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Histopatologia da forma localizada de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Histopathology of the localized form of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available São descritas as alterações microscópicas presentes na forma localizada (ulcerada da Leishmaniose cutânea produzida por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Nesse tipo de manifestação, menos conhecido do que a forma anérgica ou difusa devida ao mesmo agente, as lesões são clinicamente idênticas às de leishmaniose cutânea causada por espécies outras de Leishmania, pertencentes ao subgênero Viannia. Na infecção localizada por L. (L. amazonensis, entretanto, há um aspecto peculiar, só recentemente conhecido, ou seja, cerca de 50% dos indivíduos atingidos não reagem ao teste de Montenegro. A principal característica histológica observada foi a acumulação na derme, quase sempre focal, de numerosos macrófagos contendo no citoplasma um grande vacúolo cheio de amastigotas. O quadro é semelhante ao da forma difusa, porém sem o aspecto histiocitomatóide, próprio da última. Afora esses grupos de macrófagos, vêem-se também, na forma localizada, muitas células mononucleares da inflamação, principalmente plasmócitos e macrófagos não parasitados. Os acúmulos de macrófagos com amastigotas, quando volumosos, podem sofrer necrose na parte central; os parasitos, contidos nas células, são destruídos com elas ou liberados, e sua eliminação através da úlcera deve contribuir para a cura do processo. Esse tipo de necrose nunca foi descrito em casos da forma difusa. Não houve grande diferença, no quadro histológico, entre pacientes Montenegro-negativos e positivos. Apenas em alguns casos, do grupo Montenegro-positivo, havia granulomas formados por histiócitos epitelióides sem parasitos. Quanto à persistência das células com parasitos nas lesões, observou-se que aos seis meses ou mais de evolução, em ambos os grupos, ainda estavam elas presentes. Tal achado não é comum na leishmaniose tegumentar por L. (V. braziliensis.The microscopic changes found in the localized form of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis are reported. In this form, less known than the diffuse one caused by the same species, the clinical manifestations are identical to those produced by other Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia. There is, however, in the localized infection by L (L. amazonensis, a peculiar feature, only recently discovered: about 50% of the affected individuals are Montenegro-negatives. The main histologic change observed in the skin sections was the presence of groups of macrophages with a large vacuole in the cytoplasm, containing many amastigotes. The microscopic picture is similar to that found in the diffuse form of the disease, the difference being only quantitative. When in large numbers, the macrophages suffers necrosis, which generally starts at the center of the groups. First, in this process, the membrane of the parasitized cells ruptures, and the amastigotes become free; later, both cells and parasites are destroyed. The picture can be seen either in Montenegro-negative or in Montenegro-positive patients. The macrophages with amastigotes may persist in tissues for as long as 6-7 months, while in the infections due to L (V. braziliensis the parasites usually disappear in a few weeks.

Mário A. P. Moraes

1994-10-01

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Histopatologia da forma localizada de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Histopathology of the localized form of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritas as alterações microscópicas presentes na forma localizada (ulcerada) da Leishmaniose cutânea produzida por Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Nesse tipo de manifestação, menos conhecido do que a forma anérgica ou difusa devida ao mesmo agente, as lesões são clinicamente idênticas às [...] de leishmaniose cutânea causada por espécies outras de Leishmania, pertencentes ao subgênero Viannia. Na infecção localizada por L. (L.) amazonensis, entretanto, há um aspecto peculiar, só recentemente conhecido, ou seja, cerca de 50% dos indivíduos atingidos não reagem ao teste de Montenegro. A principal característica histológica observada foi a acumulação na derme, quase sempre focal, de numerosos macrófagos contendo no citoplasma um grande vacúolo cheio de amastigotas. O quadro é semelhante ao da forma difusa, porém sem o aspecto histiocitomatóide, próprio da última. Afora esses grupos de macrófagos, vêem-se também, na forma localizada, muitas células mononucleares da inflamação, principalmente plasmócitos e macrófagos não parasitados. Os acúmulos de macrófagos com amastigotas, quando volumosos, podem sofrer necrose na parte central; os parasitos, contidos nas células, são destruídos com elas ou liberados, e sua eliminação através da úlcera deve contribuir para a cura do processo. Esse tipo de necrose nunca foi descrito em casos da forma difusa. Não houve grande diferença, no quadro histológico, entre pacientes Montenegro-negativos e positivos. Apenas em alguns casos, do grupo Montenegro-positivo, havia granulomas formados por histiócitos epitelióides sem parasitos. Quanto à persistência das células com parasitos nas lesões, observou-se que aos seis meses ou mais de evolução, em ambos os grupos, ainda estavam elas presentes. Tal achado não é comum na leishmaniose tegumentar por L. (V.) braziliensis. Abstract in english The microscopic changes found in the localized form of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis are reported. In this form, less known than the diffuse one caused by the same species, the clinical manifestations are identical to those produced by other Leishmania [...] species of the subgenus Viannia. There is, however, in the localized infection by L (L.) amazonensis, a peculiar feature, only recently discovered: about 50% of the affected individuals are Montenegro-negatives. The main histologic change observed in the skin sections was the presence of groups of macrophages with a large vacuole in the cytoplasm, containing many amastigotes. The microscopic picture is similar to that found in the diffuse form of the disease, the difference being only quantitative. When in large numbers, the macrophages suffers necrosis, which generally starts at the center of the groups. First, in this process, the membrane of the parasitized cells ruptures, and the amastigotes become free; later, both cells and parasites are destroyed. The picture can be seen either in Montenegro-negative or in Montenegro-positive patients. The macrophages with amastigotes may persist in tissues for as long as 6-7 months, while in the infections due to L (V.) braziliensis the parasites usually disappear in a few weeks.

Mário A. P., Moraes; Fernando T., Silveira.

1994-10-01

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Subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes  

OpenAIRE

Here we report the subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in axenic promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, using subcellular fractionation, enzymatic assays, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. All fractions were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the serine protease activity was measured during the cell fractionation procedure using a-N-r-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-TAME) as substrate, phenylmethylsulphone fluoride (PMSF...

José Andrés Morgado-Díaz; Raquel Elisa da Silva-Lopez; Carlos Roberto Alves; Maurilio José Soares; Suzana Corte-Real; Salvatore Giovanni De Simone

2005-01-01

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Clonaje de la proteína de choque térmico de 20 kDa de Leishmania amazonensis / Cloning of 20 kDa heat shock protein of Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: la inducción de las proteínas de choque térmico constituyen un mecanismo homeostático que protege a las células del efecto destructivo del calor u otras condiciones de estrés ambiental, paralelamente, ellas cumplen importantes funciones celulares. La proteína de choque térmico de 20 kD [...] a se reportó recientemente en Leishmania amazonensis. OBJETIVO: describir la metodología utilizada para realizar el clonaje de las proteínas de choque térmico, lo que permitió acometer estudios de algunas propiedades biológicas. MÉTODOS: la región codificante del gen hsp20 se amplificó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con cebadores adecuados. El producto amplificado se clonó inicialmente en el vector pCR2.1 (Invitrogen) y después en el vector de expresión en procariotas pET-28b (Novagen), para obtener proteína recombinante. De manera paralela, el mismo fragmento se clonó en el vector de expresión en eucariotas pcDNA3 (Invitrogen) para obtener un posible preparado vacunal de ADN. Se realizó la secuenciación nucleotídica de los clones obtenidos, con la finalidad de verificar su fidelidad. RESULTADOS: se obtuvieron plásmidos recombinantes que codifican la HSP20 de Leishmania, y permiten la obtención de proteína recombinante y de ADN en forma masiva. CONCLUSIONES: ambos plásmidos fueron útiles para estudiar algunas de las propiedades biológicas de esta proteína. Este acercamiento puede ser de interés en otros trabajos de esta índole y constituir una guía metodológica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the induction of heat shock proteins is a homeostatic mechanism that protects cells from the deleterious effects of thermal and other environmental stresses. In addition, they have important cell functions. The 20kDa heat shock protein in Leishmania amazonensis was recently reported. O [...] BJECTIVE: to describe the methodology used for cloning of heat shock proteins, which allowed the study of some biological properties. METHODS: the hsp20 gene coding region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using adequate primers. The amplified product was initially cloned in pCR2.1 vector (Invitrogen) and then in pET-28b vector (Novagen), to obtain recombinant protein. The same fragment was cloned also in the eukariote expression vector pcDNA3 (Invitrogen). The nucleotidic sequencing of the different clones was made, in order to verify their fidelity. RESULTS: the recombinant plasmids that encode HSP20 protein in Leishmania and allow obtaining massively recombinant protein and DNA were produced. CONCLUSIONS: both plasmids were useful to study some of the biological properties of this protein. This approach could be useful for similar research and represent a suitable methodological guideline.

Ana Margarita, Montalvo Álvarez; Cristina, Folgueira Fernández; José María, Requena Rolanía.

2009-08-01

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Subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we report the subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in axenic promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, using subcellular fractionation, enzymatic assays, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. All fractions were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the serine protease activity was measured during the cell fractionation procedure using a-N-r-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-TAME as substrate, phenylmethylsulphone fluoride (PMSF and L-1-tosylamino-2-phenylethylchloromethylketone (TPCK as specific inhibitors. The enzymatic activity was detected mainly in a membranous vesicular fraction (6.5-fold enrichment relative to the whole homogenate, but also in a crude plasma membrane fraction (2.0-fold. Analysis by SDS-PAGE gelatin under reducing conditions demonstrated that the major proteolytic activity was found in a 68 kDa protein in all fractions studied. A protein with identical molecular weight was also recognized in immunoblots by a polyclonal antibody against serine protease (anti-SP, with higher immunoreactivity in the vesicular fraction. Electron microscopic immunolocalization using the same polyclonal antibody showed the enzyme present at the cell surface, as well as in cytoplasmic membranous compartments of the parasite. Our findings indicate that the internal location of this serine protease in L. amazonensis is mainly restricted to the membranes of intracellular compartments resembling endocytic/exocytic elements.

José Andrés Morgado-Díaz

2005-07-01

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Role of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigote glycosphingolipids in macrophage infectivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) present in amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis during infection of macrophages was analyzed, with particular emphasis on GSLs presenting the terminal Galpß1-3Galpa disaccharide. Macrophage invasion by L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes was reduc [...] ed by 37% when the disaccharide Galpß1-3Galp (1 mM) was added to the culture medium. The putative macrophage receptor/lectin for ß-Gal-globotriaosylceramide (Galpß1-3Galpa1-4Galpß1-4Glc pß1-1Cer) and other structurally related GSLs from L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes were analyzed by micelles and parasite binding assay to peritoneal macrophage proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions. Micelles containing purified amastigote GSLs or a suspention of L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes fixed with 2% formaldehyde were incubated with nitrocellulose membrane containing the macrophage proteins transferred by Western blotting. Binding of micelles containing purified GSLs from amastigote forms or fixed L. (L.) amazonensis amastigotes to nitrocellulose membrane was probed using monoclonal antibody ST-3, which recognizes the glycoepitope Galpß1-3Galpa1-R present either in the micelle preparation or on the amastigote surface. Macrophage protein with molecular mass ~30 kDa bound the amastigote GSL and appeared to be a doublet on electrophoresis. The specificity of this interaction was confirmed using fixed L. (L.) chagasi amastigotes, which do not express GSLs such as ß-Galp-globotriaosylceramides, and which do not bind to 30-kDa protein.

A.K., Tanaka; P.A.J., Gorin; H.K., Takahashi; A.H., Straus.

2007-06-01

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Role of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis amastigote glycosphingolipids in macrophage infectivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of glycosphingolipids (GSLs present in amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis during infection of macrophages was analyzed, with particular emphasis on GSLs presenting the terminal Galpß1-3Galpa disaccharide. Macrophage invasion by L. (L. amazonensis amastigotes was reduced by 37% when the disaccharide Galpß1-3Galp (1 mM was added to the culture medium. The putative macrophage receptor/lectin for ß-Gal-globotriaosylceramide (Galpß1-3Galpa1-4Galpß1-4Glc pß1-1Cer and other structurally related GSLs from L. (L. amazonensis amastigotes were analyzed by micelles and parasite binding assay to peritoneal macrophage proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions. Micelles containing purified amastigote GSLs or a suspention of L. (L. amazonensis amastigotes fixed with 2% formaldehyde were incubated with nitrocellulose membrane containing the macrophage proteins transferred by Western blotting. Binding of micelles containing purified GSLs from amastigote forms or fixed L. (L. amazonensis amastigotes to nitrocellulose membrane was probed using monoclonal antibody ST-3, which recognizes the glycoepitope Galpß1-3Galpa1-R present either in the micelle preparation or on the amastigote surface. Macrophage protein with molecular mass ~30 kDa bound the amastigote GSL and appeared to be a doublet on electrophoresis. The specificity of this interaction was confirmed using fixed L. (L. chagasi amastigotes, which do not express GSLs such as ß-Galp-globotriaosylceramides, and which do not bind to 30-kDa protein.

A.K. Tanaka

2007-06-01

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The Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Leishmania amazonensis Parasite  

OpenAIRE

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mex...

Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Nunes, Gisele L.; Rodrigo Jardim; Joana Lima; Sr, Aline Dumaresq; Gomes, Monete R.; Leandro de Mattos Pereira; Loureiro, Daniel R.; Stoco, Patricia H.; Herbert Leonel de Matos Guedes; Antonio Basilio de Miranda; Jeronimo Ruiz; André Pitaluga; Silva Jr, Floriano P.; Probst, Christian M.

2014-01-01

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Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infect...

Diana Copi Ayres; Maria Cristina Marcucci; Selma Giorgio

2007-01-01

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Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

2000-07-01

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In Vivo Antileishmanial Efficacy of Miltefosine Against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract :? Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus, constitutes a significant health and social problem in many countries and is increasing worldwide. The conventional treatment, meglumine antimoniate (MA), presents numerous disadvantages, including invasiveness, toxicity, and frequent therapeutic failure, justifying the attempts at finding alternatives to the first-line therapy. We have studied the comparative long-term efficacy of MA against miltefosine (MF) in Leishmania infection in experimental mice. The criteria for efficacy evaluation were footpad lesion size, anti-Leishmania antibodies level, histopathology of the site of inoculation (right footpad, RFP), splenic index (SI), and the presence of parasites in RFP, spleen, and liver, determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Swiss mice, infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis were treated, at different time points (5 and 40 days after infection) with either MA or MF. The efficacy of MF was better than that of MA for inhibiting lesions and for reducing tissue damage and presence/load of amastigotes in spleen and liver. Moreover, early administration of MF produced a clear reduction in splenomegaly and was equal in reducing antibody titles in comparison with MA. Our results demonstrated that MF is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for leishmaniasis by L. (L.) amazonensis and is more efficacious than MA. PMID:25014108

García Bustos, María F; Barrio, Alejandra; Prieto, Gabriela G; de Raspi, Emma M; Cimino, Rubén O; Cardozo, Rubén M; Parada, Luis A; Yeo, Matthew; Soto, Jaime; Uncos, Delfor A; Parodi, Cecilia; Basombrío, Miguel A

2014-12-01

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Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

2012-01-01

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Leishmaniose cutânea experimental: II - aspectos evolutivos da infecção no primata Cebus apella (Cebidae) pela Leishmania (V.) Braziliensis e L. (L.) Amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando avaliar o potencial do primata C. apella como modelo experimental da leishmaniose cutânea, produzida pela L. (V.) braziliensis e L. (L.) Amazonensis , inocularam-se, via intradérmica, 3 X 10(6) de promastigotas dessas leishmanias, em 8 sítios da cauda de 10 espécimens desse primata, 5 de [...] les com a L. (V.) braziliensis e outros 5 com a L. (L.) Amazonensis . Posteriormente, às inoculações, o exame semanal dos animais e biópsias mensais, revelaram os seguintes resultados relativos a cada parasita: a) L. (V.) braziliensis : o período de incubação foi de 15-20 dias; aos 30 dias evidenciaram-se lesões pápulo-eritematosas, que evoluíram para nódulos ao fim de 60 dias; no 3.° mês, notou-se ulceração espontânea destas lesões e, no 4° mês, deu-se o início da reparação das lesões ulceradas, culminando com a cura em um dos animais após 5 meses, em dois após 6 meses, noutro após 7 meses e, no último, após 10 meses. Quanto ao parasitismo nas lesões, foi demonstrado nos 5 animais, até 90 dias; depois disto, somente em 2 até 120 dias e, por fim, até 180 dias apenas naquele que curou depois de 10 meses, b) L. (L.) Amazonensis : o período de incubação foi de 20 dias; aos 30 dias notou- se lesões pápulo-eritematosas, que também evoluíram para nódulos ao fim de 60 dias, porém, a partir do 3.° mês, estas lesões regrediram rapidamente ao fim de 90 dias, quando não mais detectou-se o parasita na pele dos animais. Em relação aos testes de Montenegro, somente 2 dos 5 animais infectados com a L. (V.) braziliensis reagiram ao teste, 60 e 90 dias após as inoculações. Os resultados observados permitiram confirmar a infectividade do C. apella a estas leishmanias e, também, reforçar a indicação desse primata como modelo experimental da leishmaniose cutânea causada por estes parasitas. Abstract in english As a means of assessing the usufulness of the monkey Cebus apella as an experimental model for the study of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 5 of these animals were inoculated intradermally at 8 sites along the tail with 3 X 106 promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis , while a further 5 monkeys received simi [...] lar inoculations with 3 X 10(6) promastigotes of L. (L.) Amazonensis . Following the inoculations, weekly examinations and monthly biopsies showed evolution of resulting skin lesions to be as follows: a) L. (V.) braziliensis : lesions were first visible 15-20 days postinoculation (p.i), and at 30 days they were clearly of an etythematous-papular nature, which assumed a nodular form at 60 days; after 3 months a spontaneous ulceration of these lesions was noted and, at 4 months, the initiation of healing. In one animal total healing was apparent 5 months p.i; in two others at 6 months, in another monkey after 7 months, and in the last animal at 10 months p.i. Amastigotes were demonstrated in smears from the lesions of all monkeys up to 90 days p.i; up to 120 days in two animals, and at 180 days p.i. in the monkey which showed resolution of the lesions after 10 months, b) L. (L.) Amazonensis lesions were first apparent after 20 days p. i; at 30 days they were of an en'thematous-papular nature, developing into nodules at 60 days. From the third month of infection onwards, however, the lesions diminished rapidly and, at 90 days p.i. amastigotes were no longer detectable in the skin. With regards to the Montenegro (leishmanin) skin tests, only two of the monkeys (infected with L. (V.) braziliensis ) gave positive reactions, at 60 and 9 ) days p. i. These results confirm the susceptibility of C. apella to infections with both L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) Amazonensis , and support previous indications that this monkey may serve as an useful experimental model for the study of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by these parasites.

Fernando T., Silveira; Ralph, Lainson; Jeffrey J., Shaw; Lourdes M., Garcez; Adelson A., Souza; Roseli R., Braga; Edna A., Ishikawa.

1990-03-01

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Serological reactivity of different antigenic preparations of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and the Leishmania braziliensis complex / Reatividade sorológica frente a diferentes preparações antigênicas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e do complexo Leishmania braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antígeno total de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e isolado do complexo Leishmania brazilienis, assim como suas respectivas frações antigênicas obtidas por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de concanavalina-A ligada a sepharose e Jacalina ligada a agarose foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzim [...] ático ELISA. Para tanto, foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 229 pacientes agrupadas em leishmaniose tegumentar americana (nº=58), leishmaniose visceral (nº=28), doença de Chagas (nº=49), malaria (nº=32), tuberculose (nº=13) e voluntários saudáveis (nº=49). Houve maior reatividade das amostras de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com a utilização dos antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis quando comparado com antígenos de Leishmania amazonensis (p Abstract in english Total antigen from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and isolates from the Leishmania braziliensis complex, along with their respective antigenic fractions obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A-Sepharose and jacalin-agarose columns evaluated using immunoenzymatic ELISA assay. For t [...] his, serum samples from 229 patients were used, grouped as American tegmental leishmaniasis (nº=58), visceral leishmaniasis (nº=28), Chagas disease (nº=49), malaria (nº=32), tuberculosis (nº=13) and healthy volunteers (nº=49). Samples from American tegmentary leishmaniasis showed higher reactivity with antigens isolated from the Leishmania braziliensis complex than with antigens from Leishmania amazonensis (p

Adriano, Gomes-Silva; Maria Aparecida, Souza; Sandra Regina, Afonso-Cardoso; Lívia Resende, Andrade; Reynaldo, Dietze; Elenice, Lemos; Alejandro, Belli; Silvio, Favoreto Júnior; Marcelo Simão, Ferreira.

2008-04-01

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Effect of Glycosphingolipids Purified from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Amastigotes on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes  

OpenAIRE

The effect of purified glycosphingolipids from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis on human lymphoproliferation, on expression of human lymphocyte and monocyte markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, and CD45), and on lymphocyte protein kinase C activity was analyzed.

Giorgio, Selma; Santos, Marcia Regina M.; Straus, Anita H.; Takahashi, Helio K.; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2003-01-01

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Studies on the effectiveness of diarylheptanoids derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a previous work we demonstrated that diarylheptanoids extracted from Centrolobium sclerophyllum are very active against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. In order to continue our studies with these class of compounds, we decided to evaluate the activity of several diarylheptanoids derived fro [...] m curcumin (diferuloyl methane) against the extracellular form (promastigotes) of L. amazonensis. Furthermore, an experiment against the intracellular form of the parasite (amastigotes) was carried out, comparing the most active compound among the curcumin derivatives (the methylcurcumin) with des-O-methylcentrolobine, the most active diarylheptanoid derived from C. sclerophyllum.

Catarina AC, Araujo; Leila V, Alegrio; Denise CF, Gomes; Marco Edilson F, Lima; Leonardo, Gomes-Cardoso; Leonor L, Leon.

1999-11-01

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Characterization of an antigen from Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes able to elicit protective responses in a murine model.  

OpenAIRE

Lymphoproliferative responses to an antigen from Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa, termed p30, were evaluated with BALB/c mice. The p30 antigen was purified after separation of parasite extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by electroelution. Lymphoproliferative responses to p30 were obtained by subcutaneous immunization of animals with L. amazonensis amastigote extracts, and maximal stimulation indices were ...

Beyrodt, C. G.; Pinto, A. R.; Freymu?ller, E.; Barbie?ri, C. L.

1997-01-01

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Subversion and Utilization of Host Innate Defense by Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with Leishmania amazonensis and other members of the Leishmania mexicana complex can lead to diverse clinical manifestations, some of which are relatively difficult to control, even with standard chemotherapy. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rare but severe form, and its clinical hallmark is excessive parasitic growth in infected cells accompanied by profound impairments in host immune responses to the parasites. Since these parasites also cause non-healing CL in most inbred strains of mice, these animals are valuable models for dissecting the mechanisms of persistent infection and disease pathogenesis. In comparison to other Leishmania species, L. amazonensis infections are most remarkable for their ability to repress the activation and effector functions of macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4(+) T cells, implying discrete mechanisms at work. In addition to this multilateral suppression of host innate and adaptive immunity, the activation of types I and II interferon-mediated responses and autophagic/lipid metabolic pathways actually promotes rather than restrains L. amazonensis infection. These seemingly contradictory findings reflect the remarkable adaptation of the parasites to the ancient defense machinery of the host, as well as the complex parasite-host interactions at different stages of infection, which collectively contribute to non-healing leishmaniasis in the New World. This review article highlights new evidence that reveals the strategies utilized by L. amazonensis parasites to subvert or modulate host innate defense machinery in neutrophils and macrophages, as well as the regulatory roles of host innate responses in promoting parasite survival and replication within the huge parasitophorous vacuoles. A better understanding of unique features in host responses to these parasites at early and late stages of infection is important for the rational design of control strategies for non-healing leishmaniasis. PMID:22566939

Soong, Lynn

2012-01-01

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Metaciclogénesis y desarrollo de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) en Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae) / Metacyclogenesis and development of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La interacción Leishmania-vector es un proceso complejo y multifactorial. En los últimos años se han logrado avances importantes en la relación Leishmania-vector, pero aún se desconocen algunos aspectos. Este trabajo estudia la interacción de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Kinetoplastida: Tryp [...] anosomadidae) en Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae). Hembras de L. ovallesi fueron infectadas artificialmente y se determinó el patrón de desarrollo, densidad parasitaria, secuencia de morfotipos de promastigotes en las regiones del intestino, efecto de la realimentación, y el patrón de carbohidratos de la superficie de las leptomonas usando lectinas fluorescentes. Los resultados mostraron desarrollo suprapilórico de L. (L.) amazonensis. La densidad parasitaria mostró dos ciclos de división separados en tiempo y espacio, se observaron morfotipos caracterizados como paramastigotes en división. La realimentación no alteró la migración de los morfotipos y la mayor proporción de leptomonas en el intestino medio torácico sugiere migración natural que pudiera ser modulada por el gradiente de carbohidratos en el intestino del flebótomo y por la exposición de saliva. Las leptomonas exhibieron diferentes patrones de unión de glicoconjugados, que sugieren presencia de distintos residuos de carbohidratos en la superficie celular del parásito y/o flagelo, que pueden tener funciones importantes en la interacción y estabilidad de los parásitos en el lumen del intestino y su migración a las diferentes regiones del mismo. Se aportan diferentes aspectos del desarrollo de L. (L.) amazonensis en L. ovallesi importantes para entender su potencial vectorial Abstract in english Leishmania-vector interaction is a complex and multifactorial process. During the last few years important advances in the Leishmania-vector interaction have been reached but there still some unknown aspects. This work studies the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Kinetoplastide: Trypanosomatidae [...] ) interaction in Lutzomia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae). L. ovallesi females were artificially infected and the development pattern, parasite density, and promastigote morphotype sequence in the intestinal regions were determined, as well as the effect of re-feeding, and the carbohydrate pattern of the leptomonad surface using fluorescent lectins. The results showed suprapiloric development of L. (L.)amazonensis. Parasite density showed two division cycles separated in time and space, morphotypes characterized as dividing paramastigotes were observed. Re-feeding did not alter the migration of morphotypes and the greater proportion of leptomonads in the middle intestine suggests a natural migration which could be modulated by the carbohydrate gradient in the phlebotom intestine and by exposure to saliva. Leptomonads exhibited different glyconjugate union patterns which suggest the presence of various carbohydrate residues in the cell surface of the parasite and/or flagellum, which can have important functions in the interaction and stability of the parasites in the intestinal lumen and their migration to the different intestinal regions. Several aspects of L. (L.)amazonensis development in L. ovallesi important for understanding its vectorial potency are discussed

Elsa, Nieves; Maritza, Rondón.

2010-12-01

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Comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps for promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The outcome of Leishmania infections is determined by both the parasite species and the host genetic makeup. While much has been learned regarding immune responses to this parasite, our knowledge on parasite-derived factors is limited. The recent completion of the L. major and L. infantum genome seq [...] uence projects and concurrent advancement in proteomics technology would greatly accelerate the search for novel Leishmania proteins. Using a proteomics-based approach to study species-specific Leishmania proteins, we developed high-resolution, broad pH (3-10) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) separations to determine protein-expression profiles between highly infectious forms of the parasitic species L. amazonensis (New World) and L. major (Old World). Approximately 1,650 and 1,530 distinct protein spots were detected in the L. amazonensis and L. major gels, respectively. While a vast majority of the spots had similar distribution and intensity, a few were computationally defined as preferentially expressed in L. amazonensis in comparison to L. major, or vice versa. These data attest to the feasibility of establishing a 2-DE-based protein array for inter-species profiling of Leishmania proteins and provide the framework for future design of proteome studies of Leishmania.

Reynolds K. B., Brobey; Fang C., Mei; Xiaodong, Cheng; Lynn, Soong.

2006-02-01

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Comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps for promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outcome of Leishmania infections is determined by both the parasite species and the host genetic makeup. While much has been learned regarding immune responses to this parasite, our knowledge on parasite-derived factors is limited. The recent completion of the L. major and L. infantum genome sequence projects and concurrent advancement in proteomics technology would greatly accelerate the search for novel Leishmania proteins. Using a proteomics-based approach to study species-specific Leishmania proteins, we developed high-resolution, broad pH (3-10 two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE separations to determine protein-expression profiles between highly infectious forms of the parasitic species L. amazonensis (New World and L. major (Old World. Approximately 1,650 and 1,530 distinct protein spots were detected in the L. amazonensis and L. major gels, respectively. While a vast majority of the spots had similar distribution and intensity, a few were computationally defined as preferentially expressed in L. amazonensis in comparison to L. major, or vice versa. These data attest to the feasibility of establishing a 2-DE-based protein array for inter-species profiling of Leishmania proteins and provide the framework for future design of proteome studies of Leishmania.

Reynolds K. B. Brobey

2006-02-01

22

Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis growth in vitro culture relies more on folic acid availability than Leihsmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

We compared the in vitro growth of promastigotes from two Leishmania species in TC-100 and Schneider media. Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication rates were similar in both tissue culture media and reached maximum rates by 48 h. In contrast Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis growth was significantly greater in TC-100 but maximum rates were achieved by 96 h. Folic acid appears to be the limiting factor and supplementation of Schneider media with this nutrient improved L. (V.) brazilie...

Andrea Niño; Marcela Camacho

2005-01-01

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Heme Uptake Mediated by LHR1 Is Essential for Leishmania amazonensis Virulence  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis is a heme auxotroph and must acquire this essential factor from the environment. Previous studies showed that L. amazonensis incorporates heme through the transmembrane protein LHR1 (Leishmania Heme Response 1). LHR1-null promastigotes were not viable, suggesting that the transporter is essential for survival. Here, we compared the growth, differentiation, and infectivity for macrophages and mice of wild-type, LHR1-single-knockout (LHR1/?lhr1), a...

Miguel, Danilo C.; Flannery, Andrew R.; Mittra, Bidyottam; Andrews, Norma W.

2013-01-01

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Cell migration induced by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) major and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the initial infection phase is characterized by recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. The migration of these cells in response to the presence of Leishmania in the peritoneum of affected animals remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate [...] cell migration to the peritoneum of BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) major. Initially, Leishmania spp. was intraperitoneally inoculated in five groups of six animals each and the cell migration was analyzed 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after infection. Different cell counts were performed with a staining kit and showed a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear than mononuclear cells in all three species studied. The total cell count revealed peak migration in L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) major at six hours, and in L. (V.) braziliensis at 12 hours. These results suggest that factors released from different cell types probably act by attracting polymorphonuclear cells, with the peak migration most likely depending on the species of Leishmania inoculated into the host.

DT, Wakimoto; KV, Gaspareto; TGV, Silveira; MVC, Lonardoni; SMA, Aristides.

25

Cell migration induced by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania major and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In American cutaneous leishmaniasis, the initial infection phase is characterized by recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. The migration of these cells in response to the presence of Leishmania in the peritoneum of affected animals remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate cell migration to the peritoneum of BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania major. Initially, Leishmania spp. was intraperitoneally inoculated in five groups of six animals each and the cell migration was analyzed 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after infection. Different cell counts were performed with a staining kit and showed a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear than mononuclear cells in all three species studied. The total cell count revealed peak migration in L. (L. amazonensis and L. (L. major at six hours, and in L. (V. braziliensis at 12 hours. These results suggest that factors released from different cell types probably act by attracting polymorphonuclear cells, with the peak migration most likely depending on the species of Leishmania inoculated into the host.

DT Wakimoto

2010-01-01

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Efficacy of a diarylheptanoid derivative against Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of several diarylheptanoid derivatives (curcuminoids was previously evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and among them the most active compound was the [1-(4-methoxy-phenyl-7-(3,4-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl-1,6-heptadien-3, 5-dione]. This derivative was chosen to be assayed in vivo in a treatment trial. For these experiments, the curcuminoid compound was used in a concentration equivalent to the IC50/24 h, obtained from the previous study. Balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the footpad with L. amazonensis infective promastigotes and 4 weeks after the inoculation, the animals were treated with different schemes, varying from 1 to 3 doses. In all the experiments, Pentamidine Isethionate was used as reference drug under the same experimental conditions. The results showed that one dose was not enough to heal the lesion, however, with 2 and 3 doses the efficiency of the assayed compound was clear. On the other hand, treatment with Pentamidine Isethionate using the three different schemes was not satisfactory when compared to the curcuminoid derivative.

Luciana Vignólio Alves

2003-06-01

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Efficacy of a diarylheptanoid derivative against Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The activity of several diarylheptanoid derivatives (curcuminoids) was previously evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and among them the most active compound was the [1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-7-(3,4-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadien-3, 5-dione]. This derivative was chosen to be [...] assayed in vivo in a treatment trial. For these experiments, the curcuminoid compound was used in a concentration equivalent to the IC50/24 h, obtained from the previous study. Balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the footpad with L. amazonensis infective promastigotes and 4 weeks after the inoculation, the animals were treated with different schemes, varying from 1 to 3 doses. In all the experiments, Pentamidine Isethionate was used as reference drug under the same experimental conditions. The results showed that one dose was not enough to heal the lesion, however, with 2 and 3 doses the efficiency of the assayed compound was clear. On the other hand, treatment with Pentamidine Isethionate using the three different schemes was not satisfactory when compared to the curcuminoid derivative.

Luciana Vignólio, Alves; Rosane Maria, Temporal; Léa, Cysne-Finkelstein; Leonor Laura, Leon.

2003-06-01

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Desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana y Leishmania amazonensis en Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine) / Development of Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania amazonensis in Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar los cambios morfológicos que ocurren durante el desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana (MHOM/VE/72/AZV) y Le. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18) en Lutzomyia euansi. Hembras de Lu. evansi se alimentaron a partir de una lesión tarsal de hámster y se examinaron [...] en busca de infección cada 24 h hasta las 168 h posalimentación. El patrón de desarrollo de Le. mexicana y Le. amazonensis en Lu. euansi fue de tipo suprapilórico, de acuerdo con lo descrito para las especies del complejo Le. mexicana. La transformación de formas amastigotas a procíclicos ocurrió para ambas especies entre las 24 - 48 h postinfección. Los parásitos mostraron su adaptación al microambiente del tracto digestivo de Lu. euansi y desarrollo hacia formas maduras: nectomonas, haptomonas y paramastigotas. La forma paramastigota se observó, en bajo porcentaje, a las 120 h postingesta infectiva en ambas especies. La disminución temprana de nutrientes en Lu. euansi, debido al rápido proceso de digestión de sangre (3 a 4 días), pudiera explicar el bajo porcentaje de desarrollo alcanzado hacia las formas paramastigotas y la ausencia de formas metacíclicas en este modelo. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to study the morphological changes in the development of Leishmania mexicana (MMOM/VE/72/AZV) and L. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18) in Lutzomyia euansi. Pernales of Lu. euansi fed on a hámster tarsal lesión and were examined for infection at 24 h intervals from 24 h to 168 h [...] post- feeding. The pattern of development of Le. mexicana and Le. amazonensis in Lu. euansi was suprapylarian consistentwith what has been described forspecies of the Le. mexicana complex. Transformaron from amastigote to procyclical forms occurred in both species at 24 - 48 h post-infection. The parasites showed their adaptaüon lo the gut environment of Lu. euansi and development to mature forms: nectomonads, haptomonads and pararnastigotes. The paramastigote form was observed in low percentage at 120 h post-infected ingestión in both species. The early depletion of nutrients in Lu. euansi, due to a faster rate of digestión (3 to 4 days), could explain the low percentage of development reaching the paramastigote forms and the absence of the metacyclical forms in this model.

