Carlos Alberto Da; Genaro, Odair; Nascimento, Evaldo

1999-01-01

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Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

2012-01-01

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Estudo comparativo entre miltefosina oral e antimoniato de N-metil glucamina parenteral no tratamento da leishmaniose experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Comparative study between oral miltefosine and parenteral N-metil glucamine antimoniate for the treatment of experimental leishmaniasis caused Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available Vinte e cinco camundongos infectados com Leishmania amazonensis foram tratados com antimoniato de N-metil glucamina e miltefosina oral. Critérios: medidas das patas, pesquisa de amastigotas e culturas após-tratamento. Miltefosina: 2,43mm e glucamina 3,46mm (p=0,05. Miltefosina: esfregaços e culturas negativos. Glucamina: 2 esfregaços positivos e culturas positivas (pTwenty-five mice were infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with glucamine and oral miltefosine. The criteria used were pad measurements and investigations of amastigotes and cultures after treatment. Measurements: miltefosine 2.43 mm and glucamine 3.46 mm (p: 0.05. Miltefosine smears and cultures were negative. Glucamine produced two positive smears and the cultures were positive (p < 0.05. Miltefosine was similar to or better than glucamine.

Arnoldo Velloso da Costa Filho

2008-08-01

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Cell migration induced by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) major and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice  

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In American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the initial infection phase is characterized by recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. The migration of these cells in response to the presence of Leishmania in the peritoneum of affected animals remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate cell migration to the peritoneum of BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) major. Initially, Leishmania ...

2010-01-01

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Morphologic aspects of the Leishmania amazonensis submitted to ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan transmitted by a bite of a sandfly responsible for skin lesions in human and other mammalian hosts, being considered one of the most important endemic Public Health disease. Ionizing radiation shown to be an excellent method to kill these parasites, blocking their growth by nucleic acid (DNA) break, and stopping the respiratory metabolism. In this study, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation on the morphology of the Leishmania amazonensis and the capacity of infection in experimental model. The radio sterilized parasites maintained their membrane surface preserved while destroyed the other proteins needed to their life, promoting the possible of a new antigenic model. (author)

2002-08-11

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Miltefosine induces programmed cell death in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the current study, we evaluated the mechanism of action of miltefosine, which is the first effective and safe oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis, in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Miltefosine induced a process of programmed cell death, which was determined by the externalization of [...] phosphatidylserine, the incorporation of propidium iodide, cell-cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase and DNA fragmentation into oligonucleosome-sized fragments. Despite the intrinsic variation that is detected in Leishmania spp, our results indicate that miltefosine causes apoptosis-like death in L. amazonensis promastigote cells using a similar process that is observed in Leishmania donovani.

Fernanda de Aquino, Marinho; Keyla Cristiny da Silva, Gonçalves; Selma Soares de, Oliveira; Ana-Carolina de Siqueira Couto de, Oliveira; Maria, Bellio; Claudia Masini, d' Avila-Levy; André Luis Souza dos, Santos; Marta Helena, Branquinha.

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Interleukin- 2 production during murine infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

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Full Text Available Highly susceptible BALB/c mice, resistant C57B1/6 and their F1 progeny (BDF1 were infected subcutaneously in the foot pad with Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis. At various times after infection, spleen or draining popliteal lymph node cells were assayed for their capacity to generate Interleukin-2 (I1-2 by Concanavalin A (ConA stimulation. In both BALB/c and C57B1/6 strains there was a transient increase in their capacity to produce I1-2, from the 3rd to the 10th week post-infection. Return to pre-infection levels ocurred between 13th to 16th week post-infection in all three strains. BALB/c mice always produced higher titers of 11-2 than C57B1/6, but such differences were statistically significant only at 3 and 10 weeks post-infection. BDF1 mice had titers similar to those observed in BALB/c mice. I1-2 production by ConA-stimulated lymph node cells was lower as compared to the spleen, but with a similar pattern among the three mice strains. Our data show that susceptibility to infection by l. mexicana amazonenesis is not associated with deficient ConA-stimulated I1-2 production.Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis, C57B1/6 (resistentes ou sua geração F1 (BDF foram infectados subcutaneamente na pata traseira com Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Avaliamos, em diferentes períodos de infecção, a capacidade de células do baço ou de linfonodo poplíteo, de produzir Interleucina-2 (I1-2 em resposta à estimulação por Conconavalina A (ConA. Nos camundongos BALB/c e C57B1/6 observamos, da 3ª à 10ª semana pós-infecção transitória da capacidade de produzir I1-2. Da 13ª à 16ª semana pós-infecção houve um retorno dos níveis de produção pré-infecção. Camundongos BALB/c produziram títulos mais elevados de I2- que os C57B1/6, mas tais diferenças só foram estatisticamente significantes na 3ª e 10ª semanas pós-infecção. Camundongos BDF1 apresentaram títulos semelhantes aos dos BALB/c. Os níveis de I1-2 (estimulada por ConA produzidos por células do linfonodo foram mais baixos que os baço, porém com padrão semelhante. Nossos dados mostram que a susceptibilidade à infecção por L. mexicana amazonensis não está associada a um defeito de produção de I1-2, estimulada por ConA.

Manoel Barral-Netto

1986-03-01

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Leishmania amazonensis in dog with clinical diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Paraná State, Brazil – a case reportLeishmania amazonensis em cão com quadro clínico de leishmaniose visceral no Estado do Paraná, Brasil – relato de caso  

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Full Text Available Leishmaniasis are antropozoonoses involving various species of Leishmania and hosts, with variable clinical presentations and considered of great importance to public health. This article describes a case of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis, from the town of Cambé, Paraná state, Brazil. This state is considered endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in humans, but this is the first report in a dog in the region, caused by L. amazonensis. The taxonomic characterization of Leishmania was performed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis technique (MLEE. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in visceral leishmaniasis as polyarthritis and progressive weight loss. It is concluded that the related polyarthritis when related to leishmaniasis, cannot be considered a clinical sign associated only with L. chagasi in view of the L. amazonensis also has this as one of its presentations. The LTA becomes a differential diagnosis of polyarthritis in dogs.As leishmanioses são antropozoonoses que envolvem diversas espécies de Leishmania e hospedeiros, tendo apresentações clínicas variáveis e consideradas de grande importância para a saúde pública. Este artigo descreve um caso de leishmaniose canina causada por Leishmania amazonensis, proveniente da cidade de Cambé, Paraná – Brasil. Este estado é considerado endêmico para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA em humanos, porém este é o primeiro relato em cão na região, provocado pela L. amazonensis. A caracterização taxonômica da Leishmania foi realizada através da técnica multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Os sinais clínicos foram similares aos observados na leishmaniose visceral como poliartrite e emagrecimento progressivo. Conclui-se que a poliartrite quando relacionada à leishmaniose não pode ser considerada um sinal clínico associado somente a L. chagasi, tendo em vista que a L. amazonensis também tem esta como uma das suas formas de apresentação. A LTA torna-se um diagnóstico diferencial de poliartrite em cães.

Patrícia Mendes Pereira

2012-02-01

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Serological reactivity of different antigenic preparations of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and the Leishmania braziliensis complex Reatividade sorológica frente a diferentes preparações antigênicas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e do complexo Leishmania braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Total antigen from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and isolates from the Leishmania braziliensis complex, along with their respective antigenic fractions obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A-Sepharose and jacalin-agarose columns evaluated using immunoenzymatic ELISA assay. For this, serum samples from 229 patients were used, grouped as American tegmental leishmaniasis (nº=58, visceral leishmaniasis (nº=28, Chagas disease (nº=49, malaria (nº=32, tuberculosis (nº=13 and healthy volunteers (nº=49. Samples from American tegmentary leishmaniasis showed higher reactivity with antigens isolated from the Leishmania braziliensis complex than with antigens from Leishmania amazonensis (pAntígeno total de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e isolado do complexo Leishmania brazilienis, assim como suas respectivas frações antigênicas obtidas por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de concanavalina-A ligada a sepharose e Jacalina ligada a agarose foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzimático ELISA. Para tanto, foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 229 pacientes agrupadas em leishmaniose tegumentar americana (nº=58, leishmaniose visceral (nº=28, doença de Chagas (nº=49, malaria (nº=32, tuberculose (nº=13 e voluntários saudáveis (nº=49. Houve maior reatividade das amostras de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com a utilização dos antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis quando comparado com antígenos de Leishmania amazonensis (p<0,001. Observou-se ainda que a sensibilidade do teste ELISA variou de 60 a 95% entre os antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis. Houve acentuada reatividade inespecífica das amostras de soros com a utilização das frações antigênicas ligantes de Concanavalina-A e Jacalina de ambos os complexos Leishmania em comparação aos demais antígenos (p<0,001. Os resultados apresentados no presente trabalho sugerem que a utilização de antígenos homólogos aumentam a eficiência de detecção de imunoglobulina anti-Leishmania o que pode ser de grande valia para o propósito de diagnóstico.

Adriano Gomes-Silva

2008-04-01

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Serological reactivity of different antigenic preparations of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and the Leishmania braziliensis complex Reatividade sorológica frente a diferentes preparações antigênicas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e do complexo Leishmania braziliensis  

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Total antigen from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and isolates from the Leishmania braziliensis complex, along with their respective antigenic fractions obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A-Sepharose and jacalin-agarose columns evaluated using immunoenzymatic ELISA assay. For this, serum samples from 229 patients were used, grouped as American tegmental leishmaniasis (nº=58), visceral leishmaniasis (nº=28), Chagas disease (nº=49), malaria (nº=32), tuberculosis (nº=1...

2008-01-01

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Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6) stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L.) amazonensis, and were allocated...

Thiago de Sá Oliveira; Mário Capp Neto; Bernardo José Alves Martins; Helbert Abe Rodrigues; Rosa Maria Parreiras Antonino; Albino Verçosa Magalhães

2000-01-01

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In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Palladacycle Complex on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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Leishmaniasis is an important public health problem with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5 million of new human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 500,000 of visceral leishmaniasis. Treatment of the diseases is limited by toxicity and parasite resistance to the drugs currently in use, validating the need to develop new leishmanicidal compounds. We evaluated the killing by the palladacycle complex DPPE 1.2 of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, an agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis i...

Paladi, Carolina Siqueira; Pimentel, Isabella Aparecida Salerno; Katz, Simone; Cunha, Rodrigo L. O. R.; Judice, Wagner Alves Souza; Caires, Antonio C. F.; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2012-01-01

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Impaired Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines at Early Stages of Infection with Leishmania amazonensis  

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Infection of mice with Leishmania major results in disease progression or resolution, largely depending on the genetic backgrounds of the mouse strains. Infection with Leishmania amazonensis, on the other hand, causes progressive cutaneous lesions in most inbred strains of mice. We hypothesized that deficient activation of early immune responses contributes to the pathogenesis in L. amazonensis-infected mice. To distinguish early molecular events that determine the outcome of Leishmania infec...

Ji, Jiaxiang; Sun, Jiaren; Soong, Lynn

2003-01-01

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O uso da associação azitromicina e N-metil glucamina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis em camundongos C57BL6 / The use of azythromycin and N-methyl glucamine for the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in C57BL6 mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento de primeira escolha da leishmaniose tegumentar americana é a N-metil-glucamina que tem alta toxicidade, exige administração parenteral e nem sempre cura. A azitromicina mostrou ação in vitro e resultado contraditório na doença humana. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a associação N-m [...] etil-glucamina+azitromicina é mais eficaz do que N-metil-glucamina no tratamento da leishmaniose experimental. MÉTODOS: 25 camundongos inoculados com a cepa C57BL/6 de L. (L.) amazonensis foram divididos em dois grupos. Um foi tratado com 400mgSbV/kg/dia de N-metil-glucamina associado a 200mg/kg/dia de azitromicina durante 20 dias, e o outro com N-metil-glucamina, na mesma dose, durante o mesmo tempo. Foi feita avaliação clínica e parasitológica com análise estatística. RESULTADO: Na avaliação clínica, pesquisa de amastigotas e das culturas, não houve diferença estatística. Verificou-se, entretanto, diferença significante no resultado das culturas realizadas através de diluição limitante, que desfavoreceu a associação NMG+ azitromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A associação N-metil-glucamina e azitromicina não demonstrou mais eficácia do que o N-metil-glucamina em uso isolado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The first choice treatment for cutaneous Leishmaniasis is N-methyl glucamine: it has high toxicity, requires parenteral administration and cure is not always reached. Azythromycin showed in vitro action and controversial results in humans with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To verify if the ass [...] ociation of N-methyl-glucamine - azythromycin is more effective than N-methyl-glucamine alone for the treatment of experimental Leishmaniasis. METHODS: Twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with L. (L.) amazonensis strain and divided into two groups. One group was treated with 400mgSbV/kg/day of N-methyl glucamine and 200mg/kg/day of azythromycin for 20 days and the other group received the same dose of N-methyl glucamine alone during the same period of time. Clinical and parasitological evaluations were submitted to statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in clinical analysis, in amastigotes investigation and in cultures. There were significant differences in cultures using limiting dilution, which showed lower efficacy of the association N-methyl glucamine -azythromycin. CONCLUSION: N-methyl glucamine-azythromycin association was not more effective than N-methyl glucamine alone.

Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Lucas, Íris Campos; Costa Filho, Arnoldo Velloso da.

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O uso da associação azitromicina e N-metil glucamina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis em camundongos C57BL6 The use of azythromycin and N-methyl glucamine for the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in C57BL6 mice  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento de primeira escolha da leishmaniose tegumentar americana é a N-metil-glucamina que tem alta toxicidade, exige administração parenteral e nem sempre cura. A azitromicina mostrou ação in vitro e resultado contraditório na doença humana. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a associação N-metil-glucamina+azitromicina é mais eficaz do que N-metil-glucamina no tratamento da leishmaniose experimental. MÉTODOS: 25 camundongos inoculados com a cepa C57BL/6 de L. (L. amazonensis foram divididos em dois grupos. Um foi tratado com 400mgSbV/kg/dia de N-metil-glucamina associado a 200mg/kg/dia de azitromicina durante 20 dias, e o outro com N-metil-glucamina, na mesma dose, durante o mesmo tempo. Foi feita avaliação clínica e parasitológica com análise estatística. RESULTADO: Na avaliação clínica, pesquisa de amastigotas e das culturas, não houve diferença estatística. Verificou-se, entretanto, diferença significante no resultado das culturas realizadas através de diluição limitante, que desfavoreceu a associação NMG+ azitromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A associação N-metil-glucamina e azitromicina não demonstrou mais eficácia do que o N-metil-glucamina em uso isolado.BACKGROUND: The first choice treatment for cutaneous Leishmaniasis is N-methyl glucamine: it has high toxicity, requires parenteral administration and cure is not always reached. Azythromycin showed in vitro action and controversial results in humans with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To verify if the association of N-methyl-glucamine - azythromycin is more effective than N-methyl-glucamine alone for the treatment of experimental Leishmaniasis. METHODS: Twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with L. (L. amazonensis strain and divided into two groups. One group was treated with 400mgSbV/kg/day of N-methyl glucamine and 200mg/kg/day of azythromycin for 20 days and the other group received the same dose of N-methyl glucamine alone during the same period of time. Clinical and parasitological evaluations were submitted to statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in clinical analysis, in amastigotes investigation and in cultures. There were significant differences in cultures using limiting dilution, which showed lower efficacy of the association N-methyl glucamine -azythromycin. CONCLUSION: N-methyl glucamine-azythromycin association was not more effective than N-methyl glucamine alone.

Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio

2009-04-01

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A dhfr-ts- Leishmania major Knockout Mutant Cross-protects against Leishmania amazonensis  

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E10-5A3 is a dhfr-ts- Leishmania major double knockout auxotrophic shown previously to induce substantial protection against virulent L. major infection in both genetically susceptible and resistant mice. We investigated the capacity of dhfr-ts- to protect against heterologous infection by L. amazonensis. The degree of protection was evaluated by immunization of BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice with E10-5A3, followed by L. amazonensis challenge. Whether immunized by subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV...

Pst, Veras; Ci, Brodskyn; Fmp, Balestieri; Lar, Freitas; Aps, Ramos; Arp, Queiroz; Barral, A.; Sm, Beverley; Barral-netto, M.

1999-01-01

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Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ecto-3'-nucleotidase activity and its possible role in virulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecto-3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'NT/NU) is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a key role in the nutrition of Leishmania sp. protozoan parasites. This enzyme generates nucleosides via hydrolyzes of 3'mononucleotides and nucleic acids, which enter the cell by specific transporters. In this work, we identify and characterize Leishmania amazonensis ecto-3'-nucleotidase activity (La3'-nucleotidase), report ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) as a novel La3'-nucleotidase inhibitor and approach the possible involvement of ecto-3'-nucleotidase in cellular adhesion. La3'-nucleotidase presented characteristics similar to those reported for the class I single-strand nuclease family; a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa and optimum activity in an alkaline pH range were observed. Although it is conserved among the genus, La3'-nucleotidase displays different kinetic properties; it can be inhibited by vanadate, molybdate and Cu(2+) ions. Interestingly, ecto-3'-nucleotidase activity is 60-fold higher than that of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in L. amazonensis. Additionally, ecto-3'-nucleotidase activity is two-fold higher in virulent L. amazonensis cells than in avirulent ones. Notably, macrophage-parasite attachment/invasion was increased by 400% in the presence of adenosine 3'-monophosphate (3'AMP); however, this effect was reverted by TTM treatment. We believe that La3'-nucleotidase may play a significant role in the generation of adenosine, which may contribute to mammalian host immune response impairment and establishment of infection. PMID:21827749

Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Vieira, Danielle P; Vieira-Bernardo, Rodrigo; Majerowicz, David; Gondim, Katia C; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Lopes, Angela H; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

2011-11-01

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Metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis selection using gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leishmania spp. causes a spectrum of human diseases, ranging from self-healing skin lesions to severe and lethal visceral disease. In previous work we demonstrated that the protein and nucleic acid metabolism and oxidative respiration were severely affected by irradiation, in a dose response way, but a small but representative fractions are relatively radio resistant, surviving after 800 Gy of 60Co irradiation. The best explanation could be a selection of metacyclic promastigotes. In these forms, the G0 state allows the adequate correction of DNA repair after the irradiation insult. In this work, we are looking for the ideal radiation dose to select the higher proportion of metacyclic forms of L.. (L.) amazonensis in culture. Parasites were grown in RPMI 1640 medium, plus 20% fetal calf serum, than they were irradiated with different doses ranging between 25 and 400 Gy. Parasites irradiated at 400 Gy infected, proportionally, more cells than parasites irradiated at other doses. To confirm this metacyclogenesis, a complement lysis assay was performed with 5, 10 and 20% of male guinea pig blood serum at 20 deg C for 3 hours, and parasites counted. Guinea pig serum a 10% promotes more lysis, with 200 Gy irradiated parasites being less affected, probably due to metacyclic selection. These preliminary results suggests that the ionizing radiation, specially between 200 and 400 Gy, could be a alternative tool for the selection of metacyclic forms of Leishmania amazonensis in culture. (author)

2005-09-02

39

CXCL10/Gamma Interferon-Inducible Protein 10-Mediated Protection against Leishmania amazonensis Infection in Mice?  

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Leishmania amazonensis can cause progressive disease in most inbred strains of mice. We have previously shown that L. amazonensis-infected C57BL/6 mice have profound impairments in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and in activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. These impairments are independent of interleukin-4 (IL-4) but partially due to IL-10 production. The precise mechanism of pathogenesis associated with L. amazonensis infection remains largely unresolved. Since...

Vasquez, Rene E.; Soong, Lynn

2006-01-01

40

Pathogenic role of B cells and antibodies in murine Leishmania amazonensis infection  

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Leishmania amazonensis infection, occurring predominantly in Central and South America, can manifest itself in several forms, including those of cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The outcome of L. amazonensis infection depends largely on host immune responses to the parasites. While CD4+ T cell activation is a prerequisite for pathogenesis in L. amazonensis-infected mice, the roles of B cells and their antibody production are unclear. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting...

Wanasen, Nanchaya; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis growth in vitro culture relies more on folic acid availability than Leihsmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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We compared the in vitro growth of promastigotes from two Leishmania species in TC-100 and Schneider media. Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication rates were similar in both tissue culture media and reached maximum rates by 48 h. In contrast Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis growth was significantly greater in TC-100 but maximum rates were achieved by 96 h. Folic acid appears to be the limiting factor and supplementation of Schneider media with this nutrient improved L. (V.) brazilie...

2005-01-01

42

Resistance of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis to nitric oxide correlates with disease severity in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO• plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent in mouse macrophages. NO• resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with a severe outcome of these diseases. Methods In this study we evaluated the in vitro toxicity of nitric oxide for the promastigote stages of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis parasites, and the infectivity of the amastigote stage for human macrophages. Parasites were isolated from patients with cutaneous, mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis, and NO• resistance was correlated with clinical presentation. Results Seventeen isolates of L. (L. amazonensis or L. (V. braziliensis promastigotes were killed by up to 8 mM of more of NaNO2 (pH 5.0 and therefore were defined as nitric oxide-susceptible. In contrast, eleven isolates that survived exposure to 16 mM NaNO2 were defined as nitric oxide-resistant. Patients infected with nitric oxide-resistant Leishmania had significantly larger lesions than patients infected with nitric oxide-susceptible isolates. Furthermore, nitric oxide-resistant L. (L. amazonensis and L. (V. braziliensis multiplied significantly better in human macrophages than nitric oxide-susceptible isolates. Conclusion These data suggest that nitric oxide-resistance of Leishmania isolates confers a survival benefit for the parasites inside the macrophage, and possibly exacerbates the clinical course of human leishmaniasis.

Carvalho Edgar M

2007-02-01

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Functional characterization of LIT1, the Leishmania amazonensis ferrous iron transporter  

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Leishmania amazonensis LIT1 was identified based on homology with IRT1, a ferrous iron transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana. ?lit1 Leishmania amazonensis are defective in intracellular replication and lesion formation in vivo, a virulence phenotype attributed to defective intracellular iron acquisition. Here we functionally characterize LIT1, directly demonstrating that it functions as a ferrous iron membrane transporter from the ZIP family. Conserved residues in the predicted transmembrane...

Jacques, Ismaele; Andrews, Norma W.; Huynh, Chau

2010-01-01

44

Cell migration induced by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania major and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice  

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Full Text Available In American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the initial infection phase is characterized by recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. The migration of these cells in response to the presence of Leishmania in the peritoneum of affected animals remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate cell migration to the peritoneum of BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania major. Initially, Leishmania spp. was intraperitoneally inoculated in five groups of six animals each and the cell migration was analyzed 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after infection. Different cell counts were performed with a staining kit and showed a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear than mononuclear cells in all three species studied. The total cell count revealed peak migration in L. (L. amazonensis and L. (L. major at six hours, and in L. (V. braziliensis at 12 hours. These results suggest that factors released from different cell types probably act by attracting polymorphonuclear cells, with the peak migration most likely depending on the species of Leishmania inoculated into the host.

DT Wakimoto

2010-01-01

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Desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana y Leishmania amazonensis en Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine) / Development of Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania amazonensis in Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar los cambios morfológicos que ocurren durante el desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana (MHOM/VE/72/AZV) y Le. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18) en Lutzomyia euansi. Hembras de Lu. evansi se alimentaron a partir de una lesión tarsal de hámster y se examinaron [...] en busca de infección cada 24 h hasta las 168 h posalimentación. El patrón de desarrollo de Le. mexicana y Le. amazonensis en Lu. euansi fue de tipo suprapilórico, de acuerdo con lo descrito para las especies del complejo Le. mexicana. La transformación de formas amastigotas a procíclicos ocurrió para ambas especies entre las 24 - 48 h postinfección. Los parásitos mostraron su adaptación al microambiente del tracto digestivo de Lu. euansi y desarrollo hacia formas maduras: nectomonas, haptomonas y paramastigotas. La forma paramastigota se observó, en bajo porcentaje, a las 120 h postingesta infectiva en ambas especies. La disminución temprana de nutrientes en Lu. euansi, debido al rápido proceso de digestión de sangre (3 a 4 días), pudiera explicar el bajo porcentaje de desarrollo alcanzado hacia las formas paramastigotas y la ausencia de formas metacíclicas en este modelo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to study the morphological changes in the development of Leishmania mexicana (MMOM/VE/72/AZV) and L. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18) in Lutzomyia euansi. Pernales of Lu. euansi fed on a hámster tarsal lesión and were examined for infection at 24 h intervals from 24 h to 168 h [...] post- feeding. The pattern of development of Le. mexicana and Le. amazonensis in Lu. euansi was suprapylarian consistentwith what has been described forspecies of the Le. mexicana complex. Transformaron from amastigote to procyclical forms occurred in both species at 24 - 48 h post-infection. The parasites showed their adaptaüon lo the gut environment of Lu. euansi and development to mature forms: nectomonads, haptomonads and pararnastigotes. The paramastigote form was observed in low percentage at 120 h post-infected ingestión in both species. The early depletion of nutrients in Lu. euansi, due to a faster rate of digestión (3 to 4 days), could explain the low percentage of development reaching the paramastigote forms and the absence of the metacyclical forms in this model.

MARÍA ALEJANDRA, VIVENES; MILAGROS, OVIEDO; JULIO CÉSAR, MÁRQUEZ.

46

Desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana y Leishmania amazonensis en Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine Development of Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania amazonensis in Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar los cambios morfológicos que ocurren durante el desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana (MHOM/VE/72/AZV y Le. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18 en Lutzomyia euansi. Hembras de Lu. evansi se alimentaron a partir de una lesión tarsal de hámster y se examinaron en busca de infección cada 24 h hasta las 168 h posalimentación. El patrón de desarrollo de Le. mexicana y Le. amazonensis en Lu. euansi fue de tipo suprapilórico, de acuerdo con lo descrito para las especies del complejo Le. mexicana. La transformación de formas amastigotas a procíclicos ocurrió para ambas especies entre las 24 - 48 h postinfección. Los parásitos mostraron su adaptación al microambiente del tracto digestivo de Lu. euansi y desarrollo hacia formas maduras: nectomonas, haptomonas y paramastigotas. La forma paramastigota se observó, en bajo porcentaje, a las 120 h postingesta infectiva en ambas especies. La disminución temprana de nutrientes en Lu. euansi, debido al rápido proceso de digestión de sangre (3 a 4 días, pudiera explicar el bajo porcentaje de desarrollo alcanzado hacia las formas paramastigotas y la ausencia de formas metacíclicas en este modelo.The aim of this paper was to study the morphological changes in the development of Leishmania mexicana (MMOM/VE/72/AZV and L. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18 in Lutzomyia euansi. Pernales of Lu. euansi fed on a hámster tarsal lesión and were examined for infection at 24 h intervals from 24 h to 168 h post- feeding. The pattern of development of Le. mexicana and Le. amazonensis in Lu. euansi was suprapylarian consistentwith what has been described forspecies of the Le. mexicana complex. Transformaron from amastigote to procyclical forms occurred in both species at 24 - 48 h post-infection. The parasites showed their adaptaüon lo the gut environment of Lu. euansi and development to mature forms: nectomonads, haptomonads and pararnastigotes. The paramastigote form was observed in low percentage at 120 h post-infected ingestión in both species. The early depletion of nutrients in Lu. euansi, due to a faster rate of digestión (3 to 4 days, could explain the low percentage of development reaching the paramastigote forms and the absence of the metacyclical forms in this model.

MARÍA ALEJANDRA VIVENES

2005-06-01

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Inhibition of growth of Leishmania mexicana mexicana by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis during "in vitro" co-cultivation Inibição do crescimento de Leishmania mexicana mexicana por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis durante o co-cultivo "in vitro"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inhibition of one Leishmania subspecies by exometabolites of another subspecies, a phenomenon not previously reported, is suggested by our recent observations in cell cloning experiments with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Clones were identified using the technique of schizodeme analysis. The phenomenon observed is clearly relevant to studies of parasite isolation, leishmanial metabolism, cross-immunity and chemotherapy.Inhibição do crescimento de um subespécie de Leishmania por exometabólitos de outra subespécie, um fenômeno ainda não notificado, é sugerido em nossas recentes observações em experimentos de clonagem celular com Leishmania mexicana mexicana e Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Os clones foram identificados usando a técnica de análise de esquizodemas. O fenômeno observado é claramente relevante em estudos de isolamento parasitário, metabolismo, imunidade cruzada e quimioterapia.

Raquel S. Pacheco

1987-12-01

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Immune responses induced by a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis recombinant antigen in mice and lymphocytes from vaccinated subjects  

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In the search for Leishmania recombinant antigens that can be used as a vaccine against American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we identified a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis recombinant protein of 33 kD (Larp33) which is recognized by antibodies and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacin ®, Larp33 was expressed in Escherichia coli after cloning of a 2,2 kb Sau3A digested genomic fragment of L. (L.) amazonensis into the pDS56-6 His vector. Immunoblotting an...

1997-01-01

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Inhibition of growth of Leishmania mexicana mexicana by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis during "in vitro" co-cultivation Inibição do crescimento de Leishmania mexicana mexicana por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis durante o co-cultivo "in vitro"  

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Inhibition of one Leishmania subspecies by exometabolites of another subspecies, a phenomenon not previously reported, is suggested by our recent observations in cell cloning experiments with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Clones were identified using the technique of schizodeme analysis. The phenomenon observed is clearly relevant to studies of parasite isolation, leishmanial metabolism, cross-immunity and chemotherapy.Inhibição do crescimento de um s...

1987-01-01

50

LaRbp38: A Leishmania amazonensis protein that binds nuclear and kinetoplast DNAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leishmania amazonensis causes a wide spectrum of leishmaniasis. There are no vaccines or adequate treatment for leishmaniasis, therefore there is considerable interest in the identification of new targets for anti-leishmania drugs. The central role of telomere-binding proteins in cell maintenance makes these proteins potential targets for new drugs. In this work, we used a combination of purification chromatographies to screen L. amazonensis proteins for molecules capable of binding double-stranded telomeric DNA. This approach resulted in the purification of a 38 kDa polypeptide that was identified by mass spectrometry as Rbp38, a trypanosomatid protein previously shown to stabilize mitochondrial RNA and to associate with nuclear and kinetoplast DNAs. Western blotting and supershift assays confirmed the identity of the protein as LaRbp38. Competition and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LaRbp38 interacted with kinetoplast and nuclear DNAs in vivo and suggested that LaRbp38 may have dual cellular localization and more than one function

2007-07-06

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Study of ionizing radiation as a tool for select promastigotes forms of Leishmania Amazonensis, and the megalomaniac response in experimental models; Estudo do uso da radiacao ionizante como ferramenta de selecao de formas promastigotas metaciclicas de Leishmania amazonensis, e a inducao de resposta imunologica em modelos experimentais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Actually, millions of people around the globe are under the risk of infection by a protozoan transmitted by a bit of a sand fly. This parasite is a Leishmania spp. This causes a wide spectrum disease, since a cutaneous disease to a visceral one. The cutaneous form is the major clinical manifestation (above 90%). The ionizing radiation, produced in a {sup 60}Co font, had being successes used to promote physical-chemical transformations on different protozoan, including Leishmania spp. In previous work was determined that promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis, irradiated with different doses of radiation, lost their viability maintaining, however, their immunogenicity. In this work, was studied the use of ionizing radiation as a tool for selection of meta cyclic forms of the parasite in axenic culture, for a possible efficient irradiated immuno gene production. Our results shown that cultures irradiated with 400 Gy of gamma irradiation, has 75% of metacyclic form, which are capable to produce, in vitro, an infection that is similar the natural occurrence. These irradiated parasites have their internal cellular structure modified, maintaining their external structure intact. Susceptible strain of mice immunized with leishmania irradiated with different doses had high immunoglobulin production, and maintained this production after the challenge with naive parasites. In other strains this default was similar, however in lower titles. Immunodeficient mice didn't produce immunoglobulin nor on the immunization or on the challenge. (author)

Bonetti, Franco Claudio

2006-07-01

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DNA Immunization with the Gene Encoding P4 Nuclease of Leishmania amazonensis Protects Mice against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

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Infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis can cause diverse clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Immunization with purified P4 nuclease protein has been shown to elicit a protective response in mice challenged with L. amazonensis and L. pifanoi. To explore the potential of a DNA-based vaccine, we tested the L. amazonensis gene encoding P4 nuclease as well as adjuvant constructs encoding murine interleukin-12 (IL-12) and L. amazonensis HSP70. Susceptible BALB/c mice were immuniz...

Campbell, Kimberly; Diao, Hong; Ji, Jiaxiang; Soong, Lynn

2003-01-01

53

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 exacerbates infection with Leishmania amazonensis in murine macrophages  

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In Leishmania amazonensis, kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) expression increases during metacyclogenesis and is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes, suggesting a role for this protein in the infection of the mammalian host. We show that the addition of KMP-11 exacerbates L. amazonensis infection in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice by increasing interleukin (IL)-10 secretion and arginase activity while reducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The doses of KMP-11, the IL-...

Daniel Ignacchiti Lacerda; Léa Cysne-Finkelstein; Marise Pinheiro Nunes; Paula Mello De-Luca; Marcelo da Silva Genestra; Leonor Laura Pinto Leon; Marcia Berrêdo-Pinho; Leila Mendonça-Lima; Denise Cristina de Souza Matos; Marco Alberto Medeiros; Sergio Coutinho Furtado de Mendonça

2012-01-01

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Reprogramming Neutral Lipid Metabolism in Mouse Dendritic Leucocytes Hosting Live Leishmania amazonensis Amastigotes  

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Once they have gained entry to mammals, live Leishmania (L) amazonensis amastigotes are known to subvert both macrophages and dendritic leucocytes (DLs) as host cells. These L. amazonensis amastigotes then may or may not proliferate in these two phagocytic leucocyte lineages, but in both cases the otherwise versatile differentiation program of these lineages is known to be rapidly remodeled. Here, we describe the rapid reprogramming of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse bone marrow-derived DLs, with a s...

Lecoeur, Herve?; Giraud, Emilie; Pre?vost, Marie-christine; Milon, Genevie?ve; Lang, Thierry

2013-01-01

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Effect of hydroxyurea on the intracellular multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi  

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Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply until lysis of host cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea (an inhibitor of cell division at the G1/S phase) on the multiplication of L. amazonensis, T. gondii, and T. cruzi in infected host cells. Infected cells were treated with hydroxyurea (4 mM) for 48 h. Hydroxyurea arrested intracellular multiplication of all infective forms of the par...

2003-01-01

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A dhfr-ts- Leishmania major Knockout Mutant Cross-protects against Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english E10-5A3 is a dhfr-ts- Leishmania major double knockout auxotrophic shown previously to induce substantial protection against virulent L. major infection in both genetically susceptible and resistant mice. We investigated the capacity of dhfr-ts- to protect against heterologous infection by L. amazon [...] ensis. The degree of protection was evaluated by immunization of BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice with E10-5A3, followed by L. amazonensis challenge. Whether immunized by subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) inoculation, susceptible and resistant mice displayed a partial degree of protection against challenge with virulent L. amazonensis. SC-immunized BALB/c mice developed lesions 40 to 65% smaller than non immunized mice, while IV immunization led to protection ranging from 40 to 75% in four out of six experiments compared to non immunized animals. The resistant C57BL/6 mice displayed comparable degrees of protection, 57% by SC and 49% by IV immunization. Results are encouraging as it has been previously difficult to obtain protection by SC vaccination against Leishmania, the preferred route for human immunization.

PST, Veras; CI, Brodskyn; FMP, Balestieri; LAR de, Freitas; APS, Ramos; ARP, Queiroz; A, Barral; SM, Beverley; M, Barral-Netto.

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Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6 stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L. amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.

Oliveira Thiago de Sá

2000-01-01

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Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were [...] used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6) stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L.) amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.

Thiago de Sá, Oliveira; Mário, Capp Neto; Bernardo José Alves, Martins; Helbert Abe, Rodrigues; Rosa Maria Parreiras, Antonino; Albino Verçosa, Magalhães.

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Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis growth in vitro culture relies more on folic acid availability than Leihsmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared the in vitro growth of promastigotes from two Leishmania species in TC-100 and Schneider media. Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis replication rates were similar in both tissue culture media and reached maximum rates by 48 h. In contrast Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis growth was significantly greater in TC-100 but maximum rates were achieved by 96 h. Folic acid appears to be the limiting factor and supplementation of Schneider media with this nutrient improved L. (V. braziliensis replication rates and decreased the time of maximum replication to 48 h.

Andrea Niño

2005-05-01

60

Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (LLa) with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin). The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-gamma by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinregister mark or target. The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 microg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred microg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 10(5) infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57. 14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7. 60) and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-gamma production. When crude extract of L. (L.) amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:10564919

Mora, A M; Mayrink, W; Costa, R T; Costa, C A; Genaro, O; Nascimento, E

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sand fly captures with Disney traps in area of occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil Capturas de flebotomíneos com armadilhas de Disney em área de ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The work was conducted to study phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in a forested area where Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis occurs, situated in the municipality of Bela Vista, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The captures were conducted with modified Disney traps, using hamster (Mesocricetus auratus as bait, from May 2004 to January 2006. RESULTS: Ten species of phlebotomine sandflies were captured: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The two predominant species were Ev bourrouli (57.3% and Bi flaviscutellata (41.4%, present at all sampling sites. Two of the 36 hamsters used as bait presented natural infection with Leishmania. The parasite was identified as Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results revealed the efficiency of Disney traps for capturing Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and the simultaneous presence of both vector and the Leishmania species transmitted by the same can be considered a predictive factor of the occurrence of leishmaniasis outbreaks for the human population that occupies the location.INTRODUÇÃO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae e aspectos ligados à transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma área florestal com ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, situada no município de Bela Vista, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As capturas de flebotomíneos foram realizadas utilizando-se armadilhas tipo Disney modificadas, com isca roedor, Mesocricetus auratus, no período de maio de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. RESULTADOS: As coletas resultaram na identificação de 10 espécies de Phlebotominae: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni e Sciopemyia sordellii. As duas espécies predominantes foram Ev bourrouli, com 57,3% dos espécimes coletados, e Bi. flaviscutellata, representada por 41,4% e que esteve presente em todos os locais amostrados. Dois hamsters sentinelas adquiriram a infecção natural, sendo os isolados identificados como Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram a eficiência das armadilhas Disney para captura de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, e a presença simultânea de ambos, o vetor e a espécie de Leishmania por ele transmitida pode ser considerada um fator preditor da ocorrência de leishmaniose para a população humana que permanecer nesse local.

Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval

2010-10-01

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Sand fly captures with Disney traps in area of occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil / Capturas de flebotomíneos com armadilhas de Disney em área de ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) e aspectos ligados à transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma área florestal com ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, situada no município de Bela Vista, Estado d [...] o Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As capturas de flebotomíneos foram realizadas utilizando-se armadilhas tipo Disney modificadas, com isca roedor, Mesocricetus auratus, no período de maio de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. RESULTADOS: As coletas resultaram na identificação de 10 espécies de Phlebotominae: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni e Sciopemyia sordellii. As duas espécies predominantes foram Ev bourrouli, com 57,3% dos espécimes coletados, e Bi. flaviscutellata, representada por 41,4% e que esteve presente em todos os locais amostrados. Dois hamsters sentinelas adquiriram a infecção natural, sendo os isolados identificados como Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram a eficiência das armadilhas Disney para captura de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, e a presença simultânea de ambos, o vetor e a espécie de Leishmania por ele transmitida pode ser considerada um fator preditor da ocorrência de leishmaniose para a população humana que permanecer nesse local. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The work was conducted to study phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in a forested area where Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis occurs, situated in the municipality of Bela Vista, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. M [...] ETHODS: The captures were conducted with modified Disney traps, using hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as bait, from May 2004 to January 2006. RESULTS: Ten species of phlebotomine sandflies were captured: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The two predominant species were Ev bourrouli (57.3%) and Bi flaviscutellata (41.4%), present at all sampling sites. Two of the 36 hamsters used as bait presented natural infection with Leishmania. The parasite was identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results revealed the efficiency of Disney traps for capturing Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and the simultaneous presence of both vector and the Leishmania species transmitted by the same can be considered a predictive factor of the occurrence of leishmaniasis outbreaks for the human population that occupies the location.

Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Alves, Tulia Peixoto; Cristaldo, Geucira; Rocha, Hilda Carlos da; Alves, Murilo Andrade; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cunha, Rivaldo Venancio da.

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Further observations on clinical, histopathological, and immunological features of borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

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Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis has for some time been considered as the causative agent of two distinct forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), and anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL). Recently, a new intermediate form of disease, borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCL), was introduced into the clinical spectrum of ACL caused by this parasite, and in this paper we record the clinical, histopathological, and immun...

Silveira, Fernando T.; Ralph Lainson; Ep, Carlos Corbett

2005-01-01

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Immune responses induced by a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis recombinant antigen in mice and lymphocytes from vaccinated subjects.  

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In the search for Leishmania recombinant antigens that can be used as a vaccine against American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we identified a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis recombinant protein of 33 kD (Larp33) which is recognized by antibodies and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacin, Larp33 was expressed in Escherichia coli after cloning of a 2.2 kb Sau3 digested genomic fragment of L. (L.) amazonensis into the pDS56-6 His vector. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that Larp33 corresponds to an approximately 40-kD native protein expressed in promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) braziliensis. Northern blots of total RNA also demonstrated that the gene coding for this protein is expressed in promastigotes of the major lineages of Leishmania causing American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Larp33 induced partial protection in susceptible mouse strains (BALB/c and C57BL/10) against L. (L.) amazonensis after vaccination using Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as adjuvant. In vitro stimulation of splenocytes from BALB/c protected mice with Larp33 elicited the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, suggesting that a Th1 cell-mediated protective response is associated with the resistance observed in these mice. As revealed by its immunogenic and antigenic properties, this novel recombinant antigen is a suitable candidate to compose a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:9394518

Fernandes, A P; Herrera, E C; Mayrink, W; Gazzinelli, R T; Liu, W Y; de Costa, C A; Tavares, C A; Melo, M N; Michalick, M S; Gentz, R; Nascimento, E

1997-01-01

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Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours bl [...] ood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Natalia Cadaxo, Rochael; Luize Goncalves, Lima; Sandra Maria Pereira de, Oliveira; Marcello Andre, Barcinski; Elvira Maria, Saraiva; Robson Queiroz, Monteiro; Lucia Helena, Pinto-da-Silva.

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Low and high-dose intradermal infection with Leishmania majorand Leishmania amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice  

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A model of skin infection with Leishmania amazonensiswith low doses of parasites is compared to infection with high doses of L. amazonensis and low and high doses of Leishmania major. C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10³ or 10(6) parasites in the ear and the outcome of infection was assessed. The appearance of lesions in mice infected with 10³ parasites was delayed compared to mice infected with 10(6) Leishmania and parasites were detectable at the infection site before lesions became appare...

Denise Fonseca Côrtes; Matheus Batista Heitor Carneiro; Liliane Martins Santos; Talita Correia de Oliveira Souza; Tatiane Uceli Maioli; Duz, Ana Luiza C.; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge; Luis Carlos Crocco Afonso; Claudia Carneiro; Leda Quercia Vieira

2010-01-01

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Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.

Lianet Monzote

2007-08-01

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Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis / Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óle [...] o de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência. Abstract in english To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a comb [...] ination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.

Monzote, Lianet; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Scull, Ramón; Miranda, Migdalia; Abreu, Juan.

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Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine / Ensaio terapêutico na leishmaniose tegumentar experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Um estudo comparativo entre mefloquina e aminosidine  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados 182 camundongos machos, isogênicos, da linhagem C57BL/6 inoculados na orelha direita com 3,0 x 10(6) formas promastigotas da cepa MHOM/BR/PH8 de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Os animais foram separados em três grupos: 1) 52 animais tratados com mefloquina (16mg/kg/dia/10 dias [...] ), 2) 52 animais tratados com aminosidina [Paramomicina ®] (20mg/kg/dia/20 dias), 3) 78 animais controles, não manipulados. Vinte e seis animais de cada grupo tratado foram sacrificados nove e quinze semanas após a inoculação. Animais do grupo controle foram sacrificados na sexta, nona e décima quinta semanas após a inoculação. Ao final do tratamento, em relação à curva de peso da orelhas, somente nos animais tratados com aminosidina, houve nítida redução do peso em comparação com grupo controle. Na histopatologia verificou-se: a) não houve diferença entre o grupo tratado com mefloquina e o grupo controle; o grupo tratado com aminosidina, ao final do tratamento, teve menor infiltração por macrófagos vacuolizados; b) as avaliações da extensão das áreas de necrose e do nível da fibrose tecidual não mostraram diferenças entre os grupos tratados. Os animais do grupo controle apresentaram fibrose mais acentuada, seis semanas após o fim do tratamento. Pode-se concluir que ocorreu efeito terapêutico reduzido com a mefloquina e houve significativa melhora com a aminosidina. Entretanto, em todos os grupos as lesões não chegaram a curar. Abstract in english One hundred and eighty-two male inbred C57/BL/6 mice were infected with 3 x 106 Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain by means of a subcutaneous injection in the right ear. The animals were separated in three groups: 1) oral mefloquine hydrochloride treatment (1 [...] 6mg/kg/day/10 days), 2) intramuscular aminosidine (Paromomycin®) treatment (20mg/kg/20 days) and 3) control. Twenty six mice of each treated group were sacrificed, one at the end of treatment (nine weeks after inoculation), and one six weeks later (fifteen weeks after inoculation). Control Group animals were sacrificed at weeks six, nine and fifteen after inoculation. There was no significant difference between Group 1 (mefloquine) and Group 3 (control) subjects. Group 2 animals (aminosidine) presented the smallest differences of all, both at the end of the treatment and six weeks later. The histopato-logical parameters have shown the following findings: a) there was no significant difference between the mefloquine treated group and the control group; the group treated with aminosidine showed fewer of vacuolated macrophages than the control group, at week 9 (end of treatment). b) both at the end of treatment and six weeks later, evaluation of tissue necrosis and tissue fibrosis revealed no differences between the treated groups. It was found that six weeks after the end of treatment, mice in the control group presented significantly more severe degrees of fibrosis than mice in the other groups. It can be concluded that mefloquine showed limited therapeutic effect in this experimental model, whereas aminosidine had a significant effect. Nevertheless, neither of them resulted in cure of the lesions.

Galvão, Letícia Oba; Moreira Júnior, Sebastião; Medeiros Júnior, Pedro; Lemos, Gleiser José Piantino; Cunha, Nara Fabiana; Antonino, Rosa Maria Parreiras; Santos Filho, Bráulio Silva; Magalhães, Albino Verçosa.

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Immune responses associated with susceptibility of C57BL/10 mice to Leishmania amazonensis.  

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Leishmaniae are protozoans which, depending upon both the host and parasite species, can cause either a healing or nonhealing infection. While C57BL/10 mice are able to heal following infection with Leishmania major, they fail to heal following infection with Leishmania amazonensis. In order to address the role of Th1 and Th2 cell responses in the outcome of these infections in C57BL/10 mice, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production was assessed. While cells from L. ma...

Afonso, L. C.; Scott, P.

1993-01-01

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Diseminación tisular y efectos histopatológicos producidos por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis en roedores infectados experimentalmente / Tissue dissemination and histopathology effects produced by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis in rodents experimentally infected  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al género Leishmania pertenecen diferentes especies responsables de diversas formas clínicas de leishmaniasis. En este trabajo comparamos los efectos histopatológicos producidos en hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) y ratones (Mus musculus) infectados experimentalmente por vía subcutánea con 20 x 10(5) [...] amastigotes de Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Nuestros resultados mostraron en hamsters daños histopatológicos en intestino, escroto, testículo, epidídimo, bazo, hígado, riñón, corazón y pulmón y en ratones en testículo, bazo, riñón y corazón. Estos resultados evidencian diferencias en la diseminación tisular, metástasis cutáneas, efectos histopatológicos y mortalidad, siendo más amplios, tempranos y graves en hamsters que en ratones. Abstract in english Leishmania comprises different species responsible of a variety of clinical forms of leishmaniasis. In this investigation we compared the histopathological effects produced in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and mice (Mus musculus), inoculated by the subcutaneous route with 20 x 10(5) amastigotes of [...] Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Our results in hamsters show tissue damage in gut, scrotum, testicle, epididimus, spleen, liver, kidney, heart and lung and in mice we found histopathological changes in testicle, spleen, kidney and heart. These results show differences on tissue dissemination, cutaneous metastasis, histopathological effects and mortality, being more extensive, early and severe in hamsters then in mice.

Bruzual, Elizabeth; Arcay, Lucila; de la Parte-Pérez, María Antonia.

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The T-cell anergy induced by Leishmania amazonensis antigens is related with defective antigen presentation and apoptosis  

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Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease associated with anergic immune responses. In this study we show that the crude antigen of Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg but not L. braziliensis promastigotes (LbAg contains substances that suppress mitogenic and spontaneous proliferative responses of T cells. The suppressive substances in LaAg are thermoresistant (100ºC/1h and partially dependent on protease activity. T cell anergy was not due to a decreased production of growth factors as it was not reverted by addition of exogenous IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma or IL-12. LaAg did not inhibit anti-CD3-induced T cell activation, suggesting that anergy was due to a defect in antigen presentation. It was also not due to cell necrosis, but was accompanied by expressive DNA fragmentation in lymph node cells, indicative of apoptosis. Although pre-incubation of macrophages with LaAg prevented their capacity to present antigens, this effect was not due to apoptosis of the former. These results suggest that the T cell anergy found in diffuse leishmaniasis may be the result of parasite antigen-driven apoptosis of those cells following defective antigen presentation.A Leishmania amazonensis é o principal agente etiológico da leishmaniose cutânea difusa, uma doença associada a respostas imunes anérgicas. Neste estudo nós mostramos que o extrato bruto de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg, mas não de L. braziliensis (LbAg, contém substâncias que suprimem respostas proliferativas, espontâneas e mitogênicas, de células T. As substâncias supressoras no LaAg são termo-resistentes (100°C/1h e parcialmente dependentes da atividade de proteases. A anergia de células T não foi devida à diminuição na produção de fatores de crescimento, uma vez que não foi revertida pela adição de: IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gama ou IL-12. O LaAg não inibiu a ativação de células T induzida por anti-CD3, sugerindo que a anergia é devida a um defeito na apresentação de antígenos. A anergia não foi devida à necrose celular, mas foi acompanhada de uma expressiva fragmentação de DNA nas células de linfonodos, indicativo de apoptose. Apesar da pré-incubação de macrófagos com LaAg ter inibido sua capacidade de apresentação de antigenos, este efeito não foi devido à apoptose dos primeiros. Estes resultados sugerem que a anergia de células T encontrada na leishmaniose difusa deve ser devida à apoptose dessas células que se segue à apresentação defeituosa de antígenos pelo antígeno do parasito.

Roberta O. Pinheiro

2004-09-01

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The T-cell anergy induced by Leishmania amazonensis antigens is related with defective antigen presentation and apoptosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Leishmania amazonensis é o principal agente etiológico da leishmaniose cutânea difusa, uma doença associada a respostas imunes anérgicas. Neste estudo nós mostramos que o extrato bruto de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg), mas não de L. braziliensis (LbAg), contém substâncias que supr [...] imem respostas proliferativas, espontâneas e mitogênicas, de células T. As substâncias supressoras no LaAg são termo-resistentes (100°C/1h) e parcialmente dependentes da atividade de proteases. A anergia de células T não foi devida à diminuição na produção de fatores de crescimento, uma vez que não foi revertida pela adição de: IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gama ou IL-12. O LaAg não inibiu a ativação de células T induzida por anti-CD3, sugerindo que a anergia é devida a um defeito na apresentação de antígenos. A anergia não foi devida à necrose celular, mas foi acompanhada de uma expressiva fragmentação de DNA nas células de linfonodos, indicativo de apoptose. Apesar da pré-incubação de macrófagos com LaAg ter inibido sua capacidade de apresentação de antigenos, este efeito não foi devido à apoptose dos primeiros. Estes resultados sugerem que a anergia de células T encontrada na leishmaniose difusa deve ser devida à apoptose dessas células que se segue à apresentação defeituosa de antígenos pelo antígeno do parasito. Abstract in english Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease associated with anergic immune responses. In this study we show that the crude antigen of Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg) but not L. braziliensis promastigotes (LbAg) contains substances that suppress mitogenic and [...] spontaneous proliferative responses of T cells. The suppressive substances in LaAg are thermoresistant (100ºC/1h) and partially dependent on protease activity. T cell anergy was not due to a decreased production of growth factors as it was not reverted by addition of exogenous IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma or IL-12. LaAg did not inhibit anti-CD3-induced T cell activation, suggesting that anergy was due to a defect in antigen presentation. It was also not due to cell necrosis, but was accompanied by expressive DNA fragmentation in lymph node cells, indicative of apoptosis. Although pre-incubation of macrophages with LaAg prevented their capacity to present antigens, this effect was not due to apoptosis of the former. These results suggest that the T cell anergy found in diffuse leishmaniasis may be the result of parasite antigen-driven apoptosis of those cells following defective antigen presentation.

Roberta O., Pinheiro; Eduardo F., Pinto; Alessandra B., Benedito; Ulisses G., Lopes; Bartira, Rossi-Bergmann.

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Experimental infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os autores lograram infectar flebótomos em um caso humano de leishmaniose tegumentar americana fazendo fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis se alimentarem em paciente com lesões devida à Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. [...] Abstract in english The authors were able to infect phlebotomine sandflies on a human case of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by feeding females of Lutzomyia longipalpis on a patient with a lesion due to Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. [...

Leonidas M., Deane; Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel; Manoel, Paes-Oliveira; Gabriel, Grimaldi Junior; Hooman, Momen; Nataly de, Souza; Eduardo D., Wermelinger; André F., Barbosa.

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Reductions in Skin and Systemic Parasite Burdens as a Combined Effect of Topical Paromomycin and Oral Miltefosine Treatment of Mice Experimentally Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis?  

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This study aimed to investigate the activity of a combination of topical paromomycin gel and oral miltefosine for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The efficacy of the combination, evaluated by measuring lesion size and parasite burden in the skin and spleen, was assessed in BALB/c mice infected by L. (L.) amazonensis. The miltefosine was administered orally at 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for 10 days, while 10% paromomycin gel...

Aguiar, Marta Gontijo; Pereira, Aline Ma?rcia Machado; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Lucas Antonio Miranda

2010-01-01

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Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine Ensaio terapêutico na leishmaniose tegumentar experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Um estudo comparativo entre mefloquina e aminosidine  

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One hundred and eighty-two male inbred C57/BL/6 mice were infected with 3 x 106 Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain by means of a subcutaneous injection in the right ear. The animals were separated in three groups: 1) oral mefloquine hydrochloride treatment (16mg/kg/day/10 days), 2) intramuscular aminosidine (Paromomycin®) treatment (20mg/kg/20 days) and 3) control. Twenty six mice of each treated group were sacrificed, one at the end of treatment (nin...

Letícia Oba Galvão; Sebastião Moreira Júnior; Pedro Medeiros Júnior; Gleiser José Piantino Lemos; Nara Fabiana Cunha; Rosa Maria Parreiras Antonino; Bráulio Silva Santos Filho; Albino Verçosa Magalhães

2000-01-01

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The putative telomerase reverse transcriptase component of Leishmania amazonensis: gene cloning and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leishmania amazonensis telomerase gene was cloned by a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy using primers designed from a Leishmania major sequence that shared similarities with conserved telomerase motifs. The genes from three other species were cloned for comparative purposes. A ClustalW multiple-sequence alignment demonstrated that the Leishmania telomerases show greater homology with each other than with the proteins of other kinetoplastids and eukaryotes. Characterization experiments indicated that the putative Leishmania telomerase gene was probably in single copy and located in the largest chromosomes. A single messenger ribonucleic acid transcript was found in promastigotes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Leishmania telomerase might represent a liaison between the oldest and the newest branches of telomerases. PMID:16416120

Giardini, Miriam A; Lira, Cristina B B; Conte, Fábio F; Camillo, Luciana R; de Siqueira Neto, Jair L; Ramos, Carlos H I; Cano, Maria Isabel N

2006-04-01

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Effect of hydroxyurea on the intracellular multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi  

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Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply until lysis of host cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea (an inhibitor of cell division at the G1/S phase on the multiplication of L. amazonensis, T. gondii, and T. cruzi in infected host cells. Infected cells were treated with hydroxyurea (4 mM for 48 h. Hydroxyurea arrested intracellular multiplication of all infective forms of the parasites tested. In treated cultures, the percent of infected host cells decreased (50-97% and most intracellular parasites were eliminated. Ultrastructural observations showed no morphologic change in host cells while intracellular parasites presented drastic morphologic alterations or disruption. The results strongly suggest that hydroxyurea was able to interfere with the multiplication of intracellular parasites, leading to an irreversible morphological effect on L. amazonensis, T. gondii, and T. cruzi without affecting the host cells.

E.J.T. Melo

2003-01-01

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Low and high-dose intradermal infection with Leishmania majorand Leishmania amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A model of skin infection with Leishmania amazonensiswith low doses of parasites is compared to infection with high doses of L. amazonensis and low and high doses of Leishmania major. C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10³ or 10(6) parasites in the ear and the outcome of infection was assessed. The app [...] earance of lesions in mice infected with 10³ parasites was delayed compared to mice infected with 10(6) Leishmania and parasites were detectable at the infection site before lesions became apparent. Mice infected with L. amazonensisdisplayed persistent lesions, whereas infection with L. major spontaneously healed in all groups, although lymphocytes persisted at the site of infection after healing. Macrophages persisted only in L. amazonensis-infected mice. High-dose L. amazonensis-infected mice produced lower levels of IFN-? and TNF than mice infected with L. major. No correlation between the persistence of parasites and IL-10 levels and the production of nitric oxide or urea by macrophages was found. We conclude that infection with low doses of L. amazonensisin the dermis changes the course of infection by delaying the appearance of lesions. However, low-dose infection does not change the outcomes of susceptibility and cytokine production described for subcutaneous infection with high numbers of parasites.

Côrtes, Denise Fonseca; Carneiro, Matheus Batista Heitor; Santos, Liliane Martins; Souza, Talita Correia de Oliveira; Maioli, Tatiane Uceli; Duz, Ana Luiza C; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Afonso, Luis Carlos Crocco; Carneiro, Claudia; Vieira, Leda Quercia.

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Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Proteção de camundongos C57BL/10 vacinados por vacinas contituidas pelas combinações de proteínas purificadas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis (LLa with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin. The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-g by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinâ . The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 mg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred mg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 105 infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57.14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7.60 and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-g production. When crude extract of L. (L. amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.A indução de imunidade no homem contra a leishmaniose cutânea tem sido estudada por vários pesquisadores usando uma grande variedade de preparações antigênicas, como: promastigotas vivas ou atenuadas, extratos de promastigotas, antígenos parcialmente purificados e proteínas puras. Neste trabalho foram isoladas 11 proteínas de L. (L. amazonensis com pesos moleculares variando de 13.5 a 97 kDa por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e por eletroeluição. Estas proteínas foram combinadas em diferentes preparações vacinais com gp63 e BCG. As vacinas foram avaliadas in vitro quanto à capacidade de estimular linfócitos de pessoas vacinadas com Leishvacinâ a produzirem IFN-g e a estimularem a proliferação de linfócitos de camundongos vacinados. Assim, camundongos C57BL/10 foram vacinados em intervalos de 15 dias com três doses de cada vacina contendo 30 mg de cada proteína. 100 mg de BCG foram usados somente na primeira dose. Sete dias após a última dose os animais receberam a primeira infecção desafiado com 105 promastigotas infectantes e um segundo desafio foi administrado 143 dias após, com o mesmo número de parasitas. Sessenta dias após o segundo desafio, proteções de 42,86% foram obtidas com as vacinas constituídas de gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa e gp63+97kDa; 57,14% de proteção foi obtido com a vacina gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, e 71,43% com a vacina constituída de gp63 mais todas as proteínas. Em contraste, a vacina gp63+46+33kDa não induziu proteção nos camundongos vacinados, indicando que possivelmente a proteína de 40kDa induziu a uma atividade imunossupressora da resposta imunoprotetora. Estes resultados sugerem que uma futura vacina contra a leishmaniose cutânea deverá conter, excluindo-se a proteína de 40kDa, um coquetel de proteínas imunogênicas indutoras de proteção de camundongos contra a leishmaniose cutânea.

Ana Mariela MORA

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Proteção de camundongos C57BL/10 vacinados por vacinas contituidas pelas combinações de proteínas purificadas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A indução de imunidade no homem contra a leishmaniose cutânea tem sido estudada por vários pesquisadores usando uma grande variedade de preparações antigênicas, como: promastigotas vivas ou atenuadas, extratos de promastigotas, antígenos parcialmente purificados e proteínas puras. Neste trabalho for [...] am isoladas 11 proteínas de L. (L.) amazonensis com pesos moleculares variando de 13.5 a 97 kDa por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e por eletroeluição. Estas proteínas foram combinadas em diferentes preparações vacinais com gp63 e BCG. As vacinas foram avaliadas in vitro quanto à capacidade de estimular linfócitos de pessoas vacinadas com Leishvacinâ a produzirem IFN-g e a estimularem a proliferação de linfócitos de camundongos vacinados. Assim, camundongos C57BL/10 foram vacinados em intervalos de 15 dias com três doses de cada vacina contendo 30 mg de cada proteína. 100 mg de BCG foram usados somente na primeira dose. Sete dias após a última dose os animais receberam a primeira infecção desafiado com 105 promastigotas infectantes e um segundo desafio foi administrado 143 dias após, com o mesmo número de parasitas. Sessenta dias após o segundo desafio, proteções de 42,86% foram obtidas com as vacinas constituídas de gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa e gp63+97kDa; 57,14% de proteção foi obtido com a vacina gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, e 71,43% com a vacina constituída de gp63 mais todas as proteínas. Em contraste, a vacina gp63+46+33kDa não induziu proteção nos camundongos vacinados, indicando que possivelmente a proteína de 40kDa induziu a uma atividade imunossupressora da resposta imunoprotetora. Estes resultados sugerem que uma futura vacina contra a leishmaniose cutânea deverá conter, excluindo-se a proteína de 40kDa, um coquetel de proteínas imunogênicas indutoras de proteção de camundongos contra a leishmaniose cutânea. Abstract in english In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Lei [...] shmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (LLa) with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin). The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-g by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinâ . The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 mg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred mg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 105 infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57.14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7.60) and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-g production. When crude extract of L. (L.) amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmania

Ana Mariela, MORA; Wilson, MAYRINK; Roberto Teodoro da, COSTA; Carlos Alberto da, COSTA; Odair, GENARO; Evaldo, NASCIMENTO.

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Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis amastigote extracts differ in their enhancement effect on Leishmania infection when injected intradermally  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It has been reported that repeated intravenous injections of a relatively large amount of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote extract (LaE) in BALB/c mice exacerbates the infection of these mice by Leishmania braziliensis. The identification of the extract active principle(s) through physicochemical purification often involves dilution and losses of protein in the course of successive purification procedures. The large amount of the extract required to induce the phenomenon, therefore, hinders the carrying out of experiments aimed at identifying the active molecule(s) through extract purification. In the present work, a dose–response experiment was done to find out if smaller amounts of LaE than that necessary to be used by the intravenous route would reproduce the phenomenon when injected by the intradermal route. In addition, it was also investigated whether a Leishmania braziliensis amastigote extract (LbE) would exert the same effect and whether the effect would occur in C57BL/6 mice. Results It was found that a single injection of either LaE or LbE containing 5 ?g of protein was capable of enhancing the infection in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, it was observed that the largest tested doses of LbE (containing 30 and 180 ?g of protein) failed to enhance the infection by L. braziliensis, whereas all doses of LaE enhanced equally that infection. Conclusions Those results indicate the possible existence in LbE, and not in LaE, of molecules that interfere with the extract infection-enhancing activity when it is injected in large amounts, and that the inoculation of Leishmania extracts through the intravenous and intradermal routes potentiate the infection by L. braziliensis through the same mechanism.

2014-01-01

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Increased efficacy of antileishmanial antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides in Leishmania amazonensis overexpressing ribonuclease H  

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Ribonuclease H (RNase H), an enzyme that cleaves an RNA sequence base-paired with a complementary DNA sequence, is proposed to be the mediator of antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide (S-oligo) lethality in a cell. To understand the role of RNase H in the killing of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania by antisense S-oligos, we expressed an episomal copy of the Trypanosoma brucei RNase H1 gene inside L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes that constitutively express firefly luciferas...

2001-01-01

84

Selective Effect of 2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-Methoxychalcone Isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis  

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2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 ?g/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of ...

Torres-santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-bergmann, Bartira

1999-01-01

85

In Vitro Activities of Iboga Alkaloid Congeners Coronaridine and 18-Methoxycoronaridine against Leishmania amazonensis  

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In previous studies, we demonstrated the leishmanicide effect of coronaridine, a natural indole alkaloid isolated from stem bark of Peschiera australis (Delorenzi et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:1349-1354, 2001). In this study we show the leishmanicidal effect of the synthetic coronaridine and its racemic 18-methoxylated analog, 18-methoxycoronaridine. Both alkaloids revealed a potent leishmanicide effect against Leishmania amazonensis, a causative agent of cutaneous and diffuse cuta...

Delorenzi, Jan Carlo; Freire-de-lima, Leonardo; Gattass, Cerli R.; Andrade Costa, Deise; He, Liwen; Kuehne, Martin E.; Saraiva, Elvira M. B.

2002-01-01

86

Antileishmanial Activity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazolium-2-Aminide in Mice Infected with Leishmania amazonensis?  

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The efficacy of two mesoionic derivatives (MI-H-H and MI-4-OCH3) was evaluated in CBA/J mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. Treatment with these compounds demonstrated that the MI-4-OCH3 derivative and the reference drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) presented significant activity relative to an untreated control. No apparent hepatic or renal toxicity due to these mesoionic compounds was found.

Rodrigues, Raquel F.; Charret, Karen S.; Da Silva, Edson F.; Echevarria, A?urea; Amaral, Vero?nica F.; Leon, Leonor L.; Canto-cavalheiro, Marilene M.

2009-01-01

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Daño ultraestructural del intestino medio abdominal de Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz (Diptera: Psychodidae ocasionado por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis ULTRASTRUCTURAL DAMAGE TO THE MIDDLE INTESTINE OF Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el intestino medio abdominal de Lutzomyia ovallesi infectada con Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Las hembras se observaron a los siete días post- infección, utilizando microscopía de luz de alta resolución y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Se distinguieron dos tipos de células epiteliales, células digestivas y células secretoras, en el intestino medio abdominal de L. ovallesi, tanto en los insectos controles como en flebotominos infectados. Los resultados muestran además, que L. ovallesi presentó alteraciones en la citoar-quitectura celular del intestino medio abdominal producto de la infección con L. (L. amazonensis, observándose gran distensión del diámetro de la luz intestinal, degeneración de sus células, pérdida parcial o total de las microvellosidades y engrosamiento de la capa basal de toda la porción del intestino. Las células epiteliales presentaron degeneración vacuolar y mitocondrial y en la luz intestinal se observaron desechos epiteliales. El daño celular observado en el intestino medio abdominal de L. ovallesi, pueden tener relación con la secreción de lectinas y con la formación del gel observado, semejante a una matriz, en el lumen del intestino. Es necesario continuar los estudios para dilucidar aspectos importantes de la interrelación Leishmania-vector.A study was done in the middle intestine of Lutzomyia ovallesi infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amzonensis. The females were examined seven days after infection by means of high resolution light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two kinds of epithelial cells, digestive and secretory, were observed in the middle intestine of L. ovallesi, in both control insects and in those infected. Results showed changes in the cytoarchitecture of the intestine as a consequence of infection with L. (L. amazonensis. There was a great increase in the diameter of the intestine, showing signs of cellular degeneration, such as partial or total loss of microvilli and the thickening of the basal layer of the whole portion of the intestine. Epithelial cells showed damage in vacuoles and mitochondria, and epithelial waste was observable in the intestine. Cellular damage in the middle intestine of L. ovallesi produced by infection with L. (L. amazonensis is perhaps connected with lectin secretion and formation of gel, similar to that of a matrix, in the intestinal lumen. More studies are needed to clarify important aspects of the relationship between Leishmania and the vector.

ELSA NIEVES

2004-07-01

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Immune responses induced by the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani A2 antigen, but not by the LACK antigen, are protective against experimental Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania amazonensis is one of the major etiologic agents of a broad spectrum of clinical forms of leishmaniasis and has a wide geographical distribution in the Americas, which overlaps with the areas of transmission of many other Leishmania species. The LACK and A2 antigens are shared by various Leishmania species. A2 was previously shown to induce a potent Th1 immune response and protection against L. donovani infection in BALB/c mice. LACK is effective against L. major infection, but no significant protection against L. donovani infection was observed, in spite of the induction of a potent Th1 immune response. In an attempt to select candidate antigens for an American leishmaniasis vaccine, we investigated the protective effect of these recombinant antigens (rLACK and rA2) and recombinant interleukin-12 (rIL-12) against L. amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice. As expected, immunization with either rA2-rIL-12 or rLACK-rIL-12 induced a robust Th1 response prior to infection. However, only the BALB/c mice immunized with rA2-rIL-12 were protected against infection. Sustained gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production, high levels of anti-A2 antibodies, and low levels of parasite-specific antibodies were detected in these mice after infection. In contrast, mice immunized with rLACK-rIL-12 displayed decreased levels of IFN-gamma and high levels of both anti-LACK and parasite-specific antibodies. Curiously, the association between rA2 and rLACK antigens in the same vaccine completely inhibited the rA2-specific IFN-gamma and humoral responses and, consequently, the protective effect of the rA2 antigen against L. amazonensis infection. We concluded that A2, but not LACK, fits the requirements for a safe vaccine against American leishmaniasis. PMID:12819086

Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio Amorim; Chaves, Karina Figueiredo; Teixeira, Kadima Nayara; Rodrigues, Rafaela Chitarra; Charest, Hugues; Matlashewski, Greg; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

2003-07-01

89

Dietary flavonoids fisetin, luteolin and their derived compounds inhibit arginase, a central enzyme in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fisetin, quercetin, luteolin and 7,8-hydroxyflavone show high activity in Leishmania cultures and present low toxicity to mammalian cells. In this work, the structural aspects of 13 flavonoids were analyzed for their inhibition of the arginase enzyme from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. A higher potency of arginase inhibition was observed with fisetin, which was four and ten times greater than that of quercetin and luteolin, respectively. These data show that the hydroxyl group at position 3 contributed significantly to the inhibitory activity of arginase, while the hydroxyl group at position 5 did not. The absence of the catechol group on apigenin drastically decreased arginase inhibition. Additionally, the docking of compounds showed that the inhibitors interact with amino acids involved in the Mn(+2)-Mn(+2) metal bridge formation at the catalytic site. Due to the low IC50 values of these flavonoids, they may be used as a food supplement in leishmaniasis treatment. PMID:23870955

Manjolin, Leticia Correa; dos Reis, Matheus Balduíno Goncalves; Maquiaveli, Claudia do Carmo; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo Andrade; da Silva, Edson Roberto

2013-12-01

90

Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK2 mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of 60Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

2000-01-01

91

Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Gene Encoding a Protective Leishmania amazonensis Trp-Asp (WD) Protein  

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Several Leishmania proteins have been identified and characterized in pursuit of understanding pathogenesis and protection in cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we utilized sera from infected BALB/c mice to screen a Leishmania amazonensis amastigote cDNA expression library and obtained the full-length gene that encodes a novel Trp-Asp (WD) protein designated LAWD (for Leishmania antigenic WD protein). The WD family of proteins mediates protein-protein interactions and coordinates ...

Campbell, Kimberly; Popov, Vsevolod; Soong, Lynn

2004-01-01

92

Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection  

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Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-? and TNF-? with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-? and TNF-? levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-? or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses.

Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

2014-01-01

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Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 exacerbates infection with Leishmania amazonensis in murine macrophages  

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Full Text Available In Leishmania amazonensis, kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11 expression increases during metacyclogenesis and is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes, suggesting a role for this protein in the infection of the mammalian host. We show that the addition of KMP-11 exacerbates L. amazonensis infection in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice by increasing interleukin (IL-10 secretion and arginase activity while reducing nitric oxide (NO production. The doses of KMP-11, the IL-10 levels and the intracellular amastigote loads were strongly, positively and significantly correlated. The increase in parasite load induced by KMP-11 was inhibited by anti-KMP-11 or anti-IL-10 neutralising antibodies, but not by isotype controls. The neutralising antibodies, but not the isotype controls, were also able to significantly decrease the parasite load in macrophages cultured without the addition of KMP-11, demonstrating that KMP-11-induced exacerbation of the infection is not dependent on the addition of exogenous KMP-11 and that the protein naturally expressed by the parasite is able to promote it. In this study, the exacerbating effect of KMP-11 on macrophage infection with Leishmania is for the first time demonstrated, implicating it as a virulence factor in L. amazonensis. The stimulation of IL-10 production and arginase activity and the inhibition of NO synthesis are likely involved in this effect.

Daniel Ignacchiti Lacerda

2012-03-01

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Effects of CXCL10 on Dendritic Cell and CD4+ T-Cell Functions during Leishmania amazonensis Infection?  

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Leishmania amazonensis can cause progressive disease in most inbred strains of mice. We have previously reported that treatment with CXCL10 activates macrophage (M?) effector function(s) in parasite killing and significantly delays lesion development in susceptible C57BL/6 mice via enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) secretion; however, the mechanism underlying this enhanced immunity against L. amazonensis infection remains largely unresolved. In this study, we util...

Vasquez, Rene? E.; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn

2008-01-01

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Identificação de espécies de Leishmania isoladas de casos humanos em Mato Grosso do Sul por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase Identification of Leishmania species isolated in human cases in Mato Grosso do Sul, by means of the polymerase chain reaction  

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Full Text Available As leishmanioses são zoonoses endêmicas em Mato Grosso do Sul e têm por agentes etiológicos nessa região Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Como método para identificação de espécies de Leishmania, a reação em cadeia da polimerase é uma ferramenta com elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Analisaram-se 39 isolados de Leishmania criopreservados, obtidos por meio de aspirado medular e/ou biópsia de lesão, conforme a suspeita clínica. Os isolados foram submetidos à extração de DNA e à reação em cadeia da polimerase com os iniciadores: RV1/RV2 para Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, a1/a2 para a identificação de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e b1/b2 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi foi a única espécie identificada em 37 casos de leishmaniose visceral. Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis foi identificada em dois isolados de pacientes com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a possibilidade do uso dos três pares de iniciadores como uma ferramenta na caracterização de isolados de Leishmania.Leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Their etiological agents in this region of Brazil are Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a tool with high specificity and sensitivity for identifying Leishmania species. This study examined 39 cryopreserved isolates of Leishmania that had been collected by bone marrow aspiration and/or lesion biopsy, depending on the clinical suspicion. The isolates were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR using the following primers: RV1/RV2 for identifying Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, a1/a2 for Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and b1/b2 for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis.Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi was the only species identified in the 37 cases of visceral leishmaniasis.Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis was identified in two isolates from patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The results obtained confirm that it is possible to use these three pairs of primers as a tool for characterizing Leishmania isolates.

Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima Junior

2009-06-01

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Some methods for the enzymic characterization of Latin-American Leishmania with particular reference to Leishmania mexicana amazonensis and subspecies of Leishmania hertigi.  

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30 Brazilian stocks of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis and 13 stocks of subspecies of Leishmania hertigi were characterized by starch-gel electrophoresis, using 18 enzymes selected from a total of 36 investigated. L. m. amazonensis was separable from subspecies of L. hertigi by enzymic profiles of 11 enzymes. The L. m. amazonensis stocks, which were from a wide range of hosts in a large geographical area, were enzymically extremely homogeneous, and could only be subdivided on two enzymes; sub-groups did not relate to each other or to any differences in epidemiological characters, including the clinical form of the human disease. 12 stocks regarded as L. hertigi deanei, that were isolated from Coendou prehensilis prehensilis and Coendou sp. in Pará State, Brazil, were separable into two sub-groups by three enzymes. A single stock of L. hertigi hertigi from Panama was separable from both enzymic sub-groups of L. h. deanei, in each case by three enzymes. The significance of these and other characters of diversity is discussed, together with the use of enzymes for the identification of the leishmaniae. PMID:7385303

Miles, M A; Póvoa, M M; de Souza, A A; Lainson, R; Shaw, J J

1980-01-01

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Periodate-oxidized ATP modulates macrophage functions during infection with Leishmania amazonensis.  

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Previously, we showed that treating macrophages with ATP impairs the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis, and that the P2X7 purinergic receptor is overexpressed during leishmaniasis. In the present study, we directly evaluated the effect of periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP) on parasite control in Leishmania-infected macrophages. We found that oATP impaired the attachment/entrance of L. amazonensis promastigotes to C57BL/6 mouse macrophages in a P2X7 receptor-independent manner, as macrophages from P2X7(-/-) mice were similarly affected. Although oATP directly inhibited the growth of axenic promastigotes in culture, promoted rapid ultrastructural alterations, and impaired Leishmania internalization by macrophages, it did not affect intracellular parasite multiplication. Upon infection, phagosomal acidification was diminished in oATP-treated macrophages, accompanied by reduced endosomal proteolysis. Likewise, MHC class II molecules expression and ectoATPase activity was decreased by oATP added to macrophages at the time of parasite infection. These inhibitory effects were not due to a cytotoxic effect, as no additional release of lactate dehydrogenase was detected in culture supernatants. Moreover, the capacity of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was not affected by the presence of oATP during infection. We conclude that oATP directly affects extracellular parasite integrity and macrophage functioning. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:24804957

Figliuolo, V R; Chaves, S P; Santoro, G F; Coutinho, C M L M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Coutinho-Silva, R

2014-07-01

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Cell death in amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis induced by parthenolide  

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Background Leishmania amazonensis infection results in diverse clinical manifestations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis. The arsenal of drugs available for treating Leishmania infections is limited. Therefore, new, effective, and less toxic leishmaniasis treatments are still needed. We verified cell death in amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis induced by the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Results The tested compound was able to concentration-dependently affect axenic and intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 1.3 ?M and 2.9 ?M, respectively after 72 h incubation. No genotoxic effects were observed in a micronucleus test in mice. Parthenolide induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in axenic amastigotes, including a loss of membrane integrity, swelling of the mitochondrion, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket. These results led us to investigate the occurrence of autophagic vacuoles with monodansylcadaverine and the integrity of the plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential using flow cytometry. In all of the tests, parthenolide had positive results. Conclusions Our results indicate that the antileishmanial action of parthenolide is associated with autophagic vacuole appearance, a reduction of fluidity, a loss of membrane integrity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering the limited repertoire of existing antileishmanial compounds, the products derived from medicinal plants has been one the greatest advances to help develop new chemotherapeutic approaches.

2014-01-01

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A comparison of two distinct murine macrophage gene expression profiles in response to Leishmania amazonensis infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The experimental murine model of leishmaniasis has been widely used to characterize the immune response against Leishmania. CBA mice develop severe lesions, while C57BL/6 present small chronic lesions under L. amazonensis infection. Employing a transcriptomic approach combined with biological network analysis, the gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after L. amazonensis infection in vitro, were compared. These strains were selected due to their different degrees of susceptibility to this parasite. Results The genes expressed by C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after infection, differ greatly, both with respect to absolute number as well as cell function. Uninfected C57BL/6 macrophages express genes involved in the deactivation pathway of macrophages at lower levels, while genes related to the activation of the host immune inflammatory response, including apoptosis and phagocytosis, have elevated expression levels. Several genes that participate in the apoptosis process were also observed to be up-regulated in C57BL/6 macrophages infected with L. amazonensis, which is very likely related to the capacity of these cells to control parasite infection. By contrast, genes involved in lipid metabolism were found to be up-regulated in CBA macrophages in response to infection, which supports the notion that L. amazonensis probably modulates parasitophorous vacuoles in order to survive and multiply in host cells. Conclusion The transcriptomic profiles of C57BL/6 macrophages, before and after infection, were shown to be involved in the macrophage pathway of activation, which may aid in the control of L. amazonensis infection, in contrast to the profiles of CBA cells.

Probst Christian M

2012-02-01

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Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis  

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Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Le...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

IL-2 limits IL-12 enhanced lymphocyte proliferation during Leishmania amazonensis infection  

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C3H mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis develop persistent, localized lesions with high parasite loads. During infection, memory/effector CD44hiCD4+ T cells proliferate and produce IL-2, but do not polarize to a known effector phenotype. Previous studies have demonstrated IL-12 is insufficient to skew these antigen-responsive T cells to a functional Th1 response. To determine the mechanism of this IL-12 unresponsiveness, we used an in vitro assay of repeated antigen activation. Memory/e...

Ramer-tait, Amanda E.; Petersen, Christine A.; Jones, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

102

Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis  

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Anti-amastigote polyclonal antibody (IgG) was incubated with solutions of stannous chloride and sodium borohidride. After that, 3.7 MBq of technetium-99m (99mTc) was added. A labeling yield of the antibody about 84% was obtained. After filtration of 99mTc-IgG, the radiochemical purity increased from 84 to 95%. The labeling of IgG with 99mTc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis

2002-05-01

103

Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis.  

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Anti-amastigote polyclonal antibody (IgG) was incubated with solutions of stannous chloride and sodium borohidride. After that, 3.7 MBq of technetium-99m (99mTc) was added. A labeling yield of the antibody about 84% was obtained. After filtration of 99mTc-IgG, the radiochemical purity increased from 84 to 95%. The labeling of IgG with 99mTc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis. PMID:12031875

Araujo, J G V C; Toledo, V P C P; Guimarães, T M P D; Bernardo-Filho, M; Simal, C J R; Mota, L G; Diniz, S O F; Cardoso, V N

2002-05-01

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Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides: selective killing of the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis.  

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We targeted the mini-exon sequence, present at the 5' end of every mRNA of the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis, by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. A complementary 16-mer (16PS) was able to kill amastigotes--the intracellular stage of the parasite--in murine macrophages in culture. After 24 hr of incubation with 10 microM 16PS, about 30% infected macrophages were cured. The oligomer 16PS acted through antisense hybridization in a sequence-dependent way; no effect on parasites was ...

1994-01-01

105

Activity of the Lupane isolated from Combretum leprosum against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

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This paper describes the activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), obtained from the fruits of Combretum leprosum, the triterpene 3?, 6?, 16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1) and its synthetic derivatives 1a-1d on Leishmania Amazonensis promastigotes. The EE displayed leishmanicidal activity and the IC50 was 24.8 ?g mL-1. However, the triterpene 3?, 6?, 16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), at a concentration of 5.0 ?g mL-1, showed a potent inhibitory activity on promastigotes proliferation (IC50 = 3.3 ?g mL-1). Among the synthetic derivatives, only (1b) and (1d) were active against promastigotes (IC50 = 3.48 ?g mL-1 and 5.8 ?g mL-1, respectively). Moreover, the synthetic derivative 1a showed no activity on promastigotes of L. Amazonensis. EE, (1) and the synthetic derivatives 1a-1d showed no cytotoxic effect on mice peritoneal macrophages. These results provide evidence that the ethanolic extract and the lupane isolated from C. leprosum was active against promastigotes of L. amazonensis, and may be used as a tool in the studies of new antileishmanial drugs. (author)

2011-01-01

106

Activity of the Lupane isolated from Combretum leprosum against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

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This paper describes the activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), obtained from the fruits of Combretum leprosum, the triterpene 3{beta}, 6{beta}, 16{beta}-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1) and its synthetic derivatives 1a-1d on Leishmania Amazonensis promastigotes. The EE displayed leishmanicidal activity and the IC{sub 50} was 24.8 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. However, the triterpene 3{beta}, 6{beta}, 16{beta}-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), at a concentration of 5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, showed a potent inhibitory activity on promastigotes proliferation (IC{sub 50} = 3.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1}). Among the synthetic derivatives, only (1b) and (1d) were active against promastigotes (IC{sub 50} = 3.48 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 5.8 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively). Moreover, the synthetic derivative 1a showed no activity on promastigotes of L. Amazonensis. EE, (1) and the synthetic derivatives 1a-1d showed no cytotoxic effect on mice peritoneal macrophages. These results provide evidence that the ethanolic extract and the lupane isolated from C. leprosum was active against promastigotes of L. amazonensis, and may be used as a tool in the studies of new antileishmanial drugs. (author)

Teles, Carolina B.G.; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina; Silva, Alexandre de A.E.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stabeli, Rodrigo G., E-mail: izaltina.jardim@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Pesquisas em Patologias Tropicais de Rondonia (IPEPATRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil); Moreira, Leandro S.; Facundo, Valdir A. [Universidade Federal de Rondonia, Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)

2011-07-01

107

Destruction of leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigotes within macrophages in culture by phenazine methosulfate and other electron carriers  

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Exposure of macrophages infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis to phenazine methosulfate (PMS) resulted in rapid damage and disappearance of the intracellular amastigotes without obvious ill effects to the host cells. The reduction of the percent infection was related to the concentration of PMS and to the duration of the pulse. Most Leishmania disappeared within 2 h of a 2-h pulse with 10 ?M of the drug. In contrast, pretreatment of the macrophages with PMS followed by removal of the...