MARÍA ALEJANDRA, VIVENES; MILAGROS, OVIEDO; JULIO CÉSAR, MÁRQUEZ.

2005-06-01

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Desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana y Leishmania amazonensis en Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine Development of Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania amazonensis in Lutzomyia evansi (Díptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar los cambios morfológicos que ocurren durante el desarrollo de Leishmania mexicana (MHOM/VE/72/AZV y Le. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18 en Lutzomyia euansi. Hembras de Lu. evansi se alimentaron a partir de una lesión tarsal de hámster y se examinaron en busca de infección cada 24 h hasta las 168 h posalimentación. El patrón de desarrollo de Le. mexicana y Le. amazonensis en Lu. euansi fue de tipo suprapilórico, de acuerdo con lo descrito para las especies del complejo Le. mexicana. La transformación de formas amastigotas a procíclicos ocurrió para ambas especies entre las 24 - 48 h postinfección. Los parásitos mostraron su adaptación al microambiente del tracto digestivo de Lu. euansi y desarrollo hacia formas maduras: nectomonas, haptomonas y paramastigotas. La forma paramastigota se observó, en bajo porcentaje, a las 120 h postingesta infectiva en ambas especies. La disminución temprana de nutrientes en Lu. euansi, debido al rápido proceso de digestión de sangre (3 a 4 días, pudiera explicar el bajo porcentaje de desarrollo alcanzado hacia las formas paramastigotas y la ausencia de formas metacíclicas en este modelo.The aim of this paper was to study the morphological changes in the development of Leishmania mexicana (MMOM/VE/72/AZV and L. amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PI18 in Lutzomyia euansi. Pernales of Lu. euansi fed on a hámster tarsal lesión and were examined for infection at 24 h intervals from 24 h to 168 h post- feeding. The pattern of development of Le. mexicana and Le. amazonensis in Lu. euansi was suprapylarian consistentwith what has been described forspecies of the Le. mexicana complex. Transformaron from amastigote to procyclical forms occurred in both species at 24 - 48 h post-infection. The parasites showed their adaptaüon lo the gut environment of Lu. euansi and development to mature forms: nectomonads, haptomonads and pararnastigotes. The paramastigote form was observed in low percentage at 120 h post-infected ingestión in both species. The early depletion of nutrients in Lu. euansi, due to a faster rate of digestión (3 to 4 days, could explain the low percentage of development reaching the paramastigote forms and the absence of the metacyclical forms in this model.

MARÍA ALEJANDRA VIVENES

2005-06-01

30

Inhibition of growth of Leishmania mexicana mexicana by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis during "in vitro" co-cultivation Inibição do crescimento de Leishmania mexicana mexicana por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis durante o co-cultivo "in vitro"  

OpenAIRE

Inhibition of one Leishmania subspecies by exometabolites of another subspecies, a phenomenon not previously reported, is suggested by our recent observations in cell cloning experiments with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Clones were identified using the technique of schizodeme analysis. The phenomenon observed is clearly relevant to studies of parasite isolation, leishmanial metabolism, cross-immunity and chemotherapy.Inhibição do crescimento de um s...

Pacheco, Raquel S.; Gabriel Grimaldi Júnior; Morel, Carlos M.

1987-01-01

31

Study of ionizing radiation as a tool for select promastigotes forms of Leishmania Amazonensis, and the megalomaniac response in experimental models; Estudo do uso da radiacao ionizante como ferramenta de selecao de formas promastigotas metaciclicas de Leishmania amazonensis, e a inducao de resposta imunologica em modelos experimentais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Actually, millions of people around the globe are under the risk of infection by a protozoan transmitted by a bit of a sand fly. This parasite is a Leishmania spp. This causes a wide spectrum disease, since a cutaneous disease to a visceral one. The cutaneous form is the major clinical manifestation (above 90%). The ionizing radiation, produced in a {sup 60}Co font, had being successes used to promote physical-chemical transformations on different protozoan, including Leishmania spp. In previous work was determined that promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis, irradiated with different doses of radiation, lost their viability maintaining, however, their immunogenicity. In this work, was studied the use of ionizing radiation as a tool for selection of meta cyclic forms of the parasite in axenic culture, for a possible efficient irradiated immuno gene production. Our results shown that cultures irradiated with 400 Gy of gamma irradiation, has 75% of metacyclic form, which are capable to produce, in vitro, an infection that is similar the natural occurrence. These irradiated parasites have their internal cellular structure modified, maintaining their external structure intact. Susceptible strain of mice immunized with leishmania irradiated with different doses had high immunoglobulin production, and maintained this production after the challenge with naive parasites. In other strains this default was similar, however in lower titles. Immunodeficient mice didn't produce immunoglobulin nor on the immunization or on the challenge. (author)

Bonetti, Franco Claudio

2006-07-01

32

Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote  

OpenAIRE

The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purifi...

Marcos Hikari Toyama; Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias; Daniela de Oliveira Toyama; Henrique Hessel Gaeta; Camila Lehnhardt Pires; Selma Dzimidas Rodrigues; Daniel Bristot

2013-01-01

33

Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6 stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L. amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.

Thiago de Sá Oliveira

2000-08-01

34

Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were [...] used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6) stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L.) amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.

Thiago de Sá, Oliveira; Mário, Capp Neto; Bernardo José Alves, Martins; Helbert Abe, Rodrigues; Rosa Maria Parreiras, Antonino; Albino Verçosa, Magalhães.

2000-08-01

35

Sand fly captures with Disney traps in area of occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil / Capturas de flebotomíneos com armadilhas de Disney em área de ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) e aspectos ligados à transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma área florestal com ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, situada no município de Bela Vista, Estado d [...] o Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As capturas de flebotomíneos foram realizadas utilizando-se armadilhas tipo Disney modificadas, com isca roedor, Mesocricetus auratus, no período de maio de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. RESULTADOS: As coletas resultaram na identificação de 10 espécies de Phlebotominae: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni e Sciopemyia sordellii. As duas espécies predominantes foram Ev bourrouli, com 57,3% dos espécimes coletados, e Bi. flaviscutellata, representada por 41,4% e que esteve presente em todos os locais amostrados. Dois hamsters sentinelas adquiriram a infecção natural, sendo os isolados identificados como Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram a eficiência das armadilhas Disney para captura de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, e a presença simultânea de ambos, o vetor e a espécie de Leishmania por ele transmitida pode ser considerada um fator preditor da ocorrência de leishmaniose para a população humana que permanecer nesse local. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The work was conducted to study phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in a forested area where Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis occurs, situated in the municipality of Bela Vista, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. M [...] ETHODS: The captures were conducted with modified Disney traps, using hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as bait, from May 2004 to January 2006. RESULTS: Ten species of phlebotomine sandflies were captured: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The two predominant species were Ev bourrouli (57.3%) and Bi flaviscutellata (41.4%), present at all sampling sites. Two of the 36 hamsters used as bait presented natural infection with Leishmania. The parasite was identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results revealed the efficiency of Disney traps for capturing Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and the simultaneous presence of both vector and the Leishmania species transmitted by the same can be considered a predictive factor of the occurrence of leishmaniasis outbreaks for the human population that occupies the location.

Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Dorval; Tulia Peixoto, Alves; Geucira, Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da, Rocha; Murilo Andrade, Alves; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de, Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi, Galati; Rivaldo Venancio da, Cunha.

2010-10-01

36

Sand fly captures with Disney traps in area of occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil Capturas de flebotomíneos com armadilhas de Disney em área de ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The work was conducted to study phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in a forested area where Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis occurs, situated in the municipality of Bela Vista, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The captures were conducted with modified Disney traps, using hamster (Mesocricetus auratus as bait, from May 2004 to January 2006. RESULTS: Ten species of phlebotomine sandflies were captured: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The two predominant species were Ev bourrouli (57.3% and Bi flaviscutellata (41.4%, present at all sampling sites. Two of the 36 hamsters used as bait presented natural infection with Leishmania. The parasite was identified as Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results revealed the efficiency of Disney traps for capturing Bichromomyia flaviscutellata and the simultaneous presence of both vector and the Leishmania species transmitted by the same can be considered a predictive factor of the occurrence of leishmaniasis outbreaks for the human population that occupies the location.INTRODUÇÃO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae e aspectos ligados à transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma área florestal com ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, situada no município de Bela Vista, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As capturas de flebotomíneos foram realizadas utilizando-se armadilhas tipo Disney modificadas, com isca roedor, Mesocricetus auratus, no período de maio de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. RESULTADOS: As coletas resultaram na identificação de 10 espécies de Phlebotominae: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni e Sciopemyia sordellii. As duas espécies predominantes foram Ev bourrouli, com 57,3% dos espécimes coletados, e Bi. flaviscutellata, representada por 41,4% e que esteve presente em todos os locais amostrados. Dois hamsters sentinelas adquiriram a infecção natural, sendo os isolados identificados como Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram a eficiência das armadilhas Disney para captura de Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, e a presença simultânea de ambos, o vetor e a espécie de Leishmania por ele transmitida pode ser considerada um fator preditor da ocorrência de leishmaniose para a população humana que permanecer nesse local.

Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval

2010-10-01

37

Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis (LLa with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin. The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-g by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinâ . The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 mg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred mg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 105 infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57.14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7.60 and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-g production. When crude extract of L. (L. amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

MORA Ana Mariela

1999-01-01

38

Leishmania amazonensis: humoral response to amastigote excreted-antigens in murine leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the purpose of studying the antigenic role that factors excreted by Leishmania amastigotes might have during murine infection, immunoblots were carried out with sera from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice infected with two strains of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, NR and IFLA/BR. Both strains differ widely in virulence in BALB/c mice. BALB/c but not C57BL/6 sera recognized several excretion products. The excreted antigens showed a strong response towards IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes whilst they reacted only weakly against IgG2b and IgG3. A low-molecular weight antigen (about 20 kDa) excreted by both Leishmania strains was strongly recognized by IgG1 from BALB/c mice sera infected with IFLA/BR, the most virulent strain. Sera from NR infected mice were incapable of recognizing this antigen in spite of its presence in NR excreted products. The results indicate that the humoral immune response to excreted antigens of amastigotes depends on both the host genetic background and the parasite strain. PMID:17349625

Hernández-Chinea, Concepción

2007-08-01

39

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-09-01

40

Bioactivity of flavonoids isolated from Lychnophora markgravii against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bioactivity of the flavonoids pinostrobin (1), pinocembrin (2), tectochrysin (3), galangin 3-methyl ether (4), and tiliroside (5) isolated from Lychnophora markgravii aerial parts was investigated in vitro against amastigote stages of Leishmania amazonensis. The compounds were isolated by several chromatographic techniques and their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. The flavonoids 1 and 3 were the most active compounds; they markedly reduced the viability of Leishmania amastigotes. PMID:19791501

Salvador, Marcos José; Sartori, Fabiana Terezinha; Sacilotto, Ana Claudia B C; Pral, Elizabeth M F; Alfieri, Silvia Celina; Vichnewski, Walter

2009-01-01

41

In Vitro Growth of Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes Resistant to Pentamidine Is Dependent on Interactions among Strains  

OpenAIRE

The in vitro growth of promastigote cells of Leishmania amazonensis was found to strongly depend on interactions among strains that differed in their pentamidine resistance. In particular, the growth of resistant strains was reduced when they shared the same environment with a less-resistant strain.

Agnew, P.; Holzmuller, P.; Michalakis, Y.; Sereno, D.; Lemesre, J. L.; Renaud, F.

2001-01-01

42

Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.

Lianet Monzote

2007-08-01

43

Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis / Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óle [...] o de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência. Abstract in english To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a comb [...] ination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.

Lianet, Monzote; Ana Margarita, Montalvo; Ramón, Scull; Migdalia, Miranda; Juan, Abreu.

2007-08-01

44

Diseminación tisular y efectos histopatológicos producidos por Leishmania mexicana amazonensis en roedores infectados experimentalmente / Tissue dissemination and histopathology effects produced by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis in rodents experimentally infected  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al género Leishmania pertenecen diferentes especies responsables de diversas formas clínicas de leishmaniasis. En este trabajo comparamos los efectos histopatológicos producidos en hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) y ratones (Mus musculus) infectados experimentalmente por vía subcutánea con 20 x 10(5) [...] amastigotes de Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Nuestros resultados mostraron en hamsters daños histopatológicos en intestino, escroto, testículo, epidídimo, bazo, hígado, riñón, corazón y pulmón y en ratones en testículo, bazo, riñón y corazón. Estos resultados evidencian diferencias en la diseminación tisular, metástasis cutáneas, efectos histopatológicos y mortalidad, siendo más amplios, tempranos y graves en hamsters que en ratones. Abstract in english Leishmania comprises different species responsible of a variety of clinical forms of leishmaniasis. In this investigation we compared the histopathological effects produced in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and mice (Mus musculus), inoculated by the subcutaneous route with 20 x 10(5) amastigotes of [...] Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Our results in hamsters show tissue damage in gut, scrotum, testicle, epididimus, spleen, liver, kidney, heart and lung and in mice we found histopathological changes in testicle, spleen, kidney and heart. These results show differences on tissue dissemination, cutaneous metastasis, histopathological effects and mortality, being more extensive, early and severe in hamsters then in mice.

Elizabeth, Bruzual; Lucila, Arcay; María Antonia, de la Parte-Pérez.

2008-12-01

45

A putative role for inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in Leishmania amazonensis programmed cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania amazonensis undergoes apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) under heat shock conditions. We identified a potential role for inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in L.?amazonensis PCD. Trypanosomatids do not have a "de novo" purine synthesis pathway, relying on the salvage pathway for survival. IMPDH, a key enzyme in the purine nucleotide pathway, is related to cell growth and apoptosis. Since guanine nucleotide depletion triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several organisms we analyzed the correlation between IMPDH and apoptosis-like death in L.?amazonensis. The L.?amazonensis IMPDH inhibition effect on PCD was evaluated through gene expression analysis, mitochondrial depolarization and detection of Annexin-V labeled parasites. We demonstrated a down-regulation of impdh expression under heat shock treatment, which mimics the natural mammalian host infection. Also, IMPDH inhibitors ribavirin and mycophenolic acid (MPA) prevented cell growth and generated an apoptosis-like phenotype in sub-populations of L.?amazonensis promastigotes. Our results are in accordance with previous results showing that a subpopulation of parasites undergoes apoptosis-like cell death in the nutrient poor environment of the vector gut. Here, we suggest the involvement of purine metabolism in previously observed apoptosis-like cell death during Leishmania infection. PMID:25499513

Pitaluga, A N; Moreira, M E C; Traub-Csekö, Y M

2015-02-01

46

Structure-activity relationships of analogs of pentamidine against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis.  

OpenAIRE

The antiprotozoal compound 1,5-di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 36 of its analogs were screened for in vitro activity against Leishmania mexicana amazonensis clone 669 C4S (MHOM/BR/73/M2269) and Plasmodium falciparum clones W2 (Indochina III/CDC) and D6 (Sierra Leone I/CDC). Pentamidine and each of the analogs tested exhibited activity in vitro against L. m. amazonensis and P. falciparum. The pentamidine analogs were more effective against the P. falciparum clones than against L....

Bell, C. A.; Hall, J. E.; Kyle, D. E.; Grogl, M.; Ohemeng, K. A.; Allen, M. A.; Tidwell, R. R.

1990-01-01

47

Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Proteção de camundongos C57BL/10 vacinados por vacinas contituidas pelas combinações de proteínas purificadas de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A indução de imunidade no homem contra a leishmaniose cutânea tem sido estudada por vários pesquisadores usando uma grande variedade de preparações antigênicas, como: promastigotas vivas ou atenuadas, extratos de promastigotas, antígenos parcialmente purificados e proteínas puras. Neste trabalho for [...] am isoladas 11 proteínas de L. (L.) amazonensis com pesos moleculares variando de 13.5 a 97 kDa por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e por eletroeluição. Estas proteínas foram combinadas em diferentes preparações vacinais com gp63 e BCG. As vacinas foram avaliadas in vitro quanto à capacidade de estimular linfócitos de pessoas vacinadas com Leishvacinâ a produzirem IFN-g e a estimularem a proliferação de linfócitos de camundongos vacinados. Assim, camundongos C57BL/10 foram vacinados em intervalos de 15 dias com três doses de cada vacina contendo 30 mg de cada proteína. 100 mg de BCG foram usados somente na primeira dose. Sete dias após a última dose os animais receberam a primeira infecção desafiado com 105 promastigotas infectantes e um segundo desafio foi administrado 143 dias após, com o mesmo número de parasitas. Sessenta dias após o segundo desafio, proteções de 42,86% foram obtidas com as vacinas constituídas de gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa e gp63+97kDa; 57,14% de proteção foi obtido com a vacina gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, e 71,43% com a vacina constituída de gp63 mais todas as proteínas. Em contraste, a vacina gp63+46+33kDa não induziu proteção nos camundongos vacinados, indicando que possivelmente a proteína de 40kDa induziu a uma atividade imunossupressora da resposta imunoprotetora. Estes resultados sugerem que uma futura vacina contra a leishmaniose cutânea deverá conter, excluindo-se a proteína de 40kDa, um coquetel de proteínas imunogênicas indutoras de proteção de camundongos contra a leishmaniose cutânea. Abstract in english In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Lei [...] shmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (LLa) with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin). The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-g by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinâ . The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 mg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred mg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 105 infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57.14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7.60) and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-g production. When crude extract of L. (L.) amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmania

Ana Mariela, MORA; Wilson, MAYRINK; Roberto Teodoro da, COSTA; Carlos Alberto da, COSTA; Odair, GENARO; Evaldo, NASCIMENTO.

1999-07-01

48

Parasitophorous vacuoles of Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages maintain an acidic pH.  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania amastigotes are intracellular protozoan parasites of mononuclear phagocytes which reside within parasitophorous vacuoles of phagolysosomal origin. The pH of these compartments was studied with the aim of elucidating strategies used by these microorganisms to evade the microbicidal mechanisms of their host cells. For this purpose, rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with L. amazonensis amastigotes. Intracellular acidic compartments were localized by using the weak base...

Antoine, J. C.; Prina, E.; Jouanne, C.; Bongrand, P.

1990-01-01

49

Expression of infection-related genes in parasites and host during murine experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania parasites are able to interfere with host immune responses on many levels, as T cell responses balance, as observed in the murine model of infection. In the present study, we analyzed genes expression in both host and parasite during the progression of infection. Host genes associated to T-lymphocytes responses, MHC classes I and II, as well as parasite enzymes genes, cysteine-proteinases (CP) B and C, were examined in mice along evolution of infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Murine strains with distinct levels of susceptibility to infection presented different patterns of MHC genes expression: MHC class I genes tend to have higher expression levels in CBA mice, whereas MHC class II genes expression predominates in BALB/c mice. CPB genes expression in the parasites was shown to predominate over CPC in both mice strains tested. Understanding genes expression patterns during infection may lead to new and more efficient treatments for leishmaniasis. PMID:22178713

Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Britto, Constança; Alves, Carlos Roberto

2012-02-01

50

Effect of imidocarb and levamisole on the experimental infection of BALB/c mice by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse effects from using currently available drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis have motivated the search for new therapeutical agents. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of imidocarb and levamisole on the treatment of BALB/c mice experimentally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. BALB/c mice were infected with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PH8) and, starting on day 51, mice were treated subcutaneously with imidocarb (IMD, 34 mg/kg), imidocarb plus levamisole (IMD+LVS, 34 and 12 mg/kg, respectively), only levamisole (LVS, 12 mg/kg) or without treatment (control). Lesion size and swelling were weekly monitored for 10 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. On day 121 post-infection, serum levels of specific IgG from infected mice were evaluated, as well as histopathological and morphometric alterations in the footpad, lymph nodes and spleen of these animals. The data obtained in this study demonstrated that, when compared to controls, mice treated with IMD had lower levels of IgG anti-L. (L.) amazonensis (34.45%), smaller vacuolar area in macrophages (3.75%), lower number of megakaryocytes in spleen (63.19%) and lower parasite burden in the footpad (30.2%). Thus, the evaluated parameters suggest the use of imidocarb as a potential drug in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. PMID:16647821

Rodrigues, Flávio H; Afonso-Cardoso, Sandra R; Gomes, Márcio A B; Beletti, Marcelo E; Rocha, Ademir; Guimarães, Aparecida H B; Candeloro, Ignes; de Souza, Maria A

2006-06-30

51

Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-? and TNF-? with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-? and TNF-? levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-? or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses. PMID:24966857

Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

2014-01-01

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Immune response and protection in mice inoculated with Leishmania amazonensis clones expressing different degrees of virulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The induction of protective immunity to Leishmania amazonensis was investigated by injection of parasite clones of low and medium virulence into susceptible mice. To this end, L. amazonensis were cloned by limiting dilution and the clones' virulence was evaluated by the course of infection in susceptible mice. Clones originally derived from the spleen showed virulence variations in comparison with that of the parental population (PP) of parasites. Two low-virulence clones (SP 5 and SP 20) and one medium-virulence clone (SP 11), representative of the spectrum of derived clones, were compared with virulent parasites and with an avirulent strain (Josefa) as to their ability to induce T-cell immune responses and to protect BALB/c mice from infection with the virulent L. amazonensis PP. Clone SP 20 and clone SP 11 induced partial protection when injected by the intravenous and intradermal route, respectively. The avirulent Josefa strain induced neither T-cell responses nor protection. Low-virulence L. amazonensis clones can therefore be additional tools in vaccine investigation. PMID:9272560

da Fonseca, A L; Vallochi, A L; Furtado, G de C; Abrahamsohn, I de A; Lima, G M

1997-01-01

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Oral effectiveness of PMIC4, a novel hydroxyethylpiperazine analogue, in Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pentavalent antimonials have saved the lives of thousands of Leishmania-infected patients more than seventy years but, unfortunately, they are highly toxic and require parenteral delivery. Therefore, the search for safer and orally delivered alternative is a need. This paper describes the antileishmanial properties of PMIC4, a novel hydroxyethylpiperazine analogue. PMIC4 showed potent activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with IC50 of 1.8 ?M and selectivity index higher than 100-fold, calculated in relation to the toxicity on the host cell. Following laboratory animal welfare policies, we analyzed the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties and calculated the Lipinski's rule of five of PMIC4 before proceeding to in vivo tests. PMIC4 satisfied Lipinski's rule of five and presented high probability of human intestinal absorption, suggesting a good chance of druglikeness and oral bioavailability. For in vivo studies, PMIC4 was administered via intralesional injection (3.4 mg/kg/day, three times a week) or orally (34.0 mg/kg/day, five times a week) to L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice throughout the 98 day experiments. At the end of the treatment period, serum markers of toxicity were measured. When administered orally, PMIC4 controlled the lesions in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice without altering serological markers of toxicity. These results demonstrate that PMIC4 is a promising molecular scaffold, orally effective against experimental leishmaniasis. PMID:25516829

Vasconcelos, Mariela Ferreira de; Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira da; Andrade-Neto, Valter Viana de; Siqueira, Larissa Moreira; d'Avila-Levy, Cláudia Masini; Moreth, Marcele; Cunico, Wilson; Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora de; Gomes, Cláudia Regina Brandão; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

2014-12-01

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INTRACELLULAR Leishmania amazonensis KILLING INDUCED BY THE GUANINE NUCLEOSIDE 8-BROMOGUANOSINE  

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Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effect of 8-Bromoguanosine, an immunostimulatory compound, on the cytotoxicity of macrophages against Leishmania amazonensis in an in vitro system. The results showed that macrophages treated with 8-Bromoguanosine before or after infection are capable to reduce parasite load, as monitored by the number of amastigotes per macrophage and the percentage of infected cells (i.e. phagocytic index. Since 8-Bromoguanosine was not directly toxic to the promastigotes, it was concluded that the ribonucleoside induced macrophage activation. Presumably, 8-Bromoguanosine primed macrophages by inducing interferon alpha and beta which ultimately led to L. amazonensis amastigote killing. The results suggest that guanine ribonucleosides may be useful to treat infections with intracellular pathogens.

GIORGIO Selma

1998-01-01

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Detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania 94 kDa antigen in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania promastigotes polypeptides are analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients infected with different Leishmania species and presenting visceral or cutaneous infections. These sera recognize Leishmania polypeptides in several molecular masses. The major findings of this study are as follow. 1) The Leishmania 94 kDa antigen, which is specifically recognized by all sera from L. infantum-infected patients with visceral infection, is recognized by some sera from L. infantum-infected patients presenting cutaneous infection. 2) All patients with cutaneous infections due to L. tropica, L. amazonensis, or L. guyanensis do not develop anti-94 kDa antibodies, whatever the Leishmania species used as antigens. 3) Difference in electrophoretic mobilities is seen between the 94 kDa antigen identified by sera from Leishmania infantum-infected patients, and the antigen both recognized by the Concavalin A lectin and a rabbit antiserum raised against deglycosylated Promastigote Surface Protease. PMID:9137640

Rolland, L; Belkaid, M; Seye, A; Schneider, P; Gentilini, M

1995-03-01

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In Vitro Metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Clinical Field Isolates, as Evaluated by Morphology, Complement Resistance, and Infectivity to Human Macrophages  

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This study was designed to assess in vitro metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis clinical field isolates obtained from patient lesions (L. braziliensis IMG3 and PPS6m; L. amazonensis MAB6). Metacyclogenesis was evaluated by different criteria, namely, promastigote size (morphometric analysis and flow cytometry), surface modifications (loss of lectin or monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding, complement resistance), and infectivity to human macrophages. Growth curves were similar for all parasites evaluated. The various features analyzed were expressed in a high percentage of promastigotes at 6th and 10th days of culture and a low percentage at the 2nd day. However, in most isolates, these features, considered as markers of metacyclogenesis, seemed to develop with different time courses, since the percentages of metacyclic forms detected with each technique were usually different. Parasites from 6th or 10th day and those negatively selected with lectin or mAb similarly infected human macrophages. From all isolates analyzed, L. amazonensis PH8 and MAB6 showed the highest and the lowest levels of susceptibility, respectively, to leishmanicidal activity of IFN-?/LPS-activated macrophages. Our results showed that by using different techniques to evaluate different aspects of metacyclogenesis (morphological and biochemical modifications) different percentages of metacyclic promastigotes can be detected in each isolate culture.

da Silva, Ildefonso Alves; Morato, Camila Imai; Quixabeira, Valéria Bernadete Leite; Pereira, Ledice Inácia de Araújo; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Horta, Maria Fátima; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

2015-01-01

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Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Le...

Pedro Herrera; Ramón Scull; Lianet Monzote; Marley García

2012-01-01

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Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anti-amastigote polyclonal antibody (IgG) was incubated with solutions of stannous chloride and sodium borohidride. After that, 3.7 MBq of technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) was added. A labeling yield of the antibody about 84% was obtained. After filtration of {sup 99m}Tc-IgG, the radiochemical purity increased from 84 to 95%. The labeling of IgG with {sup 99m}Tc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis.

Araujo, J.G.V.C.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Guimaraes, T.M.P.D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Simal, C.J.R.; Mota, L.G.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N. E-mail: cardosov@farmacia.ufmg.br

2002-05-01

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Mitochondria Superoxide Anion Production Contributes to Geranylgeraniol-Induced Death in Leishmania amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

Here we demonstrate the activity of geranylgeraniol, the major bioactive constituent from seeds of Bixa orellana, against Leishmania amazonensis. Geranylgeraniol was identified through 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and DEPT. The compound inhibited the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, with IC50 of 11 ± 1.0 and 17.5 ± 0.7??g/mL, respectively. This compound was also more toxic to parasites than to macrophages and did not cause lysis in human blood cells. Morp...

Celso Vataru Nakamura; Sueli Oliveira Silva; Angelo de Oliveira Caleare; Amp Xe Nia Ueda-nakamura, T.; Amp Xe Nia Cristina Desoti, V.; Milene Valéria Lopes

2012-01-01

60

Activity of the Lupane isolated from Combretum leprosum against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), obtained from the fruits of Combretum leprosum, the triterpene 3{beta}, 6{beta}, 16{beta}-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1) and its synthetic derivatives 1a-1d on Leishmania Amazonensis promastigotes. The EE displayed leishmanicidal activity and the IC{sub 50} was 24.8 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. However, the triterpene 3{beta}, 6{beta}, 16{beta}-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), at a concentration of 5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, showed a potent inhibitory activity on promastigotes proliferation (IC{sub 50} = 3.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1}). Among the synthetic derivatives, only (1b) and (1d) were active against promastigotes (IC{sub 50} = 3.48 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 5.8 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively). Moreover, the synthetic derivative 1a showed no activity on promastigotes of L. Amazonensis. EE, (1) and the synthetic derivatives 1a-1d showed no cytotoxic effect on mice peritoneal macrophages. These results provide evidence that the ethanolic extract and the lupane isolated from C. leprosum was active against promastigotes of L. amazonensis, and may be used as a tool in the studies of new antileishmanial drugs. (author)

Teles, Carolina B.G.; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina; Silva, Alexandre de A.E.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stabeli, Rodrigo G., E-mail: izaltina.jardim@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Pesquisas em Patologias Tropicais de Rondonia (IPEPATRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil); Moreira, Leandro S.; Facundo, Valdir A. [Universidade Federal de Rondonia, Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)

2011-07-01

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In vitro activity of the clinical pulmonary surfactant Surfacen® against Leishmania amazonensis / Actividad in vitro de surfactante pulmonar clínico Surfacen® frente a Leishmania amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Surfacen® es un surfactante natural exógeno extraído del pulmón, formado por fosfolípidos y proteínas hidrofóbicas, el cual es aplicado con éxito en el Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio en Niños Recién Nacidos. En este trabajo, se describe la actividad in vitro del Surfacen® contra Leishmania amazone [...] nsis. El producto mostró actividad frente a amastigotes que se encuentran en macrófagos peritoneales de ratón BALB/c, con una CI50 de 17.9 ± 3.0 µg/mL, mientras no se observaron efectos tóxicos sobre la célula hospedera hasta 200 µg/mL. Este estudio constituye el primer reporte sobre la actividad antileishmania del Surfacen®. Abstract in english Surfacen® is an exogenous natural lung surfactant, composed by phospholipids and hydrophobic proteins, which is applied successfully in Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this paper, in vitro activity of Surfacen® against Leishmania amazonensis is described. The product showed activity agains [...] t the amastigote form found in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, with an IC50 value of 17.9 ± 3.0 µg/mL; while no toxic effect on host cell was observed up to 200 µg/mL. This is the first report about the antileishmanial activity of Surfacen®.

Odalys, Blanco; Yuliannis, Lugones; Elaine, Díaz; Lianet, Monzote.

2011-08-01

62

Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L. amazonensis Promastigote  

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Full Text Available The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf, Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo, Caulerpa racemosa (Cr and Gracilaria caudata (Gc were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL. The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL. In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L. amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites.

Marcos Hikari Toyama

2013-03-01

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Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote  

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The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

2013-01-01

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Activity of the Lupane isolated from Combretum leprosum against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho descreve a atividade do extrato etanólico (EE) dos frutos de Combretum leprosum, do triterpeno 3?, 6?, 16?-triidroxilup-20(29)-eno (1) e seus derivados sintéticos (1a-1d), sobre promastigotas de Leishmaniaamazonensis. O EE apresentou atividade leishmanicida e o valor de IC50 foi [...] de 24,8 µg mL-1. Já o triterpeno 3?, 6?, 16?-trihidroxilup-20(29)-eno (1), na concentração de 5,0 µg mL-1, apresentou uma potente ação inibitória sobre a proliferação das promastigotas (IC50 = 3,3 µg mL-1). Entre os derivados sintéticos, apenas 1b e 1d apresentaram atividade contra as promastigotas (IC50 = 3,48 µg mL-1e 5,8 µg mL-1, respectivamente). Por outro lado, o derivado sintético 1a não apresentou atividade sobre as promastigotas de L. amazonensis. O EE, (1) e os derivados sintéticos 1a-1d não apresentaram efeito citotóxico sobre macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos. Estes resultados fornecem evidencias de que o extrato etanólico e o lupano isolado de C. leprosum possui atividade contra promastigotas de L. amazonensis, podendo ser utilizados como ferramentas no estudo de novas drogas leishmanicidas. Abstract in english This paper describes the activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), obtained from the fruits of Combretum leprosum, the triterpene 3?, 6?, 16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1) and its synthetic derivatives 1a-1d on Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The EE displayed leishmanicidal activity and the IC50 [...] was 24.8 mg mL-1. However, the triterpene 3?, 6?, 16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (1), at a concentration of 5.0 mg mL-1, showed a potent inhibitory activity on promastigotes proliferation (IC50 = 3.3 mg mL-1). Among the synthetic derivatives, only (1b) and (1d) were active against promastigotes (IC50 = 3.48 mg mL-1and 5.8 mg mL-1, respectively). Moreover, the synthetic derivative 1a showed no activity on promastigotes of L. amazonensis. EE, (1) and the synthetic derivatives 1a-1d showed no cytotoxic effect on mice peritoneal macrophages. These results provide evidence that the ethanolic extract and the lupane isolated from C. leprosum was active against promastigotes of L. amazonensis, and may be used as a tool in the studies of new antileishmanial drugs.

Carolina B. G, Teles; Leandro S, Moreira; Alexandre de A. E, Silva; Valdir A, Facundo; Juliana P, Zuliani; Rodrigo G, Stábeli; Izaltina, Silva-Jardim.

2011-05-01

65

In vitro activity of the hydroethanolic extract and biflavonoids isolated from Selaginella sellowii on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study is the first phytochemical investigation of Selaginella sellowii and demonstrates the antileishmanial activity of the hydroethanolic extract from this plant (SSHE), as well as of the biflavonoids amentoflavone and robustaflavone, isolated from this species. The effects of these substances [...] were evaluated on intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, an aetiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. SSHE was highly active against intracellular amastigotes [the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 20.2 µg/mL]. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of the two bioflavonoids with the highest activity: amentoflavone, which was about 200 times more active (IC50 = 0.1 ?g/mL) and less cytotoxic than SSHE (IC50 = 2.2 and 3 ?g/mL, respectively on NIH/3T3 and J774.A1 cells), with a high selectivity index (SI) (22 and 30), robustaflavone, which was also active against L. amazonensis (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL), but more cytotoxic, with IC50 = 25.5 µg/mL (SI = 9.1) on NIH/3T3 cells and IC50 = 3.1 µg/mL (SI = 1.1) on J774.A1 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was lower in cells treated with amentoflavone (suggesting that NO does not contribute to the leishmanicidal mechanism in this case), while NO release was higher after treatment with robustaflavone. S. sellowii may be a potential source of biflavonoids that could provide promising compounds for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Yasmin Silva, Rizk; Alice, Fischer; Marillin de Castro, Cunha; Patrik Oening, Rodrigues; Maria Carolina Silva, Marques; Maria de Fátima Cepa, Matos; Mônica Cristina Toffoli, Kadri; Carlos Alexandre, Carollo; Carla Cardozo Pinto de, Arruda.