1982-01-01

108

Experimental infection with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, and Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the marmoset, Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Callithricidae  

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Full Text Available Foureen marmosets (Callithrix penicillata were inoculated intradermally with promastigotes and/or amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia brazilensis (L. (V b. strains MHOM/BR/83/LTB-300MHOM/BR/85/LTB-12 MHOM/BR/81/LTB-179 and MHOM/BR/82/LTB-250. The evolution of subsequent lesions was studied for 15 to 75 weeks post-inoculation (PI. All but of the L. (V b. injected marmosets developed a cutaneous lesion at the point of inoculation after 3 to 9 weeks, characterized by the appearance of subcutaneous nodules containing parasites. parasites were isolated by culture (Difco Blood Agar from all 11 positive animals. The maximum size of the lesions was variable and ranged between 37 mm² to 107 mm². Ulceration of primary nodules became evident after 3 to 12 weeks in all infected marmosets, but was faster and larger in 5 of the 11 animals. The active lesions persisted in 9 out of 11 Callithrix until the en of the observation period, which varied from 15-75 weeks. In 3 animals spontaneous healing of their lesions (13 to 25 weeks, PI was observed buth with cryptic parasitism. In another 2 infected animals there was regression followed by reactivation of the cutaneous lesions. The appearance of smaller satellite lesions adjacent to primary ones, as well as metastatic lesions to the ear lobes, were documented in 2 animals. Promastigotes of L. (Leishmania amazonensis (L.(La. MHOM/BR/77/LTB-16 were inoculated in 1 marmoset. This animal remained chronically infected for 6 months and the lesions developed in a similar manner to L.(Vb. infected marmosets. No significant differences in clinical and parasitological behaviour were observed between promastigote or amastigote derived infections of the 2 species. Both produced chronic, long lasting lesions which eventually healed. The same was true for parameters of size and ulceration. Skin tests converted to parasite in 11 of 15 inected masmosets and in 10 of 12 parasite positive animnals. Moderate levels of circulating antibodies were also observed by IFAT /IgG assays. In spite of the failure to reproduce the mucosal form of the disease, an important aspect of the Callithrix model in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis lies in the reproduction of 2 clinical events that are common in humans, namely, the chronic ulceration and spontaneous healing of the lesions.

César A. Cuba Cuba

1990-12-01

109

Experimental infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the marmoset, Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Callithricidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Foureen marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) were inoculated intradermally with promastigotes and/or amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) brazilensis (L. (V) b.) strains MHOM/BR/83/LTB-300MHOM/BR/85/LTB-12 MHOM/BR/81/LTB-179 and MHOM/BR/82/LTB-250. The evolution of subsequent lesions was studied for 15 [...] to 75 weeks post-inoculation (PI). All but of the L. (V) b. injected marmosets developed a cutaneous lesion at the point of inoculation after 3 to 9 weeks, characterized by the appearance of subcutaneous nodules containing parasites. parasites were isolated by culture (Difco Blood Agar) from all 11 positive animals. The maximum size of the lesions was variable and ranged between 37 mm² to 107 mm². Ulceration of primary nodules became evident after 3 to 12 weeks in all infected marmosets, but was faster and larger in 5 of the 11 animals. The active lesions persisted in 9 out of 11 Callithrix until the en of the observation period, which varied from 15-75 weeks. In 3 animals spontaneous healing of their lesions (13 to 25 weeks, PI) was observed buth with cryptic parasitism. In another 2 infected animals there was regression followed by reactivation of the cutaneous lesions. The appearance of smaller satellite lesions adjacent to primary ones, as well as metastatic lesions to the ear lobes, were documented in 2 animals. Promastigotes of L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (L.(L)a.) MHOM/BR/77/LTB-16 were inoculated in 1 marmoset. This animal remained chronically infected for 6 months and the lesions developed in a similar manner to L.(V)b. infected marmosets. No significant differences in clinical and parasitological behaviour were observed between promastigote or amastigote derived infections of the 2 species. Both produced chronic, long lasting lesions which eventually healed. The same was true for parameters of size and ulceration. Skin tests converted to parasite in 11 of 15 inected masmosets and in 10 of 12 parasite positive animnals. Moderate levels of circulating antibodies were also observed by IFAT /IgG assays. In spite of the failure to reproduce the mucosal form of the disease, an important aspect of the Callithrix model in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis lies in the reproduction of 2 clinical events that are common in humans, namely, the chronic ulceration and spontaneous healing of the lesions.

César A. Cuba, Cuba; Vera, Ferreira; Maria, Bampi; Albino, Magalhães; Philip D., Marsden; Alejandro, Vexenat; Milton Thiago de, Mello.

110

The action of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania Amazonensis, with evaluation of their immunogenic power in experimental models; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania amazonensis, com avaliacao de seu poder imunogenico em modelos experimentais  

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Leishmaniasis is a disease which affects thousands of people in the Tropical regions around the world, is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp., with urban and wild mammals acting as reservoirs. In the mammal host, the amastigote form of the parasite infects and multiplies into macrophages. Treatments for leishmaniasis have a high cost and are long lasting, frequently resulting in therapy interruption. This procedure culminates with a selection of resistant parasite strains, inducing tolerance to the therapy. Either the control of vectors or the mammal host are difficult due the social and economic implications. Thus, the search for alternatives treatments against these protozoans have been stimulated. The gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) shown to be an efficient toll to kill these parasites maintaining their immunogenicity. Cellular viability, Electronically microscopy and Multiplex-PCR techniques showed that, after irradiation, the parasites had their growth inhibited by cytoplasmatic and nucleic material disorganisation, appointing the gamma radiation as important in terms of immunogens improvement. (author)

Bonetti, Franco Claudio

2002-07-01

111

In vitro activity of Surfactant Protein A against Leishmania amazonensis / Actividad in vitro de la proteína A del surfactante pulmonar frente a Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: English Abstract in spanish La proteína surfactante A (SP-A), es una proteína pulmonar hidrofílica, de la familia de las colectinas, que contribuye al mantenimiento de la homeostasis en el pulmón y la regulación de los mecanismos de defensa e inflamación. En este estudio se reporta la actividad de la SP-A frente a Leishmania a [...] mazonensis en su forma promastigote y amastigote. La SP-A muestra actividad similar contra ambas formas del parásito, con un valor de CI50 de 34.0 ± 3.1 y 33.6 ± 1.1 µg/mL frente a promastigotes y amastigotes, respectivamente. La proteína causó una citotoxicidad moderada en macrófagos peritoneales procedentes de ratones BALB/c, con un valor de CI50 de 172.0 ± 6.1 µg/mL. Este es el primer reporte de la actividad anti-leishmanial de la SP-A. Abstract in english Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic pulmonary protein belonging to the collectin family, involved in lung homeostasis, the regulation of host defenses and inflammation. The present study addresses the activity of SP-A against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its c [...] ytotoxicity for host cells. SP-A exhibited similar activity against both parasite forms, with an IC50 of 34.0 ± 3.1 and 33.6 ± 1.1 µg/mL against promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. It was moderately cytotoxic to peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, exhibiting an IC50 value of 172.0 ± 6.1 µg/mL. This is the first report on the anti-leishmanial activity of SP-A.

Yuliannis, Lugones; Odalys, Blanco; Roberto, Faure; Lianet, Monzote.

112

Effect of hydroxyurea on the intracellular multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply until lysis of host cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea (an inhibitor of cell division at the G1/S phase) on the multiplication of L. amazonens [...] is, T. gondii, and T. cruzi in infected host cells. Infected cells were treated with hydroxyurea (4 mM) for 48 h. Hydroxyurea arrested intracellular multiplication of all infective forms of the parasites tested. In treated cultures, the percent of infected host cells decreased (50-97%) and most intracellular parasites were eliminated. Ultrastructural observations showed no morphologic change in host cells while intracellular parasites presented drastic morphologic alterations or disruption. The results strongly suggest that hydroxyurea was able to interfere with the multiplication of intracellular parasites, leading to an irreversible morphological effect on L. amazonensis, T. gondii, and T. cruzi without affecting the host cells.

E.J.T., Melo; H.J., Beiral.

113

Cell populations in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis of leishmania (L.) amazonensis- infected rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The cellular nature of the infiltrate in cutaneous lesion of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies from infected animals with active or healing lesions were compared to non-infected controls (three of each typ [...] e) to quantitate inflammatory cell types. Inflammatory cells (composed of a mixture of T lymphocyte subpopulations, macrophages and a small number of natural killer cells and granulocytes) were more numerous in active lesions than in healing ones. T-cells accounted for 44.7 ± 13.1% of the infiltrate in active lesions (versus CD2+= 40.3 ± 5.7% in healing lesions) and T-cell ratios favor CD8+ cells in both lesion types. The percentage of cells expressing class II antigen (HLA-DR+) in active lesions (95 ± 7.1%) was significantly higher (P

VF, Amaral; C, Pirmez; AJS, Gonçalves; V, Ferreira; G, Grimaldi Jr.

114

The role of complement in the early phase of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Complement-depleted and -non-depleted BALB/c mice were inoculated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes into the hind footpad to study the role of the complement system in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Total serum complement activity was measured by hemolytic assay and C3 fragment deposi [...] t at the inoculation site was determined by direct immunofluorescence in the early period of infection, i.e., at 3, 24, 48 h and 7 days post-infection. The inflammatory reaction and the parasite burden were evaluated in the skin lesion at 7 and 30 days post-infection. Total serum complement activity decreased in the early phase of infection, from 3 to 24 h, in non-depleted mice compared to non-infected and non-depleted mice. C3 fragment deposit at the site of parasite inoculation was present throughout the period of infection in non-depleted mice. In contrast, no C3 fragment deposit was observed at the inoculation site in complement-depleted mice. Complement-depleted mice showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory response and a significant increase in the number of parasites (70.0 ± 5.3 vs 5.3 ± 1.5) at 7 days of infection (P

M.D., Laurenti; A., Örn; I.L., Sinhorini; C.E.P., Corbett.

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Effect of extracts and isolated compounds from Chresta scapigera on viability of Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito dos extratos e compostos isolados de Chresta scapigera sobre a viabilidade de Leishmania amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

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Full Text Available Fractionation of bioactive crude extracts of Chresta scapigera led to the isolation of four triterpenes and five flavonoids, among them beta-amyrin acetate (1, 11alpha,12alpha-oxidetaraxeryl acetate (2 and lupeol (3, as well as the flavonoids apigenin (6, kaempferol (7, crysoeriol (8 and luteolin (9 were active against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes-like stages, while only the flavonoids (6, (7 and (9 showed toxicity towards bloods trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.O fracionamento dos extratos bioativos de Chresta scapigera proporcionou o isolamento de triterpenos e flavonóides, dentre os quais acetato de beta-amirina (1, acetate de 11alfa,12-oxidotaraxeril (2 e lupeol (3, assim como os flavonóides apigenina (6, caenferol (7, crisoeriol (8 e luteolina (9 mostraram-se ativos contra formas amastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, enquanto, apenas os flavonóides (6, (7 e (9 apresentaram toxicidade contra as formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi.

Elisandra Cristina Schinor

2007-06-01

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Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L.) amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

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This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium...

Patrícia Shima Luize; Tatiana Shioji Tiuman; Luis Gustavo Morello; Paloma Korehiza Maza; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; João Carlos Palazzo de Mello; Celso Vataru Nakamura

2005-01-01

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Receptor-mediated entry of beta-glucuronidase into the parasitophorous vacuoles of macrophages infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

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125I-labeled rat preputial gland beta-glucuronidase was shown by light and electron microscopic radioautography to accumulate within the parasitophorous vacuoles of in vitro derived bone marrow macrophages infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. beta-glucuronidase uptake was mediated by the mannose receptor, since the penetration of the ligand was inhibited by mannan. Uptake was detected as soon as 4 h after incubation of infected cells with the ligand, and increased at 24 and 48 h. Th...

1983-01-01

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Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine  

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Full Text Available One hundred and eighty-two male inbred C57/BL/6 mice were infected with 3 x 106 Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain by means of a subcutaneous injection in the right ear. The animals were separated in three groups: 1 oral mefloquine hydrochloride treatment (16mg/kg/day/10 days, 2 intramuscular aminosidine (Paromomycin® treatment (20mg/kg/20 days and 3 control. Twenty six mice of each treated group were sacrificed, one at the end of treatment (nine weeks after inoculation, and one six weeks later (fifteen weeks after inoculation. Control Group animals were sacrificed at weeks six, nine and fifteen after inoculation. There was no significant difference between Group 1 (mefloquine and Group 3 (control subjects. Group 2 animals (aminosidine presented the smallest differences of all, both at the end of the treatment and six weeks later. The histopato-logical parameters have shown the following findings: a there was no significant difference between the mefloquine treated group and the control group; the group treated with aminosidine showed fewer of vacuolated macrophages than the control group, at week 9 (end of treatment. b both at the end of treatment and six weeks later, evaluation of tissue necrosis and tissue fibrosis revealed no differences between the treated groups. It was found that six weeks after the end of treatment, mice in the control group presented significantly more severe degrees of fibrosis than mice in the other groups. It can be concluded that mefloquine showed limited therapeutic effect in this experimental model, whereas aminosidine had a significant effect. Nevertheless, neither of them resulted in cure of the lesions.

Galvão Letícia Oba

2000-01-01

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Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling has a dominant negative effect on IL-12 production by macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

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Infection of macrophages with Leishmania parasites does not result in the production of IL-12. In addition, infection with Leishmania suppresses IL-12 production elicited by otherwise potent activators of IL-12. We provide evidence that engagement of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling during Leishmania amazonensis infection leads to the prevention of IL-12 p70 production at the level of transcription of its p40 subunit in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM?). Inhibition of PI...

Ruhland, Aaron; Kima, Peter E.

2009-01-01

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In silico predicted epitopes from the COOH-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase B inducing distinct immune responses during Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis experimental murine infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania parasites have been reported to interfere and even subvert their host immune responses to enhance their chances of survival and proliferation. Experimental Leishmania infection in mice has been widely used in the identification of specific parasite virulence factors involved in the interaction with the host immune system. Cysteine-proteinase B (CPB is an important virulence factor in parasites from the Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana complex: it inhibits lymphocytes Th1 and/or promotes Th2 responses either through proteolytic activity or through epitopes derived from its COOH-terminal extension. In the present study we analyzed the effects of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis CPB COOH-terminal extension-derived peptides on cell cultures from murine strains with distinct levels of susceptibility to infection: BALB/c, highly susceptible, and CBA, mildly resistant. Results Predicted epitopes, obtained by in silico mapping, displayed the ability to induce cell proliferation and expression of cytokines related to Th1 and Th2 responses. Furthermore, we applied in silico simulations to investigate how the MHC/epitopes interactions could be related to the immunomodulatory effects on cytokines, finding evidence that specific interaction patterns can be related to in vitro activities. Conclusions Based on our results, we consider that some peptides from the CPB COOH-terminal extension may influence host immune responses in the murine infection, thus helping Leishmania survival.

Pereira Bernardo AS

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Tomatidine promotes the inhibition of 24-alkylated sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes.  

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Leishmaniasis is a set of clinically distinct infectious diseases caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites, that affects ~12 million people worldwide, with ~2 million new infections annually. Plants are known to produce substances to defend themselves against pathogens and predators. In the genus Lycopersicon, which includes the tomato, L. esculentum, the main antimicrobial compound is the steroidal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine. The loss of the saccharide side-chain of tomatine yields the aglycone tomatidine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tomatidine on the growth, mitochondrial membrane potential, sterol metabolism, and ultrastructure of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Tomatidine (0·1 to 5 ?M) inhibited parasite growth in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=124±59 nM). Transmission electron microscopy revealed lesions in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the presence of large vacuoles and lipid storage bodies in the cytoplasm. These structural changes in the mitochondria were accompanied by an effective loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in ATP levels. An analysis of the neutral lipid content revealed a large depletion of endogenous 24-alkylated sterols such as 24-methylene-cholesta-5, 7-dien-3?-ol (5-dehydroepisterol), with a concomitant accumulation of cholesta-8, 24-dien-3?-ol (zymosterol), which implied a perturbation in the cellular lipid content. These results are consistent with an inhibition of 24-sterol methyltransferase, an important enzyme responsible for the methylation of sterols at the 24 position, which is an essential step in the production of ergosterol and other 24-methyl sterols. PMID:22716777

Medina, J M; Rodrigues, J C F; De Souza, W; Atella, G C; Barrabin, H

2012-09-01

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Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis  

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The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-03-01

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Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes trigger neutrophil activation but resist neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms.  

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Neutrophils are the first cells to infiltrate to the site of Leishmania promastigote infection, and these cells help to reduce parasite burden shortly after infection is initiated. Several clinical reports indicate that neutrophil recruitment is sustained over the course of leishmaniasis, and amastigote-laden neutrophils have been isolated from chronically infected patients and experimentally infected animals. The goal of this study was to compare how thioglycolate-elicited murine neutrophils respond to L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes derived from axenic cultures or from the lesions of infected mice. Neutrophils efficiently internalized both amastigote and promastigote forms of the parasite, and phagocytosis was enhanced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated neutrophils or when parasites were opsonized in serum from infected mice. Parasite uptake resulted in neutrophil activation, oxidative burst, and accelerated neutrophil death. While promastigotes triggered the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), uptake of amastigotes preferentially resulted in the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) from neutrophils. Finally, the majority of promastigotes were killed by neutrophils, while axenic culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes were highly resistant to neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms. This study indicates that neutrophils exhibit distinct responses to promastigote and amastigote infection. Our findings have important implications for determining the impact of sustained neutrophil recruitment and amastigote-neutrophil interactions during the late phase of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23918780

Carlsen, Eric D; Hay, Christie; Henard, Calvin A; Popov, Vsevolod; Garg, Nisha Jain; Soong, Lynn

2013-11-01

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Selective Effect of 2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-Methoxychalcone Isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis  

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2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 ?g/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 ?g/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 ?g of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs.

Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

1999-01-01

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Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis.  

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2',6'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 micrograms/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 micrograms/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 micrograms of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs. PMID:10223942

Torres-Santos, E C; Moreira, D L; Kaplan, M A; Meirelles, M N; Rossi-Bergmann, B

1999-05-01

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Cross-Protective Immunity to Leishmania amazonensis is Mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ Epitopes of Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains  

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The nucleoside hydrolase (NH) of Leishmania donovani (NH36) is a phylogenetic marker of high homology among Leishmania parasites. In mice and dog vaccination, NH36 induces a CD4+ T cell-driven protective response against Leishmania chagasi infection directed against its C-terminal domain (F3). The C-terminal and N-terminal domain vaccines also decreased the footpad lesion caused by Leishmania amazonensis. We studied the basis of the crossed immune response using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin for mice prophylaxis against L. amazonensis. The F1 (amino acids 1–103) and F3 peptide (amino acids 199–314) vaccines enhanced the IgG and IgG2a anti-NH36 antibodies to similar levels. The F3 vaccine induced the strongest DTH response, the highest proportions of NH36-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after challenge and the highest expression of IFN-? and TNF-?. The F1 vaccine, on the other hand, induced a weaker but significant DTH response and a mild enhancement of IFN-? and TNF-? levels. The in vivo depletion with anti-CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibodies disclosed that cross-protection against L. amazonensis infection was mediated by a CD4+ T cell response directed against the C-terminal domain (75% of reduction of the size of footpad lesion) followed by a CD8+ T cell response against the N-terminal domain of NH36 (57% of reduction of footpad lesions). Both vaccines were capable of inducing long-term cross-immunity. The amino acid sequence of NH36 showed 93% identity to the sequence of the NH A34480 of L. amazonensis, which also showed the presence of completely conserved predicted epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in F1 domain, and of CD4+ epitopes differing by a single amino acid, in F1 and F3 domains. The identification of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains as the targets of the immune response to NH36 in the model of L. amazonensis infection represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis.

Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Morrot, Alexandre; Bahia, Diana; Palatnik, Marcos; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

2014-01-01

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Antigen-Responsive CD4+ T Cells from C3H Mice Chronically Infected with Leishmania amazonensis Are Impaired in the Transition to an Effector Phenotype  

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C3HeB/FeJ mice challenged with Leishmania major develop a polarized Th1 response and subsequently heal, whereas Leishmania amazonensis challenge leads to chronic lesions with high parasite loads at 10 weeks postinfection. In this study, a comparison of draining lymph node cells from L. amazonensis- and L. major-infected mice at 10 weeks postinfection showed equivalent percentages of effector/memory phenotype CD44hi CD4+ T cells producing interleukin-2 (IL-2) and proliferating after antigen st...

Ramer, Amanda E.; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick F.; Jones, Douglas E.

2006-01-01

128

DNA sequencing confirms the involvement of Leishmania (L. amazonensis in american tegumentary leishmaniasis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL represents one of the most important public health issues in the world. An increased number of autochthonous cases of ATL in the Northeastern region of São Paulo State has been documented in the last few years, leading to a desire to determine the Leishmania species implicated. METHODS: PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to identify a 120bp fragment from the universal kDNA minicircle of the genus Leishmania in 61 skin or mucosal biopsies from patients with ATL. RESULTS: DNA sequencing permitted the identification of a particular 15bp fragment (5' …GTC TTT GGG GCA AGT... 3' in all samples. Analysis by the neighbor-joining method showed the occurrence of two distinct groups related to the genus Viannia (V and Leishmania (L, each with two subgroups. Autochthonous cases with identity to a special Leishmania sequence not referenced in Genbank predominated in subgroup V.1, suggesting the possible existence of a subtype or mutation of Leishmania Viannia in this region. In the subgroup L.2, which showed identity with a known sequence of L. (L. amazonensis, there was a balanced distribution of autochthonous and non-autochthonous cases, including the mucosal and mucocutaneus forms in four patients. The last observation may direct us to new concepts, since the mucosal compromising has commonly been attributed to L. (V. braziliensis, even though L. (L. amazonensis is more frequent in the Amazonian region. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the pattern of distribution and possible mutations of these species, as well as the change in the clinical form presentation of ATL in the São Paulo State.

Angela Rapela Medeiros

2008-01-01

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DNA sequencing confirms the involvement of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in american tegumentary leishmaniasis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) represents one of the most important public health issues in the world. An increased number of autochthonous cases of ATL in the Northeastern region of São Paulo State has been documented in the last few years, leading to a desire to determine t [...] he Leishmania species implicated. METHODS: PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to identify a 120bp fragment from the universal kDNA minicircle of the genus Leishmania in 61 skin or mucosal biopsies from patients with ATL. RESULTS: DNA sequencing permitted the identification of a particular 15bp fragment (5' …GTC TTT GGG GCA AGT... 3') in all samples. Analysis by the neighbor-joining method showed the occurrence of two distinct groups related to the genus Viannia (V) and Leishmania (L), each with two subgroups. Autochthonous cases with identity to a special Leishmania sequence not referenced in Genbank predominated in subgroup V.1, suggesting the possible existence of a subtype or mutation of Leishmania Viannia in this region. In the subgroup L.2, which showed identity with a known sequence of L. (L.) amazonensis, there was a balanced distribution of autochthonous and non-autochthonous cases, including the mucosal and mucocutaneus forms in four patients. The last observation may direct us to new concepts, since the mucosal compromising has commonly been attributed to L. (V.) braziliensis, even though L. (L.) amazonensis is more frequent in the Amazonian region. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the pattern of distribution and possible mutations of these species, as well as the change in the clinical form presentation of ATL in the São Paulo State.

Angela Rapela, Medeiros; Wilson A, Silva Jr; Ana Maria, Roselino.

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Altered Dendritic Cell Phenotype in Response to Leishmania amazonensis Amastigote Infection Is Mediated by MAP Kinase, ERK  

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Initiation of productive immune responses against Leishmania depends on the successful transition of dendritic cells (DC) from an immature to a mature phenotype. This process is characterized by high CD40 surface expression as well as interleukin-12 production, which are frequently seen in response to L. major infection. In vivo footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice for 7 days with L. amazonensis promoted an immature CD11c+ DC phenotype characterized by both significantly low CD40 surface expre...

Boggiatto, Paola Mercedes; Jie, Fei; Ghosh, Mousumi; Gibson-corley, Katherine Nicole; Ramer-tait, Amanda Ellen; Jones, Douglas Elliot; Petersen, Christine Anne

2009-01-01

131

Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers  

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The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-08-01

132

Effect of extracts and isolated compounds from Chresta scapigera on viability of Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi / Efeito dos extratos e compostos isolados de Chresta scapigera sobre a viabilidade de Leishmania amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fracionamento dos extratos bioativos de Chresta scapigera proporcionou o isolamento de triterpenos e flavonóides, dentre os quais acetato de beta-amirina (1), acetate de 11alfa,12-oxidotaraxeril (2) e lupeol (3), assim como os flavonóides apigenina (6), caenferol (7), crisoeriol (8) e luteolina (9 [...] ) mostraram-se ativos contra formas amastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, enquanto, apenas os flavonóides (6), (7) e (9) apresentaram toxicidade contra as formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. Abstract in english Fractionation of bioactive crude extracts of Chresta scapigera led to the isolation of four triterpenes and five flavonoids, among them beta-amyrin acetate (1), 11alpha,12alpha-oxidetaraxeryl acetate (2) and lupeol (3), as well as the flavonoids apigenin (6), kaempferol (7), crysoeriol (8) and luteo [...] lin (9) were active against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes-like stages, while only the flavonoids (6), (7) and (9) showed toxicity towards bloods trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

Schinor, Elisandra Cristina; Salvador, Marcos José; Pral, Elisabeth Mieko Furusho; Alfieri, Silvia Celina; Albuquerque, Sérgio; Dias, Diones Aparecida.

133

Tunicamycin-resistant Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: expression of virulence associated with an increased activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and amplification of its presumptive gene.  

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Tunicamycin at 10 micrograms/ml inhibits the growth and infectivity of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Tunicamycin-resistant variants of this parasite were produced by gradual acclimatization of cells to increasing concentrations of the drug up to 80 micrograms/ml and a single-step selection of ethyl methanesulfonate-pretreated or differentiating leishmanias with the drug at 10 micrograms/ml. Prolonged exposure to the drug increases stability of drug resistance of tho...

Kink, J. A.; Chang, K. P.

1987-01-01

134

Perforin and Gamma Interferon Are Critical CD8+ T-Cell-Mediated Responses in Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Leishmania amazonensis Infection  

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Previous studies have demonstrated that protection against New World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis can be elicited by immunization with the developmentally regulated Leishmania amastigote antigen, P-8. In this study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved. T-cell subset depletion experiments clearly indicate that elicitation of CD8+ (as well as CD4+) effector responses is required for protectio...

Colmenares, Mari?a; Kima, Peter E.; Samoff, Erika; Soong, Lynn; Mcmahon-pratt, Diane

2003-01-01

135

Glycosphingolipid antigens from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis amastigotes: Binding of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in vitro and in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Specific glycosphingolipid antigens of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis amastigotes reactive with the monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) ST-3, ST-4 and ST-5 were isolated, and their structure was partially elucidated by negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The glycan moieties of five antigens [...] presented linear sequences of hexoses and N-acetylhexosamines ranging from four to six sugar residues, and the ceramide moieties were found to be composed by a sphingosine d18:1 and fatty acids 24:1 or 16:0. Affinities of the three monoclonal antibodies to amastigote glycosphingolipid antigens were also analyzed by ELISA. MoAb ST-3 reacted equally well with all glycosphingolipid antigens tested, whereas ST-4 and ST-5 presented higher affinities to glycosphingolipids with longer carbohydrate chains, with five or more sugar units (slow migrating bands on HPTLC). Macrophages isolated from footpad lesions of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis were incubated with MoAb ST-3 and, by indirect immunofluorescence, labeling was only detected on the parasite, whereas no fluorescence was observed on the surface of the infected macrophages, indicating that these glycosphingolipid antigens are not acquired from the host cell but synthesized by the amastigote. Intravenous administration of 125I-labeled ST-3 antibody to infected BALB/c mice showed that MoAb ST-3 accumulated significantly in the footpad lesions in comparison to blood and other tissues

A.H., Straus; V.B., Valero; C.M., Takizawa; S.B., Levery; M.S., Toledo; E., Suzuki; M.E.K., Salyan; S., Hakomori; C.L., Barbieri; H.K., Takahashi.

136

Treatment with triterpenic fraction purified from Baccharis uncinella leaves inhibits Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis spreading and improves Th1 immune response in infected mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current medications used to treat leishmaniasis have many side effects for patients; in addition, some cases of the disease are refractory to treatment. Therefore, the search for new leishmanicidal compounds is indispensable. Recently, it was demonstrated that oleanolic- and ursolic-containing fraction from Baccharis uncinella leaves eliminated the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) braziliensis without causing toxic effects for J774 macrophages. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize the therapeutic effect of the triterpenic fraction in L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Oleanolic- and ursolic acid-containing fraction was extracted from B. uncinella leaves using organic solvents and chromatographic procedures. L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally with triterpenic fraction during five consecutive days with 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of triterpenic fraction, or with 10.0 mg/kg of amphotericin B drug. Groups of mice treated with the triterpenic fraction, presented with decreased lesion size and low parasitism of the skin-both of which were associated with high amounts of interleukin-12 and interferon gamma. The curative effect of this fraction was similar to amphotericin B-treated mice; however, the final dose, required to eliminate amastigotes, was lesser than amphotericin B. Moreover, triterpenic fraction did not cause microscopic alterations in liver, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney of experimental groups. This work suggests that this fraction possesses compounds that are characterized by leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory activities. From this perspective, the triterpenic fraction can be explored as a new therapeutic agent for use against American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis. PMID:24173812

Yamamoto, Eduardo Seiji; Campos, Bruno Luiz S; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Lago, João H G; Grecco, Simone dos Santos; Corbett, Carlos E P; Passero, Luiz Felipe D

2014-01-01

137

Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins from Leishmania amazonensis Associated with the Loss of Virulence of the Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The present study analyzed whether or not the in vitro cultivation for long periods of time of pre-isolated Leishmania amazonensis from lesions of chronically infected BALB/c mice was able to interfere in the parasites' infectivity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. In addition, the proteins that presented a significant decrease or increase in their protein expression content were identified applying a proteomic approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites were cultured in vitro for 150 days. Aliquots were collected on the day 0 of culture (R0), as well as after ten (R10; 50 days of culture), twenty (R20; 100 days of culture), and thirty (R30; 150 days of culture) passages, and were used to analyze the parasites' in vitro and in vivo infectivity, as well as to perform the proteomic approach. Approximately 837, 967, 935, and 872 spots were found in 2-DE gels prepared from R0, R10, R20, and R30 samples, respectively. A total of 37 spots presented a significant decrease in their intensity of expression, whereas a significant increase in protein content during cultivation could be observed for 19 proteins (both cases >2.0 folds). Some of these identified proteins can be described, such as diagnosis and/or vaccine candidates, while others are involved in the infectivity of Leishmania. It is interesting to note that six proteins, considered hypothetical in Leishmania, showed a significant decrease in their expression and were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The present study contributes to the understanding that the cultivation of parasites over long periods of time may well be related to the possible loss of infectivity of L. amazonensis. The identified proteins that presented a significant decrease in their expression during cultivation, including the hypothetical, may also be related to this loss of parasites' infectivity, and applied in future studies, including vaccine candidates and/or immunotherapeutic targets against leishmaniasis.

Magalhaes, Rubens D. M.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Mattos, Eliciane C.; Martins, Vivian T.; Lage, Paula S.; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Lage, Daniela P.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Manso Alves, Maria J.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Nagen, Ronaldo A. P.; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.

2014-01-01

138

A deficiency in the B cell response of C57BL/6 mice correlates with loss of macrophage-mediated killing of Leishmania amazonensis  

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Infection of C3HeB/FeJ and C57BL/6 mice with Leishmania major stimulates a healing cell-mediated immune response, while Leishmania amazonensis infection leads to chronic disease. Here we show C3HeB/FeJ mice co-infected with both species of Leishmania heal, while co-infected C57BL/6 mice do not. Using an in vitro killing assay we determined B cells from infected C57BL/6 mice are ineffective in promoting parasite killing compared with B cells from infected C3HeB/FeJ mice. Furthermore, infected ...

Gibson-corley, Katherine N.; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Mukbel, Rami M.; Petersen, Christine A.; Jones, Douglas E.

2010-01-01

139

Role of Interleukin-1? in Activating the CD11chigh CD45RB? Dendritic Cell Subset and Priming Leishmania amazonensis- Specific CD4+ T Cells In Vitro and In Vivo? †  

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania amazonensis infection is characterized by uncontrolled parasite replication and profound immunosuppression; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. One possibility is that the L. amazonensis parasite modulates antigen-presenting cells, favoring the generation of pathogenic Th cells that are capable of recruiting leukocytes but insufficient to fully activate their microbicidal activities. To test this possibility, we infecte...

Xin, Lijun; Li, Yongguo; Soong, Lynn

2007-01-01

140

Therapeutic efficacy induced by the oral administration of Agaricus blazei Murill against Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of therapeutic alternatives to treat leishmaniasis has received considerable attention. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Agaricus blazei Murill water extract (AbM) to treat BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. First, a dose-titration curve was performed. The most well-defined concentration able to induce the most effective results in the infected animals, considering a daily administration of the product, was that of 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1). In this context, the AbM was administered orally, beginning on day 0 up to 20 days postinfection. Additional animals were treated with amphotericin B (AmpB, 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) by peritoneal route for the same period of time, while the control group received distilled water. The animals were evaluated at 14 weeks post-infection, at which time the parasitological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Mice treated with the AbM presented a 60% reduction in the inflammation of infected footpads as compared to untreated control-infected mice. Moreover, in the treated mice, as compared to the untreated controls, approximately 60 and 66% reductions could be observed in the parasite burdens of the footpad and draining lymph nodes, respectively. In addition, no parasites could be detected in the spleen of treated mice at week 14 postinfection. These treated animals produced significantly higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-?) and nitric oxide (NO), higher levels of parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, and lower levels of interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 in the spleen and lymph node cell cultures than did the controls. Differences could be observed by comparing animals treated with AbM to those treated with AmpB, as indicated by a significant reduction in tissue parasitism, higher levels of IFN-? and NO, and lower levels of IL-4 and IL-10, as well as by a decreased hepatic toxicity. In conclusion, the present study's data show that the A. blazei Murill water extract presents a high potential for the treatment of leishmaniasis, although additional studies on mice, as well as on other mammal hosts, are warranted in an attempt to determine this extract's true efficacy as compared to other known therapeutic products. PMID:22797606

Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Ramírez, Laura; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Lage, Paula S; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Régis, Wiliam C B; Soto, Manuel; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

CD4+ Th1 Cells Induced by Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Mice Chronically Infected with Leishmania amazonensis Do Not Promote Healing  

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The susceptibility of mice to Leishmania amazonensis infection is thought to result from an inability to develop a Th1 response. Our data show that the low levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) produced by the draining lymph node (DLN) cells of chronically infected mice could be enhanced in vitro and in vivo with L. amazonensis antigen-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and the Th1-promoting cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12). Given intralesionally to chronically infected mice, thi...

Vanloubbeeck, Yannick F.; Ramer, Amanda E.; Jie, Fei; Jones, Douglas E.

2004-01-01

142

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11), a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression [...] of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles). More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals.

Denise CS, Matos; Lanuza AP, Faccioli; Léa, Cysne-Finkelstein; Paula Mello De, Luca; Suzana, Corte-Real; Geraldo RG, Armôa; Elezer Monte Blanco, Lemes; Débora, Decote-Ricardo; Sergio CF, Mendonça.

143

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11), a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles). More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals. PMID:20512252

Matos, Denise C S; Faccioli, Lanuza A P; Cysne-Finkelstein, Léa; Luca, Paula Mello De; Corte-Real, Suzana; Armôa, Geraldo R G; Lemes, Elezer Monte Blanco; Decote-Ricardo, Débora; Mendonça, Sergio C F

2010-05-01

144

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis  

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Full Text Available Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11, a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles. More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals.

Denise CS Matos

2010-05-01

145

Immune and inflammatory responses to Leishmania amazonensis isolated from different clinical forms of human leishmaniasis in CBA mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania amazonensis causes different diseases depending on the host and parasitic virulence factors. In this study, CBA mice were infected with L. amazonensis isolates from patients with localized (Ba125), diffuse cutaneous (Ba276) or visceral leishmaniasis (Ba109). Mice infected with Ba125 and B [...] a276 progressed rapidly and lesions displayed an infiltrate rich in parasitized macrophages and were necrotic and ulcerated. Ba109 induced smaller lesions and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate without necrosis or ulceration. Ba109 induced an insidious disease with lower parasite load in CBA mice, similar to human disease. Levels of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10 did not differ among the groups. Because all groups were unable to control the infection, expression of IL-4 associated with low production of IFN-? in the early phase of infection may account for susceptibility, but others factors may contribute to the differences observed in inflammatory responses and infection progression. Evaluation of some parasitic virulence factors revealed that Ba276 exhibits higher ecto-ADPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities compared to the Ba109 and Ba125 strains. Both Ba276 and Ba125 had higher arginase activity in comparison to Ba109. Finally, these data suggest that the differences in enzyme activities among parasites can account for differences in host inflammatory responses and infection progression.

Souza, Valderes L de; Veras, Patrícia ST; Welby-Borges, Marcus; Silva, Tânia MC; Leite, Bruna R; Ferraro, Rodrigo B; Meyer-Fernandes, José R; Barral, Aldina; Costa, Jackson Mauricio Lopes; Freitas, Luiz AR de.

146

Immune and inflammatory responses to Leishmania amazonensis isolated from different clinical forms of human leishmaniasis in CBA mice  

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Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis causes different diseases depending on the host and parasitic virulence factors. In this study, CBA mice were infected with L. amazonensis isolates from patients with localized (Ba125, diffuse cutaneous (Ba276 or visceral leishmaniasis (Ba109. Mice infected with Ba125 and Ba276 progressed rapidly and lesions displayed an infiltrate rich in parasitized macrophages and were necrotic and ulcerated. Ba109 induced smaller lesions and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate without necrosis or ulceration. Ba109 induced an insidious disease with lower parasite load in CBA mice, similar to human disease. Levels of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10 did not differ among the groups. Because all groups were unable to control the infection, expression of IL-4 associated with low production of IFN-? in the early phase of infection may account for susceptibility, but others factors may contribute to the differences observed in inflammatory responses and infection progression. Evaluation of some parasitic virulence factors revealed that Ba276 exhibits higher ecto-ADPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities compared to the Ba109 and Ba125 strains. Both Ba276 and Ba125 had higher arginase activity in comparison to Ba109. Finally, these data suggest that the differences in enzyme activities among parasites can account for differences in host inflammatory responses and infection progression.

Valderes L de Souza

2011-02-01

147

In vitro and in vivo activity of meglumine antimoniate produced at Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil, against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L (L.) chagasi and L (Viannia) braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L [...] .) chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime® were, respectively: 26.3µg/ml and 127.6µg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4µg /ml and 22.9µg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1µg/ml and 24.2µg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime®-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.

Morais-Teixeira, Eliane de; Carvalho, Alcione S de; Costa, Jorge CS da; Duarte, Silvio L; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Núbia; Rabello, Ana.

148

In vitro and in vivo activity of meglumine antimoniate produced at Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil, against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, L (L. chagasi and L (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs, was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L. chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L. amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50 determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime® were, respectively: 26.3µg/ml and 127.6µg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4µg /ml and 22.9µg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1µg/ml and 24.2µg/ml for L. (V. braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime®-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.

Eliane de Morais-Teixeira

2008-06-01

149

Isolation of an enriched plasma membrame subpellicular microtubule fraction of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

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A cell fractionation procedure previously developed for Trypanosoma cruzi was applied to isolated the plasma membrane of promastigotes of Leishania mexicana amazonensis. The cell, swollen in an hypotonic mediun, were disrupted in the presence of a nonionic detergent and the membrane fraction isolated by differencial centrifugation. Electron microscopy showed that the fraction consisted of pieces of the plasma membrane associated with subpellicular microtubules. It was also shown that this fra...

Timm, Solange L.; Leon, Leonor L.; Pereira, Neize M.; Wanderley de Souza; Queiroz Cruz, M.; Bra?scher, Helena M.; Oliveira Lima, A.

1980-01-01

150

Molecular Modeling Approaches for Determining Gene Function: application to a Putative Poly-A Binding Protein from Leishmania amazonensis (LaPABP  

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Full Text Available The great expansion in the number of genome sequencing projects has revealed the importance of computational methods to speed up the characterization of unknown genes. These studies have been improved by the use of three dimensional information from the predicted proteins generated by molecular modeling techniques. In this work, we disclose the structure-function relationship of a gene product from Leishmania amazonensis by applying molecular modeling and bioinformatics techniques. The analyzed sequence encodes a 159 aminoacids polypeptide (estimated 18 kDa and was denoted LaPABP for its high homology with poly-A binding proteins from trypanosomatids. The domain structure, clustering analysis and a three dimensional model of LaPABP, basically obtained by homology modeling on the structure of the human poly-A binding protein, are described. Based on the analysis of the electrostatic potential mapped on the model's surface and conservation of intramolecular contacts responsible for folding stabilization we hypothesize that this protein may have less avidity to RNA than it's L. major counterpart but still account for a significant functional activity in the parasite. The model obtained will help in the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to elucidate the mechanism of gene expression in trypanosomatids and serve as a starting point for its exploration as a potential source of targets for a rational chemotherapy.

FP Silva-Jr

2002-04-01

151

Molecular Modeling Approaches for Determining Gene Function: application to a Putative Poly-A Binding Protein from Leishmania amazonensis (LaPABP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The great expansion in the number of genome sequencing projects has revealed the importance of computational methods to speed up the characterization of unknown genes. These studies have been improved by the use of three dimensional information from the predicted proteins generated by molecular mode [...] ling techniques. In this work, we disclose the structure-function relationship of a gene product from Leishmania amazonensis by applying molecular modeling and bioinformatics techniques. The analyzed sequence encodes a 159 aminoacids polypeptide (estimated 18 kDa) and was denoted LaPABP for its high homology with poly-A binding proteins from trypanosomatids. The domain structure, clustering analysis and a three dimensional model of LaPABP, basically obtained by homology modeling on the structure of the human poly-A binding protein, are described. Based on the analysis of the electrostatic potential mapped on the model's surface and conservation of intramolecular contacts responsible for folding stabilization we hypothesize that this protein may have less avidity to RNA than it's L. major counterpart but still account for a significant functional activity in the parasite. The model obtained will help in the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to elucidate the mechanism of gene expression in trypanosomatids and serve as a starting point for its exploration as a potential source of targets for a rational chemotherapy.

Silva-Jr, FP; Veyl, FZ; Clos, J; De Simone, S Giovanni.

152

Identification and characterization of new Leishmania promastigote surface antigens, LaPSA-38S and LiPSA-50S, as major immunodominant excreted/secreted components of L. amazonensis and L. infantum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously demonstrated that sera from dogs vaccinated with excreted/secreted antigens (ESA) of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) mainly recognized an immunodominant antigen of 54 kDa. An anti-LiESAp-specific IgG2 humoral response was observed and associated to Th1-type response in vaccinated dogs. This response was highly correlated with a long-lasting and strong LiESAp-vaccine protection toward L. infantum experimental infection. In addition, it was also shown that dogs from the vaccinated group developed a selective IgG2 response against an immunodominant antigen of 45 kDa of Leishmania amazonensis ESA promastigotes (LaESAp). In order to identify and characterize these immunodominant antigens, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb F5) was produced by immunization against LaESAp. It was found to recognize the major antigenic targets of both LaESAp and LiESAp. Analysis with mAb F5 of L. amazonensis amastigote and promastigote cDNA expression libraries enabled the identification of clones encoding proteins with significant structural homology to the promastigote surface antigens named PSA-2/gp-46. Among them, one clone presented a full-length cDNA and encoded a novel L. amazonensis protein of 38.6 kDa calculated molecular mass (LaPSA-38S) sharing an amino acid sequence consistent with that of the PSA polymorphic family and a N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of a secreted protein. We then screened a L. infantum promastigote DNA cosmid library using a cDNA probe derived from the LaPSA-38S gene and identified a full-length clone of a novel excreted/secreted protein of L. infantum with a calculated molecular mass of 49.2 kDa and named LiPSA-50S. The fact that a significant immunological reactivity was observed against PSA, suggests that these newly identified proteins could have an important immunoregulatory influence on the immune response. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that (i) these proteins were naturally excreted/secreted by viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes, and (ii) they are selectively recognized by vaccinated and protected dogs. PMID:24614507

Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Veyrier, Renaud; Cibrelus, Prisca; Cavaleyra, Mireille; Maquaire, Sarah; Moreaux, Jérôme; Lemesre, Jean-Loup

2014-06-01

153

Identification and enzymatic activities of four protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) isoforms of Leishmania amazonensis  

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Leishmania parasites primarily infect cells of macrophage lineage and can cause leishmaniasis in the skin, mucosal, and visceral organs, depending on both host- and parasite-derived factors. The protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that catalyze the formation, reduction, and isomerization of disulfide bonds of proteins in cells. Although four Leishmania PDI genes are functionally inferred from homology in the genome sequences, only two of them have been expr...

Hong, B. X.; Soong, L.

2008-01-01

154

Role of Natural Killer Cells in Modulating Dendritic Cell Responses to Leishmania amazonensis Infection?  

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The importance of the interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in the expansion of antiviral and antitumor immune responses is well-documented; however, limited information on DC-NK cell interaction during parasitic infections is available. Given that some Leishmania parasites are known to prevent or suppress DC activation, we developed a DC-NK cell coculture system to examine the role of NK cells in modulating the functions of Leishmania-infected DCs. We found ...

Sanabria, Mayra X. Hernandez; Vargas-inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn

2008-01-01

155

Contrasting human cytokine responses to promastigote whole-cell extract and the Leishmania analogue receptor for activated C kinase antigen of L. amazonensis in natural infection versus immunization.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that the same antigen can induce different immune responses, depending upon the way that it is presented to the immune system. The objective of this study was to compare cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and subjects immunized with a first-generation candidate vaccine composed of killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes to a whole-cell promastigote antigen extract (La) and to the recombinant protein LACK (Leishmania analogue receptor for activated C kinase), both from L. amazonensis. Thirty-two patients, 35 vaccinees and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to Leishmania, were studied. Cytokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The interferon (IFN)-gamma levels stimulated by La were significantly higher and the levels of interleukin (IL)-10 significantly lower than those stimulated by LACK in the patient group, while LACK induced a significantly higher IFN-gamma production and a significantly lower IL-10 production compared with those induced by La in the vaccinated group. LACK also induced a significantly higher frequency of IFN-gamma-producing cells than did La in the vaccinated group. The contrast in the cytokine responses stimulated by LACK and La in PBMC cultures from vaccinated subjects versus patients indicates that the human immune response to crude and defined Leishmania antigens as a consequence of immunization differs from that induced by natural infection. PMID:18627399

Azeredo-Coutinho, R B G; Matos, D C S; Armôa, G G R; Maia, R M; Schubach, A; Mayrink, W; Mendonça, S C F

2008-09-01

156

Effect of Elatol, Isolated from Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea, on Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of sesquiterpene elatol, the major constituent of the Brazilian red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Hudson J.V. Lamouroux, against L. amazonensis. Elatol after 72 h of treatment, showed an IC50 of 4.0 µM and 0.45 µM for promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis, respectively. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy, parasites treated with elatol revealed notable changes compared with control cells, including: pronounced swelling of the mitochondrion; appearance of concentric membrane structures inside the organelle; destabilization of the plasma membrane; and formation of membrane structures, apparently an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, which is suggestive of an autophagic process. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound is more specific for protozoa, and it is not toxic to macrophages. Our studies indicated that elatol is a potent antiproliferative agent against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, and may have important advantages for the development of new anti-leishamanial chemotherapies.

Celso Vataru Nakamura

2010-10-01

157

Chronic inflammatory response modulation against Leishmania (L. amazonensis by homeopathic thymulin and antimonium crudum inBalb/c mice  

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Full Text Available In previous studies it was found that thymulin 5cH (thymic hormone can modulate immune processes in several diseases. Additionally, the Antimonium crudum has used in dogs bearing leishmaniosis, according to the similia principle. We studied the inflammatory and immune modulation by thymulin 5CH and Antimonium crudum 30CH treatment in mice experimentally inoculated with Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Male adult Balb/c mice were inoculated with Leishmania (2x105 promastigotes into the footpad to induce inflammatory response and peritoneum and spleen cells were evaluated by flow cytometry after 60 days. Animals were divided in 3 groups (n=10: thymulin 5cH, Antimonium crudum 30cH and vehicle /control. Treatment was made in blind, daily, in water/alcohol 30% diluted 1:2500 in drinking water, during all experimental period. CD11b (activated phagocytes and B1 cells, CD19 (B1 cells and B2, CD4 and CD8 (effective T lymphocytes markers were used to identify immune cells subsets in peritoneal washing fluid and spleen cell suspension. Mice treated with thymulin 5cH presented increase in peritoneal and spleen B1 stem cells (X2=0.0001 and higher CD8+/CD4+ ratio in spleen, regarding to the control. Also, Antimonium crudum 30CH induced a mild increase in B1 cells in peritoneum and spleen ( both X2, p=0.0001. Further histological analysis of the primary lesion will be done in the next step, to elucidate the impact of these findings in the disease evolution. The results show that both treatments stimulate B1 stem cell proliferation and suggest the cooperation of T spleen lymphocytes in the process.

Leoni Villano Bonamin

2012-09-01

158

The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection  

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Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

Jose M. Requena

2008-04-01

159

In vitro initial immune response against Leishmania amazonensis infection is characterized by an increased production of IL-10 and IL-13  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The initial encounter of Leishmania with its host's immune system is important in the outcome of infection. Previous studies have shown that PBMCs from healthy volunteers (HV) exposed to Leishmania differ in IFN-? production. We have expanded such observations evaluating the profile and kinetics of [...] cytokines (IFN-?, IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-13), chemokines (CCL5, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10), and chemokine receptors (CCR1,CCR5, CXCR3, CCR4) in vitro L. amazonensis-stimulated of HV's PBMCs. HVs were divided in groups of high (HR) or low (LR) IFN-? responders. In both groups, HR and LR, after L. amazonensis infection there was a predominance of IL-10 and IL-13 over IFN-? production, while IL-12 was produced in similar amount. Regarding chemokines, a more striking difference was observed for CCL3 expression that was lower at 12 hours and 48 hours post infection in LR than in HR. Interestingly, a downregulation of CCR5 and a greater expression of CCR4 were found in low IFN-? responders. These data suggest that early after L. amazonensis infection there is a cytokine milieu dominated by IL-13 and IL-10, and despite of this environment, IFN-? is produced, supporting the complexity of the response. It is noteworthy that the pattern of immune response is mounted in first hours after Leishmania stimulation, with the definition of the differentiation of Th1 versus Th2 cells. It remains to be determined if such an in vitro difference has an in vivo counterpart in terms of susceptibility to infection

Zirlane Castelo B, Coêlho; Maria Jania, Teixeira; Erika Freitas, Mota; Mércia Sindeaux, Frutuoso; João Santana da, Silva; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto; Margarida Maria L, Pompeu.

160

Extracellular matrix alterations in experimental Leishmania amazonensis infection in susceptible and resistant mice  

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Leishmania is inoculated, by the bite of an infected sandfly, into the skin of the host, where the promastigotes are phagocyted by dermal macrophages. The dermal region comprises cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Studies show that matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in host defense responses against pathogens in mammals and that their activities lead to the production of antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the distribution of fibrone...

Silva-almeida, Mariana; Carvalho, Luiz Op; Abreu-silva, Ana L.; Souza, Celeste Sf; Hardoim, Daiana J.; Calabrese, Ka?tia S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Gene Expression Profiling and Molecular Characterization of Antimony Resistance in Leishmania amazonensis  

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Leishmania are unicellular microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. They cause a spectrum of diseases called leishmaniasis, which are classified as neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. The treatment of leishmaniasis is based on the administration of antimony-containing drugs. These drugs have been used since 1947 and still constitute the mainstay for leishmaniasis treatment in several countries. One of the problems with these compound...

Do Monte-neto, Rubens L.; Coelho, Adriano C.; Raymond, Fre?de?ric; Le?gare?, Danielle; Corbeil, Jacques; Melo, Maria N.; Fre?zard, Fre?de?ric; Ouellette, Marc

2011-01-01

162

Aureobasidium-Derived Soluble Branched (1,3-1,6) ?-Glucan (Sophy ?-glucan) Enhances Natural Killer Activity in Leishmania amazonensis-Infected Mice  

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The ?-glucans derived from yeast cell walls have been reported for having many immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. In this study, Aureobasidium-derived soluble branched (1,3-1,6) ?-glucan (Sophy ?-glucan) was checked for natural killer (NK) activity and for the production of IFN-? and IL-4 in Leishmania amazonensis infection. The main experiment was performed with a group of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, orally supplemented with 5% of Sophy ?-glucan and infected with prom...

Yatawara, Lalani; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Takamoto, Misa; Nomura, Haruka; Ikeue, Yasunori; Watanabe, Yoshiya; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2009-01-01

163

Sobre a sensibilidade da cultura de leucócitos circulantes na detecção de Leishmania no sangue periférico de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar  

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Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de Leishmania, através da cultura de leucócitos circulantes, no sangue periférico de 60 pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, nas suas diferentes formas clínicas, assim como nas principais fases evolutivas da doença. Biópsias de lesões cutâneas e/ou de mucosa desses pacientes foram obtidas com a finalidade de isolar e caracterizar os parasitas, através da técnica de anticorpos monoclonais. Dos 60 pacientes examinados, foram isoladas 40 amostras de Leishmania das lesões biopsiadas, sendo 5 de Leishmania (V. brasiliensis, 3 de L. (V. guyanensis, 1 de L. (V. lainsoni, 13 de L. (L. amazonensis e 18 não puderam ser caracterizados a nível específico, porém, reagiram com anticorpos monoclonais do grupo braziliensis. Quanto àpesquisa através das culturas de leucócitos circulantes, esta revelou resultados completamente negativos. Com base nesses achados, os autores concluíram ser pouco consistente atribuir valor à cultura de leucócitos para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar.The possible presence of Leishmania in the peripheral blood of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated by the culture of circulating leucocytes. Patients were selected with a variety ofclinical forms ofthe disease and in different evolutionary stages of infection. Biopsies of skin and/or mucosal lesions were made in order to isolate the parasites, which were identified using monoclonal antibodies. 40 isolations were obtained, including 5 of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, 3 L. (V. guyanensis, 1 L. (V. lainsoni, 13 L. (Leishmania amazonensis and 18 which could only be identified as parasites of the braziliensis complex. Cultures of circulanting leucocytes were consistently negative, and the authors conclude that this method is of little use in diagnosis of cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Fernando T. Silveira

1989-09-01

164

Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers  

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Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

2007-03-01

165

Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae) / Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzo [...] myia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são incluídas. Leishmania amazonensis foi isolada em um exemplar de L. reducta altamente infectado, tornando esta espécie a terceira a ser implicada como vetor desta leishmania no Brasil. A abundância relativa das três espécies simpátricas do complexo flaviscutellata varia em escala local e aparenta ter relação com a drenagem do solo. L. reducta constituiu cerca de 25% dos flebotomíneos capturados em armadilhas Disney em locais mal e bem drenados, porém não foi encontrada em locais sujeitos a inundações. L. olmeca nociva era restrita às áreas mal drenadas não sujeitas a inundações, enquanto L. flaviscutellata foi capturada neste dois ambientes e também numa área periodicamente inundada. L. reducta não tem sido assinalada ao norte do Rio Amazonas no Brasil, porém a ausência de registros do oeste e noroeste do Estado do Amazonas possa refletri a falta de levantamento nestas áreas. Abstract in english A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazi [...] l, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.

Freitas, R. A.; Barrett, T. V.; Naiff, R. D..

166

Study of ionizing radiation as a tool for select promastigotes forms of Leishmania Amazonensis, and the megalomaniac response in experimental models  

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Actually, millions of people around the globe are under the risk of infection by a protozoan transmitted by a bit of a sand fly. This parasite is a Leishmania spp. This causes a wide spectrum disease, since a cutaneous disease to a visceral one. The cutaneous form is the major clinical manifestation (above 90%). The ionizing radiation, produced in a 60Co font, had being successes used to promote physical-chemical transformations on different protozoan, including Leishmania spp. In previous work was determined that promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis, irradiated with different doses of radiation, lost their viability maintaining, however, their immunogenicity. In this work, was studied the use of ionizing radiation as a tool for selection of meta cyclic forms of the parasite in axenic culture, for a possible efficient irradiated immuno gene production. Our results shown that cultures irradiated with 400 Gy of gamma irradiation, has 75% of metacyclic form, which are capable to produce, in vitro, an infection that is similar the natural occurrence. These irradiated parasites have their internal cellular structure modified, maintaining their external structure intact. Susceptible strain of mice immunized with leishmania irradiated with different doses had high immunoglobulin production, and maintained this production after the challenge with naive parasites. In other strains this default was similar, however in lower titles. Immunodeficient mice didn't produce immunoglobulin nor on the immunization or on the challenge. (author)

2006-01-01

167

Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis  

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The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

2006-09-01

168

Identification and purification of immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine (Leishvacin®) / Identificação e purificação de proteínas imunogênicas da vacina polivalente de promastigotas mortas de Leishmania (Leishvacin®)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Proteínas imunogênicas da vacina polivalente de promastigotas mortas de leishmanias (Leishvacin®) produzida pela Biobrás Bioquímica do Brasil, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil foram identificadas e purificadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e eletroeluição. Camundongos C57BL/10 foram v [...] acinados com proteínas de pesos moleculares estimados em 42, 46, 63, 66, 73, 87, 97 e 160kDa em três doses de 30µg de cada proteína combinada com 250µg de Corynebacteriumparvum em intervalos de 15 dias e desafiados com uma infecção desafio de 10(5) promastigotas infectantes de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis na base da cauda. Foram avaliadas a habilidade dessas proteínas em induzir resposta imune e proteção dos animais vacinados após a infecção desafio. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada nos níveis de IFN-g nos grupos vacinados em comparação ao grupo controle. Proteção de 28,57; 42,86; 57,14; 42,86; 42,86, 57,14; 42,86; 57,14% foi demonstrado para cada proteína. Abstract in english Immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis (Leishvacin®), produced by Biobrás (Biochemistry of Brazil ), Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were identified and purified by polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel and [...] electroelution. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with proteins with estimated molecular weights of 42, 46, 63, 66, 73, 87, 97, and 160kDa in three doses of 30µg of each protein at 15-day intervals combined with 250µg of Corynebacterium parvum followed by a challenge infection with 10(5) infective promastigotes from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The ability of these proteins to induce immune response and protection was analyzed. No statistical difference was observed in the level of IFN-g induced by proteins in vaccinated groups in comparison with control groups. Six months after challenge infection, protection levels of 28.57; 42.86; 57.14; 42.86; 42.86, 57.14; 42.86 and 57.14% were demonstrated for each purified protein.

Cardoso, Sandra Regina Afonso; Silva, João Carlos França da; Costa, Roberto Teodoro da; Mayrink, Wilson; Melo, Maria Norma; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Liu, Ibrahim Afrânio Willi; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Nascimento, Evaldo.

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Aureobasidium-derived soluble branched (1,3-1,6) beta-glucan (Sophy beta-glucan) enhances natural killer activity in Leishmania amazonensis-infected mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beta-glucans derived from yeast cell walls have been reported for having many immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. In this study, Aureobasidium-derived soluble branched (1,3-1,6) beta-glucan (Sophy beta-glucan) was checked for natural killer (NK) activity and for the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in Leishmania amazonensis infection. The main experiment was performed with a group of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, orally supplemented with 5% of Sophy beta-glucan and infected with promastogotes of L. amazonensis (1 x 10(7)) into the footpad. Increase in the footpad thickness with time was observed in BALB/c mice in spite of the oral Sophy beta-glucan supplement, but it was less in C57BL/6 mice. The difference in overall mean footpad thickness between 'infection only' versus 'infection + glucan' groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). High NK activity in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice was observed in 'glucan only' group compared to the control group and also in 'infection + glucan' group compared to 'infection only' group. The difference in the NK activity among these groups was significant (P < 0.05). The IFN-gamma level increased at weeks 7 and 8 post-infection in C57BL/6 mice and was significantly high in 'infection + glucan' group compared to the 'infection only' group (P < 0.05). IL-4 levels did not increase up to detectable levels throughout the study. The results led a conclusion that Sophy beta-glucan enhances NK activity and cellular immunity in L. amazonensis-infected mice. PMID:19967081

Yatawara, Lalani; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Takamoto, Misa; Nomura, Haruka; Ikeue, Yasunori; Watanabe, Yoshiya; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2009-12-01

170

Aureobasidium-Derived Soluble Branched (1,3-1,6) ?-Glucan (Sophy ?-glucan) Enhances Natural Killer Activity in Leishmania amazonensis-Infected Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The ?-glucans derived from yeast cell walls have been reported for having many immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. In this study, Aureobasidium-derived soluble branched (1,3-1,6) ?-glucan (Sophy ?-glucan) was checked for natural killer (NK) activity and for the production of IFN-? and IL-4 in Leishmania amazonensis infection. The main experiment was performed with a group of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, orally supplemented with 5% of Sophy ?-glucan and infected with promastogotes of L. amazonensis (1 × 107) into the footpad. Increase in the footpad thickness with time was observed in BALB/c mice in spite of the oral Sophy ?-glucan supplement, but it was less in C57BL/6 mice. The difference in overall mean footpad thickness between 'infection only' versus 'infection + glucan' groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). High NK activity in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice was observed in 'glucan only' group compared to the control group and also in 'infection + glucan' group compared to 'infection only' group. The difference in the NK activity among these groups was significant (P < 0.05). The IFN-? level increased at weeks 7 and 8 post-infection in C57BL/6 mice and was significantly high in 'infection + glucan' group compared to the 'infection only' group (P < 0.05). IL-4 levels did not increase up to detectable levels throughout the study. The results led a conclusion that Sophy ?-glucan enhances NK activity and cellular immunity in L. amazonensis-infected mice.

Yatawara, Lalani; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Takamoto, Misa; Nomura, Haruka; Ikeue, Yasunori; Watanabe, Yoshiya

2009-01-01

171

Interferon-gamma is required for the late but not early control of Leishmania amazonensis infection in C57Bl/6 mice  

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Full Text Available The critical role of interferon-gamma (IFN-g in the resistance of C57Bl/6 mice to Leishmania major is widely established but its role in the relative resistance of these animals to L. amazonensis infection is still not clear. In this work we use C57Bl/6 mice congenitally deficient in the IFN-g gene (IFN-g KO to address this issue. We found that IFN-g KO mice were as resistant as their wild-type (WT counterparts at least during the first two months of infection. Afterwards, whereas WT mice maintained lesion growth under control, IFN-g KO mice developed devastating lesions. At day 97 of infection, their lesions were 9-fold larger than WT controls, concomitant with an increased parasite burden. At this stage, lesion-draining cells from IFN-g KO mice had impaired capacity to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor-a in response to parasite antigens whereas IL-4 was slightly increased in comparison to infected WT mice. Together, these results show that IFN-g is not critical for the initial control of L. amazonensis infection in C57Bl/6 mice, but is essencial for the developmente of a protective Th1 type immune response in the later stages.

Roberta Olmo Pinheiro

2007-02-01

172

Extrachromosomal genetic complementation of surface metalloproteinase (gp63)-deficient Leishmania increases their binding to macrophages.  

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A major surface glycoprotein of 63 kDa (gp63) has been previously identified biochemically and genetically as a zinc proteinase conserved in pathogenic Leishmania spp. The functional significance of this proteinase was analyzed by genetic approaches. A 15-kilobase DNA with a tunicamycin-resistance gene from Leishmania amazonensis was ligated in two different orientations into pBluescript containing a gp63 gene from Leishmania major. These plasmid constructs were used to transfect a variant of...

Liu, X.; Chang, K. P.

1992-01-01

173

DNA sequencing confirms the involvement of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in american tegumentary leishmaniasis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

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INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) represents one of the most important public health issues in the world. An increased number of autochthonous cases of ATL in the Northeastern region of São Paulo State has been documented in the last few years, leading to a desire to determine the Leishmania species implicated. METHODS: PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to identify a 120bp fragment from the universal kDNA minicircle of the genus Leishmania in 61 skin or muco...

2008-01-01

174

In vitro and in vivo activity of meglumine antimoniate produced at Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil, against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L (L.) chagasi and L (Viannia) braziliensis  

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The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L.) chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (I...

Eliane de Morais-Teixeira; Carvalho, Alcione S.; Cs, Jorge Da Costa; Duarte, Silvio L.; Mendonc?a, Jorge S.; Núbia Boechat; Ana Rabello

2008-01-01

175

DFT/PCM, QTAIM, 1H NMR conformational studies and QSAR modeling of thirty-two anti-Leishmania amazonensis Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts  

Science.gov (United States)

Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts (MBHA) has been recently synthesized and bio-evaluated by our research group against Leishmania amazonensis, parasite that causes cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. We present here a theoretical conformational study of thirty-two leismanicidal MBHA by B3LYP/6-31+g(d) calculations with Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate water influence. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds (IHBs) indicated to control the most conformational preferences of MBHA. Quantum Theory Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations were able to characterize these interactions at Bond Critical Point level. Compounds presenting an unusual seven member IHB between NO2 group and hydroxyl moiety, supported by experimental spectroscopic data, showed a considerable improvement of biological activity (lower IC50 values). These results are in accordance to redox NO2 mechanism of action. Based on structural observations, some molecular descriptors were calculated and submitted to Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies through the PLS Regression Method. These studies provided a model with good validation parameters values (R2 = 0.71, Q2 = 0.61 and Qext2 = 0.92).

Filho, Edilson B. A.; Moraes, Ingrid A.; Weber, Karen C.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Vasconcellos, Mário L. A. A.

2012-08-01

176

Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis  

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To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...

Lianet Monzote; Ana Margarita Montalvo; Ramón Scull; Migdalia Miranda; Juan Abreu

2007-01-01

177

El rol de tres pruebas de ELISA con antígenos de promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis y L. guyanensis en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis tegumentaria Role of three ELISA tests using promastigote homogenates of Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in the diagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de promastigotes de Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, L (L amazonensis (ELISAa y L (V. guyanensis (ELISAg frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37, leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8, no infectados (n = 52, infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11 e infecciones mixtas (n = 14. Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225. La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, Leishmania (L amazonensis (ELISAa and Leishmania (V. guyanensis (ELISAg against different sera groups. Samples from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 37, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 8, healthy controls (n = 52, persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11 and mixed infections (n = 14 were included in the study. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, cut offs, and predictive values for the three tests and compared them using ANOVA, kappa index, ROC curves comparison, and confidence intervals calculated by the bootstrap method. Significant differences were found when comparing the OD levels of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis against healthy controls, but there were no differences when comparing the different ELISAs. The sensitivities calculated for ELISAb and ELISAa were 84.6 and of 88.5% for ELISAg, while the value of specificity for the three tests was 96.2. The kappa index (0.87 and comparison of ROC curves showed similar performance for the three ELISAs (p = 0.225. The high reactivity obtained for these ELISAs in sera of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicates this test as an important complement in the diagnosis of the disease.

José F. Gil

2011-10-01

178

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis  

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Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11), a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigo...

Cs, Denise Matos; Ap, Lanuza Faccioli; Léa Cysne-Finkelstein; Paula Mello De Luca; Suzana Corte-Real; Rg, Geraldo Armo?a; Elezer Monte Blanco Lemes; Débora Decote-Ricardo; Cf, Sergio Mendonc?a

2010-01-01

179

Localization of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in phagolysosomes of murine macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis.  

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Leishmania-infected macrophages are potential antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T lymphocytes, which recognize parasite antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (Ia). However, the intracellular sites where Ia and antigens may interact are far from clear, since parasites grow within the modified lysosomal compartment of the host cell, whereas Ia molecules seem to be targeted to endosomes. To address this question, the expression and fate of Ia molecules were studie...

Antoine, J. C.; Jouanne, C.; Lang, T.; Prina, E.; Chastellier, C.; Frehel, C.

1991-01-01

180

El rol de tres pruebas de ELISA con antígenos de promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis y L. guyanensis en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis tegumentaria / Role of three ELISA tests using promastigote homogenates of Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in the diagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de p [...] romastigotes de Leishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), L (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) y L (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37), leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8), no infectados (n = 52), infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) e infecciones mixtas (n = 14). Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225). La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Abstract in english It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of L [...] eishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), Leishmania (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) against different sera groups. Samples from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 37), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 8), healthy controls (n = 52), persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) and mixed infections (n = 14) were included in the study. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, cut offs, and predictive values for the three tests and compared them using ANOVA, kappa index, ROC curves comparison, and confidence intervals calculated by the bootstrap method. Significant differences were found when comparing the OD levels of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis against healthy controls, but there were no differences when comparing the different ELISAs. The sensitivities calculated for ELISAb and ELISAa were 84.6 and of 88.5% for ELISAg, while the value of specificity for the three tests was 96.2. The kappa index (0.87) and comparison of ROC curves showed similar performance for the three ELISAs (p = 0.225). The high reactivity obtained for these ELISAs in sera of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicates this test as an important complement in the diagnosis of the disease.

José F., Gil; Carlos L., Hoyos; Rubén O., Cimino; Alejandro J., Krolewiecki; Inés, Lopéz Quiroga; Silvana P., Cajal; Marisa, Juárez; María F., García Bustos; María C., Mora; Jorge D., Marco; Julio R., Nasser.

 
 
 
 
181

Combining diagnostic procedures for the management of leishmaniasis in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis Procedimentos diagnósticos combinados no manejo da leishmaniose em áreas com alta prevalência de Leishmania guyanensis  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Amazon region corresponds to approximately 40% of the cases of leishmaniasis in Brazil. We report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10% of the cases of leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon. The study addresses how a combination of procedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate diagnostic methods in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. METHODS: All subjects were amastigote-positive by direct microscopic examination of lesion scarifications. We conducted skin biopsy and histopathology, polymerase chain reaction and parasite cultivation. RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction detected almost ninety percent of infections when two amplification protocols were used (mini-exon and HSP-70. HSP-70 specific polymerase chain reaction matched the sensitivity of parasite cultivation plus histopathology. CONCLUSION: The best combination was polymerase chain reaction plus histopathology, which increased diagnostic sensitivity to 94%. Species discrimination by polymerase chain reaction disclosed prevalence of human infections with Leishmania guyanensis of 94% and with Leishmania braziliensis of 6% for this regionFUNDAMENTOS: O Amazonas corresponde a aproximadamente 40% dos casos de leishmaniose do país. Nós reportamos um estudo prospectivo com 180 pacientes de uma unidade de saúde que diagnostica 10% dos casos de leishmaniose da amazônia brasileira, com combinação de métodos diagnóstico em área de alta prevalência de Leishmania guyanensis. OBJETIVOS: avaliar métodos diagnóstico da Leishmaniose em área endêmica para Leishmania Amazonensis. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes tiveram exame direto positivo com presença de amastigotas. Foi feita também biópsia cutânea, com realização de exame histológico, reação em cadeia da polimerase e cultura. RESULTADO: A reação em cadeia da polimerase detectou aproximadamente 90% de infecção quando foram usados duas técnicas de amplificação (mini-exon and HSP-70. A reação em cadeia da polimerase com HSP-70 foi mais sensível que a cultura associada à histopatologia. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor combinação foi a reação em cadeia da polimerase com histopatologia, com sensibilidade de 94%. A discrimanação das espécies causadoras de infecção humana nessa região mostrou Leishmania guyanensis em 94% dos casos e Leishmania brasiliensis em 6%

Ednelza de Almeida Benicio

2011-12-01

182

Combining diagnostic procedures for the management of leishmaniasis in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis / Procedimentos diagnósticos combinados no manejo da leishmaniose em áreas com alta prevalência de Leishmania guyanensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O Amazonas corresponde a aproximadamente 40% dos casos de leishmaniose do país. Nós reportamos um estudo prospectivo com 180 pacientes de uma unidade de saúde que diagnostica 10% dos casos de leishmaniose da amazônia brasileira, com combinação de métodos diagnóstico em área de alta prev [...] alência de Leishmania guyanensis. OBJETIVOS: avaliar métodos diagnóstico da Leishmaniose em área endêmica para Leishmania Amazonensis. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes tiveram exame direto positivo com presença de amastigotas. Foi feita também biópsia cutânea, com realização de exame histológico, reação em cadeia da polimerase e cultura. RESULTADO: A reação em cadeia da polimerase detectou aproximadamente 90% de infecção quando foram usados duas técnicas de amplificação (mini-exon and HSP-70). A reação em cadeia da polimerase com HSP-70 foi mais sensível que a cultura associada à histopatologia. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor combinação foi a reação em cadeia da polimerase com histopatologia, com sensibilidade de 94%. A discrimanação das espécies causadoras de infecção humana nessa região mostrou Leishmania guyanensis em 94% dos casos e Leishmania brasiliensis em 6% Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Amazon region corresponds to approximately 40% of the cases of leishmaniasis in Brazil. We report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10% of the cases of leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon. The study addresses how a combination of p [...] rocedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate diagnostic methods in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. METHODS: All subjects were amastigote-positive by direct microscopic examination of lesion scarifications. We conducted skin biopsy and histopathology, polymerase chain reaction and parasite cultivation. RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction detected almost ninety percent of infections when two amplification protocols were used (mini-exon and HSP-70). HSP-70 specific polymerase chain reaction matched the sensitivity of parasite cultivation plus histopathology. CONCLUSION: The best combination was polymerase chain reaction plus histopathology, which increased diagnostic sensitivity to 94%. Species discrimination by polymerase chain reaction disclosed prevalence of human infections with Leishmania guyanensis of 94% and with Leishmania braziliensis of 6% for this region

Ednelza de Almeida, Benicio; Ellen Pricilla, Nunes Gadelha; Anette, Talhari; Roberto Moreira da, Silva Jr; Luis Carlos, Ferreira; Mayara Cristina Cordeiro dos, Santos; Marcelo Távora, Mira; Cintia Mara Costa de, Oliveira; Carolina, Talhari; Sinésio, Talhari; Paulo Roberto, Machado; Albert, Schriefer.

183

The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection  

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Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP) in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP) family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from oth...

Montalvo-a?lvarez, Ana M.; Folgueira, Cristina; Carrio?n, Javier; Monzote-fidalgo, Lianet; Can?avate, Carmen; Requena, Jose M.

2008-01-01

184

Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania / Vacinação de camundongos C57BL/10 contra leishmaniose com promastigotas mortas de diferentes cepas e espécies de Leishmania  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos anteriores revelaram que uma vacina preparada com promastigotas mortas de cinco cepas de Leishmania pode induzir uma imunidade protetora para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana no homem e em modelos experimentais. Um dos problemas do uso desta vacina é a complexidade de sua composição e a n [...] ecessidade de se incorporar diferentes cepas de Leishmania. Por esta razão, extratos antigênicos de cada uma das cinco cepas constituintes da vacina foram preparados e usados individualmente em estudos imunológicos com camundongos C57BL/10. A Leishvacin® e a vacina monovalente PH8 induziram os maiores níveis de Interferon-g (IFN-gama) detectado no sobrenadante de células esplênicas dos animais vacinados. Cada grupo imunizado com vacinas monovalentes desenvolveram uma imunidade protetora seis meses após a infecção desafio com promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre os grupos vacinados. Pode-se concluir que vacinas compostas por cepas isoladas de Leishmania protegem camundongos C57BL/10 contra, pelo menos, da infecção por L. (L.) amazonensis. Abstract in english Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective im [...] munity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L.) amazonensis infection.

Mayrink, Wilson; Santos, Gilmara Cristina dos; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de; Guimarães, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Genaro, Odair; Costa, Carlos Alberto da.

185

Antigenic extracts of Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis associated with saponin partially protects BALB/c mice against Leishmania chagasi infection by suppressing IL-10 and IL-4 production  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated two vaccine candidates for their effectiveness in protecting BALB/c mice against Leishmania chagasiinfection. These immunogenic preparations were composed of Leishmania amazonensisor Leishmania braziliensisantigenic extracts in association with saponin adjuvant. Mice were given three subcutaneous doses of one of these vaccine candidates weekly for three weeks and four weeks later challenged with promastigotes of L. chagasiby intravenous injection. We observed that both vaccine candidates induced a significant reduction in the parasite load of the liver, while the L. amazonensisantigenic extract also stimulated a reduction in spleen parasite load. This protection was associated with a suppression of both interleukin (IL-10 and IL-4 cytokines by spleen cells in response to L. chagasiantigen. No change was detected in the production of IFN-?. Our data show that these immunogenic preparations reduce the type 2 immune response leading to the control of parasite replication.

Rafaella FQ Grenfell

2010-09-01

186

Leishmaniose cutânea disseminada produzida por Leishmania viannia braziliensis no Estado do Maranhão - Brasil  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente procedente do Município de Barreirinhas, MA, portador de leishmaniose cutânea disseminada, que apresentava 58 lesões distribuídas pelo corpo, sob os mais variados aspectos com predominância da lesão ulcerada. Discutem a dificuldade do diagnóstico laboratorial na fase inicial da investigação e suas implicações com a terapêutica. O parasita isolado e caracterizado pela técnica de anticorpos monoclonais foi a Leishmania viannia braziliensis. Esta forma da doença é diferente da leishmaniose cutânea difusa, encontrada no Maranhão, cujo agente etiológico é a Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, responsável pela grande maioria dos casos de leishmaniose tegumentar naquele Estado. Os possíveis mecanismos de disseminação das lesões são também discutidos neste trabalho.The authors describe a case of a patient from Barrreirinhas, MA with disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, who presented 58 lesions spread all over his body, with many different aspects, but ulcerative lesions were predominant. They discuss the difficulty of laboratorial diagnosis in the beginning of the investigation and its therapeutics implications. The parasite isolated yvas identified as Leishmania viannia braziliensis using monoclonal antibodies in the fluorescent antibody test. This form of the disease is different from the diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Maranhão, due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis which is responsible for most of the cases of cutaneous leismaniasis in our State. The possible mechanisms of lesions dissemination are discussed.

Cloves Eduardo S. Galvão

1993-06-01

187

The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against four medically relevant Leishmania species of Brazil  

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The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of miltefosine® (Zentaris GmbH) was assessed against four medically relevant Leishmania species of Brazil: Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. The activity of miltefosine against these New World species was compared to its activity against the Old World strain, Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, which is known to be sensitive to the effects of miltefosi...

2011-01-01

188

The Leishmania amazonensis TRF (TTAGGG repeat-binding factor) homologue binds and co-localizes with telomeres  

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Abstract Background Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes essential for maintaining genome stability and cell viability. The importance of telomeric proteins for telomere maintenance has increased our interest in the identification of homologues within the genus Leishmania. The mammalian TRF1 and TRF2 proteins, for example, bind double-stranded telomeres via a Myb-like DNA-binding domain and are involved with telomere length regulation and ch...

da Silva Marcelo S; Perez Arina M; da Silveira Rita de Cássia V; de Moraes Camila E; Siqueira-Neto Jair L; Freitas Lucio de H; Cano Maria

2010-01-01

189

Assessment of immunity induced in mice by glycoproteins derived from different strains and species of Leishmania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A comparative study was undertaken on the immunogenic properties of 63kDa glycoproteins obtained from five different strains/species of Leishmania and assessed in C57BL/10 mice. The humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA against the five different antigens of the immunized animals. The cellul [...] ar immune response was derived from Leishmania. The response was found to be species-specific in all of determined by means of the cytokine profiles secreted by the spleen cells of immunized animals. The presence of ³-IFN and IL-2, and the absence of IL-4 in the supernatants of cells stimulated by L. amazonensis antigen established that the cellular response is of Th1 type. The five glycoproteins tested were equally effective in protecting C57BL/10 mice against challenge by L. amazonensis. About 50% of the immunized animals were protected for six months.

Guimarães, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de; Costa, Carlos Alberto da; Costa, Roberto Teodoro da; Genaro, Odair; Williams, Paul; Mayrink, Wilson.

190

Assessment of immunity induced in mice by glycoproteins derived from different strains and species of Leishmania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study was undertaken on the immunogenic properties of 63kDa glycoproteins obtained from five different strains/species of Leishmania and assessed in C57BL/10 mice. The humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA against the five different antigens of the immunized animals. The cellular immune response was derived from Leishmania. The response was found to be species-specific in all of determined by means of the cytokine profiles secreted by the spleen cells of immunized animals. The presence of gamma-IFN and IL-2, and the absence of IL-4 in the supernatants of cells stimulated by L. amazonensis antigen established that the cellular response is of Th1 type. The five glycoproteins tested were equally effective in protecting C57BL/10 mice against challenge by L. amazonensis. About 50% of the immunized animals were protected for six months. PMID:8734950

Dabés Guimarães, T M; de Toledo, V D; da Costa, C A; da Costa, R T; Genaro, O; Williams, P; Mayrink, W

1996-01-01

191

Assessment of immunity induced in mice by glycoproteins derived from different strains and species of Leishmania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study was undertaken on the immunogenic properties of 63kDa glycoproteins obtained from five different strains/species of Leishmania and assessed in C57BL/10 mice. The humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA against the five different antigens of the immunized animals. The cellular immune response was derived from Leishmania. The response was found to be species-specific in all of determined by means of the cytokine profiles secreted by the spleen cells of immunized animals. The presence of ³-IFN and IL-2, and the absence of IL-4 in the supernatants of cells stimulated by L. amazonensis antigen established that the cellular response is of Th1 type. The five glycoproteins tested were equally effective in protecting C57BL/10 mice against challenge by L. amazonensis. About 50% of the immunized animals were protected for six months.

Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés Guimarães

1996-02-01

192

Infective stages of Leishmania in the sandfly vector and some observations on the mechanism of transmission Formas infectante de Leishmania no vetor flebotomíneo e algumas observações sobre o mecanismo de transmissão  

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Full Text Available Infective stages of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, capable of producing amastigote infections in hamster skin, were shown to be present in the experimentally infected sandfly vector Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 and 120 hours after the flies had received their infective blood-meal. Similarly, infective stages of Leishmania (L. chagasi were demonstrated in the experimentally infected vector Lu. longipalpis examined 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 and 221 hours following the infective blood-meal, by the intraperitoneal inoculation of the flagellates into hamsters. The question of whether or not transmission by the bite of the sandfly is dependent on the presence of [quot ]metacyclic[quot ] promastigotes in the mouthparts of the vector is discussed.Foi demonstrado através de infecção experimental, que estágios infectivos de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, capazes de produzir infecção na pele do hamster, encontram-se presentes no vetor flebotomíneo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 e 120 horas após o inseto ter recebido sua refeição sangüínea infectiva. Da mesma maneira, foi comprovada a presença de estágios infectivos de L. (L. chagasi em exemplares do vetor Lu. longipalpis, examinados 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 e 221 horas após o repasto sangüíneo infectivo - através da inoculação em hamster por via intraperitoneal dos flagelados obtidos desses fle botomíneos. A questão sobre a transmissão do gênero Leishmania pelo flebotomíneo ser ou não dependente da presença de promastigotos "metacíclios" na proboscis do vetor, é discutida.