1050-10-01

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The action of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania Amazonensis, with evaluation of their immunogenic power in experimental models; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania amazonensis, com avaliacao de seu poder imunogenico em modelos experimentais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leishmaniasis is a disease which affects thousands of people in the Tropical regions around the world, is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp., with urban and wild mammals acting as reservoirs. In the mammal host, the amastigote form of the parasite infects and multiplies into macrophages. Treatments for leishmaniasis have a high cost and are long lasting, frequently resulting in therapy interruption. This procedure culminates with a selection of resistant parasite strains, inducing tolerance to the therapy. Either the control of vectors or the mammal host are difficult due the social and economic implications. Thus, the search for alternatives treatments against these protozoans have been stimulated. The gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) shown to be an efficient toll to kill these parasites maintaining their immunogenicity. Cellular viability, Electronically microscopy and Multiplex-PCR techniques showed that, after irradiation, the parasites had their growth inhibited by cytoplasmatic and nucleic material disorganisation, appointing the gamma radiation as important in terms of immunogens improvement. (author)

Bonetti, Franco Claudio

2002-07-01

67

Transcriptional signatures of BALB/c mouse macrophages housing multiplying Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammal macrophages (M? display a wide range of functions which contribute to surveying and maintaining tissue integrity. One such function is phagocytosis, a process known to be subverted by parasites like Leishmania (L. Indeed, the intracellular development of L. amazonensis amastigote relies on the biogenesis and dynamic remodelling of a phagolysosome, termed the parasitophorous vacuole, primarily within dermal M?. Results Using BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived M? loaded or not with amastigotes, we analyzed the transcriptional signatures of M? 24 h later, when the amastigote population was growing. Total RNA from M? cultures were processed and hybridized onto Affymetrix Mouse430_2 GeneChips®, and some transcripts were also analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RTQPCR. A total of 1,248 probe-sets showed significant differential expression. Comparable fold-change values were obtained between the Affymetrix technology and the RTQPCR method. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software® pinpointed the up-regulation of the sterol biosynthesis pathway (p-value = 1.31e-02 involving several genes (1.95 to 4.30 fold change values, and the modulation of various genes involved in polyamine synthesis and in pro/counter-inflammatory signalling. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the amastigote growth relies on early coordinated gene expression of the M? lipid and polyamine pathways. Moreover, these M? hosting multiplying L. amazonensis amastigotes display a transcriptional profile biased towards parasite-and host tissue-protective processes.

Lang Thierry

2009-03-01

68

Isolation of an enriched plasma membrame subpellicular microtubule fraction of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um método de fracionamento subcelular, previamente desenvolvido para Trypanosoma cruzi, foi aplicado para isolar a membrana plasmática de promastigotas de Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. As células, após turgimento em meio hipotônico, foram rompidas na presença de um detergente não iônico e a fraç [...] ão de membrana isolada por centrifugação diferencial. A microscopia eletrônica mostrou consistir a fração de fragmentos de membrana plasmática associados com microtúbulos subpeliculares. Foi também mostrado que esta fração era capaz de induzir resposta celular em camundongos. Abstract in english A cell fractionation procedure previously developed for Trypanosoma cruzi was applied to isolated the plasma membrane of promastigotes of Leishania mexicana amazonensis. The cell, swollen in an hypotonic mediun, were disrupted in the presence of a nonionic detergent and the membrane fraction isolat [...] ed by differencial centrifugation. Electron microscopy showed that the fraction consisted of pieces of the plasma membrane associated with subpellicular microtubules. It was also shown that this fraction is able to induce cell-mediated immune response in mice.

Solange L., Timm; Leonor L., Leon; Neize M., Pereira; Wanderley de, Souza; M. Queiroz, Cruz; Helena M., Bräscher; A. Oliveira, Lima.

69

In vivo and in vitro Leishmania amazonensis infection induces autophagy in macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autophagy is the primary mechanism of degradation of cellular proteins and at least two functions can be attributed to this biological phenomenon: increased nutrient supply via recycling of the products of autophagy under nutrient starvation; and antimicrobial response involved in the innate immune system. Many microorganisms induce host cell autophagy and it has been proposed as a pathway by which parasites compete with the host cell for limited resources. In this report we provide evidence that the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis induces autophagy in macrophages. Using western blotting, the LC3II protein, a marker of autophagosomes, was detected in cell cultures with a high infection index. Macrophages infected with L. amazonensis were examined by transmission electronic microscopy, which revealed enlarged myelin-like structures typical late autophagosome and autolysosome. Other evidence indicating autophagy was Lysotracker red dye uptake by the macrophages. Autophagy also occurs in the leishmaniasis skin lesions of BALB/c mice, detected by immunohistochemistry with anti-LC3II antibody. In this study, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) reduced the infection index, while autophagy inductors, such as rapamycin or starvation, did not alter the infection index in cultivated macrophages, suggesting that one aspect of the role of autophagy could be the provision of nutritive support to the parasite. PMID:22939777

Cyrino, Larissa Tavares; Araújo, Alexandra Paiva; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Vicente, Cristina Pontes; Giorgio, Selma

2012-12-01

70

Generation of sequence diversity in the kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the mechanisms which generate minicircle sequence diversity, we sequenced three minicircles belonging to the same or closely related sequence classes from the kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis strains, PH8, Raimundo, and Josefa. Closely related minicircles from PH8 and Raimundo were unexpectedly found to differ at 11% of positions within the evolutionarily conserved region, but at only 3.9% of positions in the variable region. It thus appears that accumulation of point mutations will not account for the wide intra-strain and intra-subspecies divergence of the variable region. Comparison of more distantly related minicircles from PH8 and Josefa revealed only two short stretches of 70% homology within the variable region. These stretches of homology are not located in the same positions relative to the conserved regions in their respective minicircles. They may represent vestiges of recombinational events responsible for the rapid divergence of minicircle variable regions. PMID:3398889

Rogers, W O; Wirth, D F

1988-07-01

71

Mitochondria Superoxide Anion Production Contributes to Geranylgeraniol-Induced Death in Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we demonstrate the activity of geranylgeraniol, the major bioactive constituent from seeds of Bixa orellana, against Leishmania amazonensis. Geranylgeraniol was identified through (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and DEPT. The compound inhibited the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, with IC(50) of 11 ± 1.0 and 17.5 ± 0.7??g/mL, respectively. This compound was also more toxic to parasites than to macrophages and did not cause lysis in human blood cells. Morphological and ultrastructural changes induced by geranylgeraniol were observed in the protozoan by electronic microscopy and included mainly mitochondria alterations and an abnormal chromatin condensation in the nucleus. These alterations were confirmed by Rh 123 and TUNEL assays. Additionally, geranylgeraniol induces an increase in superoxide anion production. Collectively, our in vitro studies indicate geranylgeraniol as a selective antileishmanial that appears to be mediated by apoptosis-like cell death. PMID:23304195

Lopes, Milene Valéria; Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Caleare, Angelo de Oliveira; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Silva, Sueli Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

2012-01-01

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Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L.) amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

OpenAIRE

This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium...

Patrícia Shima Luize; Tatiana Shioji Tiuman; Luis Gustavo Morello; Paloma Korehiza Maza; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; João Carlos Palazzo de Mello; Celso Vataru Nakamura

2005-01-01

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Sand fly captures with Disney traps in area of occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil Capturas de flebotomíneos com armadilhas de Disney em área de ocorrência de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: The work was conducted to study phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in a forested area where Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis occurs, situated in the municipality of Bela Vista, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The captures were conducted with modified Disney traps, using hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as bait, from May 2004 to January 2006. RESULTS: Ten species of phlebotomine sandflies were capt...

Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval; Tulia Peixoto Alves; Geucira Cristaldo; Hilda Carlos da Rocha; Murilo Andrade Alves; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira; Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Rivaldo Venancio da Cunha

2010-01-01

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Increased tau phosphorylation and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) in the brain of mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania, an obligate intramacrophagic parasite. Although neurologic symptoms have been observed in human cases of leishmaniasis, the manifestation of neurodegenerative processes is poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to investigate if peripheral infection of BALB/c mice with Leishmania amazonensis affects tau phosphorylation and RAGE protein content in the brain, which represent biochemical markers of neurodegenerative processes observed in diseases with a pro-inflammatory component, including Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. Four months after a single right hind footpad subcutaneous injection of L. amazonensis, the brain cortex of BALB/c mice was isolated. Western blot analysis indicated an increase in tau phosphorylation (Ser(396)) and RAGE immunocontent in infected animals. Brain tissue TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels were not different from control animals; however, increased protein carbonylation, decreased IFN-? levels and impairment in antioxidant defenses were detected. Systemic antioxidant treatment (NAC 20mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited tau phosphorylation and recovered IFN-? levels. These data, altogether, indicate an association between impaired redox state, tau phosphorylation and RAGE up-regulation in the brain cortex of animals infected with L. amazonensis. In this context, it is possible that neurologic symptoms associated to chronic leishmaniasis are associated to disruptions in the homeostasis of CNS proteins, such as tau and RAGE, as consequence of oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of alterations in biochemical parameters of neurodegeneration in an experimental model of Leishmania infection. PMID:25014011

Gasparotto, Juciano; Senger, Mario Roberto; Kunzler, Alice; Degrossoli, Adriana; de Simone, Salvatore Giovanni; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Somensi, Nauana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes; Gelain, Daniel Pens

2015-01-01

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In vitro evaluation of (-)?-bisabolol as a promising agent against Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current treatments for leishmaniasis present some difficulties due to their toxicity, the use of the intravenous route for administration and therapy duration, which may lead to treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study is to investigate new treatment alternatives to improve patients well being. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of (-)?-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol found in various essential oils of different plant species, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis, as well as the cytotoxic, morphological and ultrastructural alterations of treated cells. Promastigotes forms of L.?amazonensis were incubated with (-)?-bisabolol to determine the antileishmanial activity of this compound. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated by testing against J774.G8 cells. After these tests, the infected and uninfected cells with L.?amazonensis were used to determine if the (-)?-bisabolol was able to kill intracellular parasites and to cause some morphological changes in the cells. The (-)?-bisabolol compound showed significant antileishmanial activity against promastigotes with a 50% effective concentration of 8.07?µg/ml (24?h) and 4.26?µg/ml (48 h). Against intracellular amastigotes the IC50 (inhibitory concentration) of (-)?-bisabolol (24?h) was 4.15?µg/ml. The (-)?-bisabolol also showed a cytotoxic effect against the macrophage strain J774.G8. The value of 50% cytotoxic concentration was 14.82?µg/ml showing that (-)?-bisabolol is less toxic to macrophages than to the parasite. Ultrastructural studies of treated promastigotes and amastigotes showed several alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic organelles, including the nucleus, and the presence of lipid inclusions. This study showed that (-)?-bisabolol has promising antileishmanial properties, as it can act against the promastigote forms and is able to penetrate the cell, and is also active against the amastigote forms. About 69% of the promastigotes forms suffered mitochondrial membrane damage after treatment with IC50 of (-)?-bisabolol, suggesting inhibition of the metabolic activity of parasites. These results open new prospects for research that can contribute to the development of products based on essential oils or isolated compounds from plants for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25448354

Rottini, Mariana Margatto; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, Jose Luiz Pinto; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas de; d'Escoffier, Luiz Ney; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Hardoim, Daiana de Jesus; Gonçalves da Costa, Sylvio Celso; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

2015-01-01

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Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi / Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L.) amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma [...] cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi. Abstract in english This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypano [...] soma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.

Patrícia Shima, Luize; Tatiana Shioji, Tiuman; Luis Gustavo, Morello; Paloma Korehiza, Maza; Tânia, Ueda-Nakamura; Benedito Prado, Dias Filho; Diógenes Aparício Garcia, Cortez; João Carlos Palazzo de, Mello; Celso Vataru, Nakamura.

2005-03-01

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Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L. amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi.

Patrícia Shima Luize

2005-03-01

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In vitro and in vivo activity of major constituents from Pluchea carolinensis against Leishmania amazonensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for new therapeutic agents from natural sources has been a constant for the treatment of diseases such as leishmaniasis. Herein, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities of pure major phenolic constituents (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and rosmarinic acid) from Pluchea carolinensis against Leishmania amazonensis are presented. Pure compounds showed inhibitory activity against promastigotes (IC50?=?0.2-0.9 ?g/mL) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50?=?1.3-2.9 ?g/mL). Four of them were selected after testing against macrophages of BALB/c mice: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and rosmarinic acid, with selective indices of 11, 17, 10, and 20, respectively. Ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid controlled lesion size development and parasite burden in footpads from BALB/c experimentally infected mice, after five injections of compounds by intralesional route at 30 mg/kg every 4 days. Pure compounds from P. carolinensis demonstrated antileishmanial properties. PMID:24906989

Montrieux, Elly; Perera, Wilmer H; García, Marley; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet

2014-08-01

79

Selective Effect of 2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-Methoxychalcone Isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis  

Science.gov (United States)

2?,6?-Dihydroxy-4?-methoxychalcone (DMC) was purified from the dichloromethane extract of Piper aduncum inflorescences. DMC showed significant activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, with 50% effective doses of 0.5 and 24 ?g/ml, respectively. Its inhibitory effect on amastigotes is apparently a direct effect on the parasites and is not due to activation of the nitrogen oxidative metabolism of macrophages, since the production of nitric oxide by both unstimulated and recombinant gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages was decreased rather than increased with DMC. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was functioning normally even with DMC concentrations as high as 80 ?g/ml, as seen by electron microscopy and by the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled beads. Ultrastructural studies also showed that in the presence of DMC the mitochondria of promastigotes were enlarged and disorganized. Despite destruction of intracellular amastigotes, no disarrangement of macrophage organelles were observed, even at 80 ?g of DMC/ml. These observations suggest that DMC is selectively toxic to the parasites. Its simple structure may well enable it to serve as a new lead compound for the synthesis of novel antileishmanial drugs. PMID:10223942

Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Moreira, Davyson Lima; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

1999-01-01

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The in Vitro Biological Activity of the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Dictyota mertensii against Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available Seaweeds present a wide variety of interesting bioactive molecules. In the present work we evaluated the biological activity of the dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 extract (DME from the brown seaweed Dictyota mertensii against Leishmania amazonensis and its cytotoxic potential on mammalian cells. The extract showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of promastigote forms (IC50 = 71.60 ?g/mL and low toxicity against mammalian cells (CC50 = 233.10 ?g/mL. The DME was also efficient in inhibiting the infection in macrophages, with CC50 of 81.4 ?g/mL and significantly decreased the survival of amastigote forms within these cells. The selectivity index showed that DME was more toxic to both promastigote (SI = 3.25 and amastigote (SI = 2.86 forms than to macrophages. Increased NO production was observed in treated macrophages suggesting that besides acting directly on the parasites, the DME also shows an immunomodulatory effect on macrophages. Drastic ultrastructural alterations consistent with loss of viability and cell death were observed in treated parasites. Confocal microscopy and cytometry analyzes showed no significant impairment of plasma membrane integrity, whereas an intense depolarization of mitochondrial membrane could be observed by using propidium iodide and rhodamine 123 staining, respectively. The low toxicity to mammalian cells and the effective activity against promastigotes and amastigotes, point to the use of DME as a promising agent for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Amanda Silva dos Santos Aliança

2014-09-01

81

Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-03-01

82

Protective effect of lectin from Synadenium carinatum on Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The protective effect of the Synadenium carinatum latex lectin (ScLL), and the possibility of using it as an adjuvant in murine model of vaccination against American cutaneous leishmaniasis, were evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized with the lectin ScLL (10, 50, 100 µg/animal) separately or in association with the soluble Leishmania amazonensis antigen (SLA). After a challenge infection with 106 promastigotes, the injury progression was monitored weekly by measuring the footpad swelling for 10 weeks. ScLL appeared to be capable of conferring partial protection to the animals, being most evident when ScLL was used in concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/animal. Also the parasite load in the interior of macrophages showed significant reduction (61.7%) when compared to the control group. With regard to the cellular response, ScLL 50 and 100 µg/animal stimulated the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction significantly (P < 0.05) higher than SLA or SLA plus ScLL 10 weeks after the challenge infection. The detection of high levels of IgG2a and the expression of mRNA cytokines, such as IFN-?, IL-12, and TNF-? (Th1 profiles), corroborated the protective role of this lectin against cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is the first report of the ScLL effect on leishmaniasis and shows a promising role for ScLL to be explored in other experimental models for treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:18165707

Afonso-Cardoso, Sandra R.; Rodrigues, Flávio H.; Gomes, Márcio A.B.; Silva, Adriano G.; Rocha, Ademir; Guimarães, Aparecida H.B.; Candeloro, Ignês; Favoreto, Sílvio; Ferreira, Marcelo S.

2007-01-01

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Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers  

Science.gov (United States)

The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

2005-08-01

84

Flagellates in the Malpighian tubules of laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on a hamster experimentally infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

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Full Text Available As a preparatory stage for a study aiming at identifying the species and subspecies of local Leishmania in naturally infected sandflies through immunoradiometric assay with monoclonal antibodies, we tried to obtain experimental infections of phlebotomines with well characterized stocks of parasites, in order to test the effectiveness of the method.Encontramos abundantes promastigotas nos tubos de Malpighi, além do tubo digestivo, em elevada proporção de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis experimentalmente infectadas em hamster inoculado com Leishmania mexicana amazonensis.

Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel

1985-09-01

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Tunicamycin-resistant Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: expression of virulence associated with an increased activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and amplification of its presumptive gene.  

OpenAIRE

Tunicamycin at 10 micrograms/ml inhibits the growth and infectivity of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Tunicamycin-resistant variants of this parasite were produced by gradual acclimatization of cells to increasing concentrations of the drug up to 80 micrograms/ml and a single-step selection of ethyl methanesulfonate-pretreated or differentiating leishmanias with the drug at 10 micrograms/ml. Prolonged exposure to the drug increases stability of drug resistance of tho...

Kink, J. A.; Chang, K. P.

1987-01-01

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Identification of SL addition trans-splicing acceptor sites in the internal transcribed spacer I region of pre-rRNA in Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis  

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Full Text Available Trypanosomatidae is a family of early branching eukaryotes harbouring a distinctive repertoire of gene expression strategies. Functional mature messenger RNA is generated via the trans-splicing and polyadenylation processing of constitutively transcribed polycistronic units. Recently, trans-splicing of pre-small subunit ribosomal RNA in the 5' external transcribed spacer region and of precursor tRNAsec have been described. Here, we used a previously validated semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction strategy to investigate internal transcribed spacer (ITS I acceptor sites in total RNA from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Two distinct spliced leader-containing RNAs were detected indicating that trans-splicing reactions occur at two AG acceptor sites mapped in this ITS region. These data provide further evidence of the wide spectrum of RNA molecules that act as trans-splicing acceptors in trypanosomatids.

Mario Gustavo Mayer

2012-12-01

87

Glycosphingolipid antigens from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis amastigotes: Binding of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in vitro and in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Specific glycosphingolipid antigens of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis amastigotes reactive with the monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) ST-3, ST-4 and ST-5 were isolated, and their structure was partially elucidated by negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The glycan moieties of five antigens [...] presented linear sequences of hexoses and N-acetylhexosamines ranging from four to six sugar residues, and the ceramide moieties were found to be composed by a sphingosine d18:1 and fatty acids 24:1 or 16:0. Affinities of the three monoclonal antibodies to amastigote glycosphingolipid antigens were also analyzed by ELISA. MoAb ST-3 reacted equally well with all glycosphingolipid antigens tested, whereas ST-4 and ST-5 presented higher affinities to glycosphingolipids with longer carbohydrate chains, with five or more sugar units (slow migrating bands on HPTLC). Macrophages isolated from footpad lesions of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis were incubated with MoAb ST-3 and, by indirect immunofluorescence, labeling was only detected on the parasite, whereas no fluorescence was observed on the surface of the infected macrophages, indicating that these glycosphingolipid antigens are not acquired from the host cell but synthesized by the amastigote. Intravenous administration of 125I-labeled ST-3 antibody to infected BALB/c mice showed that MoAb ST-3 accumulated significantly in the footpad lesions in comparison to blood and other tissues

A.H., Straus; V.B., Valero; C.M., Takizawa; S.B., Levery; M.S., Toledo; E., Suzuki; M.E.K., Salyan; S., Hakomori; C.L., Barbieri; H.K., Takahashi.

1997-03-01

88

Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in 3D Collagen I culture: an in vitro physiological environment for the study of extracellular matrix and host cell interactions  

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Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an important neglected tropical disease. Once Leishmania amazonensis is inoculated into the human host, promastigotes are exposed to the extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis. However, little is known about the interaction between the ECM and Leishmania promastigotes. In this study we established L. amazonensis promastigote culture in a three-dimensional (3D environment mainly composed of Collagen I (COL I. This 3D culture recreates in vitro some aspects of the human host infection site, enabling the study of the interaction mechanisms of L. amazonensis with the host ECM. Promastigotes exhibited “freeze and run” migration in the 3D COL I matrix, which is completely different from the conventional in vitro swimming mode of migration. Moreover, L. amazonensis promastigotes were able to invade, migrate inside, and remodel the 3D COL I matrix. Promastigote trans-matrix invasion and the freeze and run migration mode were also observed when macrophages were present in the matrix. At least two classes of proteases, metallo- and cysteine proteases, are involved in the 3D COL I matrix degradation caused by Leishmania. Treatment with a mixture of protease inhibitors significantly reduced promastigote invasion and migration through this matrix. Together our results demonstrate that L. amazonensis promastigotes release proteases and actively remodel their 3D environment, facilitating their migration. This raises the possibility that promastigotes actively interact with their 3D environment during the search for their cellular “home”—macrophages. Supporting this hypothesis, promastigotes migrated faster than macrophages in a novel 3D co-culture model.

Debora B. Petropolis

2014-04-01

89

Treatment with triterpenic fraction purified from Baccharis uncinella leaves inhibits Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis spreading and improves Th1 immune response in infected mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current medications used to treat leishmaniasis have many side effects for patients; in addition, some cases of the disease are refractory to treatment. Therefore, the search for new leishmanicidal compounds is indispensable. Recently, it was demonstrated that oleanolic- and ursolic-containing fraction from Baccharis uncinella leaves eliminated the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) braziliensis without causing toxic effects for J774 macrophages. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize the therapeutic effect of the triterpenic fraction in L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Oleanolic- and ursolic acid-containing fraction was extracted from B. uncinella leaves using organic solvents and chromatographic procedures. L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally with triterpenic fraction during five consecutive days with 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of triterpenic fraction, or with 10.0 mg/kg of amphotericin B drug. Groups of mice treated with the triterpenic fraction, presented with decreased lesion size and low parasitism of the skin-both of which were associated with high amounts of interleukin-12 and interferon gamma. The curative effect of this fraction was similar to amphotericin B-treated mice; however, the final dose, required to eliminate amastigotes, was lesser than amphotericin B. Moreover, triterpenic fraction did not cause microscopic alterations in liver, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney of experimental groups. This work suggests that this fraction possesses compounds that are characterized by leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory activities. From this perspective, the triterpenic fraction can be explored as a new therapeutic agent for use against American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis. PMID:24173812

Yamamoto, Eduardo Seiji; Campos, Bruno Luiz S; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Lago, João H G; Grecco, Simone dos Santos; Corbett, Carlos E P; Passero, Luiz Felipe D

2014-01-01

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Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins from Leishmania amazonensis Associated with the Loss of Virulence of the Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The present study analyzed whether or not the in vitro cultivation for long periods of time of pre-isolated Leishmania amazonensis from lesions of chronically infected BALB/c mice was able to interfere in the parasites' infectivity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. In addition, the proteins that presented a significant decrease or increase in their protein expression content were identified applying a proteomic approach. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites were cultured in vitro for 150 days. Aliquots were collected on the day 0 of culture (R0), as well as after ten (R10; 50 days of culture), twenty (R20; 100 days of culture), and thirty (R30; 150 days of culture) passages, and were used to analyze the parasites' in vitro and in vivo infectivity, as well as to perform the proteomic approach. Approximately 837, 967, 935, and 872 spots were found in 2-DE gels prepared from R0, R10, R20, and R30 samples, respectively. A total of 37 spots presented a significant decrease in their intensity of expression, whereas a significant increase in protein content during cultivation could be observed for 19 proteins (both cases >2.0 folds). Some of these identified proteins can be described, such as diagnosis and/or vaccine candidates, while others are involved in the infectivity of Leishmania. It is interesting to note that six proteins, considered hypothetical in Leishmania, showed a significant decrease in their expression and were also identified. Conclusions/Significance The present study contributes to the understanding that the cultivation of parasites over long periods of time may well be related to the possible loss of infectivity of L. amazonensis. The identified proteins that presented a significant decrease in their expression during cultivation, including the hypothetical, may also be related to this loss of parasites' infectivity, and applied in future studies, including vaccine candidates and/or immunotherapeutic targets against leishmaniasis. PMID:24699271

Magalhães, Rubens D. M.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Mattos, Eliciane C.; Martins, Vivian T.; Lage, Paula S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Lage, Daniela P.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Régis, Wiliam C. B.; Manso Alves, Maria J.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Nagen, Ronaldo A. P.; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.

2014-01-01

91

Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11), a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression [...] of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles). More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals.

Denise CS, Matos; Lanuza AP, Faccioli; Léa, Cysne-Finkelstein; Paula Mello De, Luca; Suzana, Corte-Real; Geraldo RG, Armôa; Elezer Monte Blanco, Lemes; Débora, Decote-Ricardo; Sergio CF, Mendonça.

2010-05-01

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Salivary gland homogenates from wild-caught sand flies Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) complexus showed inhibitory effects on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in BALB/c mice.  

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During the natural transmission of Leishmania parasites, the infected sand fly female regurgitates promastigotes into the host's skin together with its saliva. It has been reported that vector saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules that facilitate the establishment of infection. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the specificity of Lutzomyia (Lu.) flaviscutellata and Lu. (Psychodopygus) complexus salivas on the infectivity of Leishmania (L.) (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) braziliensis, respectively. BALB/c mice were inoculated into the skin of hind footpad with L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes in the absence or presence of Lu. flaviscutellata and Lu. (P.) complexus salivary gland homogenates (SGHs). The evolution of the infection was evaluated by lesion size, histopathological analysis and determination of the parasite load in the skin biopsies collected from the site of infection at 4 and 8 weeks PI. The lesion size and the parasite load of both groups of mice infected in the presence of SGHs were smaller than the control groups. The histopathological features showed that the inflammatory reaction was less prominent in the groups of mice infected in the presence of both SGHs when compared to the control group. The results showed that the presence of SGHs of Lu. flaviscutellata and Lu. (P.) complexus led to induction of processes that were disadvantageous to parasite establishment during infection by L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. An inhibitory effect on Leishmania infection could be observed in both groups inoculated with SGHs, especially when the SGH from Lu. (P.) complexus was used. PMID:25476864

Francesquini, Fernanda C; Silveira, Fernando T; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Tomokane, Thaise Y; Carvalho, Ana Kely; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo P; Laurenti, Márcia D

2014-12-01

93

Safety, immunogenecity, and efficacy of an autoclaved Leishmania amazonensis vaccine plus BCG adjuvant against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safety, immunogenecity, and efficacy of two doses of an autoclaved-killed, whole cell Leishmania amazonensis vaccine (IFLA/BR/67/PH8) and BCG adjuvant (n = 750) against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was compared with placebo (n = 756) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study. Systemic and local side-effects were more frequent in the vaccine than placebo group. Leishmanin skin test (LST) conversion was greater in the vaccine than placebo group 2 months after the second vaccination dose (74.4% versus 14.7%; P = 0.000001). The 26-month incidence of confirmed CL (n = 25) was similar between the vaccine (2.0%) and placebo groups (2.0% versus 1.3%; P > 0.05). LST conversion was not associated with CL protection and the vaccine did not offer significant protection against CL infection caused by L. Viannia spp. compared to placebo. PMID:15003662

Armijos, R X; Weigel, M M; Calvopina, M; Hidalgo, A; Cevallos, W; Correa, J

2004-03-12

94

In vitro and in vivo activity of meglumine antimoniate produced at Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil, against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L (L.) chagasi and L (Viannia) braziliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs), was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L [...] .) chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L.) amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime® were, respectively: 26.3µg/ml and 127.6µg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4µg /ml and 22.9µg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1µg/ml and 24.2µg/ml for L. (V.) braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime®-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.

Eliane de, Morais-Teixeira; Alcione S de, Carvalho; Jorge CS da, Costa; Silvio L, Duarte; Jorge S, Mendonça; Núbia, Boechat; Ana, Rabello.

2008-06-01

95

In vitro and in vivo activity of meglumine antimoniate produced at Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil, against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, L (L. chagasi and L (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available The leishmanicidal activity of four batches of meglumine antimoniate, produced in Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz, Brazil (TAMs, was assessed and compared to Glucantime®-Aventis Pharma Ltda. Using the amastigote-like in vitro model, the active concentrations of Sb v varied from 10µg/ml to 300 µg/ml for L. (L. chagasi and from 50µg/ml to 300µg/ml for L. (L. amazonensis, with no statistically significant differences among the four batches of TAMs and Glucantime®. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50 determined by the amastigote-infected macrophage model for TAM01/03 and Glucantime® were, respectively: 26.3µg/ml and 127.6µg/ml for L. chagasi, 15.4µg /ml and 22.9µg/ml for L. amazonensis, and 12.1µg/ml and 24.2µg/ml for L. (V. braziliensis. The activities of the four batches of TAMs were confirmed in an in vivo model by assessing, during eight weeks skin lesions caused by L. braziliensis in hamster that were treated with 20mg Sb v/Kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The meglumine antimoniate produced by Farmanguinhos was as effective as the reference drug, Glucantime®-Aventis, against three species of Leishmania that are of medical importance in Brazil.

Eliane de Morais-Teixeira

2008-06-01

96

Flagellates in the Malpighian tubules of laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on a hamster experimentally infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Encontramos abundantes promastigotas nos tubos de Malpighi, além do tubo digestivo, em elevada proporção de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis experimentalmente infectadas em hamster inoculado com Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. [...] Abstract in english As a preparatory stage for a study aiming at identifying the species and subspecies of local Leishmania in naturally infected sandflies through immunoradiometric assay with monoclonal antibodies, we tried to obtain experimental infections of phlebotomines with well characterized stocks of parasites, [...] in order to test the effectiveness of the method.

Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel; Leonidas M., Deane; Gabriel, Grimaldi Filho; Nataly A. de, Souza; Eduardo D., Wermelinger; André F., Barbosa.

1985-09-01

97

Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae  

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Full Text Available A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazil, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzomyia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são incluídas. Leishmania amazonensis foi isolada em um exemplar de L. reducta altamente infectado, tornando esta espécie a terceira a ser implicada como vetor desta leishmania no Brasil. A abundância relativa das três espécies simpátricas do complexo flaviscutellata varia em escala local e aparenta ter relação com a drenagem do solo. L. reducta constituiu cerca de 25% dos flebotomíneos capturados em armadilhas Disney em locais mal e bem drenados, porém não foi encontrada em locais sujeitos a inundações. L. olmeca nociva era restrita às áreas mal drenadas não sujeitas a inundações, enquanto L. flaviscutellata foi capturada neste dois ambientes e também numa área periodicamente inundada. L. reducta não tem sido assinalada ao norte do Rio Amazonas no Brasil, porém a ausência de registros do oeste e noroeste do Estado do Amazonas possa refletri a falta de levantamento nestas áreas.

R. A. Freitas

1989-09-01

98

Molecular Modeling Approaches for Determining Gene Function: application to a Putative Poly-A Binding Protein from Leishmania amazonensis (LaPABP)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The great expansion in the number of genome sequencing projects has revealed the importance of computational methods to speed up the characterization of unknown genes. These studies have been improved by the use of three dimensional information from the predicted proteins generated by molecular mode [...] ling techniques. In this work, we disclose the structure-function relationship of a gene product from Leishmania amazonensis by applying molecular modeling and bioinformatics techniques. The analyzed sequence encodes a 159 aminoacids polypeptide (estimated 18 kDa) and was denoted LaPABP for its high homology with poly-A binding proteins from trypanosomatids. The domain structure, clustering analysis and a three dimensional model of LaPABP, basically obtained by homology modeling on the structure of the human poly-A binding protein, are described. Based on the analysis of the electrostatic potential mapped on the model's surface and conservation of intramolecular contacts responsible for folding stabilization we hypothesize that this protein may have less avidity to RNA than it's L. major counterpart but still account for a significant functional activity in the parasite. The model obtained will help in the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to elucidate the mechanism of gene expression in trypanosomatids and serve as a starting point for its exploration as a potential source of targets for a rational chemotherapy.

FP, Silva-Jr; FZ, Veyl; J, Clos; S Giovanni, De Simone.

2002-04-01

99

Papel de la vacuola parasitófora de macrófagos de ratón infectados por Leishmania amazonensis en la adquisición de moléculas / Role of the parasitophorous vacuole of murine macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis in molecule acquisition  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Leishmania son parásitos intracelulares de macrófagos, confinados en compartimentos denominados vacuolas parasitóforas. La permeabilidad de este compartimento depende de su interacción con el tráfico vesicular y transportadores presentes en su membrana. Objetivo. En este trabajo se est [...] udió la permeabilidad de la membrana de la vacuola parasitófora en la línea celular J774.A1 infectada con Leishmania amazonensis, in situ y en compartimentos aislados. Materiales y métodos. El aislamiento de vacuolas parasitóforas se hizo por gradiente de densidad. La permeabilidad de la membrana de estas se valoró por distribución de sondas fluorescentes y electrofisiología. Para establecer indirectamente el transporte de protones se usó naranja de acridina. La presencia de transportadores ABC sensibles a probenecid se estableció con amarillo lucifer y calceína. Por primera vez con la técnica de patch-clamp se registraron corrientes en la membrana de este compartimento aislado. Resultados. La vacuola parasitófora colorea de rojo con naranja de acridina indicando un pH ácido. Concentra amarillo lucifer a través de un transportador sensible a probenecid, pero excluye la sonda calceína. Vacuolas aisladas se marcan de rojo con naranja de acridina y concentran amarillo lucifer a través de un transportador sensible a probenecid. Estas vacuolas excluyeron calceína y presentaron en su membrana una corriente iónica que se activa a diferencias de potencial cercanas a 60 mV, con una conductancia de 46 ± 3 pS. Conclusiones. Se pueden aislar vacuolas parasitóforas con propiedades de permeabilidad que preservan mecanismos de transporte similares a los encontrados in situ. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de una corriente iónica poco selectiva en la membrana de este compartimiento. Abstract in english Introduction. Leishmania are intracellular parasites of macrophages, confined into compartments known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The permeability of this compartment depends on its interaction with the endocytic pathway and transport proteins present on its membrane. Objective. The membrane permea [...] bility of the parasitophorous vacuole was studied in J774.A1- macrophage like cells infected with Leishmania amazonensis, in situ and on isolated compartments. Materials and methods. The parasitophorous vacuoles were isolated by density gradients. Fluorescent probe distribution and electrophysiological recordings were used to determine parasitophorous vacuole membrane permeability. Proton transport was evaluated indirectly by acridine orange staining. Probenecid sensitive ABC transporters were detected using the fluorescent probes lucifer yellow and calcein. For the first time ion currents were recorded on the membrane of isolated parasitophorous vacuoles using the patch clamp technique. Results. The parasitophorous vacuole stains red with acridine orange indicating an acidic compartment. It concentrates lucifer yellow by means of a probenecid sensitive transporter but excludes calcein. Isolated vacuoles stained red with acridine orange and concentrated lucifer yellow by means of a probenecid sensitive transporter. These vacuoles excluded calcein and showed an ion current in their membrane which is activated at potentials close to 60 mV with a mean conductance of 46 ± 3 pS. Conclusions. Isolated parasitophorous vacuoles with permeability properties preserving transport mechanisms similar to those found in situ can be purified. A poorly selective ion current on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane is reported for the first time.