Ralph Lainson

1987-09-01

193

Identification of highly specific and cross-reactive antigens of Leishmania species by antibodies from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi naturally infected dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leishmania species present a genetic homology that ranges from 69 to 90%. Because of this homology, heterologous antigens have been used in the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against Leishmania infections. In the current work, we describe the identification of species-specific and cross-reactive antigens among several New World Leishmania species, using symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally Leishmania chagasi-infected dog sera. Soluble antigens from five strains of New World Leishmania were separated by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted. Different proteins were uniquely recognized in the L. chagasi panel by either symptomatic or asymptomatic dog sera suggesting their use as markers for the progression of disease and diagnosis of the initial (sub-clinical) phase of the infection. Cross-reactive antigens were identified using heterologous antigenic panels (L. amazonensis strains PH8 and BH6, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis). L. guyanensis panel showed the highest cross-reactivity against L. chagasi specific antibodies, suggesting that proteins from this extract might be suitable for the diagnosis of visceral canine leishmaniasis. Interestingly, the 51 and 97 kDa proteins of Leishmania were widely recognized (77.8% to 100%) among all antigenic panels tested, supporting their potential use for immunodiagnosis. Finally, we identified several leishmanial antigens that might be useful for routine diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of the visceral canine leishmaniasis. PMID:18990196

Vale, A M; Fujiwara, R T; da Silva Neto, A F; Miret, J A; Alvarez, D C C; da Silva, J C F; Campos-Neto, A; Reed, S; Mayrink, W; Nascimento, E

2009-02-01

194

The action of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania Amazonensis, with evaluation of their immunogenic power in experimental models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leishmaniasis is a disease which affects thousands of people in the Tropical regions around the world, is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp., with urban and wild mammals acting as reservoirs. In the mammal host, the amastigote form of the parasite infects and multiplies into macrophages. Treatments for leishmaniasis have a high cost and are long lasting, frequently resulting in therapy interruption. This procedure culminates with a selection of resistant parasite strains, inducing tolerance to the therapy. Either the control of vectors or the mammal host are difficult due the social and economic implications. Thus, the search for alternatives treatments against these protozoans have been stimulated. The gamma radiation (60CO) shown to be an efficient toll to kill these parasites maintaining their immunogenicity. Cellular viability, Electronically microscopy and Multiplex-PCR techniques showed that, after irradiation, the parasites had their growth inhibited by cytoplasmatic and nucleic material disorganisation, appointing the gamma radiation as important in terms of immunogens improvement. (author)

2002-01-01

195

Dual Role of the Leishmania major Ribosomal Protein S3a Homologue in Regulation of T- and B-Cell Activation  

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We have recently characterized a novel Leishmania major gene encoding a polypeptide of 30 kDa that was homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S3a and was named LmS3a-related protein (LmS3arp). The protein was found to be expressed by all the Leishmania species so far examined (L. infantum, L. amazonensis, and L. mexicana). In the present study we have extended our approach to the analysis of LmS3arp activity on T- and B-cell functions in a murine model. The results presented in this report...

Cordeiro-da-silva, Anabela; Borges, Margarida Coutinho; Guilvard, Eliane; Ouaissi, Ali

2001-01-01

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Systemic delivery of an adenovirus expressing EBV-derived vIL-10 in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni or Leishmania amazonensis: controversial effects on the development of pathological parameters.  

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Within the context of microorganism/host interactions, those which last over weeks are expected to be sensitive to more or less sustained and targeted immuno-intervention, such as delivery of cytokines known to operate as down-regulators of acute inflammatory processes. IL-10 has received growing attention as a potential tool in immunotherapy, due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, using two experimental models of long-term interactions between parasites and laboratory mice, we monitored some effects of the systemic delivery of an adenovirus (Ad) expressing EBV-derived IL-10 (vIL-10) designated Ad-vIL-10. We first monitored the vIL-10 serum level following intranasal, intraperitoneal, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The i. p. and i.v. delivery of Ad-vIL-10 allowed a high serum level of vIL-10 (= 100 ng/ml), the i.v. route leading to a more sustained expression (up to 3 weeks). As a first model of parasite/mouse interaction, Schistosoma mansoni/C57Bl/6 mouse was selected. Ad-vIL-10 delivery was performed 4 weeks after S. mansoni infection i.e. at the time of egg-laying, and several parameters were monitored: (i) number of adult worms in the mesenteric vein, (ii) number of eggs trapped in the liver and intestine, (iii) liver fibrosis, (iv) serum levels of egg-reactive antibody subclasses, (v) serum content of cytokines, and (vi) cytokine production in the supernatant of antigen-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells. No apparent effect was observed, either on the different parasitological parameters or on fibrosis development at day 70 of infection. Surprisingly, a marked increase in both Th1 and Th2 type cytokines was observed in the sera of the Ad-vIL-10 injected animals, as well as in the supernatants of their Ag-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells. Nevertheless, polarization of the humoral response towards a Th2 profile was demonstrated by an increase in the IgE level in the Ad-vIL-10-injected animals. As far as the second model is concerned, namely the Leishmania amazonensis /C57Bl6 mouse interactions, Ad-vIL-10 was delivered intravenously one day before subcutaneous injection of stationary promastigotes and footpad swelling was monitored over 110 days. Under these conditions, vIL-10 exhibited a biphasic effect, decreasing the lesion size at the early stages of infection, but leading to a more pronounced lesion size during the chronic phase. This observation suggests a deactivation of the macrophage host cells under the influence of vIL-10. The results are discussed in the context of immunotherapy and the paradoxical effects observed in immunointervention with vIL-10. PMID:10400822

Verwaerde, C; Thiam, K; Delanoye, A; Fernandez-Gomez, R; D'Halluin, J; Auriault, C

1999-06-01

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Kinetics of growth of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cycle in McCoy cell culture / Cinéticas de crescimento do ciclo da Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi em cultura de células McCoy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cinéticas de crescimento de Leishmania realizadas in vitro após a internalização da forma promastigota na célula e a ocorrência da transformação do parasito na forma amastigota foram descritas por vários autores, seja com a utilização de explantes de macrófagos em células de baço de hamster ou atual [...] mente da célula de linhagem de macrófago humano U937. Aliando a microscopia à descrição das inter-relações morfológicas e à síntese de moléculas específicas foi possível esclarecer pontos sobre a biologia do parasito. O presente estudo mostra o acompanhamento do ciclo de crescimento da Leishmania chagasi em uma cinética realizada com células de linhagem McCoy, no período de 144 horas. Durante o processo, as transformações morfológicas foram reveladas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) e as moléculas liberadas no meio extracelular foram observadas pelo método de SDS-PAGE, em intervalos de 24 horas no período de 144 horas. Observou-se que nas primeiras 72 horas, a forma promastigota da L. chagasi fica aderida à membrana das células com aspecto arredondado (amastigota-like). Em 96 horas as células infectadas apresentaram alterações morfológicas; em 120 horas, as células liberaram, para o meio extracelular, antígenos fluorescentes solúveis; e em 144 horas foram observadas novas formas alongadas dos parasitos como se fossem promastigotas. No SDS-PAGE, proteínas com pesos moleculares específicos são observadas em cada ponto da cinética, mostrando que a célula McCoy parece mimetizar o macrófago e que pode ser um modelo útil para o estudo da infecção do binômio leishmânia/célula. Abstract in english The kinetics of growth of Leishmania performed in vitro after internalization of the promastigote form in the cell and the occurrence of the transformation of the parasite into the amastigote form have been described by several authors. They used explants of macrophages in hamster spleen cell cultur [...] e or in a human macrophage lineage cell, the U937. Using microscopy, the description of morphologic inter-relationship and the analysis of the production of specific molecules, it has been possible to define some of the peculiarities of the biology of the parasite. The present study shows the growth cycle of Leishmania chagasi during the observation of kinetic analysis undertaken with a McCoy cell lineage that lasted for a period of 144 hours. During the process, the morphologic transformation was revealed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and the molecules liberated in the extra cellular medium were observed by SDS-PAGE at 24-hour intervals during the whole 144-hour period. It was observed that in the first 72 hours the promastigote form of L. chagasi adhered to the cell membranes and assumed a rounded (amastigote-like) form. At 96 hours the infected cells showed morphologic alterations; at 120 hours the cells had liberated soluble fluorescent antigens into the extra cellular medium. At 144 hours, new elongated forms of the parasites, similar to promastigotes, were observed. In the SDS-PAGE, specific molecular weight proteins were observed at each point of the kinetic analysis showing that the McCoy cell imitates the macrophage and may be considered a useful model for the study of the infection of the Leishmania/cell binomial.

Nogueira, Yeda L.; Nakamura, Paulo M.; Galati, Eunice A. B..

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Enhancement of Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Leishmania Molecules Is Dependent on Interleukin-4, Serine Protease/Esterase Activity, and Parasite and Host Genetic Backgrounds ?  

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Most inbred strains of mice, like the BALB/c strain, are susceptible to Leishmania amazonensis infections and resistant to Leishmania braziliensis infections. This parasite-related difference could result from the activity of an L. amazonensis-specific virulence factor. In agreement with this hypothesis, it is shown here that the intravenous injection of BALB/c mice with L. amazonensis amastigote extract (LaE) but not the L. braziliensis extract confers susceptibility to L. braziliensis infec...

Silva, Virgi?nia M. G.; Larangeira, Daniela F.; Oliveira, Pablo R. S.; Sampaio, Romina B.; Suzart, Paula; Nihei, Jorge S.; Teixeira, Ma?rcia C. A.; Mengel, Jose? O.; Dos-santos, Washington L. C.; Pontes-de-carvalho, Lain

2011-01-01

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PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 para identificar y tipificar Leishmania de la región neotropical / PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 for identification and tipification of Leishmania from the tropical region  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la estandarización de las condiciones de amplificación del gen que codifica para la proteína de choque térmico de 70 kDa (Hsp70) de Leishmania mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR-Hsp70), así como el análisis posterior de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) [...] del producto amplificado, utilizando como molde ADN puro de una cepa de referencia de Leishmania mexicana. Se estudió la sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la PCR, así como la reproducibilidad, utilizando ADN de L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni. Se obtuvo una banda de 1,3 Kpb, demostrándose la amplificación del gen que codifica para la Hsp70. Los patrones de bandas obtenidos tras la digestión enzimática, utilizando la enzima Hae III, permitieron establecer diferencias entre las especies estudiadas: L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni se diferencian entre sí y estas a su vez de L. mexicana y L. amazonensis, que mostraron un patrón de bandas común. La sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la técnica fueron adecuadas. Se demostró la factibilidad de identificar y tipificar especies del continente americano mediante la PCR-RFLP/Hsp70, y de utilizar la restricción enzimática del producto amplificado para distinguir entre Leishmania spp. y Trypanosoma cruzi, dándose un primer paso en el establecimiento de estos métodos moleculares en el laboratorio de referencia del instituto. Abstract in english The optimization of the PCR conditions for amplification of the gene coding for the 70kDa (HSp70) heat shock protein as well as the analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were carried out. DNA from a reference strain of Leishmania mexicana was used as template. Analytical se [...] nsitivity and specificity, and reproducibility of PCR using DNA from L. mexicana, L.amazonensis, L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were determined. A 1.3 kp band was obtained, which confirmed gene amplification. The band patterns derived from Haelll enzyme digestion allowed differentiating several species. L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were different from each other, while L. mexicana and L. amazonensis, which shared a common pattern, were different from the other two species. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The enzymatic restriction of the PCR product made it possible to differentiate Leishmania spp. from T. cruzi. The feasibility of identifying and typifying species from the American continent through PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 and of using enzymatic restriction of amplified product to distinguish Leishmania spp. from Trypanosoma cruzi was shown. This was the first step in implementing these molecular methods in the reference laboratory of the Institute.

Ana Margarita, Montalvo; Jorge, Fraga; Jaqueline, Aylema Romero; Lianet, Monzote; Ivon, Montano; Jean Claude, Dujardin.

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Caracterização isoenzimática de isolados humanos de Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Isoenzymatic characterization of human isolates of Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae from the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus, State of Amazonas  

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Full Text Available Foram caracterizados/identificados por eletroforese de isoenzimas 23 isolados de Leishmania sp de pacientes dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, analisando-se o grau de similaridade entre os organismos. Os resultados indicaram ocorrência de Leishmania guyanensis e Leishmania naiffi nestes dois ambientes e a heterogeneidade das amostras de Leishmania naiffi.Twenty-three isolates of Leishmania sp from patients in the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus were characterized and identified by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis and the degree of similarity between the organisms was analyzed. The results indicated that Leishmania guyanensis and Leishmania naiffi were present in these two environments and that the Leishmania naiffi samples were heterogenous.

Luanda de Paula Figueira

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Identification and purification of immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine (Leishvacin®) Identificação e purificação de proteínas imunogênicas da vacina polivalente de promastigotas mortas de Leishmania (Leishvacin®)  

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Immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis (Leishvacin®), produced by Biobrás (Biochemistry of Brazil ), Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were identified and purified by polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel and electroelution. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with proteins with estimated molecular weights of 42, 46, 63, 66, 73, 87, 97, and 160kDa in three doses of 30µg of each protein at 15-day intervals...

Sandra Regina Afonso Cardoso; João Carlos França da Silva; Roberto Teodoro da Costa; Wilson Mayrink; Maria Norma Melo; Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick; Ibrahim Afrânio Willi Liu; Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara; Evaldo Nascimento

2003-01-01

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Evaluation of HIV-Leishmania co-infection in patients from the northwestern Paraná State, Brazil = Avaliação da co-infecção HIV-Leishmania em pacientes da região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Leishmaniasis occurs throughout the world and is one of the opportunistic infections that attack HIV-infected individuals. Few data are available on American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in HIV-infected patients. Current research investigates the occurrence ofHIV-Leishmania co-infection in HIV-infected individuals in an endemic region in Southern of Brazil. A non-randomized transversal investigation, molecular and serum epidemiologic type, on the occurrence of ACL in 169 HIV-infected patients was undertaken. The patients were followed up at the Integrated Nucleus of Health of the city Maringá, Southern of Brazil. Results showed that 13 (7.7% of the HIV-infected patients also presented Leishmania (Viannia DNA, detectable in blood by PCR. Serology, direct research, culture and PCR in skin material produced negative results. PCR positiveness for Leishmania was not associated with CD4 T lymphocytes count, opportunistic disease, treatment, use of proteases inhibitors, tattooing/piercing or use of injectable drugs, residential environment or previous ACL history. Results show that HIVinfected patients who live in endemic areas may reveal Leishmania DNA in the blood without any ACL symptoms. Above findings may be attributed to anti-retrovirus medicine that controls viral replication and maintains the functionality of the immune system and to a possible anti- Leishmania activity of these drugs.As leishmanioses ocorrem em todo o mundo e são infecções oportunistas que afetam indivíduos portadores do vírus HIV. Este estudo investigou a ocorrência da co-infecção HIV-Leishmania em portadores do HIV numa região endêmica para LTA do Sul do Brasil. Foi realizado estudo transversal, não randomizado, utilizando metodologia molecular e sorológica, sobre a ocorrência de LTA em 169 portadores do HIV. Foram estudados pacientes atendidos no Núcleo Integrado de Saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Observou-se que 13 (7,7% dos pacientes infectados pelo HIV também apresentavam o DNA de Leishmania (Viannia, detectável no sangue por PCR. A sorologia, pesquisa direta de Leishmania, cultura e PCR de lesões de pele foram negativas. A positividade da PCR não estava associada à contagem de linfócitos T CD4+, doença oportunista, tratamento, uso de inibidores de protease, tatuagem, uso de drogas injetáveis, ambiente da residência ou história prévia de LTA. Os resultados mostraram que indivíduos portadores do vírus HIV que residem em área endêmica podem apresentar o DNA de Leishmania sem manifestar sintomas de LTA. Estes resultados podem ser atribuídos a ação dos medicamentos anti retrovirais que controlam a replicação viral mantendo a integridade do sistema imunológico ou a uma possível atividade anti-Leishmania destas drogas.

Élide Aparecida Oliveira

2011-01-01

203

Infective stages of Leishmania in the sandfly vector and some observations on the mechanism of transmission / Formas infectante de Leishmania no vetor flebotomíneo e algumas observações sobre o mecanismo de transmissão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi demonstrado através de infecção experimental, que estágios infectivos de Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, capazes de produzir infecção na pele do hamster, encontram-se presentes no vetor flebotomíneo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 e 120 horas após o inseto ter recebido sua refeição [...] sangüínea infectiva. Da mesma maneira, foi comprovada a presença de estágios infectivos de L. (L.) chagasi em exemplares do vetor Lu. longipalpis, examinados 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 e 221 horas após o repasto sangüíneo infectivo - através da inoculação em hamster por via intraperitoneal dos flagelados obtidos desses fle botomíneos. A questão sobre a transmissão do gênero Leishmania pelo flebotomíneo ser ou não dependente da presença de promastigotos "metacíclios" na proboscis do vetor, é discutida. Abstract in english Infective stages of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, capable of producing amastigote infections in hamster skin, were shown to be present in the experimentally infected sandfly vector Lutzomyia flaviscutellata 15, 25, 40, 49, 70, 96 and 120 hours after the flies had received their infective bloo [...] d-meal. Similarly, infective stages of Leishmania (L.) chagasi were demonstrated in the experimentally infected vector Lu. longipalpis examined 38, 50, 63, 87, 110, 135, 171 and 221 hours following the infective blood-meal, by the intraperitoneal inoculation of the flagellates into hamsters. The question of whether or not transmission by the bite of the sandfly is dependent on the presence of [quot ]metacyclic[quot ] promastigotes in the mouthparts of the vector is discussed.

Lainson, Ralph; Ryan, Lee; Shaw, Jeffrey Jon.

204

Caracterização isoenzimática de isolados humanos de Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, Estado do Amazonas / Isoenzymatic characterization of human isolates of Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) from the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus, State of Amazonas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram caracterizados/identificados por eletroforese de isoenzimas 23 isolados de Leishmania sp de pacientes dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, analisando-se o grau de similaridade entre os organismos. Os resultados indicaram ocorrência de Leishmania guyanensis e Leishmania naiffi nestes do [...] is ambientes e a heterogeneidade das amostras de Leishmania naiffi. Abstract in english Twenty-three isolates of Leishmania sp from patients in the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus were characterized and identified by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis and the degree of similarity between the organisms was analyzed. The results indicated that Leishmania guyanensis and Leis [...] hmania naiffi were present in these two environments and that the Leishmania naiffi samples were heterogenous.

Luanda de Paula, Figueira; Michele, Zanotti; Francimeire Gomes, Pinheiro; Antonia Maria Ramos, Franco.

205

??????: Leishmania major  

Full Text Available Protozoa Trypanosomatidae Leishmania major Leishmania (Leishmania ) major (synonym) NCBI 5664 Leishmania shmania major (scientific name) NCBI 5664 Leishmania tropica major (synonym) NCBI 5664

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??????: Leishmania braziliensis  

Full Text Available Protozoa Trypanosomatidae Leishmania braziliensis Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (synonym) NC BI 5660 Leishmania brasiliensis (synonym) NCBI 5660 Leishmania brazil iensis (scientific name) NCBI 5660 Leishmania viannia (synonym) NCBI 5660

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Effects of seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, on the viability of Leishmania sp Efeitos de seco-esteróides purificados de Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae na viabilidade de Leishmania sp  

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Full Text Available Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, is an annual herb commonly used in popular medicine in many tropical and subtropical countries. P. angulata extracts contain a variety of substances, but little is known about their pharmacological activities. In this work we investigated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of seco-steroids (physalins purified from P. angulata. Addition of physalins B, F, and G caused a concentration-dependent inhibition in the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes, being the IC50 values were 6.8, 1.4, and 9.2 ?M, respectively. Physalin D was less active and had an IC50 value of 30.5 ?M. Physalins were also active in cultures of other Leishmania species (L. major, L. braziliensis, and L. chagasi. Our results demonstrate the potent antileishmanial activity of physalins in cultures of Leishmania species of the New and Old Worlds and suggest the therapeutic potential of these seco-steroids in leishmaniasis.Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, é uma erva anual utilizada na medicina popular em muitos países tropicais e subtropicais. Apesar dos extratos da P. angulata apresentarem uma grande variedade de substâncias, pouco é conhecido sobre a sua atividade farmacológica. Neste trabalho foi investigado a atividade antileishmania in vitro de seco-esteroides (fisalinas purificados da P. angulata. O tratamento com as fisalinas B, F e G causou uma inibição concentração-dependente do crescimento de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis em cultura axênica, com valores de IC50 de 6,8, 1,4, e 9,2 ?M respectivamente. A fisalina D foi menos ativa, com valores de IC50 de 30,5 ?M. Foi também observada uma atividade leishmanicida em culturas de outras espécies de Leishmania (L. major, L. braziliensis e L. chagasi. Nossos resultados demonstram que as fisalinas inibem o crescimento dos promastigotas com o tratamento de espécies de Leishmania do Velho e do Novo Mundos e sugerem o potencial terapêutico destas moléculas na leishmaniose.

Elisalva T. Guimarães

2010-12-01

208

The finding of Lutzomyia almerioi and Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania spp. in a cutaneous and canine visceral leishmaniases focus in Serra da Bodoquena, Brazil.  

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To identify natural infections by Leishmania spp. in insect vectors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, we performed field studies in natural and anthropic environments in the Guaicurus Settlement (Bodoquena Range) of the Bonito municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. From October 2002 to October 2003, a total of 1395 sandfly females were captured with Shannon and light traps and dissected in search of flagellates. The sample is composed of a total of 13 species, with Lutzomyia almerioi (59.9%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (31.4%) predominant. Infections by flagellates were directly observed in three of the dissected of Lu. almerioi females (0.36%). To increase the sensitivity of detection, DNA extracted from pools of the 1220 dissected females (Lu. almerioi 808, Lu. longipalpis 399 and Nyssomyia whitmani 13) was subjected to small subunit rRNA-based polymerase chain reactions (SSU-PCR). DNA from Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi was detected in at least 0.37% of Lu. almerioi females and in 0.25% of Lu. longipalpis females. The DNA of the Leishmania (Viannia) sp. was detected in 0.12% of Lu. almerioi and in 0.70% of Lu. longipalpis. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was found in 1.25% of Lu. longipalpis. Mixed infections of L. (Leishmania) sp. and L. (Viannia) sp. were found in 0.50% of Lu. longipalpis. When considering that each positive pool contained at least a single infected specimen, we found a 1.23% rate of Leishmania spp. infection among the total population of dissected female sand flies as determined by PCR. This is the first report of natural infection by L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (Viannia) sp. in Lu. almerioi. It is also the first report of infection by L. (Viannia) sp. in Lu. longipalpis. The observation that Lu. longipalpis and Lu. almerioi are naturally infected by agents of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases suggests that these two species play a role in the transmission of these diseases within the study area. Furthermore, the finding that Lu. longipalpis has been naturally infected by L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) sp., and Lu. almerioi by L. (L.) infantum chagasi and L. (Viannia), suggests their participation as permissive vectors. PMID:19062193

Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

2009-03-01

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Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania  

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Full Text Available Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L. amazonensis infection.

Mayrink Wilson

2002-01-01

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Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous Leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania.  

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Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin(R) and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L.) amazonensis infection. PMID:12011920

Mayrink, Wilson; Santos, Gilmara Cristina dos; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de; Guimaraes, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Machado-Coelho, George Luis Lins; Genaro, Odair; da Costa, Carlos Alberto

2002-01-01

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Análise histomorfométrica da matriz extracelular do linfonodo poplíteo de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania (L.) chagasi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nas Américas, a leishmaniose visceral canina é causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, um protozoário intracelular obrigatório do sistema fagocítico mononuclear; as principais alterações histológicas associadas a essa doença ocorrem nos em órgãos linfóides. Apesar de o cão ser considerado o pri [...] ncipal mantenedor e disseminador da leishmaniose no ambiente urbano, são escassos estudos dos aspectos histopatológicos e histomorfométricos, em cães naturalmente infectados com L. chagasi, que investiguem a interação entre o parasito e a matriz extracelular. Este estudo visou caracterizar e quantificar as alterações dos componentes celulares e da matriz extracelular (colágenos I e III) do linfonodo poplíteo de 22 cães com infecção natural por L. chagasi detectada através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF) e compará-las com as alterações encontradas no linfonodo poplíteo de 10 cães não-infectados, negativos na RIF e clinicamente saudáveis. Fragmentos dos linfonodos foram seccionados longitudinalmente, processados rotineiramente para exame histológico e corados por hematoxilina-eosina. Cortes adicionais do mesmo linfonodo incluídos em glicol metacrilato foram corados pelo azul de toluidina para histomorfometria. Linfonodos de cães infectados apresentaram linfadenopatia generalizada, aumento do tamanho e do número dos folículos linfóides, hipertrofia da cápsula e hiperplasia linfóide significativa. Nos linfonodos de cães do grupo infectado, a análise quantitativa de fibras colágenas mostrou significativo predomínio do colágeno I sobre o colágeno III. Esses resultados demonstram que cães infectados por L. chagasi apresentam degradação dos constituintes da matriz extracelular e conseqüente destruição do arcabouço linfóide, alterando a morfologia do órgão. Abstract in english In the Americas, canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, an obligatory intracellular parasite of the phagocytic-monocytic system; the main histological changes associated with this disease occur in the lymphoid organs. Although dogs are considered to be the main c [...] arriers and disseminators of leishmaniasis in urban areas, there are few studies on the histopathologic and histomorphometric aspects in dogs naturally infected by L.chagasi analyzing the interaction between parasite and extracellular matrix. The current study characterize and quantify changes in the cellular and extracellular matrix (collagens type I and III) components of the popliteal lymph node from of 22 dogs with the natural infection by L. chagasi confirmed by indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA) and compare theses findings with those fund in the popliteal lymph node from 10 non-infected dogs, that reacted negative in the IFA, and were clinically healthy. Lymph node fragments were longitudinally sliced and sections were processed for routine histopathology and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. For histomorphometry, additional sections from the same lymph node were fixed in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue. Lymph nodes from affected dogs were systemically enlarged, had increased numbers of lymphoid follicles, capsule hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and significant hyperplasia of lymphoid cells. In the lymph nodes from infected dogs, quantitative analyses of collagen fibers revealed predominance of type I collagen over type III fibers. These results demonstrate that dogs infected by L.chagasi experience degradation of the extracellular matrix components and consequently destruction of the lymphoid framework, thus altering nodal morphology.

Kondo, Kris Régia J.; Fonseca, Cláudio César; Matta, Sérgio Luis P. da; Viloria, Marlene Isabel V..

212

Análise histomorfométrica da matriz extracelular do linfonodo poplíteo de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania (L. chagasi  

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Full Text Available Nas Américas, a leishmaniose visceral canina é causada por Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, um protozoário intracelular obrigatório do sistema fagocítico mononuclear; as principais alterações histológicas associadas a essa doença ocorrem nos em órgãos linfóides. Apesar de o cão ser considerado o principal mantenedor e disseminador da leishmaniose no ambiente urbano, são escassos estudos dos aspectos histopatológicos e histomorfométricos, em cães naturalmente infectados com L. chagasi, que investiguem a interação entre o parasito e a matriz extracelular. Este estudo visou caracterizar e quantificar as alterações dos componentes celulares e da matriz extracelular (colágenos I e III do linfonodo poplíteo de 22 cães com infecção natural por L. chagasi detectada através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF e compará-las com as alterações encontradas no linfonodo poplíteo de 10 cães não-infectados, negativos na RIF e clinicamente saudáveis. Fragmentos dos linfonodos foram seccionados longitudinalmente, processados rotineiramente para exame histológico e corados por hematoxilina-eosina. Cortes adicionais do mesmo linfonodo incluídos em glicol metacrilato foram corados pelo azul de toluidina para histomorfometria. Linfonodos de cães infectados apresentaram linfadenopatia generalizada, aumento do tamanho e do número dos folículos linfóides, hipertrofia da cápsula e hiperplasia linfóide significativa. Nos linfonodos de cães do grupo infectado, a análise quantitativa de fibras colágenas mostrou significativo predomínio do colágeno I sobre o colágeno III. Esses resultados demonstram que cães infectados por L. chagasi apresentam degradação dos constituintes da matriz extracelular e conseqüente destruição do arcabouço linfóide, alterando a morfologia do órgão.In the Americas, canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, an obligatory intracellular parasite of the phagocytic-monocytic system; the main histological changes associated with this disease occur in the lymphoid organs. Although dogs are considered to be the main carriers and disseminators of leishmaniasis in urban areas, there are few studies on the histopathologic and histomorphometric aspects in dogs naturally infected by L.chagasi analyzing the interaction between parasite and extracellular matrix. The current study characterize and quantify changes in the cellular and extracellular matrix (collagens type I and III components of the popliteal lymph node from of 22 dogs with the natural infection by L. chagasi confirmed by indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA and compare theses findings with those fund in the popliteal lymph node from 10 non-infected dogs, that reacted negative in the IFA, and were clinically healthy. Lymph node fragments were longitudinally sliced and sections were processed for routine histopathology and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. For histomorphometry, additional sections from the same lymph node were fixed in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue. Lymph nodes from affected dogs were systemically enlarged, had increased numbers of lymphoid follicles, capsule hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and significant hyperplasia of lymphoid cells. In the lymph nodes from infected dogs, quantitative analyses of collagen fibers revealed predominance of type I collagen over type III fibers. These results demonstrate that dogs infected by L.chagasi experience degradation of the extracellular matrix components and consequently destruction of the lymphoid framework, thus altering nodal morphology.

Kris Régia J. Kondo

2009-08-01

213

Diagnóstico molecular da taxa de infecção natural de flebotomíneos (Psychodidae, Lutzomyia por Leishmania sp na Amazônia maranhense Molecular diagnosis of the natural infection rate due to Leishmania sp in sandflies (Psychodidae, Lutzomyia in the Amazon region of Maranhão, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A taxa de infecção natural de três diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos por Leishmania foi estudada usando a técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Primers específicos para Leishmania foram designados para examinar se os pools de flebotomíneos estavam infectadas. Um total de 1.100 fêmeas separadas em pools de 10 indivíduos foram examinados, consistindo de 50 Lutzomyia whitmani, 43 Lutzomyia triacantha e 17 Lutzomyia choti. De todos os pools analisados, 4 de Lutzomyia whitmani estavam positivos, mas nenhum pool das duas espécies restantes estava infectado. Deste modo, uma taxa de infecção de 0,4% foi verificada neste estudo. Esta taxa de infecção associada a estudos anteriores sugere que Lutzomyia whitmani transmite Leishmania aos mamíferos em Buriticupu, Maranhão.The natural infection rate due to Leishmania was studied in three different sandfly species using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Leishmania specific primers were designed to examine whether sandfly pools were infected. In total 1,100 female sandflies separated into pools of 10 individuals, consisting of 50 pools of Lutzomyia whitmani, 43 of Lutzomyia triacantha and 17 of Lutzomyia choti, were analyzed. Among all the pools examined, four pools of Lutzomyia whitmani were positive, but none of the pools of the other two species were infected. Thus, a total infection rate of 0.4% was established in this study. A similar infection rate was found in previous studies, suggesting that Lutzomyia whitmani transmits Leishmania to mammals in Buriticupu, Maranhão.

Yrla Nívea Oliveira-Pereira

2006-12-01

214

Estado atual da leishmaniose cutânea difusa (LCD no Estado do Maranhão: II. aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-evolutivos  

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Full Text Available Os Autores fazem um estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo de 6 pacientes portadores de leishmaniose cutânea difusa, observados no Estado do Maranhão a partir de 1974. Os casos abordados são oriundos de diversas regiões do estado, observando-se em todos eles o envolvimento da leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, sendo que 5 (84% dos pacientes apresentaram início de doença na 1ª década de vida. Em todos os pacientes envolvidos no estudo, houve relato de lesão inicial nodular única, que, posteriormente, em período variável de tempo, disseminou-se adquirindo outros aspectos. Evolutivamente apresentaram múltiplas lesões nodulares e ulceradas, intradermorreação de Montenegro(- e refratariedade aos esquemas terapêuticos utilizados até ao presente momento.The authors describe a retrospective and prospective study of 6 patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis observed in the State of Maranhão, since 1974. The patients comefromdifferentruralregions of the state and in all of them Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis was the cause five of the patients initiated their disease in the first decade of life. All the patients first had a solitary, nodular lesion, that after a variable period of time, disseminated and acquired other aspects. Sequentially the patients presented multiple nodular and ulcerative lesions, negative leishmania skin-lests and a refractory response to the therapeutic schedules used up to the present.

Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

1992-06-01

215

Histopatologia da leishmaniose tegumentar por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. 2. Resposta humoral tissular Histopathology of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis. 2. Tissue humoral response  

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Full Text Available Os A.A. analisaram a resposta humoral nas lesões de 90 pacientes de Leishmaniose Tegumentar — causada por Leishmania braziliensis brasiliensis —, utilizando o método da imunoperoxidase para identificar nos tecidos a presença de IgA, IgG, IgM, fração C3 do complemento e fibrina. Constataram a presença de IgA, IgC e IgM nos plasmócitos tissulares, com predomínio de IgG. Admitiram aue a passagem dessas imunoglobulinas para os tecidos possibilitando a opsonização do parasites e/ou de seus antígenos, permitiria a ocorrência de fenômenos necróticos que representam um dos mecanismos eficazes de redução da carga parasitária. Efetivamente, nas áreas de necrose e nas paredes dos vasos inflamados identificaram depósito de imunoglobulinas, fração C3 do complemento e fibrina — elementos do hospedeiro que fazem parte dos imunocomplexos. Interpretaram essa necrose tissular como o resultado da ação de imunocomplexos na região de equivalência ou com discreto excesso de antígenos ítipos ABTHTJS. A presença de antígenos parasitários, expressos nas membranas dos macrófagos quando em contato com imunoglobulinas tissulares, na fase inicial da lesão, possibilitaria a instalação de uma reação antígeno-anticorpo, a qual explicaria o aparecimento da necrose na Leishmaniose Tegumentar.The Authors analysed the humoral response in biopsy material from 90 patients with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis, utilising the immunoperoxidase method to identify IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 complement fraction and fibrin in the tissue. The presence of IgG, IgA and IgM was found in tissue plasma cells with a predominance of IgG and this was correlated significantly with the number of plasma cells in the lesion. The presence of immunoglobulins in the tissues stimulated the opsonisation of parasites and/or their antigens resulting in necrosis which represents one of the effective mechanisms to reduce parasite load. In ne- crotic areas and the walls of inflammed vessels immunoglobulins were deposited as well as the C3 fraction of complement and fibrin — immunocomplex fractions derived from the host. This tissue necrosis was interpreted as the result of the action of immunocomplexes in a region with equivalent or a smally excess of antigen (Arthus type reaction. The presence of parasite antigens expressed on the macrophage membrane in the initial phase of the lesion when in contact with tissue immunoglobulins, leads to the installation of an antigen-antibody reaction resulting in the appearance of necrosisin Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Albino Verçosa de Magalhães

1986-10-01

216

Comparative analysis of the geographic distribution of the histopathological spectrum and Leishmania species of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil / Análise comparativa da distribuição geográfica do espectro histopatológico e espécies de Leishmania da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O conhecimento das relações entre diferenças geográficas específicas e a histopatologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana é limitada devido à complexidade espacial e temporal da interação hospedeiro-parasito. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a distribuição geográfica do padrão histopatológico da [...] leishmaniose tegumentar americana na forma cutânea localizada e a relação com a espécie de Leishmania. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, de uma amostra de 55 pacientes de Montes Claros e 32 de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, comparando com diferentes regiões do Brasil através de avaliações históricas, microregionais e da construção de intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS: Na forma cutânea da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, foi encontrada uma preponderância de reações exsudativas-celulares nos municípios de Caratinga, leste de Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, norte de Minas Gerais e Uberlândia, Triângulo mineiro, e também nos estados de Mato Grosso e Ceará. As reações exsudativas-necróticas-granulomatosas encontradas foram mais freqüentes em áreas do norte do Brasil, principalmente nos estados do Amazonas e Pará. As reações exsudativas-necróticas foram as formas mais freqüentes de apresentação encontradas em todas as áreas no Brasil quando a predominância de L. braziliensis foi menor que 90% em relação às outras espécies. CONCLUSÕES: Existe uma variação geográfica da resposta inflamatória imune na leishmaniose tegumentar americana. As correlações geográficas entre as espécies predominantes de Leishmania e o espectro histopatológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, que até que o presente estudo não tinha sido realizada, permite novas abordagens nos estudos de subpopulações de Leishmania em áreas com uma predominância de uma espécie e provê evidência das variações no comportamento biológico de diferentes espécies. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between specific geographical differences and histopathology of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is limited because host-parasite interactions in space and time are complex. OBJECTIVE: To describe the geographic analysis of the histopathological pattern [...] of localized American cutaneous leishmaniasis and the relationship with Leishmania species. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of a sample consisting of 55 patients of municipal districts of Montes Claros and 32 of Caratinga, Minas Gerais, by comparing with other endemic regions in Brazil, assessing historical and microregional data and developing confidence intervals. RESULTS: A preponderance of cellular exudative reactions in the cutaneous form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was found in the municipal districts of Caratinga, east of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, north of Minas Gerais and Uberlândia, Triangulo Mineiro, and also in the states of Mato Grosso and Ceara. Necrotic and exudative granulomatous reactions were found to be more frequent in the northern areas, mainly in the states of Amazonas and Para. Necrotic and exudative reactions were the most frequent form of presentation found throughout Brazil when the predominance of L. braziliensis was below 90% in relation to other species. CONCLUSION: There is a geographic variation of the immune inflammatory response in American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Geographical correlations between the predominant species of Leishmania and the most frequent forms of histopathological presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, which until the present study had not been performed, enables new approaches to the study of Leishmania subpopulations in areas with a predominance of one species and provides evidence of variations in the biological behavior of different species.

Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina Carvalho.

217

Comparative analysis of the geographic distribution of the histopathological spectrum and Leishmania species of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil Análise comparativa da distribuição geográfica do espectro histopatológico e espécies de Leishmania da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Brasil  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between specific geographical differences and histopathology of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is limited because host-parasite interactions in space and time are complex. OBJECTIVE: To describe the geographic analysis of the histopathological pattern of localized American cutaneous leishmaniasis and the relationship with Leishmania species. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of a sample consisting of 55 patients of municipal districts of Montes Claros and 32 of Caratinga, Minas Gerais, by comparing with other endemic regions in Brazil, assessing historical and microregional data and developing confidence intervals. RESULTS: A preponderance of cellular exudative reactions in the cutaneous form of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was found in the municipal districts of Caratinga, east of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, north of Minas Gerais and Uberlândia, Triangulo Mineiro, and also in the states of Mato Grosso and Ceara. Necrotic and exudative granulomatous reactions were found to be more frequent in the northern areas, mainly in the states of Amazonas and Para. Necrotic and exudative reactions were the most frequent form of presentation found throughout Brazil when the predominance of L. braziliensis was below 90% in relation to other species. CONCLUSION: There is a geographic variation of the immune inflammatory response in American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Geographical correlations between the predominant species of Leishmania and the most frequent forms of histopathological presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, which until the present study had not been performed, enables new approaches to the study of Leishmania subpopulations in areas with a predominance of one species and provides evidence of variations in the biological behavior of different species.FUNDAMENTOS: O conhecimento das relações entre diferenças geográficas específicas e a histopatologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana é limitada devido à complexidade espacial e temporal da interação hospedeiro-parasito. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a distribuição geográfica do padrão histopatológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana na forma cutânea localizada e a relação com a espécie de Leishmania. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, de uma amostra de 55 pacientes de Montes Claros e 32 de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, comparando com diferentes regiões do Brasil através de avaliações históricas, microregionais e da construção de intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS: Na forma cutânea da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, foi encontrada uma preponderância de reações exsudativas-celulares nos municípios de Caratinga, leste de Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, norte de Minas Gerais e Uberlândia, Triângulo mineiro, e também nos estados de Mato Grosso e Ceará. As reações exsudativas-necróticas-granulomatosas encontradas foram mais freqüentes em áreas do norte do Brasil, principalmente nos estados do Amazonas e Pará. As reações exsudativas-necróticas foram as formas mais freqüentes de apresentação encontradas em todas as áreas no Brasil quando a predominância de L. braziliensis foi menor que 90% em relação às outras espécies. CONCLUSÕES: Existe uma variação geográfica da resposta inflamatória imune na leishmaniose tegumentar americana. As correlações geográficas entre as espécies predominantes de Leishmania e o espectro histopatológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, que até que o presente estudo não tinha sido realizada, permite novas abordagens nos estudos de subpopulações de Leishmania em áreas com uma predominância de uma espécie e provê evidência das variações no comportamento biológico de diferentes espécies.

Linton Wallis Figueiredo Souza

2012-06-01

218

Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity  

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Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

1999-09-03

219

Characterization of Leishmania infantum species in dogs from the urban area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil / Caracterização da espécie Leishmania infantum em cães de área urbana de Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral apresenta comportamento urbano em algumas cidades brasileiras, sendo os cães domésticos as principais fontes de infecção. Em Cuiabá-MT, a leishmaniose visceral canina foi diagnosticada e caracterizada, como recomendação do Ministério da Saúde. MÉTODOS: Amostras bi [...] ológicas de cães suspeitos foram analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas. Foram utilizadas a enzima 6PGDH e a cepa de referência IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903) de Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, como um dos controles. RESULTADOS: A análise eletroforética revelou que os isolados pertenciam à espécie L. (L.) infantum. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores ressaltam a importância da caracterização da espécie, principalmente em cidades com infecção mista, como Cuiabá. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis presents urban behavior in some Brazilian cities, with domestic dogs as the main infection source. In Cuiabá, MT, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed and characterized as recommended by the Ministry of Health. METHODS: Biological samples from suspected ca [...] nine carriers were analyzed by the isoenzyme electrophoresis technique. The 6PGDH enzyme and reference strain IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903) of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum was used as one of the controls. RESULTS: Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the canine isolates belonged to the species L. (L.) infantum. CONCLUSIONS: The authors emphasize the importance of species characterization, particularly in areas of mixed infection like Cuiabá.

Bianca De, Santis; Elizabeth Gloria Oliveira Barbosa, Santos; Elisa, Cupolillo; Renato, Porrozzi; Amanda dos Santos, Cavalcanti; Bárbara Neves dos, Santos; Saulo Teixeira De, Moura; Kellen, Malhado; Sergio Augusto Miranda, Chaves.

220

Characterization of Leishmania infantum species in dogs from the urban area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Caracterização da espécie Leishmania infantum em cães de área urbana de Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis presents urban behavior in some Brazilian cities, with domestic dogs as the main infection source. In Cuiabá, MT, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed and characterized as recommended by the Ministry of Health. METHODS: Biological samples from suspected canine carriers were analyzed by the isoenzyme electrophoresis technique. The 6PGDH enzyme and reference strain IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903 of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum was used as one of the controls. RESULTS: Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the canine isolates belonged to the species L. (L. infantum. CONCLUSIONS: The authors emphasize the importance of species characterization, particularly in areas of mixed infection like Cuiabá.INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral apresenta comportamento urbano em algumas cidades brasileiras, sendo os cães domésticos as principais fontes de infecção. Em Cuiabá-MT, a leishmaniose visceral canina foi diagnosticada e caracterizada, como recomendação do Ministério da Saúde. MÉTODOS: Amostras biológicas de cães suspeitos foram analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas. Foram utilizadas a enzima 6PGDH e a cepa de referência IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903 de Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, como um dos controles. RESULTADOS: A análise eletroforética revelou que os isolados pertenciam à espécie L. (L. infantum. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores ressaltam a importância da caracterização da espécie, principalmente em cidades com infecção mista, como Cuiabá.

Bianca De Santis

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Kinetics of growth of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cycle in McCoy cell culture Cinéticas de crescimento do ciclo da Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi em cultura de células McCoy  

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The kinetics of growth of Leishmania performed in vitro after internalization of the promastigote form in the cell and the occurrence of the transformation of the parasite into the amastigote form have been described by several authors. They used explants of macrophages in hamster spleen cell culture or in a human macrophage lineage cell, the U937. Using microscopy, the description of morphologic inter-relationship and the analysis of the production of specific molecules, it has been possible...

Nogueira, Yeda L.; Nakamura, Paulo M.; Galati, Eunice A. B.

2006-01-01

222

Padronização de condições para detecção de DNA de Leishmania spp. em flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae) pela reação em cadeia da polimerase / Standardization of conditions for PCR detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A correta identificação dos agentes etiológicos em insetos vetores é de crucial importância aos estudos epidemiológicos. A pesquisa de flagelado nesses vetores, pela dissecção de seu trato digestivo, observação microscópica do seu conteúdo ou por isolamento dos parasitas provenientes de insetos em m [...] eios de cultura, tem-se mostrado operacionalmente inadequada e com baixa especificidade do diagnóstico, pois fêmeas de flebotomíneos também podem albergar outros flagelados como Trypanosoma e Endotrypanum. Acreditamos que por sua eficiência e especificidade, a amplificação de seqüências-alvo do DNA da Leishmania, por meio da reação em cadeia de polimerase, pode ser aplicada na investigação de sua presença em flebotomíneos, desde que estes estejam devidamente acondicionados e o DNA do parasita extraído a partir de metodologia adequada. Este trabalho descreve metodologias utilizadas na padronização da conservação dos espécimes de flebotomíneos e extração do DNA da Leishmania como uma alternativa mais prática que os métodos tradicionais. Abstract in english The correct identification of etiological agents in vector insects is crucial for epidemiological studies. Identification of flagellates in such vectors, usually by dissection of the digestive tract and microscopic observation of the contents as well as attempts at parasite isolation from insects in [...] culture media, have proven operationally inadequate and with poor diagnostic specificity, since female sand flies are also hosts for other flagellates like Trypanosoma and Endotrypanum. Due to the efficiency and specificity of DNA target sequence amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the latter could be used to investigate the presence of Leishmania in sand flies, although the insects need to be properly stored and the Leishmania DNA extracted using appropriate methodology. This paper describes methodologies to standardize sand fly storage and Leishmania DNA extraction in such specimens as a more practical method in field studies.

Paiva, Byanca Regina de; Secundino, Nagilá Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Fillemon Paulocci; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Biacnhi; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos.

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Padronização de condições para detecção de DNA de Leishmania spp. em flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae) pela reação em cadeia da polimerase / Standardization of conditions for PCR detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A correta identificação dos agentes etiológicos em insetos vetores é de crucial importância aos estudos epidemiológicos. A pesquisa de flagelado nesses vetores, pela dissecção de seu trato digestivo, observação microscópica do seu conteúdo ou por isolamento dos parasitas provenientes de insetos em m [...] eios de cultura, tem-se mostrado operacionalmente inadequada e com baixa especificidade do diagnóstico, pois fêmeas de flebotomíneos também podem albergar outros flagelados como Trypanosoma e Endotrypanum. Acreditamos que por sua eficiência e especificidade, a amplificação de seqüências-alvo do DNA da Leishmania, por meio da reação em cadeia de polimerase, pode ser aplicada na investigação de sua presença em flebotomíneos, desde que estes estejam devidamente acondicionados e o DNA do parasita extraído a partir de metodologia adequada. Este trabalho descreve metodologias utilizadas na padronização da conservação dos espécimes de flebotomíneos e extração do DNA da Leishmania como uma alternativa mais prática que os métodos tradicionais. Abstract in english The correct identification of etiological agents in vector insects is crucial for epidemiological studies. Identification of flagellates in such vectors, usually by dissection of the digestive tract and microscopic observation of the contents as well as attempts at parasite isolation from insects in [...] culture media, have proven operationally inadequate and with poor diagnostic specificity, since female sand flies are also hosts for other flagellates like Trypanosoma and Endotrypanum. Due to the efficiency and specificity of DNA target sequence amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the latter could be used to investigate the presence of Leishmania in sand flies, although the insects need to be properly stored and the Leishmania DNA extracted using appropriate methodology. This paper describes methodologies to standardize sand fly storage and Leishmania DNA extraction in such specimens as a more practical method in field studies.

Paiva, Byanca Regina de; Secundino, Nagilá Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Fillemon Paulocci; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Biacnhi; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos.

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Glucantime resistant Leishmania promastigotes are sensitive to pentostam  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diferentes amostras de Leishmania foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade in vitro ao pentostam - uma cepa de L. (V) braziliensis considerada sensível ao glucantime, três cepas (duas L. (V) braziliensis e uma L. (L) amazonensis) consideradas naturalmente resistentes ao glucantime, uma linhagem re [...] sistente (L. (V) guyanensis) selecionada in vitro pela exposição em alta concentração de droga. A elevada sensibilidade destas amostras em contraposição à resistência observada para o glucantime sugere existir relação entre a estrutura química e a atividade destes compostos. Estes dados indicam a necessidade de ima avaliação comparativa de atividade clínica do pentostam e do glucantime no tratamento da leishmaniose. Abstract in english Growth inhibition in vitro tests were used to study the susceptibility to pentostam of different Leishmania strains involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneos leishmaniasis - one glucantime sensitive strain, three naturally glucantime resistant strains and one glucantime resistant line developed by in v [...] itro drug exposure. Contrasting with the high degree , of glucantime resistance, all strains were sensitive to pentostam. These differences suggest that there is some relationship between chemical structure and in vitro activity for these antimonial compounds. These data justify a clinical re-evaluation to compare therapeutic efficacy of glucantime and pentostam in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Moreira, Elizabeth Spangler Andrade; Guerra, Juliana Becattini; Petrillo-Peixoto, Maria de Lourdes.

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LA Leishmania spp. COMO ESTRATEGIA DE DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DE LA LeishmaniaSIS, UN ARTÍCULO DE REVISIÓN / Leishmania spp. AS A DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGY AND AS A TREATMENT OF LeishmaniaSIS; AN ARTICLE OF REVISION. / A Leishmania spp. COMO ESTRATÉGIA DE DIAGNÓSTICO E TRATAMIENTO DA LeishmaniaSIS, UM ARTIGO DE REVISÃO  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Algumas enfermidades emergentes e reemergentes têm aumentado de maneira quase indecifrável, quanto ao lugar de origem. Tais são os casos do Mal de Chagas, malária, dengue, febre amarela, raiva e leishmaniose, devido entre outros, a fatores de mobilidade populacional, demográficos, sociais e econômic [...] os que levam microrganismos a gerarem adaptações ao meio mutante, dificultando seu diagnóstico e tratamento por métodos convencionais. Métodos Realizou-se uma busca exaustiva nas bases de dados relacionadas com genômica e proteômica, como o NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), auspiciada pela U.S National Library of Medicine e o National Institute of Health, onde se conta com aceso a PubMed. Resultados Na atualidade aplicam-se técnicas de marcadores moleculares, PCR (Reação em cadeia da polimerasa) que complementam as provas bioquímicas e microbiológicas empregadas comumente no diagnóstico. Conhecendo a expressão genômica destes parasitas, se poderão desenhar métodos novos mais efetivos contra cepas resistentes aos fármacos disponíveis na atualidade e de prevenção rápida. Conclusões Neste artigo se apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica, onde a informação clínica do paciente é determinante para o diagnóstico, o qual pode ser confirmado com técnicas moleculares desenvolvidas em tempo real, para contribuir ao conhecimento molecular da Leishmania spp, como estratégia de diagnóstico e tratamento desta patologia. Abstract in spanish Introducción: Algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes han venido en aumento de manera casi impredecible, en cuanto al sitio de origen. Tal es el caso de la enfermedad de Chagas, malaria, dengue, fiebre amarilla, rabia, Leishmaniasis, debido entre otros a factores de movilidad poblacional, dem [...] ográficos, sociales y económicos que han llevado a que los microorganismos generen adaptaciones al medio cambiante, dificultando su diagnóstico y tratamiento por métodos convencionales. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en las bases de datos relacionadas con genómica y proteómica como el NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), auspiciado por la U.S National Library of Medicine y el National Institute of Health, donde se cuenta con acceso a PubMed Resultados: En la actualidad se han venido aplicando técnicas de marcadores moleculares, PCR (Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa) que complementan las pruebas bioquímicas y microbiológicas empleadas comúnmente en el diagnóstico. Conociendo la expresión genómica de estos parásitos, se podrán diseñar métodos nuevos más efectivos contra cepas resistentes a los fármacos disponibles en la actualidad y de prevención temprana. Conclusiones: En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica, donde la información clínica del paciente es determinante para el diagnóstico, el cual puede ser confirmado con técnicas moleculares desarrolladas en tiempo real, para aportar al conocimiento molecular de la Leishmania spp, como estrategia de diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología. Abstract in english Introduction: Some emerging and reemerging infirmities have been increasing in an almost unpredictable manner as far as site of origin. Such is the case with such diseases as Chagas, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, rabies, and Leishmaniasis. Various demographic, social, and economic factors, as well [...] as population mobility have allowed microorganisms to generate adaptations to changing environments and thus make diagnosis and treatment by conventional methods more difficult. Methodology: An exhaustive search was undertaken in the data bases related to genome and protein sequence information found at the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), part of the United States National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, all with direct access to PubMed. Results: Today techniques using molecular markers, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), are being

Beltrán Cifuentes, Martha Cecilia; Durán Ospina, Patricia; Corredor Arias, Luisa Fernanda.

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Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania Vacinação de camundongos C57BL/10 contra leishmaniose com promastigotas mortas de diferentes cepas e espécies de Leishmania  

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Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines compo...

Wilson Mayrink; Gilmara Cristina dos Santos; Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de Toledo; Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés Guimarães; George Luis Lins Machado-Coelho; Odair Genaro; Carlos Alberto da Costa

2002-01-01

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Leishmaniose tegumentar americana causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, em área de treinamento militar na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco  

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Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo geral caracterizar a epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em unidade de treinamento militar, localizada no Estado de Pernambuco. Entre 2002 e 2003, vinte e três casos foram diagnosticados através de exame clínico, detecção do parasita e teste de intradermoarreação de Montenegro. Sete amostras de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foram isoladas destes pacientes, identificadas através de reações com anticorpos monoclonais específicos e perfil eletroforético com isoenzimas. Um inquérito epidemiológico de prevalência da infecção por IDRM foi realizado na população que realizou treinamento neste período, no qual foi identificada uma prevalência de 25,3% de infecção. Os dados obtidos, associados com achados prévios nesta área, apresentam evidências da manutenção de um ciclo enzoótico, com a ocorrência de surtos periódicos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana posteriormente à realização de treinamentos nas áreas de floresta Atlântica remanescente.

Andrade Maria S.

2005-01-01

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Identification and purification of immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine (Leishvacin®  

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Full Text Available Immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis (Leishvacin®, produced by Biobrás (Biochemistry of Brazil , Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were identified and purified by polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel and electroelution. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with proteins with estimated molecular weights of 42, 46, 63, 66, 73, 87, 97, and 160kDa in three doses of 30µg of each protein at 15-day intervals combined with 250µg of Corynebacterium parvum followed by a challenge infection with 10(5 infective promastigotes from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. The ability of these proteins to induce immune response and protection was analyzed. No statistical difference was observed in the level of IFN-g induced by proteins in vaccinated groups in comparison with control groups. Six months after challenge infection, protection levels of 28.57; 42.86; 57.14; 42.86; 42.86, 57.14; 42.86 and 57.14% were demonstrated for each purified protein.

Cardoso Sandra Regina Afonso

2003-01-01

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Identification and purification of immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine (Leishvacin ).  

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Immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis (Leishvacin ), produced by Biobr s (Biochemistry of Brazil ), Montes Claros, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were identified and purified by polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel and electroelution. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with proteins with estimated molecular weights of 42, 46, 63, 66, 73, 87, 97, and 160kDa in three doses of 30 g of each protein at 15-day intervals combined with 250 microg of Corynebacterium parvum followed by a challenge infection with 10(5) infective promastigotes from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The ability of these proteins to induce immune response and protection was analyzed. No statistical difference was observed in the level of IFN-gamma induced by proteins in vaccinated groups in comparison with control groups. Six months after challenge infection, protection levels of 28.57; 42.86; 57.14; 42.86; 42.86, 57.14; 42.86 and 57.14% were demonstrated for each purified protein. PMID:12806454

Cardoso, Sandra Regina Afonso; da Silva, João Carlos França; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Mayrink, Wilson; Melo, Maria Norma; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Liu, Ibrahim Afrânio Willi; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Nascimento, Evaldo

2003-01-01

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Assessment of PCR in the detection of Leishmania spp in experimentally infected individual phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae  

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Full Text Available DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in the investigation of the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasites in single phlebotomine sandflies. Three phlebotomine/parasite pairs were used: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania amazonensis and Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, all of them incriminated in the transmission of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA extraction was performed with whole insects, with no need of previous digestive tract dissection or pooling specimens. The presence of either mouse blood in the digestive tract of the sandflies or the digestive tract itself did not interfere in the PCR. Infection by as few as 10 Leishmania sp. per individual were sufficient for DNA amplification with genus-specific primers. Using primers for L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes, respectively, it was possible to discriminate between L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in experimentally infected vectors (L. migonei.

MICHALSKY Érika M.

2002-01-01

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Immunogold labeling and cerium cytochemistry of the enzyme ecto-5'-nucleotidase in promastigote forms of Leishmania species  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We have applied both enzyme cytochemistry and immunological labeling techniques to characterize the enzyme 5'-nucleotidase (5'-Nase), at the ultrastructural level, in promastigote forms of four Leishmania species: Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagas [...] i. The cerium phosphate staining was localized at the surface of the cell body, the flagellum and the flagellar pocket membranes of all the parasites studied. The immunogold labelling technique confirmed these results. In this report we localized 5'-Nase in L. chagasi and L. amazonensis which have been implicated respectively in visceral and cutaneous forms of leishmaniasis. In addition, we confirmed the localization of this phosphomonoesterase in the other two species studied. The superior quality of the images, obtained with both methodologies, confirms that these parasites possess mechanisms capable of hydrolyzing nucleotide monophosphates, and that the expression of 5'-Nase is associated with the outer surface of the plasma membrane.

Suzana, Corte-Real; Renato, Porrozzi; Maria de Nazareth Leal de, Meirelles.

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Effects of seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, on the viability of Leishmania sp / Efeitos de seco-esteróides purificados de Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae na viabilidade de Leishmania sp  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, é uma erva anual utilizada na medicina popular em muitos países tropicais e subtropicais. Apesar dos extratos da P. angulata apresentarem uma grande variedade de substâncias, pouco é conhecido sobre a sua atividade farmacológica. Neste trabalho foi investigado a ati [...] vidade antileishmania in vitro de seco-esteroides (fisalinas) purificados da P. angulata. O tratamento com as fisalinas B, F e G causou uma inibição concentração-dependente do crescimento de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis em cultura axênica, com valores de IC50 de 6,8, 1,4, e 9,2 ?M respectivamente. A fisalina D foi menos ativa, com valores de IC50 de 30,5 ?M. Foi também observada uma atividade leishmanicida em culturas de outras espécies de Leishmania (L. major, L. braziliensis e L. chagasi). Nossos resultados demonstram que as fisalinas inibem o crescimento dos promastigotas com o tratamento de espécies de Leishmania do Velho e do Novo Mundos e sugerem o potencial terapêutico destas moléculas na leishmaniose. Abstract in english Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, is an annual herb commonly used in popular medicine in many tropical and subtropical countries. P. angulata extracts contain a variety of substances, but little is known about their pharmacological activities. In this work we investigated the in vitro antileishmania [...] l activity of seco-steroids (physalins) purified from P. angulata. Addition of physalins B, F, and G caused a concentration-dependent inhibition in the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes, being the IC50 values were 6.8, 1.4, and 9.2 ?M, respectively. Physalin D was less active and had an IC50 value of 30.5 ?M. Physalins were also active in cultures of other Leishmania species (L. major, L. braziliensis, and L. chagasi). Our results demonstrate the potent antileishmanial activity of physalins in cultures of Leishmania species of the New and Old Worlds and suggest the therapeutic potential of these seco-steroids in leishmaniasis.

Elisalva T., Guimarães; Milena S., Lima; Luana A., Santos; Ivone M., Ribeiro; Therezinha B. C., Tomassini; Ricardo Ribeiro dos, Santos; Washington L. C. dos, Santos; Milena B. P., Soares.

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?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Shewanella amazonensis  

Full Text Available Shewanella amazonensis ATCC 700329 T 51.7 HPLC LEONARDO (M.R.), MOSER (D.P.), BARBIERI (E.), BRA ociated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49,

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Distinctions between promastigotes of Leishmania species developing in the digestive tract of laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

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Female Lutzomyia longipalpis were exposed to infection by three different species/strains of Leishmania. When the insects were dissected four days after exposure, stained preparations were made of the flagellates contained in the digestive tract. Using traditional morphometric methods, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis and an unnamed species of the mexicana complex could be distinguished from one another. PMID:1842403

da Silva, A L; Williams, P; Melo, M N; Mayrink, W

1991-01-01

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Distinctions between promastigotes of Leishmania species developing in the digestive tract of laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis  

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Full Text Available Female Lutzomya longipalpis were exposed to infection by three different species/strains of Leishmania. When the insects were dissected four days after exposure, stained preparations were made of the flagellates contained in the digestive tract. Using traditional morphometric methods, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis and an unnamed species of the mexicana complex could be distinguished from one another.

Ana Lúcia F. F. da Silva

1991-03-01

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Distinctions between promastigotes of Leishmania species developing in the digestive tract of laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis  

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Female Lutzomya longipalpis were exposed to infection by three different species/strains of Leishmania. When the insects were dissected four days after exposure, stained preparations were made of the flagellates contained in the digestive tract. Using traditional morphometric methods, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis and an unnamed species of the mexicana complex could be distinguished from one another.

Da Silva, Ana Lu?cia F. F.; Paul Williams; Maria Norma de Melo; Wilson Mayrink

1991-01-01

237

An agent-based model for Leishmania major infection  

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Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].

Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.

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??????: Leishmania mexicana venezuelensis  

Full Text Available Protozoa Trypanosomatidae Leishmania mexicana venezuelensis Leishmania (Leishmania ) venezuelensi s (synonym) NCBI 155283 Leishmania mexicana venezuelensis (scientific name) NCBI 1552 83 Leishmania venezuelensis (synonym) NCBI 155283

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Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania chagasi infection and risk factors in a Colombian indigenous population Prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi e Leishmania chagasi e fatores de risco numa população indígena da Colômbia  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to obtain base-line data concerning the epidemiology of American Visceral Leishmaniasis and Chagas’ Disease in an indigenous population with whom the government is starting a dwelling improvement programme. Information was collected from 242 dwellings (1,440 people, by means of house to house interviews about socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission risk. A leishmanin skin test was applied to 385 people and 454 blood samples were collected on filter paper in order to detect L. chagasi antibodies by ELISA and IFAT and T. cruzi antibodies by ELISA. T. cruzi seroprevalence was 8.7% by ELISA, L. chagasi was 4.6% and 5.1% by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. ELISA sensitivity and specificity for L. chagasi antibodies were 57% and 97.5% respectively, as compared to the IFAT. Leishmanin skin test positivity was 19%. L. chagasi infection prevalence, being defined as a positive result in the three-immunodiagnostic tests, was 17.1%. Additionally, 2.7% of the population studied was positive to both L. chagasi and T. cruzi, showing a possible cross-reaction. L. chagasi and T. cruzi seropositivity increased with age, while no association with gender was observed. Age (pEste estudo foi realizado para obter a linha de base da epidemiologia da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana e da Doença de Chagas numa comunidade indígena, onde o governo está desenvolvendo um programa de melhoramento da habitação. A coleta de dados referentes aos fatores sócio-econômicos e do meio ambiente associados ao risco de transmissão de Leishmania chagasi e Trypanosoma cruzi foi feita por meio de respostas a questionário endereçado aos componentes acima mencionados. O inquérito foi realizado em 242 unidades domiciliárias (1440 indivíduos. Foi realizada a prova de Montenegro em 385 indivíduos e colhidas 454 amostras de sangue em papel de filtro, para pesquisar o teor de anticorpos contra L. chagasi por meio das técnicas de ELISA e IFI e o teor de anticorpos contra T. cruzi por meio de ELISA. A prevalência sorológica foi de 8,7% para T. cruzi, 4,6% e 5,1% para L. chagasi por meio de IFI e ELISA, respectivamente. Ao se comparar estas duas provas foi encontrado que por meio de ELISA a sensibilidade e especificidade para detecção de anticorpos contra L. chagasi foi de 57% e 97% respectivamente. Os resultados da intradermo-reação de Montenegro revelaram uma positividade de 19%. Os resultados dos três testes de imunodiagnóstico mostraram uma prevalência da infecção por L. chagasi de 17,1%. Além disso, 2,7% da população estudada apresentou reações sorológicas positivas para os dois parasitos, evidenciando uma possível reação cruzada. A soropositividade para L. chagasi e T. cruzi aumentou com a idade, e não houve associação com o gênero. Idade (p<0,007, número de moradores (p<0,05, tipo de piso (p<0,03 e o reconhecimento do vetor (p<0,01 foram associados com a infecção por T. cruzi. Entretanto, na infecção por L. chagasi foi encontrada associação com a idade (p<0,007 e o melhoramento da habitação (p<0,02. Recomenda-se avaliar o impacto do programa de melhoramento da habitação sobre estas infecções parasitárias nesta comunidade num prazo longo.

Augusto CORREDOR ARJONA

1999-07-01

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Potential utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and propolis in enhancing the leishmanicidal activity of glucantime / A utilidade da terapia de oxigenação hiperbárica e própolis em potencializar a atividade leishmanicida do glucantime  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nesse trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia da terapia da oxigenação hiperbárica (HBO), aplicada em combinação ou não com o tratamento com glucantime, durante a infecção com Leishmania amazonensis. O efeito de gel da própolis vermelha de origem brasileira (propaina) aplicado em combinação ou não com o tr [...] atamento com glucantime, também foi avaliado durante infecção com esse parasita. A inibição da infecção de macrófagos tratados com glucantime em combinação com HBO foi maior que a de macrófagos tratados apenas com glucantime ou HBO. A linhagem murina susceptível, BALB/c, infectada no dorso com L. amazonensis, tratada com glucantime e exposta a HBO, mostrou durante o curso da doença, fases em que as lesões eram menores do que a de camundongos apenas tratados com glucantime; observou-se revascularização da pele da lesão e baixa produção de interferon-gama em células de linfonodos desses animais. O tratamento com propaina não foi eficiente na cura das lesões, apesar de lesões menos exsudativas serem observadas em animais tratados com propaina ou propaina combinada ao tratamento com glucantime. Os resultados demonstram que tanto HBO como a própolis vermelha em combinação com glucantime, são promissoras no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para avaliar tratamentos e outros protocolos em diferentes modelos murinos da leishmaniose Abstract in english In this study we investigated the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, alone or combined with the pentavalent antimonial glucantime on Leishmania amazonensis infection. In parallel, the effect of Brazilian red propolis gel (propain) alone or combined with glucantime on L. amazonensis infecti [...] on was evaluated. The inhibition of the infection in macrophages treated with glucantime in combination with HBO exposition was greater than that of macrophages treated with glucantime alone or HBO alone. The susceptible mouse strain BALB/c infected in the shaved rump with L. amazonensis treated with glucantime and exposed to HBO showed: time points in the course of the disease in which lesions were smaller than those of mice treated with glucantime alone and revascularization of the skin in the lesion site; interferon-gamma (IFN-g) levels were not elevated in lymph node cells from these animals. Propain alone was not efficient against lesions, although less exudative lesions were observed in animals treated with propain alone or combined with glucantime. These results reveal the potential value of HBO and red propolis in combination with glucantime for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis and encourage further studies on the effect of more aggressive HBO, propolis and glucantime therapies on different mouse models of leishmaniasis.

Diana Copi, Ayres; Thiago Antonio, Fedele; Maria Cristina, Marcucci; Selma, Giorgio.

 
 
 
 
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Leishmania spp: Delta-aminolevulinate-inducible neogenesis of porphyria by genetic complementation of incomplete heme biosynthesis pathway  

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To further develop the Leishmania model for porphyria based on their deficiencies in heme biosynthesis, three Old World species were doubly transfected as before for Leishmania amazonensis with cDNAs, encoding the 2nd and 3rd enzymes in the pathway. Expression of the transgenes was verified immunologically at the protein level and functionally by uroporphyrin neogenesis that occurs only after exposure of the double-transfectants to delta-aminolevulinate. All species examined were equally defi...

Dutta, Sujoy; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Sassa, Shigeru; Chang, Kwang-poo Chang

2008-01-01

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Tubulin biosynthesis in the developmental cycle of a parasitic protozoan, Leishmania mexicana: changes during differentiation of motile and nonmotile stages.  

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Cytodifferentiation in the transition cycle of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was studied in vitro. The flagellated motile promastigotes transform into the nonmotile amastigotes in 7 days at 35 degrees C intracellularly in the murine macrophage line J774G8. In medium 199 plus fetal bovine serum, the reverse transformation occurs extracellularly at 27 degrees C in 2 days. Slab gel electrophoresis of leishmanias labeled with [35S]methionine during transformation reveale...

Fong, D.; Chang, K. P.

1981-01-01

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Patogenia da leishmaniose cutânea experimental: a importância da necrose na eliminação dos parasitos das lesões  

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Full Text Available Um estudo histopatológico e ultraestrutural das lesões da leishmaniose cutânea causada pela Leishmania mexicana amazonensis em duas cepas isogênicas de camundongo, uma susceptível (Balb/c e outra resistente (A/J, demonstrou que os amastigotas ficavam bem preservados nos vacúolos parasitóforos dos macrófagos, igualmente em ambas as cepas. A reação de imunofluorescência revelou antigenos parasitários no interior e na membrana dos macrófagos de maneira idêntica para ambas as cepas. A diferença ocorria quando os macrófagos apareciam destruídos e as leishmanias ficavam livres ou fagocitadas por polimorfonucleares, neutrófilos e eosinófilos. Estes parasitos exibiam então graus variáveis de nítidas alterações degenerativas. No camundongo resistence, a necrose, de tipo caseoso ou fibrinóide, era mais disseminada e mais freqüente que no animal susceptível. Os achados observados indicaram que as leishmanias não são destruídas no interior dos macrófagos e sim fora deles, especialmente quando fagocitadas por leucócitos polimorfonucleares. A necrose apareceu como o mecanismo mais saliente através do qual o hospedeiro elimina os parasitos das lesões, sendo a mesma um aspecto importante da reação de hipersensibilidade tardia que ocorre nos animais resistentes.Amastigotes of Leshmania mexicana amazonensis appeared healthy and well preserved within the parasitophorous vacuoles of macrophages during the infection of a susceptible (Balb/c or a relatively resistant (A/J inbred strain of mice. Immunofluorescence showed the presence of leishmanial antigens within infected macrophages and in their external membranes similar for both strains. When the amastigotes were found extracellularly or within polymorphonuclear neutrophils or eosinophils, marked ultrastructural degenerative changes were observed in them. Such necrotic alterations were seen frequently in the resistant mice and rarely in the susceptible ones. Thus, necrosis of parasitized macrophages appeared as a major mechanism through which the resistant host eliminates the parasites from the lesions. It may be considered as a histological marker of resistance in leishmaniasis and represents a prominent component of the delayed-type immunological mechanism occurring in resistant hosts.

Zilton A. Andrade

1984-12-01

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BODY WEIGHT AS A DETERMINANT OF CLINICAL EVOLUTION IN HAMSTERS (Mesocricetus auratus) INFECTED WITH Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis / Peso como determinante da evolução clínica em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infectados com Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RESUMO O resultado clínico da infecção por espécies de Leishmania do subgênero Viannia no modelo de hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) tem se mostrado diferente, dependendo do protocolo experimental. O peso corporal tem sido um importante determinante da evolução clínica da infecção em hamsters com lei [...] shmaniose visceral, mas sua importância como parâmetro clínico em hamsters com leishmaniose cutânea não é conhecido. Neste estudo, a evolução clínica da infecção com L. (V) panamensis foi avaliada em jovens e adultos hamsters machos durante 11 semanas, comparando os parâmetros clínicos tais como a atitude, a temperatura, a frequência respiratória, a aparência das fezes, e o peso corporal entre infectado e grupos não infectados. Os resultados mostraram que o peso corporal diminuiu em hamsters adultos após infecção por L. (V) panamensis. Esta observação suporta a utilização do peso corporal, como um parâmetro adicional para definir a administração ou o tratamento de leishmaniose cutânea em hamsters adultos infectados usados como modelo animal experimental para a leishmaniose. Abstract in english SUMMARY The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus) has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visce [...] ral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V) panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V) panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis.

Angela Maria, Gomez-Galindo; Lucy Gabriela, Delgado-Murcia.

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Occurrence of anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dog sera from Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de LondrinaOcorrência de anticorpos contra Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum E Toxoplasma gondii em soros de cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Pr  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the presence of IgG antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from a Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Blood samples from 112 animals were obtained by jugular venipuncture to obtain sera. The samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence to detect antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii. Thirteen (11.61%, 25 (22.32%, and 57 (50.89% samples were positive for Leishmania spp., N. caninum, and T. gondii, respectively. The co-presence of anti-Leishmania spp. and N. caninum was observed in 6 (5.36%, anti-Leishmania spp. and anti-T. gondii in 8 (14.7%, and anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii in 18 (16.07% samples. The co-presence of anti-Leishmania spp., anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii was observed in 5 (4.46% dogs. There was a higher prevalence of Leishmania in Toxoplasma and Neospora positive animals, however, these results were not statistically significant (range p = 0.052 p = 0.06. The dogs have an important role in the epidemiological cycle of these diseases, which are important in animal and public health. The northern state of Paraná is an endemic area for human cutaneous leishmaniasis, therefore, studies should be conducted to uncover the real role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania to humans in the state. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar a presença de anticorpos contra Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Amostras de 112 animais foram obtidas por venopunção jugular ou cefálica com posterior obtenção dos soros. Estas foram submetidas à técnica de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos da classe IgG anti-Leishmania spp, anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii. Dos 112 soros examinados, 13 (11,61%, 25 (22,32% e 57 (50,89% foram positivos para Leishmania spp., N. caninum e T. gondii, respectivamente. A co-presença de anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. e N. caninum foi observada em 6 (5,36% amostras, anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. e anti-T. gondii em 8 (7,14%, e anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii em 18 (16,07% amostras. A co-presença de anticorpos anti- Leishmania spp., anti-N. caninum e anti-T. gondii foi observada em 5 (4,46% cães. Verificou-se uma maior prevalência de Leishmania nos animais positivos para Toxoplasma e Neospora, embora estes resultados não tenham sido estatisticamente significativos (p?0.06. Os cães são importantes no ciclo epidemiológico das enfermidades em estudo, sendo estas doenças importantes do ponto de vista de saúde animal, ou de saúde pública. A região norte do estado do Paraná é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose tegumentar humana, portanto, estudos devem ser realizados para desvendar o real papel dos cães como reservatórios da Leishmania para seres humanos no estado.

Dauton Luiz Zulpo

2012-10-01

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Analysis of the specificity of human antibodies to antigens of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis Análise da especificidade de anticorpos humanos a antígenos de Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis  

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Full Text Available The antigenicity of promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis (L. b.braziliensis treated with 1% sodium desoxycholate in 10 mM Tris-Hcl pH 8.2 was analysed by immunoblot using as probes sera from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, schistosomiasis, malaria and Chagas' disease. The ACL sera reacted constantly with a 60 kD band. No reactivity to this protein was observed with sera from the other diseases above mentioned indicating that the 60 kD protein may be used in serodiagnosis for ACL.A antigenicidade de promastigotas de Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis tratadas com desoxicolato de sódio 1% tampão TrisHCl 10 mM pH 8.2 foi determinada por immunoblot usando soros de pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea e mucocutânea, leishmaniose visceral, esquistossomose, malária e doença de Chagas. Os soros de pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea e mucocutânea apresentaram reação positiva com uma banda de 60 kD. Não se observou reatividade para esta fração em soros de pacientes com outras doenças parasitárias acima mencionadas, indicando que esta pode ser utilizada no sorodiagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumental.

Aoi Masuda

1989-08-01

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Analysis of the specificity of human antibodies to antigens of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis / Análise da especificidade de anticorpos humanos a antígenos de Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A antigenicidade de promastigotas de Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis tratadas com desoxicolato de sódio 1% tampão TrisHCl 10 mM pH 8.2 foi determinada por immunoblot usando soros de pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea e mucocutânea, leishmaniose visceral, esquistossomose, malária e doença de Cha [...] gas. Os soros de pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea e mucocutânea apresentaram reação positiva com uma banda de 60 kD. Não se observou reatividade para esta fração em soros de pacientes com outras doenças parasitárias acima mencionadas, indicando que esta pode ser utilizada no sorodiagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumental. Abstract in english The antigenicity of promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis (L. b.braziliensis) treated with 1% sodium desoxycholate in 10 mM Tris-Hcl pH 8.2 was analysed by immunoblot using as probes sera from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), schistosomia [...] sis, malaria and Chagas' disease. The ACL sera reacted constantly with a 60 kD band. No reactivity to this protein was observed with sera from the other diseases above mentioned indicating that the 60 kD protein may be used in serodiagnosis for ACL.

Aoi, Masuda; Sueli Fátima do, Nascimento; Carmem Silvia, Guerra; Gláucia da Silva, Paranhos; Antonio Walter, Ferreira.

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?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Shewanella amazonensis  

Full Text Available Shewanella amazonensis 15:0,16:1,17:0 LEONARDO (M.R.), MOSER (D.P.), BARBIERI (E.), BRANTNER (C. ociated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49,

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Estado atual da leishmaniose cutânea difusa (LCD) no Estado do Maranhão: II. aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-evolutivos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os Autores fazem um estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo de 6 pacientes portadores de leishmaniose cutânea difusa, observados no Estado do Maranhão a partir de 1974. Os casos abordados são oriundos de diversas regiões do estado, observando-se em todos eles o envolvimento da leishmania (Leishmania) ama [...] zonensis, sendo que 5 (84%) dos pacientes apresentaram início de doença na 1ª década de vida. Em todos os pacientes envolvidos no estudo, houve relato de lesão inicial nodular única, que, posteriormente, em período variável de tempo, disseminou-se adquirindo outros aspectos. Evolutivamente apresentaram múltiplas lesões nodulares e ulceradas, intradermorreação de Montenegro(-) e refratariedade aos esquemas terapêuticos utilizados até ao presente momento. Abstract in english The authors describe a retrospective and prospective study of 6 patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis observed in the State of Maranhão, since 1974. The patients comefromdifferentruralregions of the state and in all of them Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was the cause five of the patien [...] ts initiated their disease in the first decade of life. All the patients first had a solitary, nodular lesion, that after a variable period of time, disseminated and acquired other aspects. Sequentially the patients presented multiple nodular and ulcerative lesions, negative leishmania skin-lests and a refractory response to the therapeutic schedules used up to the present.

Costa, Jackson Maurício Lopes; Saldanha, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Silva, Ana Carla de Melo e; Serra Neto, Artur; Galvão, Clovis Eduardo Santos; Silva, Conceição de Maria Pedroso e; Silva, Antonio Rafael da.

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The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine against four medically relevant Leishmania species of Brazil  

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Full Text Available The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of miltefosine® (Zentaris GmbH was assessed against four medically relevant Leishmania species of Brazil: Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The activity of miltefosine against these New World species was compared to its activity against the Old World strain, Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, which is known to be sensitive to the effects of miltefosine. The IC50 and IC90 results suggested the New World species harboured similar in vitro susceptibilities to miltefosine; however, miltefosine was approximately 20 times more active against the Old World L. (L. donovani than against the New World L. (L. chagasi species. The selectivity index varied from 17.2-28.9 for the New World Leishmania species and up to 420.0 for L. (L. donovani. The differences in susceptibility to miltefosine suggest that future clinical trials with this drug should include a laboratory pre-evaluation and a dose-defining step.

Eliane de Morais-Teixeira

2011-06-01

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Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control / Infecção por Leishmania em uma população de cães: uma investigação epidemiológica relacionada ao controle da leishmaniose visceral  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A identificação dos fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania em cães é essencial para o direcionamento das ações de controle da leishmaniose visceral. Desta forma, o presente estudo analisa alguns destes fatores em uma população de cães, bem como as limitações das estratégias de controle executa [...] das em um município brasileiro. Por meio de modelos de regressão logística, analisou-se a associação entre as variáveis de exposição e a ocorrência de infecção. As ações de controle da doença foram analisadas qualitativamente. Dos 755 animais avaliados por meio de sorologia, 13,6% (103/755) foram soro-reagentes. Destes, 23,3% (24/103) eram assintomáticos e 76,7% (79/103) apresentaram pelo menos um sinal clínico possivelmente associado com a leishmaniose visceral. Com associações fracas, cães de raça pura, de pelo curto, com mais de cinco anos, machos e de grande porte foram mais propensos à infecção. As duas últimas variáveis compuseram o modelo final de regressão, sendo significativa a associação com o tamanho do cão. As estratégias de controle desenvolvidas apresentaram limitações e um número elevado de cães sorologicamente negativos foi submetido a eutanásia. Os dados apresentados contribuem para um melhor entendimento da dinâmica da infecção na leishmaniose visceral canina e indicam que ações visando a adequada execução do programa de controle da doença em áreas endêmicas brasileiras devem ser priorizadas. Abstract in english Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies imple [...] mented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized.

Klauber Menezes, Penaforte; Vinicius Silva, Belo; Rafael Goncalves, Teixeira-Neto; Renata Aparecida Nascimento, Ribeiro; Robson Bruniera de, Oliveira; Dante Alighieri, Schettini; Eduardo Sergio da, Silva.

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Mefloquina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis / Efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da mefloquina numa região endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, considerando que esta droga de administração oral, eficaz no tratamento da malária, com meia vida prolongada e efeitos colaterais pouco freqüentes poderi [...] a ser menos tóxica e de mais fácil administração, quando comparada com os antimoniais pentavalentes. Em Corte de Pedra, no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia, foram tratados, aleatoriamente, dez pacientes portadores de lesões leishmanióticas, subdivididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu mefloquina pela via oral, dose de 250mg/dia, durante seis dias, repetindo-se o mesmo esquema após intervalo de três semanas. O segundo grupo recebeu antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime®) diariamente, pela via endovenosa, na dose de 20mg/kg por 20 dias. Do grupo da mefloquina só um paciente apresentou cicatrização depois do segundo ciclo. Um desses, com quatro lesões apresentou nova lesão durante o primeiro ciclo de tratamento. A evolução dos outros três foi lenta sendo que em nove semanas nenhum deles tinha cicatrizado as úlceras que permaneciam com grande infiltração e sinais evidentes de atividade. O grupo tratado com Glucantime® apresentou evidente melhora. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administ [...] ration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®), 20mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime® showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

Laguna-Torres, Victor Alberto; Silva, Carlos A.C.; Correia, Dalmo; Carvalho, Edgard M.; Magalhães, Albino V.; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira.

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USE OF THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ASYMPTOMATIC Leishmania INFECTION IN A VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS-ENDEMIC AREA / Uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O diagnóstico de infecção assintomática por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi tem assumido crescente importância nos últimos anos. A expansão da leishmaniose visceral pode estar associada a outras vias de transmissão tais como transfusional, congênita, ou mesmo vetorial, sendo os indivíd [...] uos com infecção assintomática, potenciais reservatórios. Ademais, a identificação da infecção poderia auxiliar na condução dos pacientes com condições de imunossupressão (HIV, transplante, uso de imunomoduladores) e na avaliação da efetividade das medidas de controle. Neste estudo, foram avaliados clinicamente 149 indivíduos residentes em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral e realizada a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) gênero-específica, testes sorológicos e teste de Montenegro. Destes, 49 (32,9%) apresentaram PCR positiva, dos quais nenhum evoluiu com clínica de leishmaniose visceral nos três anos subsequentes. Não houve associação entre o resultado da PCR, dos exames sorológicos e do teste cutâneo. A positividade da PCR em indivíduos da área endêmica estudada não indicou risco de progressão para leishmaniose visceral e também não foi associada à maior positividade dos testes sorológicos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi has become more important over recent years. Expansion of visceral leishmaniasis might be associated with other routes of transmission such as transfusion, congenital or even vector transmission, and subjects [...] with asymptomatic infection are potential reservoirs. Moreover, the identification of infection may contribute to the management of patients with immunosuppressive conditions (HIV, transplants, use of immunomodulators) and to the assessment of the effectiveness of control measures. In this study, 149 subjects living in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area were evaluated clinically and submitted to genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serological testing, and the Montenegro skin test. Forty-nine (32.9%) of the subjects had a positive PCR result and none of them developed the disease within a follow-up period of three years. No association was observed between the results of PCR, serological and skin tests. A positive PCR result in subjects from the endemic area did not indicate a risk of progression to visceral leishmaniasis and was not associated with a positive result in the serological tests.