Tania M, Cortázar; Joselín, Hernández; María Clara, Echeverry; Marcela, Camacho.

2006-10-01

100

Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps  

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Neutrophils are short-lived leukocytes that die by apoptosis, necrosis, and NETosis. Upon death by NETosis, neutrophils release fibrous traps of DNA, histones, and granule proteins named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can kill bacteria and fungi. Inoculation of the protozoan Leishmania into the mammalian skin causes local inflammation with neutrophil recruitment. Here, we investigated the release of NETs by human neutrophils upon their interaction with Leishmania parasites and N...

Guimara?es-costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; Froment, Giselle S.; Soares, Rodrigo P. P.; Morgado, Fernanda N.; Conceic?a?o-silva, Fa?tima; Saraiva, Elvira M.

2009-01-01

101

Identification and enzymatic activities of four protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) isoforms of Leishmania amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania parasites primarily infect cells of macrophage lineage and can cause leishmaniasis in the skin, mucosal, and visceral organs, depending on both host- and parasite-derived factors. The protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that catalyze the formation, reduction, and isomerization of disulfide bonds of proteins in cells. Although four Leishmania PDI genes are functionally inferred from homology in the genome sequences, only two of them have been expr...

Hong, B. X.; Soong, L.

2007-01-01

102

Sand fly specificity of saliva-mediated protective immunity in Leishmania amazonensis-BALB/c mouse model.  

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Immune response of BALB/c mice to the salivary antigens of sand flies was found to vary with different species used, i.e. Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis. Exposure of mice to bites of these sand flies elicits production of antibodies, which are largely specific to different saliva antigens previously identified as unique to the respective fly species. When immunized intradermally (i.d.) with salivary gland lysates (SGL) of L. longipalpis, BALB/c mice developed partial protective immunity against challenges in the contralateral ears with Leishmania amazonensis plus the gland lysates. Preimmunization of these mice with the lysates from the other two species was ineffective, further indicative of the specificity of saliva-mediated immune response. The partial protective immunity observed is significant, although it is not as dramatic as reported previously in a different sand fly-mouse model. There is a correlation of this immunity with a lower number of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes at the site of parasite inoculation. Vector species-specificity of this immunity implies its elicitation by unique saliva antigen-an issue which requires attention when designing saliva-based vaccines against leishmaniasis. PMID:15866511

Thiakaki, Maria; Rohousova, Iva; Volfova, Vera; Volf, Petr; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Soteriadou, Ketty

2005-04-01

103

The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection  

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Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

Jose M. Requena

2008-04-01

104

In vitro initial immune response against Leishmania amazonensis infection is characterized by an increased production of IL-10 and IL-13  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The initial encounter of Leishmania with its host's immune system is important in the outcome of infection. Previous studies have shown that PBMCs from healthy volunteers (HV) exposed to Leishmania differ in IFN-? production. We have expanded such observations evaluating the profile and kinetics of [...] cytokines (IFN-?, IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-13), chemokines (CCL5, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10), and chemokine receptors (CCR1,CCR5, CXCR3, CCR4) in vitro L. amazonensis-stimulated of HV's PBMCs. HVs were divided in groups of high (HR) or low (LR) IFN-? responders. In both groups, HR and LR, after L. amazonensis infection there was a predominance of IL-10 and IL-13 over IFN-? production, while IL-12 was produced in similar amount. Regarding chemokines, a more striking difference was observed for CCL3 expression that was lower at 12 hours and 48 hours post infection in LR than in HR. Interestingly, a downregulation of CCR5 and a greater expression of CCR4 were found in low IFN-? responders. These data suggest that early after L. amazonensis infection there is a cytokine milieu dominated by IL-13 and IL-10, and despite of this environment, IFN-? is produced, supporting the complexity of the response. It is noteworthy that the pattern of immune response is mounted in first hours after Leishmania stimulation, with the definition of the differentiation of Th1 versus Th2 cells. It remains to be determined if such an in vitro difference has an in vivo counterpart in terms of susceptibility to infection

Zirlane Castelo B, Coêlho; Maria Jania, Teixeira; Erika Freitas, Mota; Mércia Sindeaux, Frutuoso; João Santana da, Silva; Aldina, Barral; Manoel, Barral-Netto; Margarida Maria L, Pompeu.

2010-10-01

105

Extracellular matrix alterations in experimental Leishmania amazonensis infection in susceptible and resistant mice  

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Abstract Leishmania is inoculated, by the bite of an infected sandfly, into the skin of the host, where the promastigotes are phagocyted by dermal macrophages. The dermal region comprises cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Studies show that matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in host defense responses against pathogens in mammals and that their activities lead to the production of antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in...

Silva-Almeida Mariana; Op, Carvalho Luiz; Abreu-Silva Ana L; Sf, Souza Celeste; Hardoim Daiana J; Calabrese Kátia S

2012-01-01

106

Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers  

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Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9?m diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

2007-02-01

107

Sobre a sensibilidade da cultura de leucócitos circulantes na detecção de Leishmania no sangue periférico de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar  

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Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de Leishmania, através da cultura de leucócitos circulantes, no sangue periférico de 60 pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, nas suas diferentes formas clínicas, assim como nas principais fases evolutivas da doença. Biópsias de lesões cutâneas e/ou de mucosa desses pacientes foram obtidas com a finalidade de isolar e caracterizar os parasitas, através da técnica de anticorpos monoclonais. Dos 60 pacientes examinados, foram isoladas 40 amostras de Leishmania das lesões biopsiadas, sendo 5 de Leishmania (V. brasiliensis, 3 de L. (V. guyanensis, 1 de L. (V. lainsoni, 13 de L. (L. amazonensis e 18 não puderam ser caracterizados a nível específico, porém, reagiram com anticorpos monoclonais do grupo braziliensis. Quanto àpesquisa através das culturas de leucócitos circulantes, esta revelou resultados completamente negativos. Com base nesses achados, os autores concluíram ser pouco consistente atribuir valor à cultura de leucócitos para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar.The possible presence of Leishmania in the peripheral blood of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated by the culture of circulating leucocytes. Patients were selected with a variety ofclinical forms ofthe disease and in different evolutionary stages of infection. Biopsies of skin and/or mucosal lesions were made in order to isolate the parasites, which were identified using monoclonal antibodies. 40 isolations were obtained, including 5 of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, 3 L. (V. guyanensis, 1 L. (V. lainsoni, 13 L. (Leishmania amazonensis and 18 which could only be identified as parasites of the braziliensis complex. Cultures of circulanting leucocytes were consistently negative, and the authors conclude that this method is of little use in diagnosis of cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Fernando T. Silveira

1989-09-01

108

Sobre a sensibilidade da cultura de leucócitos circulantes na detecção de Leishmania no sangue periférico de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi investigada a presença de Leishmania, através da cultura de leucócitos circulantes, no sangue periférico de 60 pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, nas suas diferentes formas clínicas, assim como nas principais fases evolutivas da doença. Biópsias de lesões cutâneas e/ou de [...] mucosa desses pacientes foram obtidas com a finalidade de isolar e caracterizar os parasitas, através da técnica de anticorpos monoclonais. Dos 60 pacientes examinados, foram isoladas 40 amostras de Leishmania das lesões biopsiadas, sendo 5 de Leishmania (V.) brasiliensis, 3 de L. (V.) guyanensis, 1 de L. (V.) lainsoni, 13 de L. (L.) amazonensis e 18 não puderam ser caracterizados a nível específico, porém, reagiram com anticorpos monoclonais do grupo braziliensis. Quanto àpesquisa através das culturas de leucócitos circulantes, esta revelou resultados completamente negativos. Com base nesses achados, os autores concluíram ser pouco consistente atribuir valor à cultura de leucócitos para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar. Abstract in english The possible presence of Leishmania in the peripheral blood of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated by the culture of circulating leucocytes. Patients were selected with a variety ofclinical forms ofthe disease and in different evolutionary stages of infection. Biopsies [...] of skin and/or mucosal lesions were made in order to isolate the parasites, which were identified using monoclonal antibodies. 40 isolations were obtained, including 5 of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 3 L. (V.) guyanensis, 1 L. (V.) lainsoni, 13 L. (Leishmania) amazonensis and 18 which could only be identified as parasites of the braziliensis complex. Cultures of circulanting leucocytes were consistently negative, and the authors conclude that this method is of little use in diagnosis of cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Fernando T., Silveira; Ralph, Lainson; Jeffrey J., Shaw; Edna A., Ishikawa; Adelson A.A., Souza; Roseli R., Braga.

1989-09-01

109

Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae) / Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um flebotomíneo do complexo Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de Rondônia e sul do Amazonas, Brasil é tão parecido com Lutzomyia olmeca reducta, que é considerado como sendo da mesma espécie. Este flebotomíneo ocorre junto com L. olmeca nociva, portanto o nome é emendado para o nível de espécie, como Lutzo [...] myia reducta. O material do Brasil é descrito e ilustrado, e comparado com exemplares de L. o. nociva e L. flaviscutellata da mesma área. Chaves para as espécies e subespécies do complexo flaviscutellata são incluídas. Leishmania amazonensis foi isolada em um exemplar de L. reducta altamente infectado, tornando esta espécie a terceira a ser implicada como vetor desta leishmania no Brasil. A abundância relativa das três espécies simpátricas do complexo flaviscutellata varia em escala local e aparenta ter relação com a drenagem do solo. L. reducta constituiu cerca de 25% dos flebotomíneos capturados em armadilhas Disney em locais mal e bem drenados, porém não foi encontrada em locais sujeitos a inundações. L. olmeca nociva era restrita às áreas mal drenadas não sujeitas a inundações, enquanto L. flaviscutellata foi capturada neste dois ambientes e também numa área periodicamente inundada. L. reducta não tem sido assinalada ao norte do Rio Amazonas no Brasil, porém a ausência de registros do oeste e noroeste do Estado do Amazonas possa refletri a falta de levantamento nestas áreas. Abstract in english A member of the Lutzomyia flaviscutellata complex from Rondônia and southern Amazonas States, Brazil, is so close to the Venezuelan Lutzomyia olmeca recuta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, that it is regarded as belonging to the same species. Since this phlebotomine co-extis with L. olmeca nociva in Brazi [...] l, the subspecific status of the former is untenable and is rased to specific rank, as Lutzomyia reducta. The Brazilian material is described and illustrated, and compared with specimens of L. o. nociva and L. flaviscutellata from the same area. Keys to the known taxa of the flaviscutellata complex are presented. Leishmania amazonensis was isolated from one heavily infected specimen of L. reducta, making this the third species of the flaviscutellata complex to be implicated as a vector of this parasite in Brazil. The relative abundance of the three sympatric flaviscutellata complex species varies locally and appears to be related to soil drainage. L. reducta constituted about 25% if all phlebotomines captured in Disney traps at poorly drained and well drained site, but appears not to coloniza areas subject to periodic flooding. L. olmeca nociva was restricted to poorly drained areas not subject to flooding, whereas L. flaviscutellata was ubiquitous L. reducta has never been detected north of the Amazon river in Brazil, but absence of recosrds from western and northwestern Amazonas State may reflect lack of collecting in these areas.

R. A., Freitas; T. V., Barrett; R. D., Naiff.

1989-09-01

110

Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

2006-08-01

111

Interferon-gamma is required for the late but not early control of Leishmania amazonensis infection in C57Bl/6 mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The critical role of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) in the resistance of C57Bl/6 mice to Leishmania major is widely established but its role in the relative resistance of these animals to L. amazonensis infection is still not clear. In this work we use C57Bl/6 mice congenitally deficient in the IFN-g gene [...] (IFN-g KO) to address this issue. We found that IFN-g KO mice were as resistant as their wild-type (WT) counterparts at least during the first two months of infection. Afterwards, whereas WT mice maintained lesion growth under control, IFN-g KO mice developed devastating lesions. At day 97 of infection, their lesions were 9-fold larger than WT controls, concomitant with an increased parasite burden. At this stage, lesion-draining cells from IFN-g KO mice had impaired capacity to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumour necrosis factor-a in response to parasite antigens whereas IL-4 was slightly increased in comparison to infected WT mice. Together, these results show that IFN-g is not critical for the initial control of L. amazonensis infection in C57Bl/6 mice, but is essencial for the developmente of a protective Th1 type immune response in the later stages.

Roberta Olmo, Pinheiro; Bartira, Rossi-Bergmann.

2007-02-01

112

DFT/PCM, QTAIM, 1H NMR conformational studies and QSAR modeling of thirty-two anti-Leishmania amazonensis Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts  

Science.gov (United States)

Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts (MBHA) has been recently synthesized and bio-evaluated by our research group against Leishmania amazonensis, parasite that causes cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. We present here a theoretical conformational study of thirty-two leismanicidal MBHA by B3LYP/6-31+g(d) calculations with Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate water influence. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds (IHBs) indicated to control the most conformational preferences of MBHA. Quantum Theory Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations were able to characterize these interactions at Bond Critical Point level. Compounds presenting an unusual seven member IHB between NO2 group and hydroxyl moiety, supported by experimental spectroscopic data, showed a considerable improvement of biological activity (lower IC50 values). These results are in accordance to redox NO2 mechanism of action. Based on structural observations, some molecular descriptors were calculated and submitted to Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies through the PLS Regression Method. These studies provided a model with good validation parameters values (R2 = 0.71, Q2 = 0.61 and Qext2 = 0.92).

Filho, Edilson B. A.; Moraes, Ingrid A.; Weber, Karen C.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Vasconcellos, Mário L. A. A.

2012-08-01

113

Regulation of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Protein Expression by Host T Cell Dependent Responses: Differential Expression of Oligopeptidase B, Tryparedoxin Peroxidase and HSP70 Isoforms in Amastigotes Isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c Nude Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis is an important disease that affects 12 million people in 88 countries, with 2 million new cases every year. Leishmania amazonensis is an important agent in Brazil, leading to clinical forms varying from localized (LCL) to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). One interesting issue rarely analyzed is how host immune response affects Leishmania phenotype and virulence. Aiming to study the effect of host immune system on Leishmania proteins we compared proteomes of amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice. The athymic nude mice may resemble patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, considered T-cell hyposensitive or anergic to Leishmania´s antigens. This work is the first to compare modifications in amastigotes' proteomes driven by host immune response. Among the 44 differentially expressed spots, there were proteins related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and proteases. Some correspond to known Leishmania virulence factors such as OPB and tryparedoxin peroxidase. Specific isoforms of these two proteins were increased in parasites from nude mice, suggesting that T cells probably restrain their posttranslational modifications in BALB/c mice. On the other hand, an isoform of HSP70 was increased in amastigotes from BALB/c mice. We believe our study may allow identification of potential virulence factors and ways of regulating their expression. PMID:25692783

Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Velasquez, Leonardo Garcia; Lepique, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Eloiza; Bonatto, José Matheus Camargo; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Stolf, Beatriz Simonsen

2015-02-01

114

TROMBOCITOPENIA IMMUNOMEDIATA SECONDARIA IN CANI NATURALMENTE INFETTI DA LEISHMANIA INFANTUM  

OpenAIRE

Lo studio si prefigge di indagare, mediante immunofluorescenza indiretta e citometria a flusso, se la presenza di anticorpi anti-piastrine può essere associata all’occorrenza di trombocitopenia immunomediata in cani naturalmente infetti da Leishmania infantum.

Prisco, Michele

2009-01-01

115

Distinct overexpression of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases results in preferential detoxification of different oxidants in arsenite-resistant Leishmania amazonensis with and without DNA amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cytosolic (cTXNPx) and a mitochondrial (mTXNPx) tryparedoxin peroxidase genes, cloned from wildtype Leishmania amazonensis clone 2-23 are homologous in nucleic acid and amino acid sequences to the respective genes described for L. infantum and L. chagasi. Surprisingly, as shown in the results of transcription assays, protein determination and fluorescent antibody detection in situ, cTXNPx is distinctly overexpressed in the cytoplasm of arsenite-resistant A variant with DNA amplification, whereas mTXNPx is distinctly overexpressed in the mitochondrion of arsenite-resistant A' variant without DNA amplification, although A and A' are arsenite-resistant variants derived from the same wildtype clone of L. amazonensis, and selected against arsenite under the same conditions. Since the tunicamycin-resistant variant (T) derived from the same W(2-23) clone and the hydroxyurea-resistant (Hu(2-6)) variant derived from clone W(2-6) do not show overexpression of these two genes, it is suggested that the distinct overexpression of cTXNPx and mTXNPx genes in arsenite-resistant A and A' variants is linked to arsenite selection process. These two genes in A and A' variants, and cTXNPx(+) and mTXNPx(+) transfectants are similar to the respective genes described for L. infantum and L. chagasi in terms of antioxidant activities against H2O2 and t-butyl hydroperoxide, in which cTXNPx is more resistant to H2O2, and mTXNPx is more resistant to t-butyl hydroperoxide than the wildtype. Both genes, however, are cross-resistant to NO as compared to the control wildtype. In the transfectants carrying cTXNPx and mTXNPx in inverted orientation, these two genes are expressed in a level lower than that in wildtype. The decreased expression was followed by increased sensitivity of these transfectants to the oxidants. This possibly is due to the formation of antisense mRNA in these transfectants that causes a specific downregulation of the respective genes. PMID:15907561

Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Ju-Yu; Chiang, Su-Chi; Lee, Sho Tone

2005-07-01

116

El rol de tres pruebas de ELISA con antígenos de promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis y L. guyanensis en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis tegumentaria Role of three ELISA tests using promastigote homogenates of Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in the diagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de promastigotes de Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, L (L amazonensis (ELISAa y L (V. guyanensis (ELISAg frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37, leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8, no infectados (n = 52, infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11 e infecciones mixtas (n = 14. Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225. La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, Leishmania (L amazonensis (ELISAa and Leishmania (V. guyanensis (ELISAg against different sera groups. Samples from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 37, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 8, healthy controls (n = 52, persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11 and mixed infections (n = 14 were included in the study. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, cut offs, and predictive values for the three tests and compared them using ANOVA, kappa index, ROC curves comparison, and confidence intervals calculated by the bootstrap method. Significant differences were found when comparing the OD levels of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis against healthy controls, but there were no differences when comparing the different ELISAs. The sensitivities calculated for ELISAb and ELISAa were 84.6 and of 88.5% for ELISAg, while the value of specificity for the three tests was 96.2. The kappa index (0.87 and comparison of ROC curves showed similar performance for the three ELISAs (p = 0.225. The high reactivity obtained for these ELISAs in sera of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicates this test as an important complement in the diagnosis of the disease.

José F. Gil

2011-10-01

117

LFR1 Ferric Iron Reductase of Leishmania amazonensis Is Essential for the Generation of Infective Parasite Forms*  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan parasite Leishmania is the causative agent of serious human infections worldwide. The parasites alternate between insect and vertebrate hosts and cause disease by invading macrophages, where they replicate. Parasites lacking the ferrous iron transporter LIT1 cannot grow intracellularly, indicating that a plasma membrane-associated mechanism for iron uptake is essential for the establishment of infections. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a second member of the Lei...

Flannery, Andrew R.; Huynh, Chau; Mittra, Bidyottam; Mortara, Renato A.; Andrews, Norma W.

2011-01-01

118

El rol de tres pruebas de ELISA con antígenos de promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis y L. guyanensis en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis tegumentaria / Role of three ELISA tests using promastigote homogenates of Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in the diagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de p [...] romastigotes de Leishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), L (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) y L (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37), leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8), no infectados (n = 52), infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) e infecciones mixtas (n = 14). Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225). La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Abstract in english It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of L [...] eishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), Leishmania (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) against different sera groups. Samples from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 37), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 8), healthy controls (n = 52), persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) and mixed infections (n = 14) were included in the study. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, cut offs, and predictive values for the three tests and compared them using ANOVA, kappa index, ROC curves comparison, and confidence intervals calculated by the bootstrap method. Significant differences were found when comparing the OD levels of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis against healthy controls, but there were no differences when comparing the different ELISAs. The sensitivities calculated for ELISAb and ELISAa were 84.6 and of 88.5% for ELISAg, while the value of specificity for the three tests was 96.2. The kappa index (0.87) and comparison of ROC curves showed similar performance for the three ELISAs (p = 0.225). The high reactivity obtained for these ELISAs in sera of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicates this test as an important complement in the diagnosis of the disease.

José F., Gil; Carlos L., Hoyos; Rubén O., Cimino; Alejandro J., Krolewiecki; Inés, Lopéz Quiroga; Silvana P., Cajal; Marisa, Juárez; María F., García Bustos; María C., Mora; Jorge D., Marco; Julio R., Nasser.

2011-10-01

119

Saliva of laboratory-reared Lutzomyia longipalpis exacerbates Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection more potently than saliva of wild-caught Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to compare the saliva effect from wild-caught and lab-reared L. longipalpis on the development of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously into the hind footpads with promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis plus salivary gland lysate from wild-caught (SGL-W) and lab-colonized (SGL-C) vectors. Lesion sizes were significantly larger in the mice infected with both saliva compared to mice infected with parasites alone; moreover, the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-C were significantly larger than the lesions caused by parasite+SGL-W. Histopathological morphometric studies regarding the acute phase of infections showed lower numbers of polymorphonuclear cells, greater numbers of mononuclear cells and parasites in SGL-C infected mice compared to SGL-W infected mice. In the chronic phase of infection, the number of mononuclear cells was lower and the number of parasites was greater in SGL-C infected mice than SGL-W infected mice. In vitro studies showed increased infection index of macrophages infected with parasites plus saliva compared to infection with parasites alone, with no difference between the saliva infection indices. SDS-PAGE gel for SGL-C and SGL-W showed differences in the composition and quantity of protein bands, determined by densitometry. These results call attention to the experimental saliva model, which shows exacerbation of infection caused by sandfly saliva. PMID:19454323

Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Silveira, Veruska Marques dos Santos; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Pimenta, Paulo Paulocci Filemon

2009-09-01

120

Determinación de la producción de Öxido Nítrico en Macrófagos Activados J774.1 como respuesta al tamaño de la carga fagocítica de partículas de látex y Leishmania amazonensis Determination of Nitric Oxide Production in Activate Macrophages J774.1 as effect of Phagocitic Load Volume of Latex Beads and Leishmania amazonensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por el protozoario Leishmania. Cercade 12 millones de personas padecen esta enfermedad y 350 millones de personas están enriesgo de contraerla. Existe evidencia de que la infección por Leishmania amazonensisdisminuyela producción de óxido nítrico (NO de macrófagos; se ha interpretado que este deterioroes inducido por el parásito. Esta investigación corrobora esta idea, pero contradice que seaexclusivo de la infección. En este trabajo, cultivos celulares de macrófagos fueron expuestosa partículas de látex en diferentes proporciones buscando cargas fagocíticas y volúmenes defagosoma semejantes a los de la infección. Las concentraciones de nitrito y parámetros mor-fológicos se midieron a las 48 horas post fagocitosis e infección con 24 horas de activaciónmediante IFN-?y LPS. Se determinó que volúmenes similares de fagosomas generados porpartículas de látex o amastigotes de L. amazonensis, deterioran en la misma proporción laproducción de NO. Esto sugiere que este deterioro no depende de la naturaleza de la partículafagocitada. El incremento en el volumen de fagosoma se correlaciona con la disminución en laproducción de nitrito, por tanto, la expansión del fagosoma puede ser uno de los mecanismosimplicados en la disminución de la producción de NO. Los resultados apoyan la evidencia deque Leishmaniadisminuye la producción de NO pero contradicen la interpretación,comúnmente aceptada, de que este fenómeno es específico de la infección.Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the genera Leishmania. Around 12million people are infected and 350 millions of people are risk to contract it. There is evidencethat infection by Leishmania amazonensisdecreases nitric oxide production; it has beeninterpreted that this impairment is induced by the parasite. This study confirmed this idea, butcontradicts that this impairment is exclusive of infection. In this work, cultured macrophageswere exposed to latex beads at diferents proportions, to simulate phagocitic loads andphagosome volumes resembling those of the infection. Nitrite concentration and morphologicalparameters were measured at 48 hours post phagocytosis and infection with 24 hours ofactivation induced by IFN-?and LPS. Our results determined that macrophages with similarvolume of phagosomes generated by latex beads or L. amazonensisamastigotes have the samedecrease in inducible NO production. This suggest that this partial inhibition does not depenton the nature of phagocited particle. Phagosome volume increase correlates with the decreasein inducible NO production. Therefore, phagosome expansion may be one of the mechanismimplicated in the disminution of inducible NO production. The results support the evidencethat Leishmaniareduces inducible NO production, but contradicts the common interpretationthat this fenomena is specific of infection.

Camargo Jiménez Maria Helena

2000-06-01

121

Assessment of PCR in the detection of Leishmania spp in experimentally infected individual phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) / Avaliação do PCR na investigação de Leishmania spp em flebotomíneos experimentalmente infectados (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho avaliamos o uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) na investigação da presença de parasitas Leishmania (Kinetoplastida:Trypanosomatidae) em flebotomíneos individuais. Para isso, foram utilizados três pares flebotomíneo/parasita: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia [...] migonei/Leishmania amazonensis e Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, todos eles incriminados na transmissão de leishmaniose cutânea ou visceral. O DNA total a ser amplificado foi extraído de flebotomíneos inteiros, contendo ou não o parasita, sem dissecção prévia do trato digestivo ou combinação de indivíduos. Conteúdos do trato digestivo de flebotomíneos, em especial sangue de camundongo, não interferiram na reação de amplificação. Dez parasitas Leishmania sp. por flebotomíneo foram suficientes para detecção com iniciadores gênero-específicos. Com a utilização de iniciadores para os complexos L. braziliensis e L. mexicana, respectivamente, foi possível discriminar entre L. braziliensis e L. amazonensis, em flebotomíneos infectados experimentalmente (L. migonei). Abstract in english DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied in the investigation of the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites in single phlebotomine sandflies. Three phlebotomine/parasite pairs were used: Lutzomyia longipalpis/Leishmania chagasi, Lutzomyia migo [...] nei/Leishmania amazonensis and Lutzomyia migonei/Leishmania braziliensis, all of them incriminated in the transmission of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA extraction was performed with whole insects, with no need of previous digestive tract dissection or pooling specimens. The presence of either mouse blood in the digestive tract of the sandflies or the digestive tract itself did not interfere in the PCR. Infection by as few as 10 Leishmania sp. per individual were sufficient for DNA amplification with genus-specific primers. Using primers for L. braziliensis and L. mexicana complexes, respectively, it was possible to discriminate between L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis in experimentally infected vectors (L. migonei).

Érika M., MICHALSKY; Consuelo L., FORTES-DIAS; Paulo F.P., PIMENTA; Nágila F.C., SECUNDINO; Edelberto S., DIAS.

2002-10-01

122

Cytolytic activity in the genus Leishmania: involvement of a putative pore-forming protein.  

OpenAIRE

We describe here that parasites of the genus Leishmania contain a cytolytic activity which acts optimally at pH 5.0 to 5.5 and at 37 degrees C in vitro. or the four species examined, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) major presented considerable hemolytic activity, whereas Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis showed little and no hemolytic activity, respectively. The cytolytic factor of L. amazonensis promastigotes was characterized...

Noronha, F. S.; Ramalho-pinto, F. J.; Horta, M. F.

1996-01-01

123

Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania Vacinação de camundongos C57BL/10 contra leishmaniose com promastigotas mortas de diferentes cepas e espécies de Leishmania  

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Full Text Available Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L. amazonensis infection.Estudos anteriores revelaram que uma vacina preparada com promastigotas mortas de cinco cepas de Leishmania pode induzir uma imunidade protetora para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana no homem e em modelos experimentais. Um dos problemas do uso desta vacina é a complexidade de sua composição e a necessidade de se incorporar diferentes cepas de Leishmania. Por esta razão, extratos antigênicos de cada uma das cinco cepas constituintes da vacina foram preparados e usados individualmente em estudos imunológicos com camundongos C57BL/10. A Leishvacin® e a vacina monovalente PH8 induziram os maiores níveis de Interferon-g (IFN-gama detectado no sobrenadante de células esplênicas dos animais vacinados. Cada grupo imunizado com vacinas monovalentes desenvolveram uma imunidade protetora seis meses após a infecção desafio com promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre os grupos vacinados. Pode-se concluir que vacinas compostas por cepas isoladas de Leishmania protegem camundongos C57BL/10 contra, pelo menos, da infecção por L. (L. amazonensis.

Wilson Mayrink

2002-04-01

124

In silico predicted epitopes from the COOH-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase B inducing distinct immune responses during Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis experimental murine infection  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Leishmania parasites have been reported to interfere and even subvert their host immune responses to enhance their chances of survival and proliferation. Experimental Leishmania infection in mice has been widely used in the identification of specific parasite virulence factors involved in the interaction with the host immune system. Cysteine-proteinase B (CPB) is an important virulence factor in parasites from the Leishmania (Leishman...

As, Pereira Bernardo; Silva Franklin S; Rebello Karina M; Marín-Villa Marcel; Traub-Cseko Yara M; Cb, Andrade Thereza; Bertho Álvaro L; Caffarena Ernesto R; Alves Carlos R

2011-01-01

125

Leishmania mexicana in Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen (Rodentia, Echimyidae in a region endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Three isolates of Leishmania were recovered from five of 27 specimens of the rodent Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen captured near Três Braços in the Atlantic Forest region of Bahia, Brazil. Two of these isolates were recovered from hamsters inoculated with a pooled triturate of liver, spleen and skin tissue from apparently healthy P. i. denigratus. The third isolate was recovered from a triturate of only skin tissue from another. Metastasis was observed in the inoculated hamsters, the parasites grew abundantly in artificial media and a typical suprapylarial pattern of infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis was produced indicating that the parasites belong to the Leishmania mexicana complex. All isolates reacted with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis monoclonal antibodies. The isoenzyme analysis differentiated these isolates from standard isolates of L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. m. aristedesi, L. m. pifanoi, L. m. garnhami and L. m. ssp.(Goiás-W. Barbosa. These isolates seem to be a subspecies of L. mexicana very closely related to L. m. amazonensis from which they differ by decreased electrophoretic mobility of GPI, PEP and ALAT. This is the first record of the isolation of a parasite of thegenus Leishmania in a rodent captured in the State of Bahia.Três isolados de Leishmania foram obtidos de cinco entre 27 exemplares do roedor Proechimys iheringi denigratus, capturados na região de Três Braços, na mata atlântica do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O isolamento desse parasito foi feito através de inoculação de triturado de pele, baço e fígado em patas de hamsters. Em pelo menos um dos casos, (MTB-574, o parasito foi isolado da pele. Metas- tase foi observada nos hamsters inoculados, os parasitos cresceram abundantemente em meios artificiais de cultura e um padrão suprapapilario típico foi obtido em Lutzomyia longipalpis, indicando que o parasito pertence ao complexo L. mexicana. Todos os isolados reagiram positivamente com anticorpos monoclonais de L. m. mexicana e L. m. amazonensis. A análise isoenzimática diferenciou o parasito de isolados padrões de L. m. mexicana. L. m. amazonensis. L. m. aristedesi. L. m. pifanoi. L. m. garnhami e L. m. ssp(Goiás-W. Barbosa. O parasito parece ser uma subespécie de L. mexicana muito próxima à L. m. amazonensis, da qual difere pela menor mobilidade eletroforêtica de GPI, PEP e ALAT. Este e o primeiro registro do isolamento de um parasito do gênero Leishmania em um roedor capturado no Estado da Bahia.

Air C. Barretto

1985-12-01

126

Polyclonal B cell activation in hamsters infected with parasites of the genus Leishmania.  

OpenAIRE

Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamsters) infected with leishmania developed characteristic B cell immune responses that depended on the infecting species of leishmania. Thus, hamsters infected with viscerotropic leishmania (Leishmania donovani) developed antileishmania antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia due to polyclonal activation of B cells as measured by reverse hemolytic plaque assay. In contrast, dermotropic leishmanias (L. braziliensis braziliensis and L. mexicana amazonensis) stimulat...

Campos-neto, A.; Bunn-moreno, M. M.

1982-01-01

127

The Leishmania amazonensis TRF (TTAGGG repeat-binding factor) homologue binds and co-localizes with telomeres  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes essential for maintaining genome stability and cell viability. The importance of telomeric proteins for telomere maintenance has increased our interest in the identification of homologues within the genus Leishmania. The mammalian TRF1 and TRF2 proteins, for example, bind double-stranded telomeres via a Myb-like DNA-binding domain and are involved with telomere length regulation and ch...

Freitas Lucio de H; Siqueira-Neto Jair L; de Moraes Camila E; da Silveira Rita de Cássia V; Perez Arina M; da Silva Marcelo S; Cano Maria

2010-01-01

128

Flagellates in the Malpighian tubules of laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on a hamster experimentally infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

As a preparatory stage for a study aiming at identifying the species and subspecies of local Leishmania in naturally infected sandflies through immunoradiometric assay with monoclonal antibodies, we tried to obtain experimental infections of phlebotomines with well characterized stocks of parasites, in order to test the effectiveness of the method.Encontramos abundantes promastigotas nos tubos de Malpighi, além do tubo digestivo, em elevada proporção de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis...

Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel; Deane, Leonidas M.; Gabriel Grimaldi Filho; Souza, Nataly A.; Wermelinger, Eduardo D.; Barbosa, Andre? F.