Luciana Almeida, Silva; Héctor Dardo, Romero; Aline, Fagundes; Nédia, Nehme; Otávio, Fernandes; Virmondes, Rodrigues; Roberto Teodoro, Costa; Aluízio, Prata.

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Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios  

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La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A)+) de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp). Se logró realiz...

2006-01-01

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Biological and biochemical characterization of tunicamycin-resistant Leishmania mexicana: mechanism of drug resistance and virulence.  

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A parasitic protozoan, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was previously made resistant to tunicamycin (J.A. Kink and K.-P. Chang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:1253-1257, 1987). In the present study, six different tunicamycin-resistant variants were biologically and biochemically compared with their parental wild type to further delineate the mechanism of tunicamycin resistance and that of their virulence observed. In contrast to their parental wild type, all tunicamycin-resistant variants wer...

Kink, J. A.; Chang, K. P.

1987-01-01

256

Immunocytochemical identification of leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies  

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The unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was used to study the immunocytochemical properties of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ after tissues had been submitted to different fixation procedures. Antisera were obtained from rabbits chronically infected with different strains of T. cruzi or immunized with L. mexicana amazonensis and L. braziliensis guyanensis, and were applied on 5 µm thick sections. T. cruzi antigens were well stained by the three anti-T. ...

Barbosa, A. J. A.; Da Costa, C. A.; Michalick, M. S. M.; Mayrink, W.; Gazzinelli, R. T.; Tafuri, W. L.

1991-01-01

257

Distinctions between promastigotes of Leishmania species developing in the digestive tract of laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Female Lutzomya longipalpis were exposed to infection by three different species/strains of Leishmania. When the insects were dissected four days after exposure, stained preparations were made of the flagellates contained in the digestive tract. Using traditional morphometric methods, L. amazonensis [...] , L. guyanensis and an unnamed species of the mexicana complex could be distinguished from one another.

Silva, Ana Lúcia F. F. da; Williams, Paul; Melo, Maria Norma; Mayrink, Wilson.

258

Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs / Leishmaniose visceral canina causada por Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi na Amazônia brasileira: comparação da densidade parasitária da pele, linfonodo e vísceras entre cães soropositivos, sintomáticos e assintomáticos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) é reconhecida pelas características clínicas da doença e é altamente letal. A infecção, entretanto, pode ser totalmente assintomática em alguns cães soropositivos, o que tem levantado questão polêmica sobre a possibilidade desses animais, serem ou não uma fonte i [...] mportante da infecção para o flebotomíneo, Lutzomyia longipalpis, o principal vetor da leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA). Neste estudo foram examinados 51 cães com LVC aguda, provenientes de área endêmica de LVA no Estado do Pará, Brasil, e a carga parasitária, formas amastigotas de Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, na pele, linfonodo poplíteo e vísceras (fígado e baço) foi comparada com a de nove cães assintomáticos soropositivos (IFAT-IgG). Fragmentos de biópsia desses tecidos obtidos post-mortem foram processados para análise através de imunohistoquímica, usando um anticorpo policlonal contra Leishmania sp. Os testes do Qui-quadrado (X²) e Mann Whitney foram usados para avaliar as médias da densidade de macrófagos infectados (p 0,05) na densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm²) e do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8,3/mm²) entre cães assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Entretanto, a densidade de macrófagos infectados da víscera de cães sintomáticos (5,3/mm²) foi maior (p Abstract in english Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyi [...] a longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG). Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p 0.05) in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²) and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²), between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p

Luciana Vieira R., Lima; Liliane Almeida, Carneiro; Marliane Batista, Campos; Eujênia Janis, Chagas; Márcia D., Laurenti; Carlos E.P., Corbett; Ralph, Lainson; Fernando Tobias, Silveira.

259

Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis  

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Full Text Available Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishmania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible and C57BL/6 (resistant mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro negativamente carregadas, enquanto que promastigotas metacíclicos não se aderem à coluna e podem ser recuperados com facilidade. Condições ótimas de cromatografia foram validadas por análise estatística. O rendimento médio de parasitas obtidos após separação em colunas de lã de vidro e a viabilidade dos promastigotas foram estimados por microscopia óptica. Os promastigotas metacíclicos tiveram um rendimento médio de 43,5% a 57,5%. Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis e camundongos C57BL/6 (resistentes apresentaram padrões distintos de lesões cutâneas, os primeiros com lesões mais agressivas, induzidas por promastigotas metacíclicos. As respostas à reação de HTR foram maiores nos grupos de camundongos C57BL/6, submetidos à infecção com promastigotas metacíclicos. Estes resultados indicam que o novo método poderia ser integrado aos protocolos existentes para estudar a metaciclogênese de parasitas do gênero Leishmania in vivo.

Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

2003-11-01

260

Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Federal District of Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The first autochthonous case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in the Federal District in 1980, and the species involved in this type of leishmaniasis was unknown. This study aimed to identify the species that causes the disease in the Federal District and to investigate its clinical [...] and epidemiological aspects. Between 2000 and 2007, 71 autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis were reported in the Federal District. Leishmania species were identified by means of direct immunofluorescence reactions using monoclonal antibodies and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The species of 40 (56.33%) out of 71 samples were identified. Thirty-six (90%) were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and four (10%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. In this area, the disease had clinical and epidemiological characteristics similar to those found in other Brazilian regions.

GM, Santos; SA, Kückelhaus; AM, Roselino; WK, Chaer; RNR, Sampaio.

 
 
 
 
261

Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR for diagnosing of Leishmania infantum chagasi in dogs / Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase e PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico de Leishmania infantum chagasi em cães  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A importância do cão como reservatório de L. infantum chagasi no meio urbano tem estimulado a realização de inúmeros trabalhos de avaliação de técnicas de diagnóstico, uma vez que este procedimento, quando realizado corretamente, torna-se um importante passo na prevenção da doença em humanos. Dentre [...] os métodos de diagnóstico, as técnicas moleculares têm adquirido destaque. Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar o desempenho da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) e da PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) utilizando diferentes amostras biológicas. Para tanto foram utilizados 35 cães provenientes de uma área endêmica para LVC, onde foram utilizados para o diagnóstico molecular, aspirado de medula óssea, fragmentos de linfonodo e baço. Neste estudo a qPCR foi capaz de detectar um maior número de animais positivos quando comparada com a PCR. Já entre as diferentes amostras biológicas utilizadas não foi observada diferença significativa na detecção de DNA de L. infantumchagasi por meio da PCR e qPCR. Mesmo assim, considerando a facilidade de obtenção, o linfonodo pode ser considerada como a melhor amostra para diagnóstico molecular da infecção por L. infantum chagasi. Abstract in english The importance of dogs as a reservoir for Leishmania infantumchagasi in urban environments has stimulated numerous studies assessing diagnostic techniques. When performed properly, such procedures are an important step in preventing leishmaniasis in humans. Molecular methods have become prominent fo [...] r this purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) for diagnosing of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using different biological samples. For this, 35 dogs from an area endemic for CVL were used. Bone marrow aspirate and lymph node and spleen fragments from these dogs were used for the molecular diagnosis. In the present study, qPCR was able to detect a greater number of positive animals than seen with PCR. Among the different biological samples used, there was no significant difference in L. infantumchagasi DNA detection between PCR and qPCR. However, considering that lymph nodes are easy to acquire, these can be considered to be the best samples for making molecular diagnoses of L. infantum chagasi infection.

Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara.

262

Lulo cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: a novel model to assay Leishmania spp. and vector interaction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Vianna braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi are important parasites in the scenario of leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the life cycle of these parasites, the promastigote forms adhere to the midgut epithelial microvillii of phlebotomine insects to avoid being secreted along with digestive products. Lulo cells are a potential model that will help to understand the features of this adhesion phenomenon. Here, we analyze the interaction between Leishmania spp. promastigotes and Lulo cells in vitro, specifically focusing on adhesion events occurring between three Leishmania species and this cell line. Methods Confluent monolayers of Lulo cells were incubated with promastigotes and adhesion was assessed using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Findings The results indicate that species from the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia have great potential to adhere to Lulo cells. The highest adherence rate was observed for L. (L. chagasi after 24 h of incubation with Lulo cells (27.3 ± 1.8% of cells with adhered promastigotes, followed by L. (L. amazonensis (16.0 ± 0.7% and L. (V. braziliensis (3.0 ± 0.7%, both after 48 h. In the ultrastructural analysis, promastigote adherence was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that, for parasites from both subgenera, adhesion occurs by both the body and the flagellum. The interaction of Lulo cells with Leishmania (L. chagasi showed the participation of cytoplasmic projections from the former closely associating the parasites with the cells. Conclusions We present evidence that Lulo cells can be useful in studies of insect-parasite interactions for Leishmania species.

Côrtes Luzia MC

2011-11-01

263

Immunoperoxidase technique using an anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum in the diagnosis of culture-confirmed American tegumentary leishmaniasis / Técnica da imunoperoxidase utilizando um soro hiperimune anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi no diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana confirmada por cultura  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo relata a produção do soro policlonal de coelho anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi, a padronização da técnica de imunohistoquímica (IHQ) e sua aplicação em lesões de leishmaniose cutânea (LC) diagnosticadas por isolamento de Leishmania sp. em cultura. Foram examinados 30 fragmentos de les [...] ões ativas de LC e 10 fragmentos de lesões de etiologia fúngica, utilizados como grupo controle. A IHQ mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de amastigotas que a coloração em hematoxilina-eosina (HE), sendo positiva em 24 fragmentos de LC (80%) e ao passo que a HE foi positiva em 16 (53%) (p = 0,028). A IHQ também marcou diferentes espécies de fungos causadoras de micoses cutâneas. Adicionalmente, verificou-se positividade no citoplasma de células mononucleares e células endoteliais. Entretanto, esse achado esteve presente no grupo controle. Conclui-se que o método de IHQ apresentou boa sensibilidade na detecção de formas amastigotas. Abstract in english The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fr [...] agments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.

Quintella, Leonardo P.; Cuzzi, Tullia; Madeira, Maria de F.; Okamoto, Thais; Schubach, Armando de O..

264

Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with 60Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 ?g/ml (EC50), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |?g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 (?g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC50 of 11|?g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 60Co gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC50 of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

1999-01-01

265

Actividad in vitro de la mezcla de alcaloides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq) Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis / In vitro activity of the alkaloids mixture of Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq) Staff. Apocynaceae on Leishmania braziliensis amastigotes / Atividade in vitro da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq) Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotas de Leishmania braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose é considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade a nível mundial, principalmente nos países tropicais. As formas cutânea e mucocutânea são causadas, entre outras espécies, por Leishmania braziliensis. Na procura de compostos leishmanicidas de origem natural, foi estudada [...] a atividade da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae) contra amastigotas de L. braziliensis em 6 concentrações diferentes (1, 10, 20, 25, 50 e 100 µg/mL). Foram tratados macrófagos de ratos da linha J774, infectados com promastigotas de L. braziliensis, com a mistura de alcalóides 1 hora após-infecção e diariamente por 3 dias sem mudança de meio. As experiências de citotoxicidade foram efetuadas sobre os macrófagos com azul tripam. Todos os cultivos foram feitos de forma triplicada e os grupos de controle não foram submetidos à mistura de alcalóides. Foi obtido que o composto adicionado exerce atividade doses/dependente sobre a parasita. No entanto, as concentrações mais altas (50 e 100 µg/mL), adicionado durante 3 dias, mostraram os maiores índices de infecção, provavelmente devido a diminuição no número de macrófagos, sobre os quais não foi observado efeito tóxico do tratamento durante 24 horas DL50/24h = 233,52 µg/mL. Os resultados dessa pesquisa revelaram uma nova atividade farmacológica de alcalóides da espécie Ervatamia coronaria sobre a forma amastigota de Leishmania braziliensis, com IC50 = 2,6 e 12,4 µg/mL sem mostrar toxicidade sobre a célula hospedeira. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania sp., is one of the mean reason of considerable mortality and morbidity throughout the world, especially in the tropics. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous manifestations are caused by Leishmania braziliensis, and the cutaneous form is the most common one in Colombia. In [...] the search for antileishmanial compounds from natural sources, we studied the alkaloids mixture from Ervatamia coronaria against L. braziliensis at six different concentrations (1.0, 10, 20, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL). Macrophages J774 infected with L. braziliensis were treated with alkaloids one hour, and once a day for three days, after parasitic infection and preserving the same culture medium. Cytotoxicity with trypan blue was undertaken in macrophages J774 by using the same concentrations. Three different cultures samples were carried out. As a control we used medium alone. The alkaloids mix showed a dose/dependent activity on amastigote, but by increasing concentrations from 50 to 100 µg/mL for three days, we saw a high index of infection, probably caused by cellular death. We did not see any toxic effect on macrophages J774 at 100 µg/mL, LD50/24h= 233.52 µg/mL. These results revealed a novel pharmacological activity of alkaloids from E. coronaria against amastigotes of L. braziliensis IC50 = 2.6 and 12.4 µg/mL without toxicity on host cells.

Amanda, Moreno Rodríguez; Jorge, Robles Camargo; Felio J., Bello García.

266

Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts / Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos [...] de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR) em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos) de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro negativamente carregadas, enquanto que promastigotas metacíclicos não se aderem à coluna e podem ser recuperados com facilidade. Condições ótimas de cromatografia foram validadas por análise estatística. O rendimento médio de parasitas obtidos após separação em colunas de lã de vidro e a viabilidade dos promastigotas foram estimados por microscopia óptica. Os promastigotas metacíclicos tiveram um rendimento médio de 43,5% a 57,5%. Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis) e camundongos C57BL/6 (resistentes) apresentaram padrões distintos de lesões cutâneas, os primeiros com lesões mais agressivas, induzidas por promastigotas metacíclicos. As respostas à reação de HTR foram maiores nos grupos de camundongos C57BL/6, submetidos à infecção com promastigotas metacíclicos. Estes resultados indicam que o novo método poderia ser integrado aos protocolos existentes para estudar a metaciclogênese de parasitas do gênero Leishmania in vivo. Abstract in english Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishm [...] ania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH) in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic) promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL/6 (resistant) mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.

Regina Coeli Cunha, Dórea; Carlos Gomes, Barboza-Filho; Dayson Friaça, Moreira; Mirian, Guirro; Ágtha de Alencar Muniz, Chaves; Ricardo José, Dunder; Elaine Amorim, Soares; Vitório, Santos-Júnior; Wilma, Spinosa.

267

Efficacy of the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) with the use of methylene blue associated with the ?660nm laser in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonesis: in vitro study  

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The present studied evaluated the in vitro effects of PDT on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes. For this examination L. amazonensis promastigotes, stain Josefa, were used and maintained in Warren media supplement with fetal bovine serum at 26°C for 96 hours. A viability curve was accomplished using different concentrations of methylene blue photosensitizer associated to red laser light in order to obtain the most effective interaction to inhibit the parasite's growth. Two pre-irradiation periods, 5 and 30 minutes, were evaluated and the promastigotes were counted by colorimetry. On fluorescence microscopy the autophagic processes and reactive oxygen species were detected. Promastigotes treated with Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) by concentrations of 5 and 0,315ug/mL, presented cellular proliferation inhibition when compared to the control. In the first condition, the cells had structural alterations such as truncated cells, cells with two flagella, bleb formation and cells body deformation, while none of these modifications could be visualized in the control group. When analyzed through fluorescence microscopy, the promastigotes treated were positives for free radicals immediately after light application and also 1 hour after treatment presenting signs of autophagia. PDT on L. (L.) amazonensis is effective causing alterations that can help elucidate the mechanisms of the parasite's death when treated with methilene

Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; Alves, Eliomara S. S.; Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Rosa, Cristiane B.; Colombo, Fabio; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.

2012-02-01

268

Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp; Acao do veneno de Bothrops moojeni e sua fracao L-aminoacido oxidase, submetida ao tratamento com raios gama de {sup 60}Co, em Leishmania spp  

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Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 {mu}g/ml (EC{sub 50}), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |{mu}g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 ({mu}g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC{sub 50} of 11|{mu}g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 6{sup 0C}o gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC{sub 50} of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

Cardoso, Andre Gustavo Tempone

1999-07-01

269

Characterization of Leishmania infantum species in dogs from the urban area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Caracterização da espécie Leishmania infantum em cães de área urbana de Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso  

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INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis presents urban behavior in some Brazilian cities, with domestic dogs as the main infection source. In Cuiabá, MT, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed and characterized as recommended by the Ministry of Health. METHODS: Biological samples from suspected canine carriers were analyzed by the isoenzyme electrophoresis technique. The 6PGDH enzyme and reference strain IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903) of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum was used as one of ...

2011-01-01

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Leishmania braziliensis: isolation of carbohydrate-containing antigen and possibility of its use in the immunodiagnosis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis / Leishmania braziliensis: isolamento de antígeno contendo carboidrato e a possibilidade de sua aplicação no imunodiagnóstico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Leishmania braziliensis é um dos agentes causadores da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA). A cepa 034-JCG, isolada de paciente da região norte do estado do Paraná, Brasil, foi cultivada em meio Blood Agar Base, liofilizada e submetida a extração com fenol-água e o extrato obtido foi tratado c [...] om RNase I. O antígeno contendo carboidrato (Ag-CHO) mostrou-se imunogênico para coelhos e apresentou pelo menos uma fração com poucas cargas negativas em pH 8,2. Este antígeno apresenta reação cruzada com extrato fenólico do meio de cultura usado para o cultivo de promastigotas e com antígenos de superfície de promastigotas. É composto por 24,3% de açúcares totais, dos quais 11,2% de galactose, 7,5% de manose e 5,6% de ribose. As proteínas foram estimadas em 5,4% e fosfato em 18,5%. A atividade antigênica foi mantida após: congelamentos e descongelamentos repetidos; liofilização; aquecimento a 100ºC durante 30 minutos; tratamento com RNase, ácido tricloroacético e periodato de sódio. As linhas obtidas nas reações de precipitação coram-se pelo Ácido Periódico de Schiff. A utilização do Ag-CHO na reação de contraimunoeletroforese para o imunodiagnóstico de LTA mostrou 60% de sensibilidade, e nenhuma reação cruzada com os 5 soros de pacientes com Doença de Chagas testados. O uso deste antígeno com técnicas mais sensíveis, e com um maior número de amostras poderá melhorar estes resultados. Abstract in english Leishmania braziliensis is a causative agent of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). The 034-JCG strain, isolated from a patient from the northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, was cultivated in Blood Agar Base medium, lyophilized and submitted to phenol-water extraction. The extract was treate [...] d with RNase I. The carbohydrate containing-antigen (Ag-CHO) was immunogenic to rabbits and showed at least a fraction with some negative charge at pH 8.2. This antigen showed cross-reactivity with the phenol-water extract of the growth medium used for the culture of promastigotes and with the surface antigens of promastigotes. Its composition is: 24.3% of total sugars, from which 11.2% of galactose, 7.5% of mannose and 5.6% of ribose. Protein content was 5.4% and phosphate 18.5%. The antigenic activity was maintained after: repeated freezing-thawing; lyophilization; heating at 100ºC for 30 minutes; treatment with RNase, trichloroacetic acid and sodium metaperiodate. The precipitin line obtained is Periodic Acid Schiff positive. The application of the Ag-CHO in counterimmunoelectrophoresis reaction for the immunodiagnosis of ACL showed 60% sensitivity, and no cross-reaction with the five sera of Chagas' disease patients tested. The use of this antigen in a more sensitive technique, with more samples of sera, may improve these results.

T. G. V., Silveira; C, Kemmelmeier.

271

In vitro evaluation of 4-phenyl-5-(4'-X-phenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylaminide chlorides and 3[N-4'-X-phenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate derivatives on nitric oxide synthase and arginase activities of Leishmania amazonensis.  

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Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of infectious diseases caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. The purpose of this study was to perform, in vitro, a comparative analysis of the activity amastigotes. Results showed excellent efficacy of all compounds against axenic amastigotes, compared to pentamidine isethionate, the reference drug used. The cytotoxic effect of these mesoionic compounds of six mesoionic compounds (three 1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-aminide and three 1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate class compounds) was evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages using MTT assay, low toxicity (? 10%) for these mammalian cells being observed. In an attempt to define a potential drug target, the activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase of the parasites treated with the mesoionic derivatives were evaluated. NOS was purified from a cell-free extract of infective promastigotes and axenic amastigotes and all derivatives tested were able to inhibit the enzyme as monitored by the decrease of NADPH consumption. Arginase activity from both stages of the parasite was measured using urea production and none of the compounds inhibited the enzyme activity of axenic amastigotes. However, the compounds without substituents (MI-H and SID-H) were able to inhibit arginase activity of these parasites. PMID:23693031

Soares-Bezerra, Romulo J; Leon, Leonor Laura; Echevarria, Aurea; Reis, Camilla M; Gomes-Silva, Liliane; Agostinho, Carla G; Fernandes, Renan A; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M; Genestra, Marcelo S

2013-09-01

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Molecular characterization of the MRPA transporter and antimony uptake in four New World Leishmania spp. susceptible and resistant to antimony.  

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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been associated with drug resistance in various diseases. The MRPA gene, a transporter of ABCC subfamily, is involved in the resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates in intracellular vesicles of Leishmania parasite. In this study, we performed the molecular characterization of the MRPA transporter, analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and aquaglyceroporin-1 (AQP1) expression, and determination of antimony level in antimony-susceptible and -resistant lines of L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) infantum. PFGE analysis revealed an association of chromosomal amplification of MRPA gene with the drug resistance phenotype in all SbIII-resistant Leishmania lines analyzed. Levels of mRNA from MRPA gene determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed an increased expression of two fold in SbIII-resistant lines of Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis. Western blot analysis revealed that Pgp is increased in the SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis lines. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed a reduction in the accumulation of this element in SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis lines when compared to their susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, a down-regulation of AQP1 protein was observed in the SbIII-resistant L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis lines, contributing for decreasing of SbIII entry in these lines. In addition, efflux experiments revealed that the rates of SbIII efflux are higher in the SbIII-resistant lines of L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis, that may explain also the low SbIII concentration within of these parasites. The BSO, an inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase enzyme, reversed the SbIII-resistance phenotype of L. braziliensis and caused an increasing in the Sb intracellular level in the LbSbR line. Our data indicate that the mechanisms of antimony-resistance are different among species of Leishmania analyzed in this study. PMID:24533304

Moreira, Douglas S; Monte Neto, Rubens L; Andrade, Juvana M; Santi, Ana Maria M; Reis, Priscila G; Frézard, Frédéric; Murta, Silvane M F

2013-12-01

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Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs Leishmaniose visceral canina causada por Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi na Amazônia brasileira: comparação da densidade parasitária da pele, linfonodo e vísceras entre cães soropositivos, sintomáticos e assintomáticos  

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Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG. Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p 0.05 in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm² and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm², between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC é reconhecida pelas características clínicas da doença e é altamente letal. A infecção, entretanto, pode ser totalmente assintomática em alguns cães soropositivos, o que tem levantado questão polêmica sobre a possibilidade desses animais, serem ou não uma fonte importante da infecção para o flebotomíneo, Lutzomyia longipalpis, o principal vetor da leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA. Neste estudo foram examinados 51 cães com LVC aguda, provenientes de área endêmica de LVA no Estado do Pará, Brasil, e a carga parasitária, formas amastigotas de Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi, na pele, linfonodo poplíteo e vísceras (fígado e baço foi comparada com a de nove cães assintomáticos soropositivos (IFAT-IgG. Fragmentos de biópsia desses tecidos obtidos post-mortem foram processados para análise através de imunohistoquímica, usando um anticorpo policlonal contra Leishmania sp. Os testes do Qui-quadrado (X² e Mann Whitney foram usados para avaliar as médias da densidade de macrófagos infectados (p 0,05 na densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm² e do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8,3/mm² entre cães assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Entretanto, a densidade de macrófagos infectados da víscera de cães sintomáticos (5,3/mm² foi maior (p < 0,05 que a de cães assintomáticos (1,4/mm². Estes resultados sugerem, fortemente, que cães naturalmente infectados por L. (L. i. chagasi, assintomáticos ou sintomáticos, podem servir como fonte de infecção, principalmente, considerando-se que a densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm², local onde o flebotomíneo vetor Lu. longipalpis realiza a hematofagia, foi maior (p < 0,05 que as do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8.3/mm² e vísceras (1,4/mm²x 5,3/mm².

Luciana Vieira R. Lima

2010-10-01

274

Activity of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis against different species of Leishmania  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Extracts of propolis samples collected in Brazil and Bulgaria were assayed against four Leishmania species - Leishmania amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. chagasi from the New World, and L. major from the Old World - associated to different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The composition of the extra [...] cts has been previously characterized by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Considering the chemical differences among the extracts and the behavior of the parasites, it was observed significant differences in the leishmanicidal activities with IC50/1 day values in the range of 2.8 to 229.3 µg/ml . An overall analysis showed that for all the species evaluated, Bulgarian extracts were more active than the ethanol Brazilian extract. As the assayed propolis extracts have their chemical composition determined it merits further investigation the effect of individual components or their combinations on each Leishmania species.

Machado, Gérzia Maria de Carvalho; Leon, Leonor Laura; Castro, Solange Lisboa de.

275

[The diagnostic value of lectins for the epidemiology of Chagas' disease and the differentiation of Leishmania from the Old and New World].  

Science.gov (United States)

An interspecific differentiation between T. cruzi, T. rangeli and T. conorhini can be done with the lectin II from the marine sponge Aaptos papillata. Independently from the origin the T. cruzi strains can intraspecifically subdivided into two strain-groups from WGA-type and PNA-type. The Leishmania strains from the Old World can inter- and intraspecifically distinguished by lectins while the strains from the New World form only two groups. A comparison of the agglutination-behaviour of the Leishmania parasites shows that strains of L. m. mexicana, L. b. braziliensis, L. aethiopica and L. m. amazonensis belong to the same type. The second agglutination-type includes strains of L. t. major (Near East), L. m. amazonensis and L. m. pifanoi. PMID:6813249

Schottelius, J

1982-07-01

276

Glutathione and the redox control system trypanothione/trypanothione reductase are involved in the protection of Leishmania spp. against nitrosothiol-induced cytotoxicity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Glutathione is the major intracellular antioxidant thiol protecting mammalian cells against oxidative stress induced by oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione plays a central role in parasite protection against mammalian host defence systems by [...] recycling trypanothione disulphide by the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Although Kinetoplastida parasites lack glutathione reductase, they maintain significant levels of glutathione. The aim of this study was to use Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase gene mutant clones and different Leishmania species to examine the role of these two individual thiol systems in the protection mechanism against S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP), a nitrogen-derived reactive species donor. We found that the resistance to SNAP of different species of Leishmania was inversely correlated with their glutathione concentration but not with their total low-molecular weight thiol content (about 0.18 nmol/10(7) parasites, regardless Leishmania species). The glutathione concentration in L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.04 nmol/10(7) parasites, respectively. L. amazonensis, that have a higher level of glutathione, were less susceptible to SNAP (30 and 100 µM). The IC50 values of SNAP determined to L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 207.8, 188.5, 160.9, and 83 µM, respectively. We also observed that L. donovani mutants carrying only one trypanothione reductase allele had a decreased capacity to survive (~40%) in the presence of SNAP (30-150 µM). In conclusion, the present data suggest that both antioxidant systems, glutathione and trypanothione/trypanothione reductase, participate in protection of Leishmania against the toxic effect of nitrogen-derived reactive species.

P.R.T., Romão; J., Tovar; S.G., Fonseca; R.H., Moraes; A.K., Cruz; J.S., Hothersall; A.A., Noronha-Dutra; S.H., Ferreira; F.Q., Cunha.

277

Glutathione and the redox control system trypanothione/trypanothione reductase are involved in the protection of Leishmania spp. against nitrosothiol-induced cytotoxicity  

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Full Text Available Glutathione is the major intracellular antioxidant thiol protecting mammalian cells against oxidative stress induced by oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species. In trypanosomes and leishmanias, trypanothione plays a central role in parasite protection against mammalian host defence systems by recycling trypanothione disulphide by the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Although Kinetoplastida parasites lack glutathione reductase, they maintain significant levels of glutathione. The aim of this study was to use Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase gene mutant clones and different Leishmania species to examine the role of these two individual thiol systems in the protection mechanism against S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, a nitrogen-derived reactive species donor. We found that the resistance to SNAP of different species of Leishmania was inversely correlated with their glutathione concentration but not with their total low-molecular weight thiol content (about 0.18 nmol/10(7 parasites, regardless Leishmania species. The glutathione concentration in L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.04 nmol/10(7 parasites, respectively. L. amazonensis, that have a higher level of glutathione, were less susceptible to SNAP (30 and 100 µM. The IC50 values of SNAP determined to L. amazonensis, L. donovani, L. major, and L. braziliensis were 207.8, 188.5, 160.9, and 83 µM, respectively. We also observed that L. donovani mutants carrying only one trypanothione reductase allele had a decreased capacity to survive (~40% in the presence of SNAP (30-150 µM. In conclusion, the present data suggest that both antioxidant systems, glutathione and trypanothione/trypanothione reductase, participate in protection of Leishmania against the toxic effect of nitrogen-derived reactive species.

P.R.T. Romão

2006-03-01

278

A novel A2 allele found in Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi Novo alelo do gene A2 descrito em Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi  

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Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a widely spread zoonotic disease. In Brazil the disease is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Peridomestic sandflies acquire the etiological agent by feeding on blood of infected reservoir animals, such as dogs or wildlife. The disease is endemic in Brazil and epidemic foci have been reported in densely populated cities all over the country. Many clinical features of Leishmania infection are related to the host-parasite relationship, and many candidate virulence factors in parasites that cause VL have been studied such as A2 genes. The A2 gene was first isolated in 1994 and then in 2005 three new alleles were described in Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. In the present study we amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced the A2 gene from the genome of a clonal population of L. (L. infantum chagasi VL parasites. The L. (L. infantum chagasi A2 gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced in. The amplified fragment showed approximately 90% similarity with another A2 allele amplified in Leishmania (Leishmania donovani and in L.(L. infantum described in literature. However, nucleotide translation shows differences in protein amino acid sequence, which may be essential to determine the variability of A2 genes in the species of the L. (L. donovani complex and represents an additional tool to help understanding the role this gene family may have in establishing virulence and immunity in visceral leishmaniasis. This knowledge is important for the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and effective tools for disease control.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma zoonose amplamente disseminada, causada no Brasil pela Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Flebotomíneos vetores adquirem o agente etiológico, alimentando-se do sangue de animais contaminados, como cachorros ou animais selvagens. A doença é endêmica no Brasil, e focos de epidemia são relatados em cidades densamente povoadas por todo o país. Muitas manifestações clínicas relacionadas à infecção por Leishmania estão ligadas à relação parasito-hospedeiro, e vários possíveis fatores de virulência dos parasitas, que causam a LV, são alvos de estudo, tais como os genes A2. O gene A2 foi isolado pela primeira vez em 1994 e, em seguida, em 2005, três novos alelos foram descritos em Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. No presente estudo, um fragmento do gene A2 de uma população clonal de L.(L. infantum chagasi foi amplificado por PCR e sua sequência de nucleotídeos determinada. O fragmento mostrou 90% de similaridade com alelos do gene A2 de Leishmania (Leishmania donovani e de L. (L. infantum, descritos na literatura. Entretanto, a tradução da sequência de nucleotídeos mostra diferenças na sequência de aminoácidos da proteína, que podem ser essenciais em determinar a variabilidade do gene A2 em espécies do complexo L. (L. donovani e representa uma ferramenta adicional na compreenssão do papel dessa família de genes na virulência e imunidade da leishmaniose visceral. O conhecimento dessa variação é importante para o desenvolvimento de testes diagnósticos mais precisos e ferramentas mais eficazes no controle da doença.

Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira

2011-03-01

279

A novel A2 allele found in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi / Novo alelo do gene A2 descrito em Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose amplamente disseminada, causada no Brasil pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Flebotomíneos vetores adquirem o agente etiológico, alimentando-se do sangue de animais contaminados, como cachorros ou animais selvagens. A doença é endêmica no Brasil [...] , e focos de epidemia são relatados em cidades densamente povoadas por todo o país. Muitas manifestações clínicas relacionadas à infecção por Leishmania estão ligadas à relação parasito-hospedeiro, e vários possíveis fatores de virulência dos parasitas, que causam a LV, são alvos de estudo, tais como os genes A2. O gene A2 foi isolado pela primeira vez em 1994 e, em seguida, em 2005, três novos alelos foram descritos em Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. No presente estudo, um fragmento do gene A2 de uma população clonal de L.(L.) infantum chagasi foi amplificado por PCR e sua sequência de nucleotídeos determinada. O fragmento mostrou 90% de similaridade com alelos do gene A2 de Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani e de L. (L.) infantum, descritos na literatura. Entretanto, a tradução da sequência de nucleotídeos mostra diferenças na sequência de aminoácidos da proteína, que podem ser essenciais em determinar a variabilidade do gene A2 em espécies do complexo L. (L.) donovani e representa uma ferramenta adicional na compreenssão do papel dessa família de genes na virulência e imunidade da leishmaniose visceral. O conhecimento dessa variação é importante para o desenvolvimento de testes diagnósticos mais precisos e ferramentas mais eficazes no controle da doença. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widely spread zoonotic disease. In Brazil the disease is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Peridomestic sandflies acquire the etiological agent by feeding on blood of infected reservoir animals, such as dogs or wildlife. The disease is endemic in Br [...] azil and epidemic foci have been reported in densely populated cities all over the country. Many clinical features of Leishmania infection are related to the host-parasite relationship, and many candidate virulence factors in parasites that cause VL have been studied such as A2 genes. The A2 gene was first isolated in 1994 and then in 2005 three new alleles were described in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. In the present study we amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced the A2 gene from the genome of a clonal population of L. (L.) infantum chagasi VL parasites. The L. (L.) infantum chagasi A2 gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced in. The amplified fragment showed approximately 90% similarity with another A2 allele amplified in Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani and in L.(L.) infantum described in literature. However, nucleotide translation shows differences in protein amino acid sequence, which may be essential to determine the variability of A2 genes in the species of the L. (L.) donovani complex and represents an additional tool to help understanding the role this gene family may have in establishing virulence and immunity in visceral leishmaniasis. This knowledge is important for the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and effective tools for disease control.

Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Vasconcelos, Elton José Rosas de; Nakaghi, Andréa Cristina Higa; Defina, Tânia Paula Aquino; Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Cruz, Ângela Kaysel; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias.

280

Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude Leishmania and recombinant antigens as a diagnostic marker for canine visceral leishmaniasis  

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The performances of ELISA assays with different antigen preparations, such as Leishmania amazonensis or L. chagasi lysates and the recombinant antigens rK-39 and rK-26, were compared using sera or eluates from dried blood collected on filter paper to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil. Of 115 IFAT-reactive dogs at 1:40 titre, 106 (92.2%) were positive in parasitological exams (skin and/or spleen). These animals were compared to healt...

Eliza Yoshie do Rosário; Odair Genaro; Franc?a-silva, Joa?o C.; Da Costa, Roberto T.; Wilson Mayrink; Alexandre Barbosa Reis; Mariângela Carneiro

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison among three polymerase chain reaction assays on detection of DNA from Leishmania in biological samples from patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis Comparação entre três ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção de DNA de Leishmania, em amostras biológicas de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study analyzed positivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR on detection of DNA from Leishmania in patients' samples. METHODS: Extracted DNA was submitted to L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and seminested PCR (snPCR. RESULTS: Results were evidenced by bands of approximately 120, 720, and 670 bp for L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and snPCR, respectively. L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and snPCR positivity indexes were 76.9, 56.4, and 9.2 (p>0.05, respectively, for suspected and 93.7, 68.7, and 84.4 (pINTRODUÇÃO: Analisou-se a positividade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR na detecção de DNA de Leishmania em pacientes. MÉTODOS: DNA extraído foi submetido a L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e PCR seminested (snPCR. RESULTADOS: Resultados foram evidenciados por bandas de aproximadamente 120; 720 e 670pb para L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e snPCR, respectivamente. Positividades para L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e snPCR foram 76,9; 56,4 e 69,2 (p > 0,05, para suspeitos; e 93,7; 68,7 e 84,4 (p < 0,05 para confirmados, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Resultados preliminares mostraram que os ensaios, principalmente L150/L152 e snPCR, podem detectar DNA de Leishmania e têm potencial para diagnóstico laboratorial das leishmanioses.

João Guilherme Lino da Silva

2012-04-01

282

Iron acquisition within host cells and the pathogenicity of Leishmania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron is an essential cofactor for several enzymes and metabolic pathways, in both microbes and in their eukaryotic hosts. To avoid toxicity, iron acquisition is tightly regulated. This represents a particular challenge for pathogens that reside within the endocytic pathway of mammalian cells, because endosomes and lysosomes are gradually depleted in iron by host transporters. An important player in this process is Nramp1 (Slc11a1), a proton efflux pump that translocates Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) ions from macrophage lysosomes/phagolysosomes into the cytosol. Mutations in Nramp1 cause susceptibility to infection with the bacteria Salmonella and Mycobacteria and the protozoan Leishmania, indicating that an available pool of intraphagosomal iron is critical for the intracellular survival and replication of these pathogens. Salmonella and Mycobacteria are known to express iron transporter systems that effectively compete with host transporters for iron. Until recently, however, very little was known about the molecular strategy used by Leishmania for survival in the iron-poor environment of macrophage phagolysosomes. It is now clear that intracellular residence induces Leishmania amazonensis to express LIT1, a ZIP family membrane Fe(2+) transporter that is required for intracellular growth and virulence. PMID:18070118

Huynh, Chau; Andrews, Norma W

2008-02-01

283

Comparison among three polymerase chain reaction assays on detection of DNA from Leishmania in biological samples from patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis / Comparação entre três ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção de DNA de Leishmania, em amostras biológicas de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Analisou-se a positividade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) na detecção de DNA de Leishmania em pacientes. MÉTODOS: DNA extraído foi submetido a L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e PCR seminested (snPCR). RESULTADOS: Resultados foram evidenciados por bandas de aproximadamente 120; 720 e 670pb pa [...] ra L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e snPCR, respectivamente. Positividades para L150/L152, 13Y/13Z e snPCR foram 76,9; 56,4 e 69,2 (p > 0,05), para suspeitos; e 93,7; 68,7 e 84,4 (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The study analyzed positivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on detection of DNA from Leishmania in patients' samples. METHODS: Extracted DNA was submitted to L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and seminested PCR (snPCR). RESULTS: Results were evidenced by bands of approximately 120, 720, and 670 [...] bp for L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and snPCR, respectively. L150/L152, 13Y/13Z, and snPCR positivity indexes were 76.9, 56.4, and 9.2 (p>0.05), respectively, for suspected and 93.7, 68.7, and 84.4 (p

Silva, João Guilherme Lino da; Silva, Thiago Miranda da; Peloso, Eduardo de Figueiredo; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Mayrink, Wilson; Ariosa, Marília Caixeta Franco; Faria e Silva, Paulo Márcio de; Marques, Marcos José.

284

Immunocytochemical identification of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was used to study the immunocytochemical properties of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ after tissues had been submitted to different fixation procedures. Antisera were obtained from rabbits chronically infected with different strains of T. cruzi or immunized with L. mexicana amazonensis and L. braziliensis guyanensis, and were applied on 5 microns thick sections. T. cruzi antigens were well stained by the three anti-T. cruzi sera and the two anti-Leishmania sera at optimum dilution between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, regardless the parasite strain. Differently, the leishmanial antigens were revealed by anti-Leishmania sera only at low dilutions (between 1:60-1:160), whereas the anti-T. cruzi sera, at these low dilutions, gave rather weak stainings. Although there is no clear explanation for this immunocytochemical "reverse-monodirectional" cross-reactivity between Leishmania and T. cruzi, the present results show that polyclonal antibodies agains Leishmania species, when used for immunocytochemical detection of these parasites in situ, react more strongly with T. cruzi amastigotes than with the homologous amastigotes. PMID:1726128

Barbosa, A J; da Costa, C A; Michalick, M S; Mayrink, W; Gazzinelli, R T; Tafuri, W L

1991-01-01

285

Intranasal immunization with LACK-DNA promotes protective immunity in hamsters challenged with Leishmania chagasi.  

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LACK (Leishmania analogue of the receptor kinase C) is a conserved protein in protozoans of the genus Leishmania which is associated with the immunopathogenesis and susceptibility of BALB/c mice to L. major infection. Previously, we demonstrated that intranasal immunization with a plasmid carrying the LACK gene of Leishmania infantum (LACK-DNA) promotes protective immunity in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi. In the present study, we investigated the protective immunity achieved in hamsters intranasally vaccinated with 2 doses of LACK-DNA (30 ?g). Compared with controls (PBS and pCI-neo plasmid), animals vaccinated with LACK-DNA showed significant reduction in parasite loads in the spleen and liver, increased lymphoproliferative response and increased nitric oxide (NO) production by parasite antigen-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated with LACK-DNA presented high IgG and IgG2a serum levels when compared to control animals. Our results showed that intranasal vaccination with LACK-DNA promotes protective immune responses in hamsters and demonstrated the broad spectrum of intranasal LACK-DNA efficacy in different host species, confirming previous results in murine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21867591

DE Oliveira Gomes, Daniel Claudio; DA Silva Costa Souza, Beatriz Lilian; DE Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

2011-12-01

286

Immunocytochemical identification of leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies  

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Full Text Available The unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was used to study the immunocytochemical properties of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ after tissues had been submitted to different fixation procedures. Antisera were obtained from rabbits chronically infected with different strains of T. cruzi or immunized with L. mexicana amazonensis and L. braziliensis guyanensis, and were applied on 5 µm thick sections. T. cruzi antigens were well stained by the three anti-T. cruzi sera and the two anti-heis.hmama.sera at optimum dilution between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, regardless the parasite strain. Differently, the leishmanial antigens were revealed by Leishmania sera only at low dilutions (between 1:60 -1:160, whereas the anti-T. cruzi sera, at these low dilutions, gave rather weak stainings. Although there is no clear explanation for this immunocytochemical "reverse-monodirectional" cross-reactivity between Leishmania and T. cruzi, the present results show that polyclonal antibodies agains Leishmania species, when used for immunocytochemical detection of these parasites in situ, react more strongly with T. cruzi amastigotes than with the homologous amastigotes.O método daperoxidase-antiperoxidase foi utilizado para estudar as propriedades imunocitoquimicas de Leishmanias e de amastigotas do Trypanosoma cruzi, in situ, após os tecidos terem sido submetidos a diferentes tipos de fixação. Anti-soros foram obtidos de coelhos cronicamente infectados com três cepas de T. cruzi ou imunizados com L. mexicana ámazonensis e L. braziliensis guyanensis e aplicados nos cortes histológicos de 5 µm de espessura. Os antígenos de T. cruzi foram corados muito bem pelos três soros anti-T. cruzi e pelos dois soros anti-Leishmania com diluições entre 1:1.000 e 1:2.000. Diferentemente, os antígenos dç Leishmania foram revelados pelos soros anti- Leishmania somente em baixas diluições, ou seja, entre 1:60 e 1:160 enquanto que os soros anti-T. cruzi, mesmo nestas diluições baixas, proporcionaram colorações fracas e irregulares auando usados para revelar Leishmania. Embora não haja explicação clara para esta reação imunocitoquimica cruzada "reversa-monodirecional" entre Leishmania e amastigotas de T. cruzi os resultados do presente trabalho mostram que anticorpos policlonais contra diferentes espécies de Leishmania, quando usados para detecção imunocitoquímica de Leishmania e T. cruzi in situ, reagem mais fortemente com amastigotas de T. cruzi do que com espécies homólogas.