1985-01-01

129

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in a dipteran of the species Tabanus importunus / Detecção molecular e parasitológica de Leishmania spp. em díptero da espécie Tabanus importunus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose é uma importante zoonose, de caráter crônico, causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania spp. Esta protozoose tem como principal vetor os flebotomíneos, sendo que, no Brasil, o Lutzomyia longipalpis é a principal espécie incriminada na transmissão da leishmaniose Visceral Americana [...] . A presença do ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) do parasito em ectoparasitos, como carrapatos e pulgas, tem gerado especulações quanto a existência de novos vetores no ciclo da leishmaniose. Foi objetivo deste estudo relatar a detecção molecular de Leishmania spp. em uma mutuca da espécie Tabanus importunus que parasitava um cão oligossintomático infectado por Leishmania spp. A análise molecular amplificou o DNA do protozoário na cabeça, na região torácica e no abdomen do tabanídeo, resultando como positivo para complexo Leishmania. Este é o primeiro relato da presença de DNA de Leishmania spp. em insetos dipteros da espécie T. importunus. Abstract in english Leishmaniasis is an important chronic zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania spp. The major vectors of this protozoosis are sand flies, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is considered the main species implicated in the transmission of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil. The presence of t [...] he parasite's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in ectoparasites such as ticks and fleas has prompted speculations about the existence of new vectors in the cycle of leishmaniasis. The aim of this paper is to report the molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in a horse fly of the species Tabanus importunus which parasitized an oligosymptomatic dog infected with Leishmania spp. Molecular amplification of the protozoan's DNA in the head, thoracic region and abdomen of the tabanid tested positive for Leishmania complex. This is the first report of the presence of DNA from Leishmania spp. in dipterous insects of the species T. importunus.

Willian Marinho Dourado, Coelho; Katia Denise Saraiva, Bresciani.

2013-12-01

130

Determinación de la producción de Öxido Nítrico en Macrófagos Activados J774.1 como respuesta al tamaño de la carga fagocítica de partículas de látex y Leishmania amazonensis Determination of Nitric Oxide Production in Activate Macrophages J774.1 as effect of Phagocitic Load Volume of Latex Beads and Leishmania amazonensis  

OpenAIRE

La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por el protozoario Leishmania. Cercade 12 millones de personas padecen esta enfermedad y 350 millones de personas están enriesgo de contraerla. Existe evidencia de que la infección por Leishmania amazonensisdisminuyela producción de óxido nítrico (NO) de macrófagos; se ha interpretado que este deterioroes inducido por el parásito. Esta investigación corrobora esta idea, pero contradice que seaexclusivo de la infección. En este tr...

Camargo Jiménez Maria Helena; Camacho Maria Marcela

2000-01-01

131

Glycosidases in Leishmania and their importance for Leishmania in phlebotomine sandflies with special reference to purification and characterization of a sucrase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culture forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PH8) produce an extracellular enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose molecules into their component monosaccharides. This is important because phlebotomine sand flies, the invertebrate hosts of Leishmania, ingest plant sap or aphid and coccid honeydew rich in sucrose between blood meals and Leishmania promastigotes cannot uptake sucrose. The sucrase was purified and characterized; its molecular weight, estimated by gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, was about 73 kDa. K(m) and V(max) measured with sucrose as substrate were respectively 4.4 mM and 6.9 mumole glucose.min-1 (mg sucrase)-1, with maximum pH activity at pH 5.5. A series of natural and p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates were assayed, characterizing the enzyme as a highly specific beta-D-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase. When 11 species of Leishmania and 7 genera of trypanosomatids were screened, only the species of the genus Trypanosoma did not produce an enzyme with saccharolytic activity. These data are in agreement with the fact that the latter vectors do not acquire sucrose or raffinose in their meals. Searching for glycolytic enzymes other than sucrase, we found an N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminolytic activity. This N-acetyl-galactosaminidase, here described for the first time, might have a role in peritrophic membrane disruption. The importance of sucrase and N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase in the Leishmania life cycle is discussed. PMID:8654540

Gontijo, N F; Melo, M N; Riani, E B; Almeida-Silva, S; Mares-Guia, M L

1996-06-01

132

PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 para identificar y tipificar Leishmania de la región neotropical / PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 for identification and tipification of Leishmania from the tropical region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la estandarización de las condiciones de amplificación del gen que codifica para la proteína de choque térmico de 70 kDa (Hsp70) de Leishmania mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR-Hsp70), así como el análisis posterior de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) [...] del producto amplificado, utilizando como molde ADN puro de una cepa de referencia de Leishmania mexicana. Se estudió la sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la PCR, así como la reproducibilidad, utilizando ADN de L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni. Se obtuvo una banda de 1,3 Kpb, demostrándose la amplificación del gen que codifica para la Hsp70. Los patrones de bandas obtenidos tras la digestión enzimática, utilizando la enzima Hae III, permitieron establecer diferencias entre las especies estudiadas: L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni se diferencian entre sí y estas a su vez de L. mexicana y L. amazonensis, que mostraron un patrón de bandas común. La sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la técnica fueron adecuadas. Se demostró la factibilidad de identificar y tipificar especies del continente americano mediante la PCR-RFLP/Hsp70, y de utilizar la restricción enzimática del producto amplificado para distinguir entre Leishmania spp. y Trypanosoma cruzi, dándose un primer paso en el establecimiento de estos métodos moleculares en el laboratorio de referencia del instituto. Abstract in english The optimization of the PCR conditions for amplification of the gene coding for the 70kDa (HSp70) heat shock protein as well as the analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were carried out. DNA from a reference strain of Leishmania mexicana was used as template. Analytical se [...] nsitivity and specificity, and reproducibility of PCR using DNA from L. mexicana, L.amazonensis, L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were determined. A 1.3 kp band was obtained, which confirmed gene amplification. The band patterns derived from Haelll enzyme digestion allowed differentiating several species. L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were different from each other, while L. mexicana and L. amazonensis, which shared a common pattern, were different from the other two species. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The enzymatic restriction of the PCR product made it possible to differentiate Leishmania spp. from T. cruzi. The feasibility of identifying and typifying species from the American continent through PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 and of using enzymatic restriction of amplified product to distinguish Leishmania spp. from Trypanosoma cruzi was shown. This was the first step in implementing these molecular methods in the reference laboratory of the Institute.

Ana Margarita, Montalvo; Jorge, Fraga; Jaqueline, Aylema Romero; Lianet, Monzote; Ivon, Montano; Jean Claude, Dujardin.

2006-12-01

133

PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 para identificar y tipificar Leishmania de la región neotropical PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 for identification and tipification of Leishmania from the tropical region  

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Full Text Available Se realizó la estandarización de las condiciones de amplificación del gen que codifica para la proteína de choque térmico de 70 kDa (Hsp70 de Leishmania mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR-Hsp70, así como el análisis posterior de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP del producto amplificado, utilizando como molde ADN puro de una cepa de referencia de Leishmania mexicana. Se estudió la sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la PCR, así como la reproducibilidad, utilizando ADN de L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni. Se obtuvo una banda de 1,3 Kpb, demostrándose la amplificación del gen que codifica para la Hsp70. Los patrones de bandas obtenidos tras la digestión enzimática, utilizando la enzima Hae III, permitieron establecer diferencias entre las especies estudiadas: L. guyanensis y L. lainsoni se diferencian entre sí y estas a su vez de L. mexicana y L. amazonensis, que mostraron un patrón de bandas común. La sensibilidad y especificidad analíticas de la técnica fueron adecuadas. Se demostró la factibilidad de identificar y tipificar especies del continente americano mediante la PCR-RFLP/Hsp70, y de utilizar la restricción enzimática del producto amplificado para distinguir entre Leishmania spp. y Trypanosoma cruzi, dándose un primer paso en el establecimiento de estos métodos moleculares en el laboratorio de referencia del instituto.The optimization of the PCR conditions for amplification of the gene coding for the 70kDa (HSp70 heat shock protein as well as the analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP were carried out. DNA from a reference strain of Leishmania mexicana was used as template. Analytical sensitivity and specificity, and reproducibility of PCR using DNA from L. mexicana, L.amazonensis, L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were determined. A 1.3 kp band was obtained, which confirmed gene amplification. The band patterns derived from Haelll enzyme digestion allowed differentiating several species. L. guyanensis and L. lainsoni were different from each other, while L. mexicana and L. amazonensis, which shared a common pattern, were different from the other two species. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The enzymatic restriction of the PCR product made it possible to differentiate Leishmania spp. from T. cruzi. The feasibility of identifying and typifying species from the American continent through PCR-RFLP/Hsp70 and of using enzymatic restriction of amplified product to distinguish Leishmania spp. from Trypanosoma cruzi was shown. This was the first step in implementing these molecular methods in the reference laboratory of the Institute.

Ana Margarita Montalvo

2006-12-01

134

Caracterização isoenzimática de isolados humanos de Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Isoenzymatic characterization of human isolates of Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae from the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus, State of Amazonas  

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Full Text Available Foram caracterizados/identificados por eletroforese de isoenzimas 23 isolados de Leishmania sp de pacientes dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, analisando-se o grau de similaridade entre os organismos. Os resultados indicaram ocorrência de Leishmania guyanensis e Leishmania naiffi nestes dois ambientes e a heterogeneidade das amostras de Leishmania naiffi.Twenty-three isolates of Leishmania sp from patients in the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus were characterized and identified by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis and the degree of similarity between the organisms was analyzed. The results indicated that Leishmania guyanensis and Leishmania naiffi were present in these two environments and that the Leishmania naiffi samples were heterogenous.

Luanda de Paula Figueira

2008-10-01

135

Caracterização isoenzimática de isolados humanos de Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, Estado do Amazonas / Isoenzymatic characterization of human isolates of Leishmania sp (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) from the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus, State of Amazonas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram caracterizados/identificados por eletroforese de isoenzimas 23 isolados de Leishmania sp de pacientes dos municípios de Rio Preto da Eva e Manaus, analisando-se o grau de similaridade entre os organismos. Os resultados indicaram ocorrência de Leishmania guyanensis e Leishmania naiffi nestes do [...] is ambientes e a heterogeneidade das amostras de Leishmania naiffi. Abstract in english Twenty-three isolates of Leishmania sp from patients in the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus were characterized and identified by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis and the degree of similarity between the organisms was analyzed. The results indicated that Leishmania guyanensis and Leis [...] hmania naiffi were present in these two environments and that the Leishmania naiffi samples were heterogenous.

Luanda de Paula, Figueira; Michele, Zanotti; Francimeire Gomes, Pinheiro; Antonia Maria Ramos, Franco.

2008-10-01

136

Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB. Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection treatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years, after the diagnosis. In nine patients (40,9% of the cohort, the time to healing after initiation of the lesion was calculated as six months of evolution. At twelve months, nineteen patients (86,3% had complete healing of their lesions. In three patients an active lesion was present for longer than one year. The determinants of this variable natural evolution of human LVB lesion remains completely unknown. It is difficult for us to understand and compare the effects of therapeutic agents in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

1990-12-01

137

Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasili [...] enses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime). Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9%) desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3%) cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6%) as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar. Abstract in english In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB). Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection tr [...] eatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years), after the diagnosis. In nine patients (40,9%) of the cohort, the time to healing after initiation of the lesion was calculated as six months of evolution. At twelve months, nineteen patients (86,3%) had complete healing of their lesions. In three patients an active lesion was present for longer than one year. The determinants of this variable natural evolution of human LVB lesion remains completely unknown. It is difficult for us to understand and compare the effects of therapeutic agents in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Jackson Maurício Lopes, Costa; Kyola Costa, Vale; Flávio, França; Ana Cristina R., Saldanha; Joilda Oliveira da, Silva; Ednaldo L., Lago; Philip D., Marsden; Albino V., Magalhães; Conceição de Maria P. e, Silva; Artur, Serra Neto; Clóvis Eduardo S., Galvão.

1990-12-01

138

Análise histomorfométrica da matriz extracelular do linfonodo poplíteo de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania (L.) chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nas Américas, a leishmaniose visceral canina é causada por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, um protozoário intracelular obrigatório do sistema fagocítico mononuclear; as principais alterações histológicas associadas a essa doença ocorrem nos em órgãos linfóides. Apesar de o cão ser considerado o pri [...] ncipal mantenedor e disseminador da leishmaniose no ambiente urbano, são escassos estudos dos aspectos histopatológicos e histomorfométricos, em cães naturalmente infectados com L. chagasi, que investiguem a interação entre o parasito e a matriz extracelular. Este estudo visou caracterizar e quantificar as alterações dos componentes celulares e da matriz extracelular (colágenos I e III) do linfonodo poplíteo de 22 cães com infecção natural por L. chagasi detectada através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF) e compará-las com as alterações encontradas no linfonodo poplíteo de 10 cães não-infectados, negativos na RIF e clinicamente saudáveis. Fragmentos dos linfonodos foram seccionados longitudinalmente, processados rotineiramente para exame histológico e corados por hematoxilina-eosina. Cortes adicionais do mesmo linfonodo incluídos em glicol metacrilato foram corados pelo azul de toluidina para histomorfometria. Linfonodos de cães infectados apresentaram linfadenopatia generalizada, aumento do tamanho e do número dos folículos linfóides, hipertrofia da cápsula e hiperplasia linfóide significativa. Nos linfonodos de cães do grupo infectado, a análise quantitativa de fibras colágenas mostrou significativo predomínio do colágeno I sobre o colágeno III. Esses resultados demonstram que cães infectados por L. chagasi apresentam degradação dos constituintes da matriz extracelular e conseqüente destruição do arcabouço linfóide, alterando a morfologia do órgão. Abstract in english In the Americas, canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, an obligatory intracellular parasite of the phagocytic-monocytic system; the main histological changes associated with this disease occur in the lymphoid organs. Although dogs are considered to be the main c [...] arriers and disseminators of leishmaniasis in urban areas, there are few studies on the histopathologic and histomorphometric aspects in dogs naturally infected by L.chagasi analyzing the interaction between parasite and extracellular matrix. The current study characterize and quantify changes in the cellular and extracellular matrix (collagens type I and III) components of the popliteal lymph node from of 22 dogs with the natural infection by L. chagasi confirmed by indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA) and compare theses findings with those fund in the popliteal lymph node from 10 non-infected dogs, that reacted negative in the IFA, and were clinically healthy. Lymph node fragments were longitudinally sliced and sections were processed for routine histopathology and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. For histomorphometry, additional sections from the same lymph node were fixed in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue. Lymph nodes from affected dogs were systemically enlarged, had increased numbers of lymphoid follicles, capsule hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and significant hyperplasia of lymphoid cells. In the lymph nodes from infected dogs, quantitative analyses of collagen fibers revealed predominance of type I collagen over type III fibers. These results demonstrate that dogs infected by L.chagasi experience degradation of the extracellular matrix components and consequently destruction of the lymphoid framework, thus altering nodal morphology.

Kris Régia J., Kondo; Cláudio César, Fonseca; Sérgio Luis P. da, Matta; Marlene Isabel V., Viloria.

2009-08-01

139

Effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania ssp; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania spp  

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The Leishmania spp is a pathogenic protozoan, which cause different diseases in man. The human diseases, in America, caused by this group of protozoa are divided in cutaneous or tegumentar and visceral, known as kala-azar. In this work, our principal study object was the specie that causes tegumentar leishmaniasis, in Brazil. Metabolic studies of cellular respiration and proteins and nucleic acids synthesis were accomplished using radiation as a form of sterilizing the parasites without however affecting their immunogenic capacity The promastigotes forms of irradiated Leishmania spp were totally sterilized with the dose of 1500 Gy, with their reproductive and nucleic acids, as well as protein synthesis capacity blocked. (author)

Bonetti, Franco C.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Junior A, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Medicina Tropical

2000-07-01

140

The Diverse and Dynamic Nature of Leishmania Parasitophorous Vacuoles Studied by Multidimensional Imaging  

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An important area in the cell biology of intracellular parasitism is the customization of parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) by prokaryotic or eukaryotic intracellular microorganisms. We were curious to compare PV biogenesis in primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to carefully prepared amastigotes of either Leishmania major or L. amazonensis. While tight-fitting PVs are housing one or two L. major amastigotes, giant PVs are housing many L. amazonensis amastigotes. In this study, ...

Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato A.

2012-01-01

141

Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity  

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Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

1999-11-01

142

Histopatologia da leishmaniose tegumentar por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. 2. Resposta humoral tissular / Histopathology of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis. 2. Tissue humoral response  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os A.A. analisaram a resposta humoral nas lesões de 90 pacientes de Leishmaniose Tegumentar — causada por Leishmania braziliensis brasiliensis —, utilizando o método da imunoperoxidase para identificar nos tecidos a presença de IgA, IgG, IgM, fração C3 do complemento e fibrina. Constataram a presenç [...] a de IgA, IgC e IgM nos plasmócitos tissulares, com predomínio de IgG. Admitiram aue a passagem dessas imunoglobulinas para os tecidos possibilitando a opsonização do parasites e/ou de seus antígenos, permitiria a ocorrência de fenômenos necróticos que representam um dos mecanismos eficazes de redução da carga parasitária. Efetivamente, nas áreas de necrose e nas paredes dos vasos inflamados identificaram depósito de imunoglobulinas, fração C3 do complemento e fibrina — elementos do hospedeiro que fazem parte dos imunocomplexos. Interpretaram essa necrose tissular como o resultado da ação de imunocomplexos na região de equivalência ou com discreto excesso de antígenos ítipos ABTHTJS). A presença de antígenos parasitários, expressos nas membranas dos macrófagos quando em contato com imunoglobulinas tissulares, na fase inicial da lesão, possibilitaria a instalação de uma reação antígeno-anticorpo, a qual explicaria o aparecimento da necrose na Leishmaniose Tegumentar. Abstract in english The Authors analysed the humoral response in biopsy material from 90 patients with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis, utilising the immunoperoxidase method to identify IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 complement fraction and fibrin in the tissue. The presence of IgG, IgA an [...] d IgM was found in tissue plasma cells with a predominance of IgG and this was correlated significantly with the number of plasma cells in the lesion. The presence of immunoglobulins in the tissues stimulated the opsonisation of parasites and/or their antigens resulting in necrosis which represents one of the effective mechanisms to reduce parasite load. In ne- crotic areas and the walls of inflammed vessels immunoglobulins were deposited as well as the C3 fraction of complement and fibrin — immunocomplex fractions derived from the host. This tissue necrosis was interpreted as the result of the action of immunocomplexes in a region with equivalent or a smally excess of antigen (Arthus type reaction). The presence of parasite antigens expressed on the macrophage membrane in the initial phase of the lesion when in contact with tissue immunoglobulins, leads to the installation of an antigen-antibody reaction resulting in the appearance of necrosisin Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Albino Verçosa de, Magalhães; Mário A. P., Moraes; Alberto N., Raick; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas; Jackson M. L., Costa; César C., Cuba; Philip D., Marsden.

1986-10-01

143

DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL / Detecção de Leishmania (Viannia) em Nyssomyia neivai e Nyssomyia whitmani por Multiplex Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase, no sul do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Flebotomíneos transmitem os patógenos das leishmanioses. Foi avaliada a infecção natural de flebotomíneos por Leishmania (Viannia) em municípios do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Os flebotomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão e Shannon. Após dissecação para pesquisa de flagelados no tub [...] o digestório e identificação das espécies, as fêmeas de flebotomíneos foram submetidas a Multiplex Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (multiplex PCR) para a detecção do fragmento do kDNA de Leishmania (Viannia) e do fragmento do gene IVS6 da cacofonia de flebotomíneos. A análise foi realizada em pools contendo sete a 12 tubos digestórios de fêmeas da mesma espécie. Um total de 510 fêmeas foram analisadas, incluindo nove Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai e 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Embora nenhuma fêmea tenha sido encontrada naturalmente infectada com flagelados pela dissecação, o fragmento de DNA de Leishmania (Viannia) foi mostrado por multiplex PCR em uma amostra de Ny. neivai (0,46%) e três amostras de Ny. whitmani (1,12%). Conclui-se que Ny. neivai e Ny. whitmani são suscetíveis à infecção por Leishmania, e que multiplex PCR, devido à sua sensibilidade, especificidade e viabilidade, pode ser utilizada em estudos epidemiológicos para a detecção da infecção natural do inseto vetor. Abstract in english Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes a [...] nd identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility.

Herintha Coeto, Neitzke-Abreu; Kárin Rosi, Reinhold-Castro; Mateus Sabaini, Venazzi; Regiane Bertin de Lima, Scodro; Alessandra de Cassia, Dias; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi, Silveira; Ueslei, Teodoro; Maria Valdrinez Campana, Lonardoni.

2014-09-01

144

Glucantime resistant Leishmania promastigotes are sensitive to pentostam  

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Full Text Available Growth inhibition in vitro tests were used to study the susceptibility to pentostam of different Leishmania strains involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneos leishmaniasis - one glucantime sensitive strain, three naturally glucantime resistant strains and one glucantime resistant line developed by in vitro drug exposure. Contrasting with the high degree , of glucantime resistance, all strains were sensitive to pentostam. These differences suggest that there is some relationship between chemical structure and in vitro activity for these antimonial compounds. These data justify a clinical re-evaluation to compare therapeutic efficacy of glucantime and pentostam in the treatment of leishmaniasis.Diferentes amostras de Leishmania foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade in vitro ao pentostam - uma cepa de L. (V braziliensis considerada sensível ao glucantime, três cepas (duas L. (V braziliensis e uma L. (L amazonensis consideradas naturalmente resistentes ao glucantime, uma linhagem resistente (L. (V guyanensis selecionada in vitro pela exposição em alta concentração de droga. A elevada sensibilidade destas amostras em contraposição à resistência observada para o glucantime sugere existir relação entre a estrutura química e a atividade destes compostos. Estes dados indicam a necessidade de ima avaliação comparativa de atividade clínica do pentostam e do glucantime no tratamento da leishmaniose.

Elizabeth Spangler Andrade Moreira

1992-12-01

145

Glucantime resistant Leishmania promastigotes are sensitive to pentostam  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diferentes amostras de Leishmania foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade in vitro ao pentostam - uma cepa de L. (V) braziliensis considerada sensível ao glucantime, três cepas (duas L. (V) braziliensis e uma L. (L) amazonensis) consideradas naturalmente resistentes ao glucantime, uma linhagem re [...] sistente (L. (V) guyanensis) selecionada in vitro pela exposição em alta concentração de droga. A elevada sensibilidade destas amostras em contraposição à resistência observada para o glucantime sugere existir relação entre a estrutura química e a atividade destes compostos. Estes dados indicam a necessidade de ima avaliação comparativa de atividade clínica do pentostam e do glucantime no tratamento da leishmaniose. Abstract in english Growth inhibition in vitro tests were used to study the susceptibility to pentostam of different Leishmania strains involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneos leishmaniasis - one glucantime sensitive strain, three naturally glucantime resistant strains and one glucantime resistant line developed by in v [...] itro drug exposure. Contrasting with the high degree , of glucantime resistance, all strains were sensitive to pentostam. These differences suggest that there is some relationship between chemical structure and in vitro activity for these antimonial compounds. These data justify a clinical re-evaluation to compare therapeutic efficacy of glucantime and pentostam in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Elizabeth Spangler Andrade, Moreira; Juliana Becattini, Guerra; Maria de Lourdes, Petrillo-Peixoto.

1992-12-01

146

Characterization of Leishmania infantum species in dogs from the urban area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil / Caracterização da espécie Leishmania infantum em cães de área urbana de Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral apresenta comportamento urbano em algumas cidades brasileiras, sendo os cães domésticos as principais fontes de infecção. Em Cuiabá-MT, a leishmaniose visceral canina foi diagnosticada e caracterizada, como recomendação do Ministério da Saúde. MÉTODOS: Amostras bi [...] ológicas de cães suspeitos foram analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas. Foram utilizadas a enzima 6PGDH e a cepa de referência IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903) de Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, como um dos controles. RESULTADOS: A análise eletroforética revelou que os isolados pertenciam à espécie L. (L.) infantum. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores ressaltam a importância da caracterização da espécie, principalmente em cidades com infecção mista, como Cuiabá. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis presents urban behavior in some Brazilian cities, with domestic dogs as the main infection source. In Cuiabá, MT, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed and characterized as recommended by the Ministry of Health. METHODS: Biological samples from suspected ca [...] nine carriers were analyzed by the isoenzyme electrophoresis technique. The 6PGDH enzyme and reference strain IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903) of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum was used as one of the controls. RESULTS: Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the canine isolates belonged to the species L. (L.) infantum. CONCLUSIONS: The authors emphasize the importance of species characterization, particularly in areas of mixed infection like Cuiabá.

Bianca De, Santis; Elizabeth Gloria Oliveira Barbosa, Santos; Elisa, Cupolillo; Renato, Porrozzi; Amanda dos Santos, Cavalcanti; Bárbara Neves dos, Santos; Saulo Teixeira De, Moura; Kellen, Malhado; Sergio Augusto Miranda, Chaves.

2011-12-01

147

LA Leishmania spp. COMO ESTRATEGIA DE DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DE LA LeishmaniaSIS, UN ARTÍCULO DE REVISIÓN / Leishmania spp. AS A DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGY AND AS A TREATMENT OF LeishmaniaSIS; AN ARTICLE OF REVISION. / A Leishmania spp. COMO ESTRATÉGIA DE DIAGNÓSTICO E TRATAMIENTO DA LeishmaniaSIS, UM ARTIGO DE REVISÃO  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Algumas enfermidades emergentes e reemergentes têm aumentado de maneira quase indecifrável, quanto ao lugar de origem. Tais são os casos do Mal de Chagas, malária, dengue, febre amarela, raiva e leishmaniose, devido entre outros, a fatores de mobilidade populacional, demográficos, sociais e econômic [...] os que levam microrganismos a gerarem adaptações ao meio mutante, dificultando seu diagnóstico e tratamento por métodos convencionais. Métodos Realizou-se uma busca exaustiva nas bases de dados relacionadas com genômica e proteômica, como o NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), auspiciada pela U.S National Library of Medicine e o National Institute of Health, onde se conta com aceso a PubMed. Resultados Na atualidade aplicam-se técnicas de marcadores moleculares, PCR (Reação em cadeia da polimerasa) que complementam as provas bioquímicas e microbiológicas empregadas comumente no diagnóstico. Conhecendo a expressão genômica destes parasitas, se poderão desenhar métodos novos mais efetivos contra cepas resistentes aos fármacos disponíveis na atualidade e de prevenção rápida. Conclusões Neste artigo se apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica, onde a informação clínica do paciente é determinante para o diagnóstico, o qual pode ser confirmado com técnicas moleculares desenvolvidas em tempo real, para contribuir ao conhecimento molecular da Leishmania spp, como estratégia de diagnóstico e tratamento desta patologia. Abstract in spanish Introducción: Algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes han venido en aumento de manera casi impredecible, en cuanto al sitio de origen. Tal es el caso de la enfermedad de Chagas, malaria, dengue, fiebre amarilla, rabia, Leishmaniasis, debido entre otros a factores de movilidad poblacional, dem [...] ográficos, sociales y económicos que han llevado a que los microorganismos generen adaptaciones al medio cambiante, dificultando su diagnóstico y tratamiento por métodos convencionales. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en las bases de datos relacionadas con genómica y proteómica como el NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), auspiciado por la U.S National Library of Medicine y el National Institute of Health, donde se cuenta con acceso a PubMed Resultados: En la actualidad se han venido aplicando técnicas de marcadores moleculares, PCR (Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa) que complementan las pruebas bioquímicas y microbiológicas empleadas comúnmente en el diagnóstico. Conociendo la expresión genómica de estos parásitos, se podrán diseñar métodos nuevos más efectivos contra cepas resistentes a los fármacos disponibles en la actualidad y de prevención temprana. Conclusiones: En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica, donde la información clínica del paciente es determinante para el diagnóstico, el cual puede ser confirmado con técnicas moleculares desarrolladas en tiempo real, para aportar al conocimiento molecular de la Leishmania spp, como estrategia de diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología. Abstract in english Introduction: Some emerging and reemerging infirmities have been increasing in an almost unpredictable manner as far as site of origin. Such is the case with such diseases as Chagas, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, rabies, and Leishmaniasis. Various demographic, social, and economic factors, as well [...] as population mobility have allowed microorganisms to generate adaptations to changing environments and thus make diagnosis and treatment by conventional methods more difficult. Methodology: An exhaustive search was undertaken in the data bases related to genome and protein sequence information found at the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), part of the United States National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, all with direct access to PubMed. Results: Today techniques using molecular markers, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), are being

Martha Cecilia, Beltrán Cifuentes; Patricia, Durán Ospina; Luisa Fernanda, Corredor Arias.

2007-09-01

148

Leishmania spp. identification by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and its applications in French Guiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis was for many years the only species commonly identified in French Guiana, but precise species identifications were quite rare. We describe a new restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction technique using a 615-bp fragment of the RNA polymerase II gene and 2 restriction enzymes, TspRI and HgaI. Seven reference strains (Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, Leishmania (Leishmania) major, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum) and 112 clinical samples from positive lesions were used for the development of the technique. The rates of positive species identification were 85.7% for punch skin biopsy specimens, 93.1% for positive Giemsa-stained smears, and 100% for positive culture supernatants. In the framework of cutaneous leishmaniasis species surveillance for the 2006 to 2008 period, parasite identification was carried out for 199 samples from different patients. The prevalence of the various Leishmania spp. was 84.4% for L. (V.) guyanensis, 8.0% for L. (V.) braziliensis, 5.0% for L. (L.) amazonensis, and 2.6% for L. (V.) lainsoni. L. (V.) braziliensis seems to be locally an emerging pathogen. PMID:19782495

Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Carme, Bernard

2010-02-01

149

Leishmaniose tegumentar americana causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, em área de treinamento militar na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco / American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in military training area of Zona da Mata in Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem como objetivo geral caracterizar a epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em unidade de treinamento militar, localizada no Estado de Pernambuco. Entre 2002 e 2003, vinte e três casos foram diagnosticados através de exame clínico, detecção do parasita e teste de intradermo [...] arreação de Montenegro. Sete amostras de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis foram isoladas destes pacientes, identificadas através de reações com anticorpos monoclonais específicos e perfil eletroforético com isoenzimas. Um inquérito epidemiológico de prevalência da infecção por IDRM foi realizado na população que realizou treinamento neste período, no qual foi identificada uma prevalência de 25,3% de infecção. Os dados obtidos, associados com achados prévios nesta área, apresentam evidências da manutenção de um ciclo enzoótico, com a ocorrência de surtos periódicos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana posteriormente à realização de treinamentos nas áreas de floresta Atlântica remanescente. Abstract in english The aim of work was to study the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a military training unit situated in Zona da Mata region of Pernambuco State. Between 2002 and 2003 twenty-three cases were notified by clinical exam, detection and/or isolation of parasite and Montenegro skin tes [...] t. Seven stocks of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were obtained from patients, identified by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymatic electrophoresis profiles. An epidemiologic survey on prevalence of infection was carried out by Montenegro skin test in the population that underwent training activities during the same period, out of which 25.3% were identified as positive. These results in association with previous data from this area, shows the maintenance of a primary transmission cycle and the occurrence of periodical outbreaks after training activities in local areas of remnant Atlantic rain forest.

Maria S., Andrade; Maria E. F., Brito; Salomão Thomaz da, Silva; Bruna S., Lima; Éricka L., Almeida; Elisângela L., Albuquerque; José F., Marinho Júnior; Edna, Ishikawa; Elisa, Cupolillo; Sinval P., Brandão-Filho.

2005-05-01

150

In vitro responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to whole-cell, particulate and soluble extracts of Leishmania promastigotes  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole-cell and soluble extracts of Leishmania promastigotes have both been used as skin test antigens and have also been tested as vaccine candidates. However, the differences in antigenicity between soluble and particulate Leishmania fractions are not known. We evaluated in vitro responses of PBMC from 30 American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) patients and seven noninfected donors to different antigen preparations from Leishmania promastigotes, namely Leishmania amazonensis and L. braziliensis whole-cell extracts, as well as soluble and particulate fractions of L. amazonensis. All Leishmania antigen preparations stimulated significantly higher proliferation and interferon (IFN)-? production (but not interleukin (IL)-10 production) in PBMC from the leishmaniasis patients than in cells from the control subjects. The L. braziliensis whole-cell extract stimulated significantly higher cell proliferation and IFN-? production than the L. amazonensis whole-cell extract in the group of patients but not in the control group. This result can be explained by the fact that the patients were infected with L. braziliensis. Again in the group of patients, the PBMC proliferative responses as well as the levels of IFN-? and IL-10 stimulated by L. amazonensis whole-cell extract were significantly greater than those elicited by the L. amazonensis soluble fraction but were not significantly different from those elicited by the L. amazonensis particulate fraction. We found a higher antigenicity of the particulate fraction as compared to the soluble fraction, what suggests that the antigens present in the particulate fraction account for most of the antigenicity of whole-cell Leishmania promastigote antigen extracts. PMID:16412059

Telino, E; De Luca, P M; Matos, D C S; Azeredo-Coutinho, R B; Meirelles, M N; Conceição-Silva, F; Schubach, A; Mendonça, S C F

2006-01-01

151

Potential utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and propolis in enhancing the leishmanicidal activity of glucantime / A utilidade da terapia de oxigenação hiperbárica e própolis em potencializar a atividade leishmanicida do glucantime  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nesse trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia da terapia da oxigenação hiperbárica (HBO), aplicada em combinação ou não com o tratamento com glucantime, durante a infecção com Leishmania amazonensis. O efeito de gel da própolis vermelha de origem brasileira (propaina) aplicado em combinação ou não com o tr [...] atamento com glucantime, também foi avaliado durante infecção com esse parasita. A inibição da infecção de macrófagos tratados com glucantime em combinação com HBO foi maior que a de macrófagos tratados apenas com glucantime ou HBO. A linhagem murina susceptível, BALB/c, infectada no dorso com L. amazonensis, tratada com glucantime e exposta a HBO, mostrou durante o curso da doença, fases em que as lesões eram menores do que a de camundongos apenas tratados com glucantime; observou-se revascularização da pele da lesão e baixa produção de interferon-gama em células de linfonodos desses animais. O tratamento com propaina não foi eficiente na cura das lesões, apesar de lesões menos exsudativas serem observadas em animais tratados com propaina ou propaina combinada ao tratamento com glucantime. Os resultados demonstram que tanto HBO como a própolis vermelha em combinação com glucantime, são promissoras no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para avaliar tratamentos e outros protocolos em diferentes modelos murinos da leishmaniose Abstract in english In this study we investigated the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, alone or combined with the pentavalent antimonial glucantime on Leishmania amazonensis infection. In parallel, the effect of Brazilian red propolis gel (propain) alone or combined with glucantime on L. amazonensis infecti [...] on was evaluated. The inhibition of the infection in macrophages treated with glucantime in combination with HBO exposition was greater than that of macrophages treated with glucantime alone or HBO alone. The susceptible mouse strain BALB/c infected in the shaved rump with L. amazonensis treated with glucantime and exposed to HBO showed: time points in the course of the disease in which lesions were smaller than those of mice treated with glucantime alone and revascularization of the skin in the lesion site; interferon-gamma (IFN-g) levels were not elevated in lymph node cells from these animals. Propain alone was not efficient against lesions, although less exudative lesions were observed in animals treated with propain alone or combined with glucantime. These results reveal the potential value of HBO and red propolis in combination with glucantime for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis and encourage further studies on the effect of more aggressive HBO, propolis and glucantime therapies on different mouse models of leishmaniasis.

Diana Copi, Ayres; Thiago Antonio, Fedele; Maria Cristina, Marcucci; Selma, Giorgio.

2011-12-01

152

Potential utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and propolis in enhancing the leishmanicidal activity of glucantime A utilidade da terapia de oxigenação hiperbárica e própolis em potencializar a atividade leishmanicida do glucantime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy, alone or combined with the pentavalent antimonial glucantime on Leishmania amazonensis infection. In parallel, the effect of Brazilian red propolis gel (propain alone or combined with glucantime on L. amazonensis infection was evaluated. The inhibition of the infection in macrophages treated with glucantime in combination with HBO exposition was greater than that of macrophages treated with glucantime alone or HBO alone. The susceptible mouse strain BALB/c infected in the shaved rump with L. amazonensis treated with glucantime and exposed to HBO showed: time points in the course of the disease in which lesions were smaller than those of mice treated with glucantime alone and revascularization of the skin in the lesion site; interferon-gamma (IFN-g levels were not elevated in lymph node cells from these animals. Propain alone was not efficient against lesions, although less exudative lesions were observed in animals treated with propain alone or combined with glucantime. These results reveal the potential value of HBO and red propolis in combination with glucantime for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis and encourage further studies on the effect of more aggressive HBO, propolis and glucantime therapies on different mouse models of leishmaniasis.Nesse trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia da terapia da oxigenação hiperbárica (HBO, aplicada em combinação ou não com o tratamento com glucantime, durante a infecção com Leishmania amazonensis. O efeito de gel da própolis vermelha de origem brasileira (propaina aplicado em combinação ou não com o tratamento com glucantime, também foi avaliado durante infecção com esse parasita. A inibição da infecção de macrófagos tratados com glucantime em combinação com HBO foi maior que a de macrófagos tratados apenas com glucantime ou HBO. A linhagem murina susceptível, BALB/c, infectada no dorso com L. amazonensis, tratada com glucantime e exposta a HBO, mostrou durante o curso da doença, fases em que as lesões eram menores do que a de camundongos apenas tratados com glucantime; observou-se revascularização da pele da lesão e baixa produção de interferon-gama em células de linfonodos desses animais. O tratamento com propaina não foi eficiente na cura das lesões, apesar de lesões menos exsudativas serem observadas em animais tratados com propaina ou propaina combinada ao tratamento com glucantime. Os resultados demonstram que tanto HBO como a própolis vermelha em combinação com glucantime, são promissoras no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para avaliar tratamentos e outros protocolos em diferentes modelos murinos da leishmaniose

Diana Copi Ayres

2011-12-01

153

Patogenia da leishmaniose cutânea experimental: a importância da necrose na eliminação dos parasitos das lesões  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um estudo histopatológico e ultraestrutural das lesões da leishmaniose cutânea causada pela Leishmania mexicana amazonensis em duas cepas isogênicas de camundongo, uma susceptível (Balb/c) e outra resistente (A/J), demonstrou que os amastigotas ficavam bem preservados nos vacúolos parasitóforos dos [...] macrófagos, igualmente em ambas as cepas. A reação de imunofluorescência revelou antigenos parasitários no interior e na membrana dos macrófagos de maneira idêntica para ambas as cepas. A diferença ocorria quando os macrófagos apareciam destruídos e as leishmanias ficavam livres ou fagocitadas por polimorfonucleares, neutrófilos e eosinófilos. Estes parasitos exibiam então graus variáveis de nítidas alterações degenerativas. No camundongo resistence, a necrose, de tipo caseoso ou fibrinóide, era mais disseminada e mais freqüente que no animal susceptível. Os achados observados indicaram que as leishmanias não são destruídas no interior dos macrófagos e sim fora deles, especialmente quando fagocitadas por leucócitos polimorfonucleares. A necrose apareceu como o mecanismo mais saliente através do qual o hospedeiro elimina os parasitos das lesões, sendo a mesma um aspecto importante da reação de hipersensibilidade tardia que ocorre nos animais resistentes. Abstract in english Amastigotes of Leshmania mexicana amazonensis appeared healthy and well preserved within the parasitophorous vacuoles of macrophages during the infection of a susceptible (Balb/c) or a relatively resistant (A/J) inbred strain of mice. Immunofluorescence showed the presence of leishmanial antigens wi [...] thin infected macrophages and in their external membranes similar for both strains. When the amastigotes were found extracellularly or within polymorphonuclear neutrophils or eosinophils, marked ultrastructural degenerative changes were observed in them. Such necrotic alterations were seen frequently in the resistant mice and rarely in the susceptible ones. Thus, necrosis of parasitized macrophages appeared as a major mechanism through which the resistant host eliminates the parasites from the lesions. It may be considered as a histological marker of resistance in leishmaniasis and represents a prominent component of the delayed-type immunological mechanism occurring in resistant hosts.

Zilton A., Andrade; Steven G., Reed; Silene B., Roters; Moysés, Sadigursky.

1984-12-01

154

A new approach to the phylogeny of Leishmania: species specificity of glycoconjugate ligands for promastigote internalization into murine macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Leishmania donovani glycoconjugate ligands for the internalization receptor on BALB/c peritoneal macrophages [fucose-mannose ligand (FML) and phosphate mannogalactan ligand (PMGL)] were shown to be species-specific in a comparative phagocytosis-inhibition test. Promastigotes of L. donovani Sudan (LD1S), L. infantum, L. d. donovani, L. major (Jericho and Sudan), L. tropica, L. chagasi, L. mexicana venezuelensis, L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. m. pifanoi, L. m. garnhami, L. braziliensis braziliensis, L. m. amazonensis (Josefa), L. enrietti or L. adleri were incubated with macrophages in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml FML and PMGL purified from L. donovani (LD1S). Parasite internalization was determined and compared with that obtained in control experiments. Specific inhibition of phagocytosis ranged from 83% (L. donovani LD1S) to 7% (L. m. amazonensis). We could distinguish groups of Leishmania consistently with their geographic distribution and the clinical aspects of the disease. Analogous experiments with L. m. amazonensis glycoconjugates showed reciprocal results, with inhibition ranging from 76% (L. m. amazonensis) to 8% (L. donovani LD1S). L. chagasi remained separated from the Old World kala-azar agents. Possible phylogenetic implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:2336445

Palatnik, C B; Previato, J O; Mendonça-Previato, L; Borojevic, R

1990-01-01

155

Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control / Infecção por Leishmania em uma população de cães: uma investigação epidemiológica relacionada ao controle da leishmaniose visceral  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A identificação dos fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania em cães é essencial para o direcionamento das ações de controle da leishmaniose visceral. Desta forma, o presente estudo analisa alguns destes fatores em uma população de cães, bem como as limitações das estratégias de controle executa [...] das em um município brasileiro. Por meio de modelos de regressão logística, analisou-se a associação entre as variáveis de exposição e a ocorrência de infecção. As ações de controle da doença foram analisadas qualitativamente. Dos 755 animais avaliados por meio de sorologia, 13,6% (103/755) foram soro-reagentes. Destes, 23,3% (24/103) eram assintomáticos e 76,7% (79/103) apresentaram pelo menos um sinal clínico possivelmente associado com a leishmaniose visceral. Com associações fracas, cães de raça pura, de pelo curto, com mais de cinco anos, machos e de grande porte foram mais propensos à infecção. As duas últimas variáveis compuseram o modelo final de regressão, sendo significativa a associação com o tamanho do cão. As estratégias de controle desenvolvidas apresentaram limitações e um número elevado de cães sorologicamente negativos foi submetido a eutanásia. Os dados apresentados contribuem para um melhor entendimento da dinâmica da infecção na leishmaniose visceral canina e indicam que ações visando a adequada execução do programa de controle da doença em áreas endêmicas brasileiras devem ser priorizadas. Abstract in english Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies imple [...] mented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized.

Klauber Menezes, Penaforte; Vinicius Silva, Belo; Rafael Goncalves, Teixeira-Neto; Renata Aparecida Nascimento, Ribeiro; Robson Bruniera de, Oliveira; Dante Alighieri, Schettini; Eduardo Sergio da, Silva.

2013-12-01

156

Avaliação do teste de aglutinação direta na detecção da infecção por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis em possíveis reservatórios de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no estado do Ceará  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar a aplicabilidade do Teste de Aglutinação Direta (TAD) como método de detecção da infecção natural canina por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, foi realizado um estudo envolvendo soros de cães residentes em uma área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, Serra de Baturité, CE [...] e soros de cães provenientes da cidade de Curitiba, PR, área não endêmica de leishmaniose. Os resultados obtidos com o TAD neste trabalho indicam a possibilidade do uso deste teste sorológico para levantamentos epidemiólogicos da infecção em reservatórios; neste estudo, o cão doméstico. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the aplicability of the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) as a method of detection of the natural canine infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it was realized a study involving the serum of naive dogs from Serra de Baturite, Ceara State, an endemic area of cutaneous lei [...] shmaniasis, and others from Curitiba, Parana State, a non endemic area. The results indicate the possibility of using this sorologic test to the epidemiologic research of the infection in the reservoir host; in this case, the dog.

Haroldo Sérgio da S., Bezerra; Joseval da Rocha, Viana; Maria Jania, Texeira; Cristina Sousa, Chaves; Daniela Bastos de, Araújo; José Hermênio C., Lima Filho.

1996-04-01

157

Avaliação do teste de aglutinação direta na detecção da infecção por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis em possíveis reservatórios de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no estado do Ceará  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a aplicabilidade do Teste de Aglutinação Direta (TAD como método de detecção da infecção natural canina por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, foi realizado um estudo envolvendo soros de cães residentes em uma área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, Serra de Baturité, CE e soros de cães provenientes da cidade de Curitiba, PR, área não endêmica de leishmaniose. Os resultados obtidos com o TAD neste trabalho indicam a possibilidade do uso deste teste sorológico para levantamentos epidemiólogicos da infecção em reservatórios; neste estudo, o cão doméstico.In order to evaluate the aplicability of the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT as a method of detection of the natural canine infection for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, it was realized a study involving the serum of naive dogs from Serra de Baturite, Ceara State, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and others from Curitiba, Parana State, a non endemic area. The results indicate the possibility of using this sorologic test to the epidemiologic research of the infection in the reservoir host; in this case, the dog.

Haroldo Sérgio da S. Bezerra

1996-04-01

158

Biological and biochemical characterization of tunicamycin-resistant Leishmania mexicana: mechanism of drug resistance and virulence.  

OpenAIRE

A parasitic protozoan, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was previously made resistant to tunicamycin (J.A. Kink and K.-P. Chang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:1253-1257, 1987). In the present study, six different tunicamycin-resistant variants were biologically and biochemically compared with their parental wild type to further delineate the mechanism of tunicamycin resistance and that of their virulence observed. In contrast to their parental wild type, all tunicamycin-resistant variants wer...

Kink, J. A.; Chang, K. P.

1987-01-01

159

Mefloquina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da mefloquina numa região endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, considerando que esta droga de administração oral, eficaz no tratamento da malária, com meia vida prolongada e efeitos colaterais pouco freqüentes poderia ser menos tóxica e de mais fácil administração, quando comparada com os antimoniais pentavalentes. Em Corte de Pedra, no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia, foram tratados, aleatoriamente, dez pacientes portadores de lesões leishmanióticas, subdivididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu mefloquina pela via oral, dose de 250mg/dia, durante seis dias, repetindo-se o mesmo esquema após intervalo de três semanas. O segundo grupo recebeu antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® diariamente, pela via endovenosa, na dose de 20mg/kg por 20 dias. Do grupo da mefloquina só um paciente apresentou cicatrização depois do segundo ciclo. Um desses, com quatro lesões apresentou nova lesão durante o primeiro ciclo de tratamento. A evolução dos outros três foi lenta sendo que em nove semanas nenhum deles tinha cicatrizado as úlceras que permaneciam com grande infiltração e sinais evidentes de atividade. O grupo tratado com Glucantime® apresentou evidente melhora.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®, 20mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime® showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

1999-10-01

160

Mefloquina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis / Efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da mefloquina numa região endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, considerando que esta droga de administração oral, eficaz no tratamento da malária, com meia vida prolongada e efeitos colaterais pouco freqüentes poderi [...] a ser menos tóxica e de mais fácil administração, quando comparada com os antimoniais pentavalentes. Em Corte de Pedra, no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia, foram tratados, aleatoriamente, dez pacientes portadores de lesões leishmanióticas, subdivididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu mefloquina pela via oral, dose de 250mg/dia, durante seis dias, repetindo-se o mesmo esquema após intervalo de três semanas. O segundo grupo recebeu antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime®) diariamente, pela via endovenosa, na dose de 20mg/kg por 20 dias. Do grupo da mefloquina só um paciente apresentou cicatrização depois do segundo ciclo. Um desses, com quatro lesões apresentou nova lesão durante o primeiro ciclo de tratamento. A evolução dos outros três foi lenta sendo que em nove semanas nenhum deles tinha cicatrizado as úlceras que permaneciam com grande infiltração e sinais evidentes de atividade. O grupo tratado com Glucantime® apresentou evidente melhora. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administ [...] ration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®), 20mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime® showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

Victor Alberto, Laguna-Torres; Carlos A.C., Silva; Dalmo, Correia; Edgard M., Carvalho; Albino V., Magalhães; Vanize de Oliveira, Macêdo.

1999-10-01

161

Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs / Leishmaniose visceral canina causada por Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi na Amazônia brasileira: comparação da densidade parasitária da pele, linfonodo e vísceras entre cães soropositivos, sintomáticos e assintomáticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) é reconhecida pelas características clínicas da doença e é altamente letal. A infecção, entretanto, pode ser totalmente assintomática em alguns cães soropositivos, o que tem levantado questão polêmica sobre a possibilidade desses animais, serem ou não uma fonte i [...] mportante da infecção para o flebotomíneo, Lutzomyia longipalpis, o principal vetor da leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA). Neste estudo foram examinados 51 cães com LVC aguda, provenientes de área endêmica de LVA no Estado do Pará, Brasil, e a carga parasitária, formas amastigotas de Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, na pele, linfonodo poplíteo e vísceras (fígado e baço) foi comparada com a de nove cães assintomáticos soropositivos (IFAT-IgG). Fragmentos de biópsia desses tecidos obtidos post-mortem foram processados para análise através de imunohistoquímica, usando um anticorpo policlonal contra Leishmania sp. Os testes do Qui-quadrado (X²) e Mann Whitney foram usados para avaliar as médias da densidade de macrófagos infectados (p 0,05) na densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm²) e do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8,3/mm²) entre cães assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Entretanto, a densidade de macrófagos infectados da víscera de cães sintomáticos (5,3/mm²) foi maior (p Abstract in english Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyi [...] a longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG). Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p 0.05) in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm²) and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm²), between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p

Luciana Vieira R., Lima; Liliane Almeida, Carneiro; Marliane Batista, Campos; Eujênia Janis, Chagas; Márcia D., Laurenti; Carlos E.P., Corbett; Ralph, Lainson; Fernando Tobias, Silveira.

2010-10-01

162

Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis  

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Full Text Available Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishmania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible and C57BL/6 (resistant mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro negativamente carregadas, enquanto que promastigotas metacíclicos não se aderem à coluna e podem ser recuperados com facilidade. Condições ótimas de cromatografia foram validadas por análise estatística. O rendimento médio de parasitas obtidos após separação em colunas de lã de vidro e a viabilidade dos promastigotas foram estimados por microscopia óptica. Os promastigotas metacíclicos tiveram um rendimento médio de 43,5% a 57,5%. Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis e camundongos C57BL/6 (resistentes apresentaram padrões distintos de lesões cutâneas, os primeiros com lesões mais agressivas, induzidas por promastigotas metacíclicos. As respostas à reação de HTR foram maiores nos grupos de camundongos C57BL/6, submetidos à infecção com promastigotas metacíclicos. Estes resultados indicam que o novo método poderia ser integrado aos protocolos existentes para estudar a metaciclogênese de parasitas do gênero Leishmania in vivo.

Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

2003-11-01

163

Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with 60Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 ?g/ml (EC50), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |?g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 (?g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC50 of 11|?g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 60Co gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC50 of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

164

Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR for diagnosing of Leishmania infantum chagasi in dogs / Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase e PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico de Leishmania infantum chagasi em cães  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A importância do cão como reservatório de L. infantum chagasi no meio urbano tem estimulado a realização de inúmeros trabalhos de avaliação de técnicas de diagnóstico, uma vez que este procedimento, quando realizado corretamente, torna-se um importante passo na prevenção da doença em humanos. Dentre [...] os métodos de diagnóstico, as técnicas moleculares têm adquirido destaque. Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar o desempenho da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) e da PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) utilizando diferentes amostras biológicas. Para tanto foram utilizados 35 cães provenientes de uma área endêmica para LVC, onde foram utilizados para o diagnóstico molecular, aspirado de medula óssea, fragmentos de linfonodo e baço. Neste estudo a qPCR foi capaz de detectar um maior número de animais positivos quando comparada com a PCR. Já entre as diferentes amostras biológicas utilizadas não foi observada diferença significativa na detecção de DNA de L. infantumchagasi por meio da PCR e qPCR. Mesmo assim, considerando a facilidade de obtenção, o linfonodo pode ser considerada como a melhor amostra para diagnóstico molecular da infecção por L. infantum chagasi. Abstract in english The importance of dogs as a reservoir for Leishmania infantumchagasi in urban environments has stimulated numerous studies assessing diagnostic techniques. When performed properly, such procedures are an important step in preventing leishmaniasis in humans. Molecular methods have become prominent fo [...] r this purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the performance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) for diagnosing of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using different biological samples. For this, 35 dogs from an area endemic for CVL were used. Bone marrow aspirate and lymph node and spleen fragments from these dogs were used for the molecular diagnosis. In the present study, qPCR was able to detect a greater number of positive animals than seen with PCR. Among the different biological samples used, there was no significant difference in L. infantumchagasi DNA detection between PCR and qPCR. However, considering that lymph nodes are easy to acquire, these can be considered to be the best samples for making molecular diagnoses of L. infantum chagasi infection.

Rafael Antonio do Nascimento, Ramos; Carlos Alberto do Nascimento, Ramos; Márcia Mariza Gomes, Jusi; Flábio Ribeiro de, Araújo; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Maria Aparecida da Glória, Faustino; Leucio Câmara, Alves.

2012-09-01

165

Immunoperoxidase technique using an anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum in the diagnosis of culture-confirmed American tegumentary leishmaniasis / Técnica da imunoperoxidase utilizando um soro hiperimune anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi no diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana confirmada por cultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo relata a produção do soro policlonal de coelho anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi, a padronização da técnica de imunohistoquímica (IHQ) e sua aplicação em lesões de leishmaniose cutânea (LC) diagnosticadas por isolamento de Leishmania sp. em cultura. Foram examinados 30 fragmentos de les [...] ões ativas de LC e 10 fragmentos de lesões de etiologia fúngica, utilizados como grupo controle. A IHQ mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de amastigotas que a coloração em hematoxilina-eosina (HE), sendo positiva em 24 fragmentos de LC (80%) e ao passo que a HE foi positiva em 16 (53%) (p = 0,028). A IHQ também marcou diferentes espécies de fungos causadoras de micoses cutâneas. Adicionalmente, verificou-se positividade no citoplasma de células mononucleares e células endoteliais. Entretanto, esse achado esteve presente no grupo controle. Conclui-se que o método de IHQ apresentou boa sensibilidade na detecção de formas amastigotas. Abstract in english The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L.) chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fr [...] agments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80%) biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53%) (p = 0.028). The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.

Leonardo P., Quintella; Tullia, Cuzzi; Maria de F., Madeira; Thais, Okamoto; Armando de O., Schubach.

2009-04-01

166

Immunoperoxidase technique using an anti-Leishmania (L. chagasi hyperimmune serum in the diagnosis of culture-confirmed American tegumentary leishmaniasis Técnica da imunoperoxidase utilizando um soro hiperimune anti-Leishmania (L. chagasi no diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana confirmada por cultura  

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Full Text Available The present study reports the production of the rabbit anti-Leishmania (L. chagasi hyperimmune serum, the standardization of the immunohistochemistry (IHC technique and the evaluation of its employment in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL lesions diagnosed by Leishmania sp. culture isolation. Thirty fragments of active CL lesions were examined as well as 10 fragments of cutaneous mycosis lesions as control group. IHC proved more sensitive in detecting amastigotes than conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE stained slides: the former was positive in 24 (80% biopsies whereas the latter, in 16 (53% (p = 0.028. The reaction stained different fungus species causing cutaneous mycosis. Besides, positive reaction was noticed in mononuclear and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, this finding was present in the control group biopsies. It is concluded that IHC showed good sensitivity in detecting amastigotes.O presente estudo relata a produção do soro policlonal de coelho anti-Leishmania (L. chagasi, a padronização da técnica de imunohistoquímica (IHQ e sua aplicação em lesões de leishmaniose cutânea (LC diagnosticadas por isolamento de Leishmania sp. em cultura. Foram examinados 30 fragmentos de lesões ativas de LC e 10 fragmentos de lesões de etiologia fúngica, utilizados como grupo controle. A IHQ mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de amastigotas que a coloração em hematoxilina-eosina (HE, sendo positiva em 24 fragmentos de LC (80% e ao passo que a HE foi positiva em 16 (53% (p = 0,028. A IHQ também marcou diferentes espécies de fungos causadoras de micoses cutâneas. Adicionalmente, verificou-se positividade no citoplasma de células mononucleares e células endoteliais. Entretanto, esse achado esteve presente no grupo controle. Conclui-se que o método de IHQ apresentou boa sensibilidade na detecção de formas amastigotas.

Leonardo P. Quintella

2009-04-01

167

Efficacy of the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) with the use of methylene blue associated with the ?660nm laser in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonesis: in vitro study  

Science.gov (United States)

The present studied evaluated the in vitro effects of PDT on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes. For this examination L. amazonensis promastigotes, stain Josefa, were used and maintained in Warren media supplement with fetal bovine serum at 26°C for 96 hours. A viability curve was accomplished using different concentrations of methylene blue photosensitizer associated to red laser light in order to obtain the most effective interaction to inhibit the parasite's growth. Two pre-irradiation periods, 5 and 30 minutes, were evaluated and the promastigotes were counted by colorimetry. On fluorescence microscopy the autophagic processes and reactive oxygen species were detected. Promastigotes treated with Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) by concentrations of 5 and 0,315ug/mL, presented cellular proliferation inhibition when compared to the control. In the first condition, the cells had structural alterations such as truncated cells, cells with two flagella, bleb formation and cells body deformation, while none of these modifications could be visualized in the control group. When analyzed through fluorescence microscopy, the promastigotes treated were positives for free radicals immediately after light application and also 1 hour after treatment presenting signs of autophagia. PDT on L. (L.) amazonensis is effective causing alterations that can help elucidate the mechanisms of the parasite's death when treated with methilene

Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; Alves, Eliomara S. S.; Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Rosa, Cristiane B.; Colombo, Fabio; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.

2012-03-01

168

Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp; Acao do veneno de Bothrops moojeni e sua fracao L-aminoacido oxidase, submetida ao tratamento com raios gama de {sup 60}Co, em Leishmania spp  

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Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 {mu}g/ml (EC{sub 50}), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |{mu}g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 ({mu}g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC{sub 50} of 11|{mu}g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 6{sup 0C}o gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC{sub 50} of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

Cardoso, Andre Gustavo Tempone

1999-07-01

169

Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts / Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos [...] de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR) em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos) de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro negativamente carregadas, enquanto que promastigotas metacíclicos não se aderem à coluna e podem ser recuperados com facilidade. Condições ótimas de cromatografia foram validadas por análise estatística. O rendimento médio de parasitas obtidos após separação em colunas de lã de vidro e a viabilidade dos promastigotas foram estimados por microscopia óptica. Os promastigotas metacíclicos tiveram um rendimento médio de 43,5% a 57,5%. Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis) e camundongos C57BL/6 (resistentes) apresentaram padrões distintos de lesões cutâneas, os primeiros com lesões mais agressivas, induzidas por promastigotas metacíclicos. As respostas à reação de HTR foram maiores nos grupos de camundongos C57BL/6, submetidos à infecção com promastigotas metacíclicos. Estes resultados indicam que o novo método poderia ser integrado aos protocolos existentes para estudar a metaciclogênese de parasitas do gênero Leishmania in vivo. Abstract in english Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishm [...] ania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH) in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic) promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible) and C57BL/6 (resistant) mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.

Regina Coeli Cunha, Dórea; Carlos Gomes, Barboza-Filho; Dayson Friaça, Moreira; Mirian, Guirro; Ágtha de Alencar Muniz, Chaves; Ricardo José, Dunder; Elaine Amorim, Soares; Vitório, Santos-Júnior; Wilma, Spinosa.

2003-11-01

170

The transmission of suprapylarian Leishmania by bite of experimentally infected sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae A trasnmissão de Leishmania suprapilária pela picada do flebotomíneo infectado experimentalmente  

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Full Text Available Lutzomyia furcata transmitted Leishmania chagasi to a hamster 10 days after being experimentally fed on an infected spleen. An individual female Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai that had fed on a hamster lesion caused by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis transmitted this parasite 6 days later to another hamster. Transmission electron microscopy of this fly's head revealed a small number of degenerate promastigotes in the foregut, but only a few were attached.O protozoário Leishmania (L. chagasi foi transmitido experimentalmente a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Lutzomyia furcata. Os insetos foram infectados através de uma membrana (pele de pinto, utilizando-se formas amastigotas provenientes do baço de um hamster infectado. O baço foi triturado em sangue de coelho. A L. (L. amazonensis foi transmitida a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Psychodopygus c. carrerai, previamente alimentado em lesão de pele de um outro hamster infectado com o parasita. O exame desse flebotomíneo, através de microscópio eletrônico, revelou um número pequeno de flagelados degenerados, livres no lumen do intestino anterior.

L. Ryan

1987-09-01

171

Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta  

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Full Text Available To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados e nenhum sinal clínico, parasito ou anticorpo foi detectado em novos exames realizados ao longo de seis meses. Os resultados desse trabalho sugerem portanto, a presença de uma co-infecção entre os três parasitos citados nas áreas endêmicas e não a reação cruzada entre eles, nos testes sorológicos de RIFI e ELISA descritos.

Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira

2008-03-01

172

Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test / Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas [...] pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI) e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados e nenhum sinal clínico, parasito ou anticorpo foi detectado em novos exames realizados ao longo de seis meses. Os resultados desse trabalho sugerem portanto, a presença de uma co-infecção entre os três parasitos citados nas áreas endêmicas e não a reação cruzada entre eles, nos testes sorológicos de RIFI e ELISA descritos. Abstract in english To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT) [...] and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.

Trícia Maria F. de Sousa, Oliveira; Patrícia I., Furuta; Débora de, Carvalho; Rosangela Z., Machado.

2008-03-01

173

Canine visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi in Amazonian Brazil: comparison of the parasite density from the skin, lymph node and visceral tissues between symptomatic and asymptomatic, seropositive dogs Leishmaniose visceral canina causada por Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi na Amazônia brasileira: comparação da densidade parasitária da pele, linfonodo e vísceras entre cães soropositivos, sintomáticos e assintomáticos  

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Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is recognizable by characteristic signs of disease and is highly lethal. The infection, however, may be quite inapparent in some seropositive dogs, and this has raised the polemic question as to whether or not such animals can be a source of infection for Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. In this study we have examined 51 dogs with acute CVL from an AVL area in Pará State, northern Brazil, and compared the parasite density, amastigotes of Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi, in the skin, lymph node and viscera of symptomatic with that of nine asymptomatic but seropositive dogs (IFAT-IgG. Post-mortem biopsy fragments of these tissues were processed by immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against Leishmania sp. The X² and Mann Whitney tests were used to evaluate the means of infected macrophage density (p 0.05 in the skin (10.7/mm² x 15.5/mm² and lymph node (6.3/mm² x 8.3/mm², between asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. It was higher (p A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC é reconhecida pelas características clínicas da doença e é altamente letal. A infecção, entretanto, pode ser totalmente assintomática em alguns cães soropositivos, o que tem levantado questão polêmica sobre a possibilidade desses animais, serem ou não uma fonte importante da infecção para o flebotomíneo, Lutzomyia longipalpis, o principal vetor da leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA. Neste estudo foram examinados 51 cães com LVC aguda, provenientes de área endêmica de LVA no Estado do Pará, Brasil, e a carga parasitária, formas amastigotas de Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi, na pele, linfonodo poplíteo e vísceras (fígado e baço foi comparada com a de nove cães assintomáticos soropositivos (IFAT-IgG. Fragmentos de biópsia desses tecidos obtidos post-mortem foram processados para análise através de imunohistoquímica, usando um anticorpo policlonal contra Leishmania sp. Os testes do Qui-quadrado (X² e Mann Whitney foram usados para avaliar as médias da densidade de macrófagos infectados (p 0,05 na densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm² e do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8,3/mm² entre cães assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Entretanto, a densidade de macrófagos infectados da víscera de cães sintomáticos (5,3/mm² foi maior (p < 0,05 que a de cães assintomáticos (1,4/mm². Estes resultados sugerem, fortemente, que cães naturalmente infectados por L. (L. i. chagasi, assintomáticos ou sintomáticos, podem servir como fonte de infecção, principalmente, considerando-se que a densidade de macrófagos infectados da pele (10,7/mm² x 15,5/mm², local onde o flebotomíneo vetor Lu. longipalpis realiza a hematofagia, foi maior (p < 0,05 que as do linfonodo (6,3/mm² x 8.3/mm² e vísceras (1,4/mm²x 5,3/mm².

Luciana Vieira R. Lima

2010-10-01

174

Methylglyoxal metabolism in Leishmania infantum  

OpenAIRE

Leishmanioses são doenças que afectam humanos e outros mamíferos, provocadas por um parasita do género Leishmania, pertencente à família Trypanosomatidae. A forma mais severa da doença é letal se não for tratada, não existindo actualmente vacinas ou terapias curativas eficazes. A identificação de novos alvos terapêuticos baseia-se em diferenças encontradas entre o parasita e o hospedeiro. Uma das principais características bioquímicas que distingue os tripanossomat...

Barata, Li?dia Isabel Sebastia?o

2010-01-01

175

Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like), BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like), and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2). The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T) and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications. PMID:24724078

de Moura, Andréa A.; Kayano, Anderson M.; Oliveira, George A.; Setúbal, Sulamita S.; Ribeiro, João G.; Barros, Neuza B.; Nicolete, Roberto; Moura, Laura A.; Fuly, Andre L.; Nomizo, Auro; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Calderon, Leonardo A.

2014-01-01

176

Purification and biochemical characterization of three myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis snake venom with toxicity against Leishmania and tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like), BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like), and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2). The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T) and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications. PMID:24724078

de Moura, Andréa A; Kayano, Anderson M; Oliveira, George A; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Ribeiro, João G; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Moura, Laura A; Fuly, Andre L; Nomizo, Auro; da Silva, Saulo L; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Calderon, Leonardo A

2014-01-01

177

Genomic organization and expression of the HSP70 locus in New and Old World Leishmania species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock is believed to be a developmental inductor of differentiation in Leishmania. Furthermore, heat shock genes are extensively studied as gene models to decipher mechanisms of gene regulation in kinetoplastids. Here, we describe the organization and expression of the HSP70 loci in representative Leishmania species (L. infantum, L. major, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis). With the exception of L. braziliensis, the organization of the HSP70 loci was found to be well conserved among the other Leishmania species. Two types of genes, HSP70-I and HSP70-II, were found to be present in these Leishmania species except for L. braziliensis that lacks HSP70-II gene. Polymorphisms in the HSP70 locus allow the differentiation of the Old and New World species within the subgenus Leishmania. A notable discrepancy between our data and those of the L. major genome database in relation to the gene copy number composing the L. major HSP70 locus was revealed. The temperature-dependent accumulation of the HSP70-I mRNAs is also conserved among the different Leishmania species with the exception of L. braziliensis. In spite of these differences, analysis of the HSP70 synthesis indicated that the HSP70 mRNAs are also preferentially translated during heat shock in L. braziliensis. PMID:17054823

Folgueira, C; Cañavate, C; Chicharro, C; Requena, J M

2007-03-01

178

Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Avaliação de amostras de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos de duas áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose visceral no Brasil através da eletroforese de isoenzimas  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.INTRODUÇÃO: Cães domésticos são considerados os reservatórios mais importantes no ciclo peridoméstico de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. No entanto, a variabilidade genética de sub-populações que circulam neste hospedeiro é ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, sendo tal conhecimento de grande importância no contexto clínico-epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar a variabilidade fenotípica de 153 amostras de L. chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 e Belo Horizonte (n = 96, onde a doença é endêmica. Foram selecionadas somente amostras isoladas de pele íntegra e analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE empregando nove sistemas enzimáticos (6PG, GPI, NH1 e NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, IDHNADP. RESULTADOS: Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram perfil eletroforético idêntico entre si e com a amostra de L. chagasi utilizada como referência neste estudo (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. A análise fenética demonstrou índice de similaridade igual a um para todas as amostras, revelando um compartilhamento de 100% dos caracteres avaliados. CONCLUSÕES: A partir desses resultados, podemos inferir que as populações de L. chagasi que estão circulando nos cães do Rio de Janeiro e Belo Horizonte podem ser agrupadas em um único zimodema.

Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

2011-10-01

179

Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis / Avaliação de amostras de Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos de duas áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose visceral no Brasil através da eletroforese de isoenzimas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Cães domésticos são considerados os reservatórios mais importantes no ciclo peridoméstico de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. No entanto, a variabilidade genética de sub-populações que circulam neste hospedeiro é ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, sendo tal conhecimento de g [...] rande importância no contexto clínico-epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar a variabilidade fenotípica de 153 amostras de L. chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 57) e Belo Horizonte (n = 96), onde a doença é endêmica. Foram selecionadas somente amostras isoladas de pele íntegra e analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE) empregando nove sistemas enzimáticos (6PG, GPI, NH1 e NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, IDHNADP). RESULTADOS: Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram perfil eletroforético idêntico entre si e com a amostra de L. chagasi utilizada como referência neste estudo (MHOM/BR/74/PP75). A análise fenética demonstrou índice de similaridade igual a um para todas as amostras, revelando um compartilhamento de 100% dos caracteres avaliados. CONCLUSÕES: A partir desses resultados, podemos inferir que as populações de L. chagasi que estão circulando nos cães do Rio de Janeiro e Belo Horizonte podem ser agrupadas em um único zimodema. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important [...] implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57) and Belo Horizonte (n = 96), where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP). RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75). Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.

Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro, Coutinho; Dilvani Oliveira, Santos; Cibele, Baptista; Fabiano Borges, Figueiredo; Maria de Fatima, Madeira.