A.J.A. Barbosa

1991-03-01

287

Immunocytochemical identification of leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O método daperoxidase-antiperoxidase foi utilizado para estudar as propriedades imunocitoquimicas de Leishmanias e de amastigotas do Trypanosoma cruzi, in situ, após os tecidos terem sido submetidos a diferentes tipos de fixação. Anti-soros foram obtidos de coelhos cronicamente infectados com três c [...] epas de T. cruzi ou imunizados com L. mexicana ámazonensis e L. braziliensis guyanensis e aplicados nos cortes histológicos de 5 µm de espessura. Os antígenos de T. cruzi foram corados muito bem pelos três soros anti-T. cruzi e pelos dois soros anti-Leishmania com diluições entre 1:1.000 e 1:2.000. Diferentemente, os antígenos dç Leishmania foram revelados pelos soros anti- Leishmania somente em baixas diluições, ou seja, entre 1:60 e 1:160 enquanto que os soros anti-T. cruzi, mesmo nestas diluições baixas, proporcionaram colorações fracas e irregulares auando usados para revelar Leishmania. Embora não haja explicação clara para esta reação imunocitoquimica cruzada "reversa-monodirecional" entre Leishmania e amastigotas de T. cruzi os resultados do presente trabalho mostram que anticorpos policlonais contra diferentes espécies de Leishmania, quando usados para detecção imunocitoquímica de Leishmania e T. cruzi in situ, reagem mais fortemente com amastigotas de T. cruzi do que com espécies homólogas. Abstract in english The unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was used to study the immunocytochemical properties of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ after tissues had been submitted to different fixation procedures. Antisera were obtained from rabbits chronically infected with differ [...] ent strains of T. cruzi or immunized with L. mexicana amazonensis and L. braziliensis guyanensis, and were applied on 5 µm thick sections. T. cruzi antigens were well stained by the three anti-T. cruzi sera and the two anti-heis.hmama.sera at optimum dilution between 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, regardless the parasite strain. Differently, the leishmanial antigens were revealed by Leishmania sera only at low dilutions (between 1:60 -1:160), whereas the anti-T. cruzi sera, at these low dilutions, gave rather weak stainings. Although there is no clear explanation for this immunocytochemical "reverse-monodirectional" cross-reactivity between Leishmania and T. cruzi, the present results show that polyclonal antibodies agains Leishmania species, when used for immunocytochemical detection of these parasites in situ, react more strongly with T. cruzi amastigotes than with the homologous amastigotes.

Barbosa, A.J.A.; Costa, C.A. da; Michalick, M.S.M.; Mayrink, W.; Gazzinelli, R.T.; Tafuri, W.L..

288

Molecular differentiation of Leishmania protozoarium using CdS quantum dots as biolabels  

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In this work we applied core-shell CdS/Cd(OH)2 quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent labels in the Leishmania amazonensis protozoarium. The nanocrystals (8-9 nm) are obtained via colloidal synthesis in aqueous medium, with final pH=7 using sodium polyphosphate as the stabilizing agent. The surface of the particles is passivated with a cadmium hydroxide shell and the particle surface is functionalized with glutaraldehyde. The functionalized and non-functionalized particles were conjugated to Leishmania organisms in the promastigote form. The marked live organisms were visualized using confocal microscopy. The systems exhibit a differentiation of the emission color for the functionalized and non-functionalized particles suggesting different chemical interactions with the promastigote moieties. Two photon emision spectra (? exc=795nm) were obtained for the promastigotes labeled with the functionalized QDs showing a significant spectral change compared to the original QDs suspension. These spectral changes are discussed in terms of the possible energy deactivation processes.

Santos, Beate S.; de Farias, Patrícia M. A.; de Menezes, Frederico D.; Mariano, Erick L.; de C. Ferreira, Ricardo; Giorgio, Selma; Bosetto, Maira C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Lima, Paulo M.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomas, André A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2006-02-01

289

Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of periph [...] eral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

Macedo-Silva, Roger Magno; Santos, Carina de Lima Pereira dos; Diniz, Vanessa Alvaro; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Guerra, Camila; Corte-Real, Suzana.

2014-02-01

290

The role of surface glycoconjugates in Leishmania midgut attachment examined by competitive binding assays and experimental development in sand flies.  

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Binding of promastigotes to the sand fly midgut epithelium is regarded as an essential part of the Leishmania life cycle in the vector. Among Leishmania surface molecules putatively involved in attachment to the sand fly midgut, two GPI-anchored molecules are the most prominent: lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and promastigote surface protease gp63. In this work, we examined midgut attachment of Leishmania lines mutated in GPI-anchored molecules and compared results from 2 different techniques: in vivo development in sand flies and in vitro competitive binding assays using fluorescently labelled parasites. In combination with previous studies, our data provide additional support for (1) an LPG-independent parasite-binding mechanism of Leishmania major within the midgut of the permissive vector Phlebotomus perniciosus, and provide strong support for (2) the crucial role of L. major LPG in specific vector Phlebotomus papatasi, and (3) a role for Leishmania amazonensis gp63 in Lutzomyia longipalpis midgut binding. Moreover, our results suggest a critical role for GPI-anchored proteins and gp63 in Leishmania mexicana attachment to L. longipalpis midguts, as the wild type (WT) line accounted for over 99% of bound parasites. PMID:23611086

Jecna, Lucie; Dostalova, Anna; Wilson, Ray; Seblova, Veronika; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Bates, Paul A; Volf, Petr

2013-07-01

291

Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios  

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Full Text Available La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A+ de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp. Se logró realizar la maduración, extracción y cultivo de ovocitos de B. marinus bajo condiciones similares a las estandarizadas para X. laevis. El potencial de reposo promedio así como las corrientes endógenas mostraron ser definidas por canales de cloruro dependientes de calcio y rectificadores de salida, de manera similar a lo reportado en X. laevis. La inyección de ARNm poli(A+ de L. amazonensis generó la expresión de corrientes de cloruro de  amplitud, cinética y características farmacológicas diferentes a las corrientes endógenas, reportadas en estudios previos con X. laevis como posible resultado de la expresión heteróloga de canales iónicos de L. amazonensis.

Arroyo Olarte Rubén Darío

2006-06-01

292

RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical / PCR-RFLP and RAPD for typing neotropical Leishmania  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado y el estudio del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar han demostrado ser herramientas útiles para la tipificación de Leishmania. Objetivos. Estudiar la utilidad de las técnicas moleculares para la ident [...] ificación y tipificación de cepas de referencia de Leishmania spp. del Nuevo Mundo y valorar su aplicabilidad a muestras clínicas. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó PCR para amplificar el gen que codifica la cisteíno-proteinasa B, y el análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado utilizando ácido desoxirribonucleico de 16 cepas de referencia de Latinoamérica y de muestras clínicas de pacientes colombianos con leishmaniasis, y la técnica del ácido desoxirribonucleico polimórfico amplificado al azar utilizando ocho cepas de referencia. Se establecieron los patrones de bandas en cada caso. Resultados. Se obtuvo producto de amplificación en la PCR para Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis y L. guyanensis. Para el resto, no fue posible amplificar el gen con los cebadores utilizados. La restricción mostró un patrón de bandas común para L. peruviana, L. guyanensis y L. panamensis, mientras L. braziliensis, presentaba un perfil individual único. El análisis de restricción del producto amplificado generó un patrón de bandas similar en los cinco pacientes estudiados, que se correspondía con el patrón generado por L. peruviana, L. guyanensis o L. panamensis. Mediante la amplificación al azar se obtuvieron patrones de bandas reproducibles con todas las cepas estudiadas, que posibilitaron la diferenciación. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones de ambos procederes. Conclusiones. El combinar ambas metodologías resultaría útil para identificar especies de importancia médica, tomando en cuenta sus ventajas y desventajas. Abstract in english Introduction. The analysis of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA have been useful tools for Leishmania identification. Objectives. Molecular procedures were demonstrated for identification and typing of reference strains of New World Leishmania and [...] their applicability was validated for clinical samples. Materials and methods. DNA was extracted from 16 reference strains of Latin American Leishmania as well as from clinical samples of leishmaniasis patients. A sequence coding for cysteine proteinase B was amplified by PCR and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The enzyme used was Taq1. For eight of the reference strains, the random amplified polymorphic desoxyribonucleic acid technique (RAPD) was applied. Band patterns for Leishmania species differentiation were established each each method. The sample size of the clinical sample was of 5. Results. PCR products of the cysteine proteinase B gene were obtained for L. braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis and L. guyanensis. For the other species, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, no amplification occurred. The patterns of restriction fragments revealed band patterns in common for L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis, whereas L. braziliensis had a distinctive pattern. When human samples were examined, amplification occurred for all cases, and the profiles corresponded to the common profile of L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis. The RAPD technique demonstrated reproducible and distinctive patterns for each of the 8 reference strains, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, making possible to differentiate all them. The advantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed. Conclusions. The combination of RFP and RAPD methodologies provide useful tools to identify medical important species of Leishmania by recognizing DNA sequences characteristic of each species.

Ana Margarita, Montalvo; Lianet, Monzote; Jorge, Fraga; Ivón, Montano; Carlos, Muskus; Marcel, Marín; Simonne, de Doncker; Iván Darío, Vélez; Jean Claude, Dujardin.

293

Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages infected with Leishmania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation activated by macrophage innate pathogen recognition receptors such as TLR4 can lead to a range of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, Crohn's disease, arthritis and cancer. Unlike many microbes, the kinetoplastid protozoan pathogen Leishmania has been shown to avoid and even actively suppress host inflammatory cytokine responses, such as LPS-induced IL-12 production. The nature and scope of Leishmania-mediated inflammatory cytokine suppression, however, is not well characterized. Advancing our knowledge of such microbe-mediated cytokine suppression may provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory disease. Methods We explored the kinetics of a range of cytokine and chemokine responses in primary murine macrophages stimulated with LPS in the presence versus absence of two clinically distinct species of Leishmania using sensitive multiplex cytokine analyses. To confirm that these effects were parasite-specific, we compared the effects of Leishmania uptake on LPS-induced cytokine expression with uptake of inert latex beads. Results Whilst Leishmania uptake alone did not induce significant levels of any cytokine analysed in this study, Leishmania uptake in the presence of LPS caused parasite-specific suppression of certain LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-12, IL-17 and IL-6. Interestingly, L. amazonensis was generally more suppressive than L. major. We also found that other LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1?, TNF-? and the chemokines MIP-1? and MCP-1 and also the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, were augmented during Leishmania uptake, in a parasite-specific manner. Conclusions During uptake by macrophages, Leishmania evades the activation of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines. Further, in the presence of a strong inflammatory stimulus, Leishmania suppresses certain proinflammatory cytokine responses in a parasite-specific manner, however it augments the production of other proinflammatory cytokines. Our findings highlight the complexity of inflammatory cytokine signalling regulation in the context of the macrophage and Leishmania interaction and confirm the utility of the Leishmania/macrophage infection model as an experimental system for further studies of inflammatory regulation. Such studies may advance the development of therapies against inflammatory disease.

Kelly Ben L

2010-02-01

294

Leishmanicidal activity of the Agaricus blazei Murill in different Leishmania species.  

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Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of an Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract as compared to different Leishmania species and stages. The water extract proved to be effective against promastigote and amastigote-like stages of Leishmania amazonensis, L. chagasi, and L. major, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) values of 67.5, 65.8, and 56.8 ?g/mL for promastigotes, and 115.4, 112.3, and 108.4 ?g/mL for amastigotes-like respectively. The infectivity of the three Leishmania species before and after treatment with the water extract was analyzed, and it could be observed that 82%, 57%, and 73% of the macrophages were infected with L. amazonensis, L. major, and L. chagasi, respectively. However, when parasites were pre-incubated with the water extract, and later used to infect macrophages, they were able to infect only 12.7%, 24.5%, and 19.7% of the phagocytic cells for L. amazonensis, L. chagasi, and L. major, respectively. In other experiments, macrophages were infected with L. amazonensis, L. chagasi, or L. major, and later treated with the aforementioned extract, presented reductions of 84.4%, 79.6%, and 85.3% in the parasite burden after treatment. A confocal microscopy revealed the loss of the viability of the parasites within the infected macrophages after treatment with the water extract. The applied extract presented a low cytotoxicity in murine macrophages and a null hemolytic activity in type O(+) human red blood cells. No nitric oxide (NO) production, nor inducible nitric oxide syntase expression, could be observed in macrophages after stimulation with the water extract, suggesting that biological activity may be due to direct mechanisms other than macrophage activation by means of NO production. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the A. blazei Murill water extract can potentially be used as a therapeutic alternative on its own, or in association with other drugs, to treat Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. PMID:21723957

Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Oliveira, Jamil S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Leite, João Paulo V; Santoro, Marcelo M; Régis, Wiliam C B; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

2011-12-01

295

Cross-protective effect of a combined L5 plus L3 Leishmania major ribosomal protein based vaccine combined with a Th1 adjuvant in murine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis  

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Background Two Leishmania major ribosomal proteins L3 (LmL3) and L5 (LmL5) have been described as protective molecules against cutaneous leishmaniasis due to infection with L. major and Leishmania braziliensis in BALB/c mice when immunized with a Th1 adjuvant (non-methylated CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides; CpG-ODN). In the present study we analyzed the cross-protective efficacy of an LmL3-LmL5-CpG ODN combined vaccine against infection with Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi (syn. Leishmania infantum) the etiologic agents of different clinical forms of human leishmaniasis in South America. Methods The combined vaccine was administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice. After immunization the cellular and humoral responses elicited were analyzed. Mice were independently challenged with L. amazonensis and L. chagasi. The size of the cutaneous lesions caused by the infection with the first species, the parasite loads and the immune response in both infection models were analyzed nine weeks after challenge. Results Mice vaccinated with the combined vaccine showed a Th1-like response against LmL3 and LmL5. Vaccinated mice were able to delay lesion development due to L. amazonensis infection and to control parasite loads in the site of infection. A reduction of the parasite burden in the lymph nodes draining the site of infection and in the liver and spleen was observed in the vaccinated mice after a subcutaneous infection with L. chagasi. In both models of infection, protection was correlated to parasite antigen-specific production of IFN-? and down-regulation of parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses. Conclusions The data presented here demonstrate the potential use of L. major L3 and L5 recombinant ribosomal proteins for the development of vaccines against various Leishmania species.

2014-01-01

296

Increase of NK cells and proinflammatory monocytes are associated with the clinical improvement of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis after immunochemotherapy with BCG/Leishmania antigens.  

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Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by disseminated lesions and the absence of a specific cellular immune response. Here, the immunochemotherapy outcome of a patient with DCL from Amazonian Brazil infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is presented. After several unsuccessful chemotherapy treatment regimens and many relapses, a monthly immunotherapy scheme of L. amazonensis PH8 plus L. (Viannia) braziliensis M2903 monovalent vaccines associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was established, one round of which also included an M2903 vaccine associated with intermittent antimonial treatment. Temporary healing of all lesions was achieved, although Leishmania skin tests were negative and interferon gamma was not detected in mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with Leishmania antigens. The frequencies of CD16 (+)CD56(+) NK cells (approximately 2x) and CD14 (+)CD16(+) proinflammatory monocytes (approximately 8x) increased in peripheral blood, and CD56 (+) lymphocytes were found infiltrating the lesions. An association between the increase of the frequency of innate immune system cells and the healing of lesions is shown, suggesting that this protocol of immunotherapy reduced the parasite load and activated NK cells and monocytes. PMID:19706899

Pereira, Ledice I A; Dorta, Miriam L; Pereira, Ana Joaquina C S; Bastos, Rosidete P; Oliveira, Milton A P; Pinto, Sebastião A; Galdino, Hélio; Mayrink, Wilson; Barcelos, Warly; Toledo, Vicente P C P; Lima, Gloria Maria C A; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

2009-09-01

297

Arrabidaea chica Hexanic Extract Induces Mitochondrion Damage and Peptidase Inhibition on Leishmania spp.  

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Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2) on parasite's ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6??g/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents.

Rodrigues, Igor A.; Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

2014-01-01

298

In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a combination therapy of diminazene and artesunate against Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice / Estudo in vitro e in vivo da eficácia anti leishmaniótica de terapêutica combinada de Diminazene e Artesunate contra Leishmania donovani em camundongos Balb/c  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A atividade in vitro e in vivo de Diminazene (Dim), Artezunate (Art) e a combinação Dim e Art (Dim-Art) contra Leishmania donovani foi comparada com a droga de referência Anfotericina B. IC50 da Dim-Art foi 2,28 ± 0,24 µg/mL enquanto aquelas de Dim e Art foram 9,16 ± 0,3 µg/mL e 4,64 ± 0,48 µg/mL re [...] spectivamente. O IC50 da Anfotericina B foi 0,16 ± 0,32 µg/mL contra a fase estacionária de promastigotas. A avaliação in vivo do modelo de L. donovani em camundongos Balb/c indicou que os tratamentos com a terapêutica de drogas combinadas em doses de 12,5 mg/kg por 28 dias consecutivos significantemente (p Abstract in english The in vitro and in vivo activity of diminazene (Dim), artesunate (Art) and combination of Dim and Art (Dim-Art) against Leishmania donovani was compared to reference drug; amphotericin B. IC50 of Dim-Art was found to be 2.28 ± 0.24 µg/mL while those of Dim and Art were 9.16 ± 0.3 µg/mL and 4.64 ± 0 [...] .48 µg/mL respectively. The IC50 for Amphot B was 0.16 ± 0.32 µg/mL against stationary-phase promastigotes. In vivo evaluation in the L. donovani BALB/c mice model indicated that treatments with the combined drug therapy at doses of 12.5 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days significantly (p

Joshua Muli, Mutiso; John Chege, Macharia; Mustafa, Barasa; Evans, Taracha; Alain J., Bourdichon; Michael M., Gicheru.

299

PCR-RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical PCR-RFLP and RAPD for typing neotropical Leishmania  

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Full Text Available Introducción. El análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado y el estudio del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar han demostrado ser herramientas útiles para la tipificación de Leishmania.
Objetivos. Estudiar la utilidad de las técnicas moleculares para la identificación y tipificación de cepas de referencia de Leishmania spp. del Nuevo Mundo y valorar su aplicabilidad a muestras clínicas.
Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó PCR para amplificar el gen que codifica la cisteíno-proteinasa B, y el análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado utilizando ácido desoxirribonucleico de 16 cepas de referencia de Latinoamérica y de muestras clínicas de pacientes colombianos con leishmaniasis, y la técnica del ácido desoxirribonucleico polimórfico amplificado al azar utilizando ocho cepas de referencia. Se establecieron los patrones de bandas en cada caso.
Resultados. Se obtuvo producto de amplificación en la PCR para Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis y L. guyanensis. Para el resto, no fue posible amplificar el gen con los cebadores utilizados. La restricción mostró un patrón de bandas común para L. peruviana, L. guyanensis y L. panamensis, mientras L. braziliensis, presentaba un perfil individual único. El análisis de restricción del producto amplificado generó un patrón de bandas similar en los cinco pacientes estudiados, que se correspondía con el patrón generado por L. peruviana, L. guyanensis o L. panamensis. Mediante la amplificación al azar se obtuvieron patrones de bandas reproducibles con todas las cepas estudiadas, que posibilitaron la diferenciación. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones de ambos procederes. Conclusiones. El combinar ambas metodologías resultaría útil para identificar especies de importancia médica, tomando en cuenta sus ventajas y desventajas.Introduction. The analysis of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA have been useful tools for Leishmania identification.
Objectives. Molecular procedures were demonstrated for identification and typing of reference strains of New World Leishmania and their applicability was validated for clinical samples.
Materials and methods. DNA was extracted from 16 reference strains of Latin American Leishmania as well as from clinical samples of leishmaniasis patients. A sequence coding for cysteine proteinase B was amplified by PCR and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The enzyme used was Taq1. For eight of the reference strains, the random amplified polymorphic desoxyribonucleic acid technique (RAPD was applied. Band patterns for Leishmania species differentiation were established each each method. The sample size of the clinical sample was of 5.
Results. PCR products of the cysteine proteinase B gene were obtained for L. braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis and L. guyanensis. For the other species, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, no amplification occurred. The patterns of restriction fragments revealed band patterns in common for L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis, whereas L. braziliensis had a distinctive pattern. When human samples were examined, amplification occurred for all cases, and the profiles corresponded to the common profile of L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis. The RAPD technique demonstrated reproducible and distinctive patterns for each of the 8 reference strains, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, making possible to differentiate all them. The advantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.
Co

Iván Darío Vélez

2008-12-01

300

Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respostas terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857. O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7% pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40% pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%, para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1% ou enduração (10,8% no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade.FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. METHODS: 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857. The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7% in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40% patients, especially arthralgia (20.3% in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1% or induration (10.8% at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. CONCLUSION: Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.

Leandro Ourives Neves

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA  

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Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres

2007-06-29

302

Leishmania Exploit Sex  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Leishmania are the last of the three major groups of trypanosomatid parasites to give up their secret--a healthy capacity for genetic exchange.

Michael Miles (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine;); Matthew Yeo (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine;); Isabel Mauricio (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine;)

2009-04-10

303

Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigens protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the search for a leishmaniasis vaccine, extensive studies have been carried out with promastigote (insect stage) molecules. Information in this regard on amastigote (mammalian host stage) molecules is limited. To investigate host immune responses to Leishmania amastigote antigens, we purified three stage-specific antigens (A2, P4, and P8) from in vitro-cultivated amastigotes of Leishmania pifanoi by using immunoaffinity chromatography. We found that with Corynebacterium parvum as an adjuvant, three intraperitoneal injections of 5 micrograms of P4 or P8 antigen provided partial to complete protection of BALB/c mice challenged with 10(5) to 10(7) L. pifanoi promastigotes. These immunized mice developed significantly smaller or no lesions and exhibited a 39- to 1.6 x 10(5)-fold reduction of lesion parasite burden after 15 to 20 weeks of infection. In addition, P8 immunization resulted in complete protection against L. amazonensis infection of CBA/J mice and partial protection of BALB/c mice, suggesting that this antigen provided cross-species protection of mice with different H-2 haplotypes. At different stages during infection, vaccinated mice exhibited profound proliferative responses to parasite antigens and increased levels of gamma interferon production, suggesting that a Th1 cell-mediated immune response is associated with the resistance in these mice. Taken together, the data in this report indicate the vaccine potential of amastigote-derived antigens. PMID:7642292

Soong, L; Duboise, S M; Kima, P; McMahon-Pratt, D

1995-09-01

304

Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica / Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi [...] a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem. Abstract in english The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyi [...] a whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1.832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b braziliensis in the region mantaining transmission in dogs and man.

Julio A., Vexenat; Air C., Barreto; César A. Cuba, Cuba; Philip Davis, Marsden.

305

Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna  

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Full Text Available A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem.The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1.832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b braziliensis in the region mantaining transmission in dogs and man.

Julio A. Vexenat

1986-09-01

306

In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a combination therapy of diminazene and artesunate against Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice Estudo in vitro e in vivo da eficácia anti leishmaniótica de terapêutica combinada de Diminazene e Artesunate contra Leishmania donovani em camundongos Balb/c  

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Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo activity of diminazene (Dim, artesunate (Art and combination of Dim and Art (Dim-Art against Leishmania donovani was compared to reference drug; amphotericin B. IC50 of Dim-Art was found to be 2.28 ± 0.24 µg/mL while those of Dim and Art were 9.16 ± 0.3 µg/mL and 4.64 ± 0.48 µg/mL respectively. The IC50 for Amphot B was 0.16 ± 0.32 µg/mL against stationary-phase promastigotes. In vivo evaluation in the L. donovani BALB/c mice model indicated that treatments with the combined drug therapy at doses of 12.5 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days significantly (p A atividade in vitro e in vivo de Diminazene (Dim, Artezunate (Art e a combinação Dim e Art (Dim-Art contra Leishmania donovani foi comparada com a droga de referência Anfotericina B. IC50 da Dim-Art foi 2,28 ± 0,24 µg/mL enquanto aquelas de Dim e Art foram 9,16 ± 0,3 µg/mL e 4,64 ± 0,48 µg/mL respectivamente. O IC50 da Anfotericina B foi 0,16 ± 0,32 µg/mL contra a fase estacionária de promastigotas. A avaliação in vivo do modelo de L. donovani em camundongos Balb/c indicou que os tratamentos com a terapêutica de drogas combinadas em doses de 12,5 mg/kg por 28 dias consecutivos significantemente (p < 0,001 reduziu a carga parasitária no baço quando comparada a tratamentos com uma única droga dada nas mesmas dosagens. Embora a carga parasitária tenha sido levemente mais baixa (p < 0.05 no grupo Anfotericina B quando comparada com o grupo tratado Dim-Art, o estudo presente demonstra a vantagem positiva do uso potencial da terapêutica combinada Dim-Art sobre drogas como Dim ou Art quando usadas isoladamente. Posterior avaliação é recomendada para determinar a média de combinação mais eficaz dos dois compostos.

Joshua Muli Mutiso

2011-06-01

307

Studies on the relationship between lectin binding carbohydrates and different strains of Leishmania from the New World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As formas de cultura de L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90), L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379); L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS) e L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL, M-1696) foram testadas com as seguintes lectinas: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis- [...] 120, Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papilata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. Todas as cepas de leishmania aglutinadas por C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 e A. polypoides. Nenhuma reação de aglutinação foi observada com P. vulgaris, D. biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus e L. tetragonolobus. Apenas L. m. pifanoi e as cepas H-JMMO e M-JOF de L. m. amazonensis mostravam reações de aglutinação com S. hispida, U. europaeus, l. alpinum e A. hypogaea enquanto as cepas LRC L-94 e M-379 de L. m. mexicana; H-LSS, LRC L-77, L-1 e M-2903 de L. b. braziliensis bem como as cepas H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 não mostraram nenhuma reação de aglutinação com estas quatro lectinas. Assim, as variações intra-específicas encontradas pelos testes de aglutinação por lectinas em cepas de leishmanias isoladas de casos de leishmaniose tegumentar não permitem estabelecer uma correlação entre formas clínicas e cepas isoladas. Por outro lado, estes testes mostram que a cepa de L. mexicana pifanoi apresenta reações idênticas às de duas cepas de L. mexicana amazonensis, não se podendo assim diferenciá-la por esta técnica. Pelo teste de aglutinação por lectina, empregado neste trabalho, podemos agrupar as cepas estudadas em dois grupos, mas não sabemos até o presente momento qual o significado destas variações intra-específicas em leishmanias isoladas de casos de leishmaniose cutânea do novo mundo. Abstract in english The culture forms of L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90), L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379); L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS) and L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL,M-1696) were tested with the following lectins: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis-120, [...] Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papillata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. All examined strains of Leishmania were agglutinated by C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 and A. popypoides. No agglutination reactions were observed with P. vulgaris, D.biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus and L. tetragonolobus. Only L. m. pifanoi and the L. m. amazonensis strains H-JMMO and MJOF showed agglutination reactions with S. hispida, U. europaeus, L. alpinum and A. hypogaea, while L. m. mexicana (LRC L-94; M-379) strains, L. b. braziliensis H. LSS, LRC L-77; L-1; M-2903 and the L. m. amazonensis strains, H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 showed no agglutination reactions with these four lectins.

Schottelius, J.; Costa, S. C. Gonçalves da.

308

Increased transmission potential of Leishmania major/Leishmania infantum hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrids was studied in two sand fly species. In Phlebotomus papatasi, which supported development of L. major but not L. infantum, the hybrids produced heavy late-stage infections with high numbers of metacyclic promastigotes. In the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, all Leishmania strains included in this study developed well. Hybrids were found to express L. major lipophosphoglycan, apparently enabling them to survive in P. papatasi...

Volf, Petr; Benkova, Ivana; Myskova, Jitka; Sadlova, Jovana; Campino, Lenea; Ravel, Christophe

2007-01-01

309

Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis em cães naturalmente infectados Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in naturally infected dogs  

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Full Text Available Foram estudados oito cães provenientes do Município de Maricá (RJ, com lesões sugestivas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana por métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Leishmania spp foi encontrada em seis cães através do cultivo in vitro. Anticorpos específicos foram detectados em seis animais pelo ELISA e em dois pela imunofluorescência indireta. Cinco isolados caninos analisados apresentaram zimodema similar a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Sugere-se que cães clinicamente suspeitos sejam acompanhados periodicamente, na tentativa de confirmar o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar canina.Eight dogs from Maricá Municipality (RJ, with suggestive lesion of american tegumentary leishmaniasis were studied by parasitological and serological methods. Leishmania spp was found in six dogs by in vitro cultivation. Specific antibodies were detected in six dogs by ELISA and in two by indirect immunofluorescence. Five canine isolates were found to belong to the same zymodeme as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. The authors suggest that clinically suspect dogs should be followed-up in an attempt to confirm the diagnostic of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis.

Maria de Fátima Madeira

2003-10-01

310

Susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) to infection by different species and strains of Leishmania Ross, 1903  

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A study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis to infection by different species or strains of New World Leishmania. The sand flies proved to be highly susceptible to infection by a strain of Le. guyanensis, with flagellates developing in all (18/18) of the specimens examined. A lower infection rate of 37 per cents (10/27) was recorded in flies exposed to infection by a strain of Le. amazonensis. Flagellates developed in 13 per cents (6/...

Da Silva, Ana Lu?cia F. F.; Paul Williams; Maria Norma de Melo; Wilson Mayrink

1990-01-01

311

Características clínicas da leishmaniose tegumentar em crianças de 0 a 5 anos em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Clinical findings of tegumentary leishmaniasis in children under five years of age in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Para caracterizar a clínica da leishmaniose tegumentar em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, 4.464 fichas clínicas do Centro de Saúde de Corte de Pedra, Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia, Brasil, área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, entre maio de 1987 e dezembro de 1995. Foram registrados neste período 4.275 casos novos de leishmaniose, dos quais, 491 (11,5% correspondiam a crianças de 0 a 5 anos. A razão entre gênero masculino e feminino nas crianças foi 1,1:1. A forma clínica predominante foi a cutânea (98% e as lesões ulceradas foram as mais freqüentes (99%. A localização das lesões ocorreu, principalmente, acima da cintura (pA retrospective study was performed in a field clinic to characterize the clinical findings of tegumentary leishmaniasis in children from 0 to 5 years old. The clinical records of 4,464 patients were analyzed at the Primary Health Center of Corte de Pedra, Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia, Brazil, from May 1987 to December 1995. Four hundred and ninety one (11.8% children were identified among 4,275 new cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis registered at this Unit. The gender ratio (M:F for children under six years was 1.1:1. Cutaneous lesions predominated (98%, mainly skin ulcers (99% located above the waist (p<0.05. Thirty five percent had multiple lesions. The observed magnitude of the disease in children, the similar proportion of cases in both genders and the location of the lesions suggest the possibility of peri or intradomiciliary transmission.

Julia Ampuero

2006-02-01

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Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil / Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em porco-espinho (Coendou sp.) encontrado em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alguns estudos relatam o encontro de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em estados da região Norte do Brasil. Na presente investigação, os autores descrevem o isolamento de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em um porco-espinho (Coendou sp.) encontrado em Brasília, Distrito Federal, região Centro-oeste do [...] Brasil. Durante um estudo de leishmaniose visceral canina conduzido na cidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal, um porco-espinho foi encontrado morto em via pública. O animal foi identificado e fragmentos de pele íntegra e baço foram coletados para isolamento do parasito em cultura. Esse relato da ocorrência de L. hertigi em outra região do Brasil pode contribuir para evidenciar a distribuição desse parasita no país. Vale ressaltar a necessidade de estudos para compreensão do papel L. hertigi na patologia e patogênese da leishmaniose e a sua sobrevivência em mamíferos e possíveis vetores. Abstract in english Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine viscera [...] l leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors.

Denise Amaro da, Silva; Maria de Fatima, Madeira; Carlos Jose Lima, Barbosa Filho; Edvar Yuri Paheco, Schubach; Juliana Helena da Silva, Barros; Fabiano Borges, Figueiredo.

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Genomic Organization of Leishmania Species  

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Full Text Available Leishmania is a protozoan parasite belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae, which is found among 88 different countries. The parasite lives as an amastigote in vertebrate macro­phages and as a promastigote in the digestive tract of sand fly. It can be cultured in the laboratory us­ing appropriate culture media. Although the sexual cycle of Leishmania has not been observed during the promastigote and amastigote stages, it has been reported by some researchers. Leishma­nia has eukaryotic cell organization. Cell culture is convenient and cost effective, and because posttranslational modifications are common processes in the cultured cells, the cells are used as hosts for preparing eukaryotic recombinant proteins for research. Several transcripts of rDNA in the Leishmania genome are suitable regions for conducting gene transfer. Old World Leishmania spp. has 36 chromosomes, while New World Leishmania spp. has 34 or 35 chromo­somes. The genomic organization and parasitic characteristics have been investigated. Leishmania spp. has a unique genomic organization among eukaryotes; the genes do not have introns, and the chromosomes are smaller with larger numbers of genes confined to a smaller space within the nucleus. Leishmania spp. genes are organized on one or both DNA strands and are transcribed as polycistronic (prokaryotic-like transcripts from undefined promoters. Regulation of gene expres­sion in the members of Trypanosomatidae differs from that in other eukaryotes. The trans-splic­ing phenomenon is a necessary step for mRNA processing in lower eukaryotes and is observed in Leishmania spp. Another particular feature of RNA editing in Leishmania spp. is that mitochon­drial genes encoding respiratory enzymes are edited and transcribed. This review will discuss the chromosomal and mitochondrial (kinetoplast genomes of Leishmania spp. as well as the phenome­non of RNA editing in the kinetoplast genome.

B Kazemi

2011-09-01

314

Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report Ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi em gato doméstico (Felis catus em Andradina, São Paulo, Brasil: relato de caso  

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Full Text Available This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L. chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.Neste trabalho, é relatada a infecção natural por Leishmania em um gato doméstico no qual, formas amastigotas do parasito foram observadas em imprint de linfonodo poplíteo. Reações sorológicas positivas e negativas foram observadas pelo teste de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, respectivamente. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR revelou que a sequência de nucleotídeos foi idêntica à Leishmania (L. chagasi. Este é o primeiro relato da doença em felino da cidade de Andradina, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, área considerada endêmica para leishmaniose visceral canina e humana.

Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

2010-12-01

315

Occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Andradina, São Paulo, Brazil: case report / Ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi em gato doméstico (Felis catus) em Andradina, São Paulo, Brasil: relato de caso  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, é relatada a infecção natural por Leishmania em um gato doméstico no qual, formas amastigotas do parasito foram observadas em imprint de linfonodo poplíteo. Reações sorológicas positivas e negativas foram observadas pelo teste de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA) e reação de imunofluo [...] rescência indireta (RIFI), respectivamente. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) revelou que a sequência de nucleotídeos foi idêntica à Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Este é o primeiro relato da doença em felino da cidade de Andradina, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, área considerada endêmica para leishmaniose visceral canina e humana. Abstract in english This work describes natural infection by Leishmania in a domestic cat where amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in the popliteal lymph node imprint. Positive and negative serological reactions were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay [...] (IFA), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the nucleotide sequence of the sample was identical to Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is the first report of the disease in felines of the city of Andradina, SP, an area considered endemic for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Langoni, Helio; Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão Richini; Abdelnour, Aziz; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva.

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Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

Mendes, R.S.; Gurjão, T.A.; Oliveira, L.M.; Santana, V.L.; Tafuri, W.L.; Santos, J.R.S.; Dantas, A.F.M.; Souza, A.P..

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Activation of Leishmania spp. leishporin: evidence that dissociation of an inhibitor not only improves its lipid-binding efficiency but also endows it with the ability to form pores.  

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We have previously shown that various species of Leishmania produce a lytic activity, which, in Leishmania amazonensis, is mediated by a pore-forming cytolysin, called leishporin. It is toxic for macrophages in vitro and optimally active at pH 5.0 to 5.5 and at 37 °C, suggesting that it might be active inside phagolysosomes. Leishporin from both L. amazonensis (a-leishporin) and Leishmania guyanensis (g-leishporin) can be activated by proteases, suggesting either a limited proteolysis of an inactive precursor or a proteolytic degradation of a non-covalently linked inhibitor. Here, we show that both a- and g-leishporin are also activated in dissociating conditions, indicating the second hypothesis as the correct one. In fact, we further demonstrated that inactive leishporin is non-covalently associated with an inhibitor, possibly more than one oligopeptide that, when removed, renders leishporin hemolytically active. This activation was shown to be the result of both the improvement of leishporin's ability to bind to phospholipids and the emergence of its pore-forming ability. In vitro results demonstrate that leishporin can be released by the parasites, as they evolve in axenic cultures, in an inactive form that can be activated. These results are compatible with our hypothesis that leishporin can be activated in the protease-rich, low pH, and dissociating environment of parasitophorous vacuoles, leading to disruption of both vacuoles and plasma membranes with the release of amastigotes. PMID:23812644

Almeida-Campos, Flávia Regina; Castro-Gomes, Thiago; Machado-Silva, Alice; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Frézard, Frédéric; Horta, Maria Fátima

2013-09-01

318

Candida amazonensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from rotting wood in the Amazonian forest.  

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Five strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Amazonian forest site in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and is related to Candida coipomoensis, Candida lignicola and Candida queiroziae. The novel species Candida amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. amazonensis sp. nov. is UFMG-HMD-26.3(T) ( = CBS 12363(T) = NRRL Y-48762(T)). PMID:21856981

Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Lopes, Mariana R; Pereira, Gilmara M D; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2012-06-01

319

Reacción de antígenos de Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana con sueros de pacientes con leishmaniosis cutánea de Sinaloa, México Reaction of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana antigens by sera of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from Sinaloa, Mexico  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Detectar los antígenos de Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana que reaccionan con sueros de pacientes con leishmaniosis cutánea (LC de Sinaloa, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Un extracto crudo de L. (L. mexicana fue usado como antígeno para Western blots 2-D empleando sueros de cinco pacientes con LC y controles originarios de Sinaloa, México, durante el 2008. RESULTADOS: Cinco antígenos fueron detectados sólo por los sueros de los cinco pacientes estudiados; estos son: 26 kDa (pI 7.8, 27 kDa (pI 8.1, 28 kDa (pI 8.6, 29 kDa (pI 8.5 y 31 kDa (pI 9.0. CONCLUSIONES: Se detectaron nuevos antígenos de L. (L. mexicana potencialmente inmunodominantes, lo que sugiere a este parásito como el agente causal de la LC en Sinaloa.OBJECTIVE: To detect Leishmania mexicana antigens reacting with sera of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A crude extract of L. mexicana was used as antigen for 2-D Western blot using sera from 5 patients with CL and controls from Sinaloa, Mexico during 2008. RESULTS: Five antigens were detected in the five infected patients analyzed; their molecular weights and isoelectric points were: 26 kDa (pI 7.8, 27 kDa (pI 8.1, 28 kDa (pI 8.6, 29 kDa (pI 8.5 and 31 kDa (pI 9.0. CONCLUSION: New potentially immunodominant L. mexicana antigens were detected, suggesting that this parasite could be the species responsible for human infection in Sinaloa.

Patricia Guadalupe Salazar-Mejía

2010-04-01

320

Reacción de antígenos de Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana con sueros de pacientes con leishmaniosis cutánea de Sinaloa, México / Reaction of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana antigens by sera of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from Sinaloa, Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Detectar los antígenos de Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana que reaccionan con sueros de pacientes con leishmaniosis cutánea (LC) de Sinaloa, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Un extracto crudo de L. (L.) mexicana fue usado como antígeno para Western blots 2-D empleando sueros de cinco pacientes [...] con LC y controles originarios de Sinaloa, México, durante el 2008. RESULTADOS: Cinco antígenos fueron detectados sólo por los sueros de los cinco pacientes estudiados; estos son: 26 kDa (pI 7.8), 27 kDa (pI 8.1), 28 kDa (pI 8.6), 29 kDa (pI 8.5) y 31 kDa (pI 9.0). CONCLUSIONES: Se detectaron nuevos antígenos de L. (L.) mexicana potencialmente inmunodominantes, lo que sugiere a este parásito como el agente causal de la LC en Sinaloa. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To detect Leishmania mexicana antigens reacting with sera of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A crude extract of L. mexicana was used as antigen for 2-D Western blot using sera from 5 patients with CL and controls from Sinaloa, Mexico during 2008. RESULTS: [...] Five antigens were detected in the five infected patients analyzed; their molecular weights and isoelectric points were: 26 kDa (pI 7.8), 27 kDa (pI 8.1), 28 kDa (pI 8.6), 29 kDa (pI 8.5) and 31 kDa (pI 9.0). CONCLUSION: New potentially immunodominant L. mexicana antigens were detected, suggesting that this parasite could be the species responsible for human infection in Sinaloa.

Patricia Guadalupe, Salazar-Mejía; Celia Rosa, Tejeda-Aguirre; Héctor Samuel, López-Moreno.