2011-10-01

180

Identification of the promastigote surface protease in seven species of Leishmania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve different strains of Leishmania, including L. major, L. donovani, L. infantum, L. tropica, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, and L. enriettii were examined for the presence of an ectoenzyme structurally and functionally related to the promastigote surface protease found in L. major LEM 513. All strains examined possess a protease that is labelled by surface iodination of living promastigotes. The electrophoretic migrations of the labelled proteases are similar in all species showing distinct ectoprotease activity. In addition, proteases that cross-react immunologically with the polypeptide moiety of the surface protease of L. major LEM 513 were found in 10 strains. These proteases were in all cases labelled by surface radioiodination. Two of the strains, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, do not show a strict correlation between protease activity, surface iodination, and immunological cross-reactivity with the promastigote surface protease of L. major LEM 513, although both strains possess distinct neutral proteases with electrophoretic behavior similar to that of the enzyme of L. major. The amount of proteolytic activity detected at the surface of living cells depends on the strain tested, and correlates qualitatively with the amount of promastigote surface protease detected on zymograms. We conclude that the proteolytic activity found at the surface of Leishmania promastigotes is a common feature of the species infective for humans and that the promastigote surface protease described in this article is structurally and functionally conserved in Old and New World Leishmania. PMID:3302702

Bouvier, J; Etges, R; Bordier, C

1987-05-01

181

A novel A2 allele found in Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi Novo alelo do gene A2 descrito em Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi  

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Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a widely spread zoonotic disease. In Brazil the disease is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Peridomestic sandflies acquire the etiological agent by feeding on blood of infected reservoir animals, such as dogs or wildlife. The disease is endemic in Brazil and epidemic foci have been reported in densely populated cities all over the country. Many clinical features of Leishmania infection are related to the host-parasite relationship, and many candidate virulence factors in parasites that cause VL have been studied such as A2 genes. The A2 gene was first isolated in 1994 and then in 2005 three new alleles were described in Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. In the present study we amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced the A2 gene from the genome of a clonal population of L. (L. infantum chagasi VL parasites. The L. (L. infantum chagasi A2 gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced in. The amplified fragment showed approximately 90% similarity with another A2 allele amplified in Leishmania (Leishmania donovani and in L.(L. infantum described in literature. However, nucleotide translation shows differences in protein amino acid sequence, which may be essential to determine the variability of A2 genes in the species of the L. (L. donovani complex and represents an additional tool to help understanding the role this gene family may have in establishing virulence and immunity in visceral leishmaniasis. This knowledge is important for the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and effective tools for disease control.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma zoonose amplamente disseminada, causada no Brasil pela Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Flebotomíneos vetores adquirem o agente etiológico, alimentando-se do sangue de animais contaminados, como cachorros ou animais selvagens. A doença é endêmica no Brasil, e focos de epidemia são relatados em cidades densamente povoadas por todo o país. Muitas manifestações clínicas relacionadas à infecção por Leishmania estão ligadas à relação parasito-hospedeiro, e vários possíveis fatores de virulência dos parasitas, que causam a LV, são alvos de estudo, tais como os genes A2. O gene A2 foi isolado pela primeira vez em 1994 e, em seguida, em 2005, três novos alelos foram descritos em Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. No presente estudo, um fragmento do gene A2 de uma população clonal de L.(L. infantum chagasi foi amplificado por PCR e sua sequência de nucleotídeos determinada. O fragmento mostrou 90% de similaridade com alelos do gene A2 de Leishmania (Leishmania donovani e de L. (L. infantum, descritos na literatura. Entretanto, a tradução da sequência de nucleotídeos mostra diferenças na sequência de aminoácidos da proteína, que podem ser essenciais em determinar a variabilidade do gene A2 em espécies do complexo L. (L. donovani e representa uma ferramenta adicional na compreenssão do papel dessa família de genes na virulência e imunidade da leishmaniose visceral. O conhecimento dessa variação é importante para o desenvolvimento de testes diagnósticos mais precisos e ferramentas mais eficazes no controle da doença.

Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira

2011-03-01

182

A novel A2 allele found in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi / Novo alelo do gene A2 descrito em Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose amplamente disseminada, causada no Brasil pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Flebotomíneos vetores adquirem o agente etiológico, alimentando-se do sangue de animais contaminados, como cachorros ou animais selvagens. A doença é endêmica no Brasil [...] , e focos de epidemia são relatados em cidades densamente povoadas por todo o país. Muitas manifestações clínicas relacionadas à infecção por Leishmania estão ligadas à relação parasito-hospedeiro, e vários possíveis fatores de virulência dos parasitas, que causam a LV, são alvos de estudo, tais como os genes A2. O gene A2 foi isolado pela primeira vez em 1994 e, em seguida, em 2005, três novos alelos foram descritos em Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. No presente estudo, um fragmento do gene A2 de uma população clonal de L.(L.) infantum chagasi foi amplificado por PCR e sua sequência de nucleotídeos determinada. O fragmento mostrou 90% de similaridade com alelos do gene A2 de Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani e de L. (L.) infantum, descritos na literatura. Entretanto, a tradução da sequência de nucleotídeos mostra diferenças na sequência de aminoácidos da proteína, que podem ser essenciais em determinar a variabilidade do gene A2 em espécies do complexo L. (L.) donovani e representa uma ferramenta adicional na compreenssão do papel dessa família de genes na virulência e imunidade da leishmaniose visceral. O conhecimento dessa variação é importante para o desenvolvimento de testes diagnósticos mais precisos e ferramentas mais eficazes no controle da doença. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widely spread zoonotic disease. In Brazil the disease is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Peridomestic sandflies acquire the etiological agent by feeding on blood of infected reservoir animals, such as dogs or wildlife. The disease is endemic in Br [...] azil and epidemic foci have been reported in densely populated cities all over the country. Many clinical features of Leishmania infection are related to the host-parasite relationship, and many candidate virulence factors in parasites that cause VL have been studied such as A2 genes. The A2 gene was first isolated in 1994 and then in 2005 three new alleles were described in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. In the present study we amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced the A2 gene from the genome of a clonal population of L. (L.) infantum chagasi VL parasites. The L. (L.) infantum chagasi A2 gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced in. The amplified fragment showed approximately 90% similarity with another A2 allele amplified in Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani and in L.(L.) infantum described in literature. However, nucleotide translation shows differences in protein amino acid sequence, which may be essential to determine the variability of A2 genes in the species of the L. (L.) donovani complex and represents an additional tool to help understanding the role this gene family may have in establishing virulence and immunity in visceral leishmaniasis. This knowledge is important for the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and effective tools for disease control.

Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa, Oliveira; Elton José Rosas de, Vasconcelos; Andréa Cristina Higa, Nakaghi; Tânia Paula Aquino, Defina; Márcia Mariza Gomes, Jusi; Cristiane Divan, Baldani; Ângela Kaysel, Cruz; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado.

2011-03-01

183

Variabilidad de Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum en España  

OpenAIRE

En este trabajo nos planteamos como objetivo principal estudiar la variabilidad de Leishmania (leishmania) infantum y las implicaciones de la misma en la epidemiología de la leishmaniosis en España. Dada la importancia que la asociación lv/vih tiene en nuestro país y con el fin de determinar si los parásitos aislados en esta asociación comparten las mismas características biológicas que aquellas responsables de las leishmaniosis habituales, hemos estudiado mediante análisis enzimáti...

Jime?nez Alonso, Mari?a Isabel

1994-01-01

184

Palaearctic origin of Leishmania  

OpenAIRE

The hypothesis of a Palaearctic origin of Leishmania in the early Cenozoic, dispersal to the Nearctic in the late Eocene and to the Neotropical in the Pliocene is presented. It is further hypothesized that murid rodents and their immediate ancestors have been important mammalian reservoirs since the origination of Leishmania. Biochemical, molecular, biogeographical, entomological, mammalalogical and ecological support for these hypotheses are reviewed.

Kerr Sara F

2000-01-01

185

Peripheral blood fibrocytes: new information to explain the dynamics of Leishmania infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fibrocytes are important for understanding the progression of many diseases because they are present in areas where pathogenic lesions are generated. However, the morphology of fibrocytes and their interactions with parasites are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the morphology of periph [...] eral blood fibrocytes and their interactions with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis . Through ultrastructural analysis, we describe the details of fibrocyte morphology and how fibrocytes rapidly internalise Leishmania promastigotes. The parasites differentiated into amastigotes after 2 h in phagolysosomes and the infection was completely resolved after 72 h. Early in the infection, we found increased nitric oxide production and large lysosomes with electron-dense material. These factors may regulate the proliferation and death of the parasites. Because fibrocytes are present at the infection site and are directly involved in developing cutaneous leishmaniasis, they are targets for effective, non-toxic cell-based therapies that control and treat leishmaniasis.

Roger Magno, Macedo-Silva; Carina de Lima Pereira dos, Santos; Vanessa Alvaro, Diniz; Jorge Jose de, Carvalho; Camila, Guerra; Suzana, Corte-Real.

2014-02-01

186

Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios  

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Full Text Available La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A+ de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp. Se logró realizar la maduración, extracción y cultivo de ovocitos de B. marinus bajo condiciones similares a las estandarizadas para X. laevis. El potencial de reposo promedio así como las corrientes endógenas mostraron ser definidas por canales de cloruro dependientes de calcio y rectificadores de salida, de manera similar a lo reportado en X. laevis. La inyección de ARNm poli(A+ de L. amazonensis generó la expresión de corrientes de cloruro de  amplitud, cinética y características farmacológicas diferentes a las corrientes endógenas, reportadas en estudios previos con X. laevis como posible resultado de la expresión heteróloga de canales iónicos de L. amazonensis.

Arroyo Olarte Rubén Darío

2006-06-01

187

Increase of NK cells and proinflammatory monocytes are associated with the clinical improvement of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis after immunochemotherapy with BCG/Leishmania antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by disseminated lesions and the absence of a specific cellular immune response. Here, the immunochemotherapy outcome of a patient with DCL from Amazonian Brazil infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is presented. After several unsuccessful chemotherapy treatment regimens and many relapses, a monthly immunotherapy scheme of L. amazonensis PH8 plus L. (Viannia) braziliensis M2903 monovalent vaccines associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was established, one round of which also included an M2903 vaccine associated with intermittent antimonial treatment. Temporary healing of all lesions was achieved, although Leishmania skin tests were negative and interferon gamma was not detected in mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with Leishmania antigens. The frequencies of CD16 (+)CD56(+) NK cells (approximately 2x) and CD14 (+)CD16(+) proinflammatory monocytes (approximately 8x) increased in peripheral blood, and CD56 (+) lymphocytes were found infiltrating the lesions. An association between the increase of the frequency of innate immune system cells and the healing of lesions is shown, suggesting that this protocol of immunotherapy reduced the parasite load and activated NK cells and monocytes. PMID:19706899

Pereira, Ledice I A; Dorta, Miriam L; Pereira, Ana Joaquina C S; Bastos, Rosidete P; Oliveira, Milton A P; Pinto, Sebastião A; Galdino, Hélio; Mayrink, Wilson; Barcelos, Warly; Toledo, Vicente P C P; Lima, Gloria Maria C A; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

2009-09-01

188

PCR-RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical PCR-RFLP and RAPD for typing neotropical Leishmania  

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Full Text Available Introducción. El análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado y el estudio del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar han demostrado ser herramientas útiles para la tipificación de Leishmania.
Objetivos. Estudiar la utilidad de las técnicas moleculares para la identificación y tipificación de cepas de referencia de Leishmania spp. del Nuevo Mundo y valorar su aplicabilidad a muestras clínicas.
Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó PCR para amplificar el gen que codifica la cisteíno-proteinasa B, y el análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado utilizando ácido desoxirribonucleico de 16 cepas de referencia de Latinoamérica y de muestras clínicas de pacientes colombianos con leishmaniasis, y la técnica del ácido desoxirribonucleico polimórfico amplificado al azar utilizando ocho cepas de referencia. Se establecieron los patrones de bandas en cada caso.
Resultados. Se obtuvo producto de amplificación en la PCR para Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis y L. guyanensis. Para el resto, no fue posible amplificar el gen con los cebadores utilizados. La restricción mostró un patrón de bandas común para L. peruviana, L. guyanensis y L. panamensis, mientras L. braziliensis, presentaba un perfil individual único. El análisis de restricción del producto amplificado generó un patrón de bandas similar en los cinco pacientes estudiados, que se correspondía con el patrón generado por L. peruviana, L. guyanensis o L. panamensis. Mediante la amplificación al azar se obtuvieron patrones de bandas reproducibles con todas las cepas estudiadas, que posibilitaron la diferenciación. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones de ambos procederes. Conclusiones. El combinar ambas metodologías resultaría útil para identificar especies de importancia médica, tomando en cuenta sus ventajas y desventajas.Introduction. The analysis of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA have been useful tools for Leishmania identification.
Objectives. Molecular procedures were demonstrated for identification and typing of reference strains of New World Leishmania and their applicability was validated for clinical samples.
Materials and methods. DNA was extracted from 16 reference strains of Latin American Leishmania as well as from clinical samples of leishmaniasis patients. A sequence coding for cysteine proteinase B was amplified by PCR and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The enzyme used was Taq1. For eight of the reference strains, the random amplified polymorphic desoxyribonucleic acid technique (RAPD was applied. Band patterns for Leishmania species differentiation were established each each method. The sample size of the clinical sample was of 5.
Results. PCR products of the cysteine proteinase B gene were obtained for L. braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis and L. guyanensis. For the other species, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, no amplification occurred. The patterns of restriction fragments revealed band patterns in common for L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis, whereas L. braziliensis had a distinctive pattern. When human samples were examined, amplification occurred for all cases, and the profiles corresponded to the common profile of L. peruviana, L. guyanensis and L. panamensis. The RAPD technique demonstrated reproducible and distinctive patterns for each of the 8 reference strains, L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. garnhami, L. lainsoni, L. chagasi, L. naiffi, making possible to differentiate all them. The advantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.
Co

Iván Darío Vélez

2008-12-01

189

Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis  

OpenAIRE

Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishmania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH) in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic) promastigotes of L. major recently...

Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea; Carlos Gomes Barboza-Filho; Dayson Friaça Moreira; Mirian Guirro; Ágtha de Alencar Muniz Chaves; Ricardo José Dunder; Elaine Amorim Soares; Vitório Santos-Júnior; Wilma Spinosa

2003-01-01

190

Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: Relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL from Ecuador were analyzed. Methods Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Results Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes, L. (V. guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (V. braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes, L. (Leishmania mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (L. amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes and L. (L. major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme. L. panamensis was the species most frequently identified in the Pacific region and was associated with several clinical variants of cutaneous disease (CL; eight cases of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC found in the Pacific highlands were associated with 3 zymodemes of this species. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis found only in the Amazonian focus was associated with 3 zymodemes of L. braziliensis. The papular variant of CL, Uta, found in the Andean highlands was related predominantly with a single zymodeme of L. mexicana. Conclusion Our data show a high degree of phenotypic variation within species, and some evidence for associations between specific variants of ATL (i.e. Uta and LRC and specific Leishmania zymodemes. This study further defines the geographic distribution of Leishmania species and clinical variants of ATL in Ecuador.

Mimori Tatsuyuki

2006-09-01

191

Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respostas terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857. O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7% pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40% pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%, para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1% ou enduração (10,8% no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade.FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. METHODS: 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857. The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7% in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40% patients, especially arthralgia (20.3% in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1% or induration (10.8% at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. CONCLUSION: Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.

Leandro Ourives Neves

2011-12-01

192

Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis / A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respost [...] as terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT) mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857). O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7%) pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40%) pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%), para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1%) ou enduração (10,8%) no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade. Abstract in english FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species [...] of Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. METHODS: 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857). The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7%) in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40%) patients, especially arthralgia (20.3%) in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1%) or induration (10.8%) at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. CONCLUSION: Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.

Leandro Ourives, Neves; Anette Chrusciak, Talhari; Ellen Priscilla Nunes, Gadelha; Roberto Moreira da, Silva Júnior; Jorge Augusto de Oliveira, Guerra; Luiz Carlos de Lima, Ferreira; Sinésio, Talhari.

1092-11-01

193

Synthesis of antimony complexes of yeast mannan and mannan derivatives and their effect on Leishmania-infected macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimony(Sb)-yeast mannan complexes were synthesized as a strategy to introduce Sb into macrophages infected with Leishmania amastigotes. The complexes were taken up by endocytosis after specific recognition by alpha-D-mannosyl receptors on the macrophage membrane. About 90% of the intracellular parasites were destroyed by Sb-mannan in vitro, whereas the corresponding Sb concentration used as the pentavalent antimonial drug glucantime destroyed about 60% of the amastigotes. None of the Sb complexes prepared with mannan acid or basic derivatives was as effective as the simple Sb-mannan complex in clearing macrophage infection by Leishmania (L) amazonensis. The leishmanicidal effect of Sb-mannan was also demonstrated in vivo with infected hamsters. The alternative use of Sb-mannan complex in the treatment of human leishmaniasis is envisaged on the basis of parasite-killing efficiency and the use of a low antimony dose. PMID:8424752

Cantos, G; Barbieri, C L; Iacomini, M; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

1993-01-01

194

Infecção natural de Lutzomyia longipalpis por Leishmania sp. em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Natural infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Leishmania sp. in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

No Brasil, o controle do vetor Lutzomyia longipalpis é uma das principais estratégias utilizadas para limitar a expansão da leishmaniose visceral americana. Entretanto, poucos são os estudos sobre a infecção natural destes flebotomíneos por espécies de Leishmania. Um estudo sobre a infecção natural de Lu. longipalpis por Leishmania sp. foi realizado no bairro Bela Vista, Teresina, Piauí, um dos principais focos urbanos da leishmaniose visceral americana no Brasil. Entre fevereiro d...

Silva, Jackellyne Geo?rgia Dutra E.; Werneck, Guilherme L.; Cruz, Maria Do Socorro Pires E.; Carlos Henrique Nery Costa; Ivete Lopes de Mendonça

2007-01-01

195

Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica / Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi [...] a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem. Abstract in english The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyi [...] a whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1.832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b braziliensis in the region mantaining transmission in dogs and man.

Julio A., Vexenat; Air C., Barreto; César A. Cuba, Cuba; Philip Davis, Marsden.

1986-09-01

196

Studies on the relationship between lectin binding carbohydrates and different strains of Leishmania from the New World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As formas de cultura de L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90), L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379); L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS) e L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL, M-1696) foram testadas com as seguintes lectinas: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis- [...] 120, Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papilata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. Todas as cepas de leishmania aglutinadas por C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 e A. polypoides. Nenhuma reação de aglutinação foi observada com P. vulgaris, D. biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus e L. tetragonolobus. Apenas L. m. pifanoi e as cepas H-JMMO e M-JOF de L. m. amazonensis mostravam reações de aglutinação com S. hispida, U. europaeus, l. alpinum e A. hypogaea enquanto as cepas LRC L-94 e M-379 de L. m. mexicana; H-LSS, LRC L-77, L-1 e M-2903 de L. b. braziliensis bem como as cepas H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 não mostraram nenhuma reação de aglutinação com estas quatro lectinas. Assim, as variações intra-específicas encontradas pelos testes de aglutinação por lectinas em cepas de leishmanias isoladas de casos de leishmaniose tegumentar não permitem estabelecer uma correlação entre formas clínicas e cepas isoladas. Por outro lado, estes testes mostram que a cepa de L. mexicana pifanoi apresenta reações idênticas às de duas cepas de L. mexicana amazonensis, não se podendo assim diferenciá-la por esta técnica. Pelo teste de aglutinação por lectina, empregado neste trabalho, podemos agrupar as cepas estudadas em dois grupos, mas não sabemos até o presente momento qual o significado destas variações intra-específicas em leishmanias isoladas de casos de leishmaniose cutânea do novo mundo. Abstract in english The culture forms of L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90), L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379); L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS) and L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL,M-1696) were tested with the following lectins: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis-120, [...] Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papillata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. All examined strains of Leishmania were agglutinated by C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 and A. popypoides. No agglutination reactions were observed with P. vulgaris, D.biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus and L. tetragonolobus. Only L. m. pifanoi and the L. m. amazonensis strains H-JMMO and MJOF showed agglutination reactions with S. hispida, U. europaeus, L. alpinum and A. hypogaea, while L. m. mexicana (LRC L-94; M-379) strains, L. b. braziliensis H. LSS, LRC L-77; L-1; M-2903 and the L. m. amazonensis strains, H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 showed no agglutination reactions with these four lectins.

J., Schottelius; S. C. Gonçalves da, Costa.

1982-03-01

197

Increased transmission potential of Leishmania major/Leishmania infantum hybrids  

OpenAIRE

Development of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrids was studied in two sand fly species. In Phlebotomus papatasi, which supported development of L. major but not L. infantum, the hybrids produced heavy late-stage infections with high numbers of metacyclic promastigotes. In the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, all Leishmania strains included in this study developed well. Hybrids were found to express L. major lipophosphoglycan, apparently enabling them to survive in P. papatasi...

Volf, Petr; Benkova, Ivana; Myskova, Jitka; Sadlova, Jovana; Campino, Lenea; Ravel, Christophe

2007-01-01

198

Anti-HIV drugs, lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir, modulate innate immune response triggered by Leishmania in macrophages: The role of NF-?B and PPAR-?.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the influence of HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and atazanavir (ATV) on macrophage functions during their first interaction with Leishmania. Macrophages from BALB/c mice treated for 10days with LPV/RTV and ATV, infected or not in vitro with L. (L.) amazonensis, were used to investigate the effects of these drugs on infection index, leishmanicidal capacity, cytokine production and PPAR-? and RelB expression. LPV/RTV and ATV treatments significantly increased the infection index and the percentage of Leishmania-infected macrophages compared to untreated infected macrophages. There was no correlated increase in the production of NO and H2O2 leishmanicidal molecules. Promastigotes derived from Leishmania-infected macrophages from LPV/RTV and ATV-treated BALB/c mice had an in vitro growth 45.1% and 56.4% higher in groups treated with LPV/RTV and ATV than with PBS in culture. ATV treatment reduced IL-12p70 and IL-10 secretion in Leishmania-infected macrophages, but had no effect on IL-23 and TNF production. LPV reduced IL-10 and had no effect on IL-12p70, TNF and IL-23 secretion. ATV treatment decreased PPAR-? expression in Leishmania-infected macrophages compared to untreated infected macrophages. In addition, LPV/RTV, but not ATV, reduced RelB cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation in Leishmania-infected macrophages. Results showed that LPV/RTV and ATV HIV protease inhibitors were able to modulate innate defense mechanisms against Leishmania via different intracellular pathways. Although HIV protease inhibitors are highly efficient to control the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, these drugs might also influence the course of leishmaniasis in HIV-Leishmania-co-infected individuals. PMID:25545854

Alves, Érica Alessandra Rocha; de Miranda, Marthina Gomes; Borges, Tatiana Karla; Magalhães, Kelly Grace; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

2015-02-01

199

Susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) to infection by different species and strains of Leishmania Ross, 1903  

OpenAIRE

A study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis to infection by different species or strains of New World Leishmania. The sand flies proved to be highly susceptible to infection by a strain of Le. guyanensis, with flagellates developing in all (18/18) of the specimens examined. A lower infection rate of 37 per cents (10/27) was recorded in flies exposed to infection by a strain of Le. amazonensis. Flagellates developed in 13 per cents (6/...

Da Silva, Ana Lu?cia F. F.; Paul Williams; Maria Norma Melo; Wilson Mayrink

1990-01-01

200

Genomic Organization of Leishmania Species  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania is a protozoan parasite belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae, which is found among 88 different countries. The parasite lives as an amastigote in vertebrate macro­phages and as a promastigote in the digestive tract of sand fly. It can be cultured in the laboratory us­ing appropriate culture media. Although the sexual cycle of Leishmania has not been observed during the promastigote and amastigote stages, it has been reported by some researchers. Leishma­nia has eukaryotic ce...

Kazemi, B.

2011-01-01

201

Ocular alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Alterações oculares em cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi  

OpenAIRE

Ocular conditions, anti-Leishmania antibodies and total protein of the aqueous humor were studied in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Fifty dogs were analyzed and assigned into two groups of 25 animals each. All animals were submitted to routine ophthalmic exam. Results showed that 76% of the affected animals presented ocular signs, being uveitis the predominant. The mean of total protein in the aqueous humor of animals with uveitis was higher (P<0.05) when compared...

Brito, F. L. C.; Alves, L. C.; Maia, F. C. L.; Santos, E. S. C.; Laus, J. L.; Meunier, I. M. J.

2006-01-01

202

Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil / Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em porco-espinho (Coendou sp.) encontrado em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alguns estudos relatam o encontro de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em estados da região Norte do Brasil. Na presente investigação, os autores descrevem o isolamento de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em um porco-espinho (Coendou sp.) encontrado em Brasília, Distrito Federal, região Centro-oeste do [...] Brasil. Durante um estudo de leishmaniose visceral canina conduzido na cidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal, um porco-espinho foi encontrado morto em via pública. O animal foi identificado e fragmentos de pele íntegra e baço foram coletados para isolamento do parasito em cultura. Esse relato da ocorrência de L. hertigi em outra região do Brasil pode contribuir para evidenciar a distribuição desse parasita no país. Vale ressaltar a necessidade de estudos para compreensão do papel L. hertigi na patologia e patogênese da leishmaniose e a sua sobrevivência em mamíferos e possíveis vetores. Abstract in english Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine viscera [...] l leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors.

Denise Amaro da, Silva; Maria de Fatima, Madeira; Carlos Jose Lima, Barbosa Filho; Edvar Yuri Paheco, Schubach; Juliana Helena da Silva, Barros; Fabiano Borges, Figueiredo.

2013-06-01

203

Genomic Organization of Leishmania Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leishmania is a protozoan parasite belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae, which is found among 88 different countries. The parasite lives as an amastigote in vertebrate macro­phages and as a promastigote in the digestive tract of sand fly. It can be cultured in the laboratory us­ing appropriate culture media. Although the sexual cycle of Leishmania has not been observed during the promastigote and amastigote stages, it has been reported by some researchers. Leishma­nia has eukaryotic cell organization. Cell culture is convenient and cost effective, and because posttranslational modifications are common processes in the cultured cells, the cells are used as hosts for preparing eukaryotic recombinant proteins for research. Several transcripts of rDNA in the Leishmania genome are suitable regions for conducting gene transfer. Old World Leishmania spp. has 36 chromosomes, while New World Leishmania spp. has 34 or 35 chromo­somes. The genomic organization and parasitic characteristics have been investigated. Leishmania spp. has a unique genomic organization among eukaryotes; the genes do not have introns, and the chromosomes are smaller with larger numbers of genes confined to a smaller space within the nucleus. Leishmania spp. genes are organized on one or both DNA strands and are transcribed as polycistronic (prokaryotic-like transcripts from undefined promoters. Regulation of gene expres­sion in the members of Trypanosomatidae differs from that in other eukaryotes. The trans-splic­ing phenomenon is a necessary step for mRNA processing in lower eukaryotes and is observed in Leishmania spp. Another particular feature of RNA editing in Leishmania spp. is that mitochon­drial genes encoding respiratory enzymes are edited and transcribed. This review will discuss the chromosomal and mitochondrial (kinetoplast genomes of Leishmania spp. as well as the phenome­non of RNA editing in the kinetoplast genome.

B Kazemi

2011-09-01

204

Intranasal Vaccination with Leishmanial Antigens Protects Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis antigens (LaAg) partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia) braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN) doses of LaAg (10 µg) or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg) were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-? and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM) immunisation failed to provide protection. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection. PMID:25569338

da Silva-Couto, Luzinei; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Saavedra, Andrea Franco; da Silva Costa Souza, Beatriz Lilian; Moreira, Otacílio Cruz; Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Pinto, Eduardo Fonseca

2015-01-01

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Características clínicas da leishmaniose tegumentar em crianças de 0 a 5 anos em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Clinical findings of tegumentary leishmaniasis in children under five years of age in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Para caracterizar a clínica da leishmaniose tegumentar em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, 4.464 fichas clínicas do Centro de Saúde de Corte de Pedra, Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia, Brasil, área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, entre maio de 1987 e dezembro de 1995. Foram registrados neste período 4.275 casos novos de leishmaniose, dos quais, 491 (11,5% correspondiam a crianças de 0 a 5 anos. A razão entre gênero masculino e feminino nas crianças foi 1,1:1. A forma clínica predominante foi a cutânea (98% e as lesões ulceradas foram as mais freqüentes (99%. A localização das lesões ocorreu, principalmente, acima da cintura (pA retrospective study was performed in a field clinic to characterize the clinical findings of tegumentary leishmaniasis in children from 0 to 5 years old. The clinical records of 4,464 patients were analyzed at the Primary Health Center of Corte de Pedra, Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bahia, Brazil, from May 1987 to December 1995. Four hundred and ninety one (11.8% children were identified among 4,275 new cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis registered at this Unit. The gender ratio (M:F for children under six years was 1.1:1. Cutaneous lesions predominated (98%, mainly skin ulcers (99% located above the waist (p<0.05. Thirty five percent had multiple lesions. The observed magnitude of the disease in children, the similar proportion of cases in both genders and the location of the lesions suggest the possibility of peri or intradomiciliary transmission.

Julia Ampuero

2006-02-01

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Characterization of the pattern of ribosomal protein L19 production during the lifecycle of Leishmania spp.  

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Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites causing a wide clinical spectrum of diseases in humans. Analysis of a region of chromosome 6 from Leishmania major (Iribar et al.) showed that the transcript of a putative L19 ribosomal protein (RPL19) was most abundant at the amastigote stage. We therefore decided to characterize L19 protein abundance throughout the lifecycle of Leishmania. Differential expression of the L19 gene during development has been observed for all Leishmania species studied to date (L. major, L. braziliensis, L. donovani, and L. amazonensis). Immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies against L. major RPL19 revealed that changes to L19 protein abundance follow a similar pattern in various species. The amount of L19 protein was higher in exponentially growing promastigotes than in stationary phase promastigotes. The L19 protein was barely detectable in amastigotes, despite the abundance of L19 transcripts observed in L. major at this stage. Immunofluorescence assays showed a granular, dispersed distribution of RPL19 throughout the cytoplasm. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the presence of the protein in the ribosomal fraction, but not in the cytosol of L. major. We generated a L. major transfectant bearing a plasmid-borne L19 gene. Overproduction of the L19 transcript and protein resulted in impaired growth of the transfectants in association with high polysome peaks. We also showed by metabolic labeling that L19 overexpressing clones display low rates of translation. These data suggest that L19 overexpression affects negatively translation elongation or termination. The lack of correlation between L19 transcript and protein abundances suggest that the translation of L19 is differentially controlled during development in the various species investigated. PMID:25290356

de Almeida-Bizzo, Janayna Hammes; Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Castro, Felipe F; Garcia, Juliana Bório Ferreira; Goldenberg, Samuel; Cruz, Angela Kaysel

2014-12-01

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Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

R.S., Mendes; T.A., Gurjão; L.M., Oliveira; V.L., Santana; W.L., Tafuri; J.R.S., Santos; A.F.M., Dantas; A.P., Souza.

2014-02-01

208

Pharmacological assessment defines Leishmania donovani casein kinase 1 as a drug target and reveals important functions in parasite viability and intracellular infection.  

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Protein kinase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in various therapeutic areas, including leishmaniasis, an important parasitic disease. Members of the Leishmania casein kinase 1 (CK1) family represent promising therapeutic targets. Leishmania casein kinase 1 isoform 2 (CK1.2) has been identified as an exokinase capable of phosphorylating host proteins, thus exerting a potential immune-suppressive action on infected host cells. Moreover, its inhibition reduces promastigote growth. Despite these important properties, its requirement for intracellular infection and its chemical validation as a therapeutic target in the disease-relevant amastigote stage remain to be established. In this study, we used a multidisciplinary approach combining bioinformatics, biochemical, and pharmacological analyses with a macrophage infection assay to characterize and define Leishmania CK1.2 as a valid drug target. We show that recombinant and transgenic Leishmania CK1.2 (i) can phosphorylate CK1-specific substrates, (ii) is sensitive to temperature, and (iii) is susceptible to CK1-specific inhibitors. CK1.2 is constitutively expressed at both the promastigote insect stage and the vertebrate amastigote stage. We further demonstrated that reduction of CK1 activity by specific inhibitors, such as D4476, blocks promastigote growth, strongly compromises axenic amastigote viability, and decreases the number of intracellular Leishmania donovani and L. amazonensis amastigotes in infected macrophages. These results underline the potential role of CK1 kinases in intracellular survival. The identification of differences in structure and inhibition profiles compared to those of mammalian CK1 kinases opens new opportunities for Leishmania CK1.2 antileishmanial drug development. Our report provides the first chemical validation of Leishmania CK1 protein kinases, required for amastigote intracellular survival, as therapeutic targets. PMID:24366737

Rachidi, Najma; Taly, Jean François; Durieu, Emilie; Leclercq, Olivier; Aulner, Nathalie; Prina, Eric; Pescher, Pascale; Notredame, Cedric; Meijer, Laurent; Späth, Gerald F

2014-01-01

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Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC5 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) movement and host recognition / Desplazamiento y capacidad de búsqueda del nematodo entomopatógeno nativo Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC5 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditida)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La respuesta de Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC5 en comparación con otras especies de nematodos entomopatógenos como Steinernema carpocapsae All y Steinernema riobrave 355, a los compuestos liberados por diferentes hospederos (Galleria mellonella, Mycotretus apicalis y Tenebrio molitor) y su nivel d [...] e virulencia a estos insectos fue evaluada. Las pruebas se realizaron en placas de Petri con agar-agua 2% para determinar el movimiento de los nematodos con y sin posibilidad de escogencia por diferentes hospederos. Se cuantificó la proximidad de juveniles infectivos (JIs) al hospedero como una fuente de atracción. Con el fin de determinar el desplazamiento de JIs en una condición similar al suelo, un ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área con arena. Los nematodos fueron virulentos para los hospederos. Cuando los nematodos e insectos fueron puestos en agar-agua, JIs se movieron hacia el estímulo, con preferencia de H. amazonensis a ciertos insectos. En la arena, S. carpocapsae causó menor mortalidad (70% ± 8,9 para G. mellonella) que H. amazonensis y S. riobrave (80% ± 6,5 y 99% ± 0,0). Heterorhabditis amazonensis fue capaz de encontrar y elegir a sus hospederos (G. mellonella y T. molitor) similar al comportamiento de S. riobrave y localizar sus hospederos con más eficacia que S. carpocapsae. De este modo, la virulencia de H. amazonensis fue similar a S. riobrave y esta característica podría ser promisoria para introducir esta especie nativa en programas de manejo integrado de plagas. Abstract in english Response of Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC5 to compounds released by different host insects and its virulence level to several insect hosts like Galleria mellonella, Mycotretus apicalis and Tenebrio molitor were evaluated in this study, and compared with other entomopathogenic nematode species like [...] Steinernema carpocapsae All and Steinernema riobrave 355. Tests were performed in Petri dishes with agar-water 2% to determine nematode movement toward the insect with and without opportunity of choosing different insect hosts. Evaluations were made quantifying the proximity of infective juveniles (IJs) to the insect as a source of allurement. In order to determine the displacement of IJs in a closed soil condition, a test was carried out in an arena with sand. The nematode was virulent to the target insects. When nematode and insect were released on agar-water, IJs moved toward the stimulus, with H. amazonensis howing preference for certain insects. In the arena with sand S. carpocapsae caused lower insect mortality (70% ± 8.9 for G. mellonella) than H. amazonensis and S. riobrave (80% ± 6.5 and 99% ± 0.0). Heterorhabditis amazonensis was able to find and choose its hosts (G. mellonella and T. molitor), similarly to S. riobrave behavior, and located them more effectively than S. carpocapsae. The virulence of H. amazonensis was thus similar to S. riobrave, and this characteristic could be promising to introduce this native species in integrated pest management programs.

VANESSA, ANDALÓ; GRAZIELLE, FURTADO MOREIRA; ALCIDES, MOINO JUNIOR.

2014-06-01

210

Host humoral immune response to Leishmania lipid-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY We report on the use of Leishmania donovani lipid-binding proteins (LBPs) as antigens capable of being recognized by serum from immunocompetent patients from southern Spain suffering from visceral leishmaniasis and from Peruvian patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. The absorbance found by immunoenzymatic techniques gave significantly different results for the serum samples from patients with and without leishmaniasis. Specificity by ELISA testing was 93.2% and sensibility 100%. Dot blots from human patient serum samples or naturally infected dogs from Spain gave similarly significant results. All the human serum samples from individuals with visceral leishmaniasis and the Leishmania-positive canine samples recognized two bands, with molecular weights of 8 and 57 kDa. The serum from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis recognized an additional band of 16 kDa. We discuss the role of Leishmania FABP and compare the immunological reactions found with serum samples from other protozoan infections such as toxoplasma and Chagas as well as bacterial infections such as tuberculosis and syphilis. PMID:16048642

Maache, M; Azzouz, S; Diaz de la Guardia, R; Alvarez, P; Gil, R; de Pablos, L M; Osuna, A

2005-06-01

211

RNA polymerase I promoter and splice acceptor site recognition affect gene expression in non-pathogenic Leishmania species  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania (Sauroleishmania) tarentolae has biotechnological potential for use as live vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis and as a system for the over expression of eukaryotic proteins that possess accurate post-translational modifications. For both purposes, new systems for protein expression i [...] n this non-pathogenic protozoan are necessary. The ribosomal RNA promoter proved to be a stronger transcription driver since its use yielded increased levels of recombinant protein in organisms of both genera Trypanosoma or Leishmania. We have evaluated heterologous expression systems using vectors with two different polypyrimidine tracts in the splice acceptor site by measuring a reporter gene transcribed from L. tarentolae RNA polymerase I promoter. Our data indicate that the efficiency of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase expression changed drastically with homologous or heterologous sequences, depending on the polypyrimidine tract used in the construct and differences in size and/or distance from the AG dinucleotide. In relation to the promoter sequence the reporter expression was higher in heterologous lizard-infecting species than in the homologous L. tarentolae or in the mammalian-infecting L. (Leishmania) amazonensis.

Tereza Cristina, Orlando; Mário Gustavo, Mayer; David A, Campbell; Nancy R, Sturm; Lucile Maria, Floeter-Winter.

2007-11-01

212

RNA polymerase I promoter and splice acceptor site recognition affect gene expression in non-pathogenic Leishmania species  

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Full Text Available Leishmania (Sauroleishmania tarentolae has biotechnological potential for use as live vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis and as a system for the over expression of eukaryotic proteins that possess accurate post-translational modifications. For both purposes, new systems for protein expression in this non-pathogenic protozoan are necessary. The ribosomal RNA promoter proved to be a stronger transcription driver since its use yielded increased levels of recombinant protein in organisms of both genera Trypanosoma or Leishmania. We have evaluated heterologous expression systems using vectors with two different polypyrimidine tracts in the splice acceptor site by measuring a reporter gene transcribed from L. tarentolae RNA polymerase I promoter. Our data indicate that the efficiency of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase expression changed drastically with homologous or heterologous sequences, depending on the polypyrimidine tract used in the construct and differences in size and/or distance from the AG dinucleotide. In relation to the promoter sequence the reporter expression was higher in heterologous lizard-infecting species than in the homologous L. tarentolae or in the mammalian-infecting L. (Leishmania amazonensis.

Tereza Cristina Orlando

2007-11-01

213

Candida amazonensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from rotting wood in the Amazonian forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Amazonian forest site in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and is related to Candida coipomoensis, Candida lignicola and Candida queiroziae. The novel species Candida amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. amazonensis sp. nov. is UFMG-HMD-26.3(T) ( = CBS 12363(T) = NRRL Y-48762(T)). PMID:21856981

Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Lopes, Mariana R; Pereira, Gilmara M D; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

2012-06-01

214

Ocular alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi / Alterações oculares em cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se as condições oculares, os anticorpos anti-Leishmania e os valores de proteína total no humor aquoso de cães infectados naturalmente por Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Analisaram-se 50 cães, divididos em dois grupos de 25 animais. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame oftálmico rot [...] ineiro. Os resultados mostraram que 76% dos cães infectados apresentaram sinais oculares, sendo a uveíte a alteração predominante. A média de proteína total no humor aquoso dos animais com uveíte foi maior (P Abstract in english Ocular conditions, anti-Leishmania antibodies and total protein of the aqueous humor were studied in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Fifty dogs were analyzed and assigned into two groups of 25 animals each. All animals were submitted to routine ophthalmic exam. Results sh [...] owed that 76% of the affected animals presented ocular signs, being uveitis the predominant. The mean of total protein in the aqueous humor of animals with uveitis was higher (P

F.L.C., Brito; L.C., Alves; F.C.L., Maia; E.S.C., Santos; J.L., Laus; I.M.J., Meunier.

2006-10-01

215

Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso  

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Full Text Available One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológico e sorológico por meio de exame do material da medula óssea e por imunofluorescência indireta, respectivamente. À citologia da úlcera corneana, visibilizaram-se formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp.

F.L.C. Brito

2007-02-01

216

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin  

OpenAIRE

Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capit...

Uesugi, C. H.; Huang, C. S.; Cares, J. E.

1985-01-01

217

Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em felinos do município de Araçatuba, SP Occurrence de Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Araçatuba, SP  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em gatos por dois métodos (citológico e sorológico, bem como associar a ocorrência deste protozoário com as variáveis sexo, idade e raça. Amostras séricas de 283 felinos domésticos foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, e o exame parasitológico direto de linfonodos também foi realizado para a verificação da positividade para Leishmania spp. Ocorrência de 0,7% (2/283 foi observada nos felinos examinados, por meio de imprint de linfonodos e nenhum animal apresentou títulos de anticorpos para Leishmania spp. As duas fêmeas positivas eram sem raça definida, sendo uma jovem e outra adulta. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, não foi constatada diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às variáveis sexo, raça e idade nos gatos desta pesquisa (p > 0,05. Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. nos gatos deste estudo foi baixa. Devido a esta baixa incidência sugere-se que estes não assumem importância epidemiológica na área do estudo.This study had the purpose to compare the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in felines through two methods (cytological and serological, as well as to associate the occurrence of this protozoan with the sex, age and breed variables. Serum samples from 283 domestic felines were processed by means of Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IIR, and the direct parasitological test for linfonodes was also carried out in order to verify positivity for Leishmania spp. Occurrence of 0.7% (2/283 was observed in the tested felines by means of linfonode imprinting and no animal showed title of antibodies for Leishmania spp. The two positive females were mongrel, a young female and an adult female feline. From the obtained results, no statistically significant difference was observed as regards the sex, breed and age variables in this research (p > 0.05. Occurrence of Leishmania spp. in the cats of this study was low. Such low incidence suggests that these hosts has no epidemiological relevance in the study area.

Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

2010-06-01

218

Identification of Six New World Leishmania species through the implementation of a High-Resolution Melting (HRM) genotyping assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundLeishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. This eco-epidemiological complexity imposes a challenge to the detection of circulating parasite species, not only related to human cases but also infecting vectors and reservoirs. Currently, no harmonized methods have been deployed to discriminate the NW Leishmania species.FindingsHerein, we conducted a systematic and mechanistic High-Resolution Melting (HRM) assay targeted to HSP70 and ITS1. Specific primers were designed that coupled with a HRM analyses permitted to discriminate six NW Leishmania species. In order to validate the herein described algorithm, we included 35 natural isolates obtained from human cases, insect vectors and mammals. Our genotyping assay allowed the correct assignment of the six NW Leishmania species (L. mexicana, L. infantum (chagasi), L. amazonensis, L. panamensis, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis) based on reference strains. When the algorithm was applied to a set of well-characterized strains by means of PCR-RFLP, MLEE and monoclonal antibodies (MA) we observed a tailored concordance between the HRM and PCR-RFLP/MLEE/MA (KI = 1.0). Additionally, we tested the limit of detection for the HRM method showing that this is able to detect at least 10 equivalent-parasites per mL.ConclusionsThis is a rapid and reliable method to conduct molecular epidemiology and host-parasite association studies in endemic areas. PMID:25394418

Hernández, Carolina; Alvarez, Catalina; González, Camila; Ayala, Martha; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan

2014-11-14

219

First occurrence of an autochthonous canine case of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in the municipality of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil / Ocorrência do primeiro caso autóctone canino por Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi no Município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral é relatado em cão (Canis familiaris), aparentemente em área não endêmica. DNA obtido a partir de amostras do baço e fígado foram submetidos a nested-PCR baseada no rDNA específico de Leishmania. Os produtos das PCR foram sequenciados e os 490 pares de base for [...] am idênticos a Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Esses resultados são surpreendentes, uma vez que, nenhum caso autóctone canino ou humano de leishmaniose visceral havia sido relatado neste município. Esse caso sugere que a transmissão natural da doença está ocorrendo nesta área. Abstract in english An autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. DNA obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a Leishmania-specific rDNA-based nested-PCR assay. The PCR product, a 490 bp [...] fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. These results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this municipality. This case suggests that natural transmission of this disease is occurring in this area.

Elisa San Martin Mouriz, Savani; Douglas, Presotto; Thais, Roberto; Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira, Camargo; Sandra Regina Nicoletti, D' auria; Débora Veiga, Sacramento.

2011-08-01

220

Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta  

OpenAIRE

To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis ...

Sousa Oliveira, Tri?cia Maria F.; Furuta, Patri?cia I.; Débora Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Z.

2008-01-01

221

Movement of Heterorhabditis amazonensis and Steinernema arenarium in search of corn fall armyworm larvae in artificial conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered to be the main pest of maize crops in Brazil. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) may be used to control this pest and exhibit different, unique abilities to search for their hosts. The movement of EPN in relation to S. frugiper [...] da was evaluated. To test for horizontal movement, a styrofoam enclosure filled with sand was divided into segments, nematodes were placed at the entrance to the enclosure and a larva was placed at the end of each division. The same approach was used to evaluate vertical movement; however, PVC pipes were used in this case. In general, the mortality was inversely proportional to the initial distance between host and nematodes. In the vertical displacement test, both nematodes were able to kill the larvae up to a distance of 25 cm. Therefore, the infective juveniles of H. amazonensis and S. arenarium can search out, infect and kill larvae of S. frugiperda at distances of up to 60 cm and 25 cm of horizontal and vertical displacement, respectively.

Vanessa, Andaló; Viviane, Santos; Grazielle F., Moreira; Camila, Moreira; Marcela, Freire; Alcides, Moino Jr..

2012-06-01

222

Comparison of the Effects of Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani Infection on Macrophage Gene Expression? †  

OpenAIRE

The intracellular parasite Leishmania causes a wide spectrum of human disease, ranging from self-resolving cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral disease, depending on the species of Leishmania involved. The mechanisms by which different Leishmania species cause different pathologies are largely unknown. We have addressed this question by comparing the gene expression profiles of bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with either Leishmania donovani or L. major promastigotes. We found that the...

Gregory, David J.; Sladek, Robert; Olivier, Martin; Matlashewski, Greg

2007-01-01

223

Infecção natural de Lutzomyia longipalpis por Leishmania sp. em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Natural infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Leishmania sp. in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available No Brasil, o controle do vetor Lutzomyia longipalpis é uma das principais estratégias utilizadas para limitar a expansão da leishmaniose visceral americana. Entretanto, poucos são os estudos sobre a infecção natural destes flebotomíneos por espécies de Leishmania. Um estudo sobre a infecção natural de Lu. longipalpis por Leishmania sp. foi realizado no bairro Bela Vista, Teresina, Piauí, um dos principais focos urbanos da leishmaniose visceral americana no Brasil. Entre fevereiro de 2004 e janeiro de 2005 realizaram-se 180 capturas usando-se armadilhas luminosas do tipo CDC. Foram dissecadas e examinadas, em média, dez fêmeas por captura para detecção de formas evolutivas de Leishmania sp., identificando-se 1.832 exemplares de Lu. longipalpis e seis de Lu. whitmani. Vinte (1,1% espécimes, todas de Lu. longipalpis, estavam infectadas com as formas procíclica e nectomonada de Leishmania sp., localizadas, principalmente, na porção posterior do trato digestivo. O maior percentual de insetos infectados foi encontrado quatro meses ap?s o período de maior precipitação pluviométrica, sugerindo que variáveis climáticas podem contribuir para a predição não apenas da abundância destes dípteros, mas também do seu grau de infecção natural.In Brazil, control of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis is one of the main strategies used to limit the expansion of American visceral leishmaniasis. However, studies on the ecology of this sand fly are rare, especially regarding its natural infection with species of Leishmania. A study of the natural infection of Lu. longipalpis by Leishmania sp. was carried out in the Bela Vista neighborhood in the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, an important area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission. From February 2004 to January 2005, sand flies were captured with CDC light traps. Approximately 10 female sand flies in each capture were dissected and examined for the presence of evolutionary forms of Leishmania sp. Two sand fly species were identified: 1,832 were Lu. longipalpis and six Lu. whitmani. Twenty female sand flies (1.1%, all Lu. longipalpis, were infected with procyclic and nectomonad forms of Leishmania sp., found mostly in the hindgut. Higher proportions of infected sand flies were found four months after the rainy season, suggesting that environmental factors may predict not only vector abundance (as already known but also their level of infection.

Jackellyne Geórgia Dutra e Silva

2007-07-01

224

A novel A2 allele found in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi Novo alelo do gene A2 descrito em Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi  

OpenAIRE

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widely spread zoonotic disease. In Brazil the disease is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Peridomestic sandflies acquire the etiological agent by feeding on blood of infected reservoir animals, such as dogs or wildlife. The disease is endemic in Brazil and epidemic foci have been reported in densely populated cities all over the country. Many clinical features of Leishmania infection are related to the host-parasite relationship, and many ca...

Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira; Elton José Rosas de Vasconcelos; Andréa Cristina Higa Nakaghi; Tânia Paula Aquino Defina; Márcia Mariza Gomes Jusi; Cristiane Divan Baldani; Ângela Kaysel Cruz; Rosangela Zacarias Machado

2011-01-01

225

Evaluacion por Western Blot, Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta y ELISA de Perros Infectados con Leishmania (Leishmania infantum Western blot, ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum-infected dogs  

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Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar el desempeño de las pruebas empleadas en Colombia para el diagnóstico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina y adaptar una técnica de Western blot empleando animales experimental y naturalmente infectados. Metodología Se obtuvieron sueros de 10 perros infectados experimentalmente con L. infantum, 5 perros infectados naturalmente, 16 perros sanos, 26 de reacción cruzada (infectados con Babesia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania (Viannia spp., 40 de zonas no endémicas y 150 de zona endémica. Todos fueron evaluados mediante las pruebas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI, ELISA y Western blot (WB. Resultados Se encontró que IFI tuvo el mayor porcentaje de positividad en los perros infectados (73 % mientras que el menor porcentaje de falsos positivos se obtuvo por WB (2,5 %. La prueba de ELISA fue la menos eficiente. Fueron reconocidas 24 fracciones antigénicas, las bandas de 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 y 123 kDa fueron responsables de reacciones inespecíficas en los sueros de perros sanos, de zona no endémica y de reacción cruzada. Las bandas por debajo de 29 kDa mostraron ser potencialmente diagnósticas, especialmente la fracción de 13 kDa. Conclusiones Los métodos directos y serológicos pueden subdiagnosticar la infección por Leishmania, solamente un constructo que combine tanto pruebas directas como indirectas sería la forma más eficiente de diagnóstico.Objective Evaluating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic test performance in Colombia and adapting the Western blot test in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Methods Sera were obtained from 10 experimentally L. Infantum-infected dogs, 5 naturally infected dogs, 16 healthy dogs, 26 Babesia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Viannia spp infected dogs, 40 dogs from non-endemic areas and 150 from endemic areas. Sera were tested for L. infantum infection using immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT, ELISA and Western blot (WB tests. Results Positives results were obtained for 73 % of known infected dogs by the IFAT test and false positives were obtained for 2.5 % of non-infected dogs using WB. ELISA was not efficient for diagnosis. 24 antigenic fractions were recognised in tested sera using WB; however, 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 and 123 kDa bands were recognised in sera from dogs from non-endemic areas, healthy dogs and Trypanosoma cruzi, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis infected dogs. The 13 kDa fraction proved potentially useful for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis. ConclusionsThe separate use of parasitological and serological test could lead to misdiagnosis of Leishmania infection; using both kinds of technique simultaneously is thus highly recommended.

Jimmy J Vargas-Duarte

2009-08-01

226

Evaluacion por Western Blot, Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta y ELISA de Perros Infectados con Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum / Western blot, ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum-infected dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar el desempeño de las pruebas empleadas en Colombia para el diagnóstico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina y adaptar una técnica de Western blot empleando animales experimental y naturalmente infectados. Metodología Se obtuvieron sueros de 10 perros infectados experimentalmente con L [...] . infantum, 5 perros infectados naturalmente, 16 perros sanos, 26 de reacción cruzada (infectados con Babesia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania (Viannia) spp.), 40 de zonas no endémicas y 150 de zona endémica. Todos fueron evaluados mediante las pruebas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI), ELISA y Western blot (WB). Resultados Se encontró que IFI tuvo el mayor porcentaje de positividad en los perros infectados (73 %) mientras que el menor porcentaje de falsos positivos se obtuvo por WB (2,5 %). La prueba de ELISA fue la menos eficiente. Fueron reconocidas 24 fracciones antigénicas, las bandas de 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 y 123 kDa fueron responsables de reacciones inespecíficas en los sueros de perros sanos, de zona no endémica y de reacción cruzada. Las bandas por debajo de 29 kDa mostraron ser potencialmente diagnósticas, especialmente la fracción de 13 kDa. Conclusiones Los métodos directos y serológicos pueden subdiagnosticar la infección por Leishmania, solamente un constructo que combine tanto pruebas directas como indirectas sería la forma más eficiente de diagnóstico. Abstract in english Objective Evaluating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic test performance in Colombia and adapting the Western blot test in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Methods Sera were obtained from 10 experimentally L. Infantum-infected dogs, 5 naturally infected dogs, 16 healthy dogs, 26 Bab [...] esia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Viannia) spp infected dogs, 40 dogs from non-endemic areas and 150 from endemic areas. Sera were tested for L. infantum infection using immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT), ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests. Results Positives results were obtained for 73 % of known infected dogs by the IFAT test and false positives were obtained for 2.5 % of non-infected dogs using WB. ELISA was not efficient for diagnosis. 24 antigenic fractions were recognised in tested sera using WB; however, 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 and 123 kDa bands were recognised in sera from dogs from non-endemic areas, healthy dogs and Trypanosoma cruzi, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis infected dogs. The 13 kDa fraction proved potentially useful for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis. ConclusionsThe separate use of parasitological and serological test could lead to misdiagnosis of Leishmania infection; using both kinds of technique simultaneously is thus highly recommended.

Jimmy J, Vargas-Duarte; Myriam C, López-Páez; Jesús E, Escovar-Castro; José, Fernández-Manrique.

2009-08-01

227

Evaluacion por Western Blot, Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta y ELISA de Perros Infectados con Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum / Western blot, ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum-infected dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Evaluar el desempeño de las pruebas empleadas en Colombia para el diagnóstico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina y adaptar una técnica de Western blot empleando animales experimental y naturalmente infectados. Metodología Se obtuvieron sueros de 10 perros infectados experimentalmente con L [...] . infantum, 5 perros infectados naturalmente, 16 perros sanos, 26 de reacción cruzada (infectados con Babesia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania (Viannia) spp.), 40 de zonas no endémicas y 150 de zona endémica. Todos fueron evaluados mediante las pruebas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI), ELISA y Western blot (WB). Resultados Se encontró que IFI tuvo el mayor porcentaje de positividad en los perros infectados (73 %) mientras que el menor porcentaje de falsos positivos se obtuvo por WB (2,5 %). La prueba de ELISA fue la menos eficiente. Fueron reconocidas 24 fracciones antigénicas, las bandas de 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 y 123 kDa fueron responsables de reacciones inespecíficas en los sueros de perros sanos, de zona no endémica y de reacción cruzada. Las bandas por debajo de 29 kDa mostraron ser potencialmente diagnósticas, especialmente la fracción de 13 kDa. Conclusiones Los métodos directos y serológicos pueden subdiagnosticar la infección por Leishmania, solamente un constructo que combine tanto pruebas directas como indirectas sería la forma más eficiente de diagnóstico. Abstract in english Objective Evaluating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic test performance in Colombia and adapting the Western blot test in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Methods Sera were obtained from 10 experimentally L. Infantum-infected dogs, 5 naturally infected dogs, 16 healthy dogs, 26 Bab [...] esia canis, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Viannia) spp infected dogs, 40 dogs from non-endemic areas and 150 from endemic areas. Sera were tested for L. infantum infection using immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT), ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests. Results Positives results were obtained for 73 % of known infected dogs by the IFAT test and false positives were obtained for 2.5 % of non-infected dogs using WB. ELISA was not efficient for diagnosis. 24 antigenic fractions were recognised in tested sera using WB; however, 29, 34, 50, 69, 75, 86, 99 and 123 kDa bands were recognised in sera from dogs from non-endemic areas, healthy dogs and Trypanosoma cruzi, Erhlichia canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis infected dogs. The 13 kDa fraction proved potentially useful for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis. ConclusionsThe separate use of parasitological and serological test could lead to misdiagnosis of Leishmania infection; using both kinds of technique simultaneously is thus highly recommended.

Jimmy J, Vargas-Duarte; Myriam C, López-Páez; Jesús E, Escovar-Castro; José, Fernández-Manrique.

2009-08-01

228

Macrophages at intermediate stage of maturation produce high levels of IL-12 p40 upon stimulation with Leishmania.  

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IL-12 is one of the main cytokines driving the immune response to a resistant phenotype in leishmaniasis and in several other diseases involving intracellular microbes. In this study, we investigated IL-12 production by mononuclear phagocytes at several developmental stages when stimulated with Leishmania major, L. amazonensis or L. chagasi. Bone marrow cells were cultured for 4-6 days in vitro in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF or IL-3. After density separation, only cells banding at the 40-50% Percoll interface, but not those at 20-40% or 50-80% interfaces, produced large amounts of IL-12 p40 when stimulated with LPS or live Leishmania promastigotes. However, only low levels of IL-12 p70 were produced under these conditions. The high IL-12 p40-producing cells could be similarly derived from mouse strains with different susceptibility to Leishmania. Quantitative analysis of monocyte/macrophage lineage marker expression, in combination with positive and negative selection, led to the conclusion that the high IL-12 p40-producing cells are macrophages at an intermediate stage of maturation between immature and fully differentiated cells, expressing ER-HR3 but only low levels of the mature markers, scavenger receptor and CD11b/Mac-1. They do not express any of the precursor markers CD31/ER-MP12, Ly-6C/ER-MP20 or ER-MP58. Because recruitment of monocytes to an infection site and its draining lymph node is a general phenomenon, the notion that, developing from these monocytes, a population of mononuclear phagocytes at an intermediate maturation stage has the capacity to synthesize large amounts of IL-12 p40 has significant bearing on our understanding of immune regulation in leishmaniasis and also in infections by other pathogens. PMID:15725387

Oliveira, Milton A P; Tadokoro, Carlos E; Lima, Glória M C A; Mosca, Tainá; Vieira, Leda Q; Leenen, Pieter J M; Abrahamsohn, Ises A

2005-02-01

229

Monoclonal antibodies for serotyping Leishmania strains.  

OpenAIRE

Mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against Leishmania tropica major were found to precipitate with the excreted factor produced by this and other leishmanial species. We suggest that a classification system for Leishmania, based on selective precipitation reactions between monoclonal antibodies and the excreted factor, would remove many ambiguities that currently exist.

Greenblatt, C. L.; Slutzky, G. M.; Ibarra, A. A.; Snary, D.

1983-01-01

230

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus Leishmaniose visceral causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis em paciente infectado com HIV  

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Full Text Available The current article reports the case of a 19-month-old-girl, from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with visceral leishmaniasis, by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV co-infection. The child's mother and father, aged 22 and 27 years old, respectively, were both HIV positive. The child was admitted to the General Pediatric Center, in Belo Horizonte, presenting high fever, fatigue, weight loss and enlargement of liver and spleen. Indirect immunofluorescent test revealed a titer of 1:320 for Leishmania. Such result was confirmed by the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow aspirate samples and culture of promastigote forms. Parasites were identified as being Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis through PCR, using a L. braziliensis complex primer and a generic primer, followed by hibridization. Specific leishmaniasis therapy (GlucantimeÒ antimonial was intravenously administered.No presente artigo os autores relatam caso de uma criança de 1 ano e 07 meses proveniente do estado de Minas Gerais com leishmaniose visceral causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e co-infecção HIV. A mãe e o pai da criança de 22 e 27 anos de idade respectivamente também HIV positivo. A criança foi internada no Centro Geral de Pediatria em Belo Horizonte com febre alta, fadiga, perda de peso e aumento de fígado e baço. Foi realizado teste de imunofluorescência indireta para Leishmania e detectado título de 1:320. Este resultado foi confirmado com o encontro de amastigotas em aspirado de medula óssea e o crescimento de promastigotas em meios de cultura. Os parasitos foram identificados como Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis utilizando PCR com primer específico para o complexo L. braziliensis, e primer genérico seguido de hibridização. Terapia específica para leishmaniose (antimonial de Glucantime foi administrado por via intravenosa.

Eduardo Sérgio da SILVA

2002-01-01

231

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus / Leishmaniose visceral causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis em paciente infectado com HIV  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente artigo os autores relatam caso de uma criança de 1 ano e 07 meses proveniente do estado de Minas Gerais com leishmaniose visceral causada por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e co-infecção HIV. A mãe e o pai da criança de 22 e 27 anos de idade respectivamente também HIV positivo. A cria [...] nça foi internada no Centro Geral de Pediatria em Belo Horizonte com febre alta, fadiga, perda de peso e aumento de fígado e baço. Foi realizado teste de imunofluorescência indireta para Leishmania e detectado título de 1:320. Este resultado foi confirmado com o encontro de amastigotas em aspirado de medula óssea e o crescimento de promastigotas em meios de cultura. Os parasitos foram identificados como Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis utilizando PCR com primer específico para o complexo L. braziliensis, e primer genérico seguido de hibridização. Terapia específica para leishmaniose (antimonial de Glucantime) foi administrado por via intravenosa. Abstract in english The current article reports the case of a 19-month-old-girl, from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with visceral leishmaniasis, by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection. The child's mother and father, aged 22 and 27 years old, respectively, were bot [...] h HIV positive. The child was admitted to the General Pediatric Center, in Belo Horizonte, presenting high fever, fatigue, weight loss and enlargement of liver and spleen. Indirect immunofluorescent test revealed a titer of 1:320 for Leishmania. Such result was confirmed by the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow aspirate samples and culture of promastigote forms. Parasites were identified as being Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis through PCR, using a L. braziliensis complex primer and a generic primer, followed by hibridization. Specific leishmaniasis therapy (GlucantimeÒ antimonial) was intravenously administered.

Eduardo Sérgio da, SILVA; Raquel Silva, PACHECO; Célia Maria Ferreira, GONTIJO; Inácio Roberto, CARVALHO; Reginaldo Peçanha, BRAZIL.

232

Identification of New World Leishmania species from Peru by biochemical techniques and multiplex PCR assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized diverse strains or species of Leishmania isolated in humans that are currently circulating throughout Peru, by means of isoenzymatic characterization, kDNA analysis by restriction enzymes, and multiplex PCR assay. The cluster analysis gave five groups. Cluster 1 includes L. (L.) donovani together with the isolates LP4 and LP7, forming the donovani complex. Thus, this complex corresponds to the New World visceral form, L. (L.) chagasi. Cluster 2 is formed by the isolates LP1-LP3, LP6, LP10, LP9, and LP11, phylogenetically intermediate between Cluster 1 and Cluster 3, or they can be treated as hybrids. Cluster 3 is divided into two subgroups: one formed by L. (V.) peruviana, together with the isolates LP14 and LP5, and the second one formed by L. (V.) brazilensis and the isolate LP8. These two subgroups form part of the brazilensis complex. The three strains of L. (L.) infantum [L. (L.) infantum I and II and la LSI] make up Cluster 4. In Cluster 5, we include the three Mexican strains (LM1-LM3) forming one subgroup while we would place L. (L.) amazonensis in another subgroup. These two subgroups would comprise the complex mexicana. PMID:17233673

Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Longoni, Silvia S; Mateo, Hector; Alunda, José M; Minaya, Gloria; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Vargas, Franklin; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

2007-02-01

233

Antiproliferative and leishmanicidal effect of ajoene on various Leishmania species: ultrastructural study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ajoene [(E,Z)-4,5,9 trithiadodeca 1,6,11 triene 9-oxide], the major bioactive compound derived from garlic, shows a potent trypanolytic and antimicotic activity. In this paper we evaluate its effect on Leishmania mexicana(Lm:MHOM/VE/80/NR), L eishmania mexicana venezuelensis (Lmv: MHOM/VE/80/H16), L eishmania mexicana amazonensis (Lma: M112, IFLA/BR/67/PH8) and L eishmania donovani chagasi (Ldch: MHOM/BR/74/PP75). Ajoene showed a potent leishmanicidal activity in vitro against all species studied. Concentrations higher than 0.3 microM led to total inhibition of growth, and 10 microM induced 100% lysis of Leishmaniaafter 96 h of incubation in a chemically defined culture medium. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for lysis, for all species, was about to 2 microM. The effect was dose-dependent and a threefold increase in concentration (30 microM) produced 100% lysis of cultured forms after 72 h. Ultrastructural studies showed a time- and dose-dependent morphological alteration of the mitochondrial membrane and nuclear envelope, as well as the formation of large autophagic vacuoles. PMID:12122433

Ledezma, Eliades; Jorquera, Alicia; Bendezú, Herminia; Vivas, Julio; Pérez, Gladinex

2002-08-01

234

Genomic diversity in the Leishmania donovani complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leishmania donovani complex is considered to be composed of 3 species; L. donovani, L. infantum and L. chagasi, although this classification has been challenged. Genotypic relationships within the complex were evaluated at different levels by: binding of the probe Lmet9, specific for L. chagasi and Old World Leishmania spp.; partial sequencing of a constitutive major surface protease single gene (mspC) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The Old World Leishmania spp. and the L. donovani complex have a monophyletic origin. Leishmania chagasi clearly belongs to the L. donovani complex but it is indistinguishable from L. infantum, which suggests introduction of L. chagasi into the New World in recent history. Leishmania infantum/L. chagasi was identified as a monophyletic group within the L. donovani complex but L. donovani may be paraphyletic. Diversity within L. donovani is substantial and phylogeographical patterns of association were found. PMID:10503249

Mauricio, I L; Howard, M K; Stothard, J R; Miles, M A

1999-09-01

235

Estudo, ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico, do rim de caes natural e experimentalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi / Optical and electron microscopical studies of canine kidney naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores estudam os rins de 4 cães infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Dois animais (um macho e uma fêmea) naturalmente infectados foram sacrificados 18 meses após sua permanência no laboratório. Dois machos foram inoculados por via endovenosa, com lxlO6 promastigotas da cepa MHO/BR/70 [...] /BH46 e sacrificados após 18 meses e 2 anos, respectivamente. Em todos os animais os rins estavam lesados. As alterações encontradas foram: (1) glomerulonefrite mesangioproliferativa focal ou difusa, com pronunciada hipertrofia e hiperplasia das células mesangiais e com alargamento da matriz; (2) espessamento da membrana basal com depósitos eletrondensos; (3) nefrite intersticial intertubular crônica com exsudação plasmocitária intensa. (4) degeneração albuminosa dos túbulos renais. Baseados nos achados os autores discutem os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Abstract in english Two naturally infected dogs (male and fema lei from Teófilo Otoni (MG Brazili were maintained for 18 months in our laboratory. Two other dogs, two months old males were infected with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of MHO BR 70 BH46 Leishinania (Leishmanial chagasi strain, endo venous route, and autopsied a [...] fter 10 months and two years. The main findings concerning the kidney were: (1) focal or diffuse mesangial glomerulo nephritis with proliferative and enlargement of mesangial cells; (2) increase in thickness of basement membrane with electron dense deposits: (3) chronic interstitial nephritis with intense exudation of plasmocytes: (4) cloud swelling of renal tubules. The authors discuss the probable pathogenetic mechanisms.

Washington Luiz, Tafuri; Marilena Suzan Marques, Michalick; Magno, Dias; Odair, Genaro; Virginia Hora Rios, Leite; Alfredo José Afonso, Barbosa; Eduardo Alves, Bambirra; Carlos Alberto Da, Costa; Maria Norma, Melo; Wilson, Mayrink.

1989-06-01

236

Estudo, ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico, do rim de caes natural e experimentalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi Optical and electron microscopical studies of canine kidney naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores estudam os rins de 4 cães infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. Dois animais (um macho e uma fêmea naturalmente infectados foram sacrificados 18 meses após sua permanência no laboratório. Dois machos foram inoculados por via endovenosa, com lxlO6 promastigotas da cepa MHO/BR/70/BH46 e sacrificados após 18 meses e 2 anos, respectivamente. Em todos os animais os rins estavam lesados. As alterações encontradas foram: (1 glomerulonefrite mesangioproliferativa focal ou difusa, com pronunciada hipertrofia e hiperplasia das células mesangiais e com alargamento da matriz; (2 espessamento da membrana basal com depósitos eletrondensos; (3 nefrite intersticial intertubular crônica com exsudação plasmocitária intensa. (4 degeneração albuminosa dos túbulos renais. Baseados nos achados os autores discutem os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos.Two naturally infected dogs (male and fema lei from Teófilo Otoni (MG Brazili were maintained for 18 months in our laboratory. Two other dogs, two months old males were infected with 1 x 10(6 promastigotes of MHO BR 70 BH46 Leishinania (Leishmanial chagasi strain, endo venous route, and autopsied after 10 months and two years. The main findings concerning the kidney were: (1 focal or diffuse mesangial glomerulo nephritis with proliferative and enlargement of mesangial cells; (2 increase in thickness of basement membrane with electron dense deposits: (3 chronic interstitial nephritis with intense exudation of plasmocytes: (4 cloud swelling of renal tubules. The authors discuss the probable pathogenetic mechanisms.

Washington Luiz Tafuri

1989-06-01

237

Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Parasite Surface Antigen-2 of Leishmania major  

OpenAIRE

The Leishmania major Parasite surface Antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a family of glycoinositol phospholipids anchored glycoprotoins expressed in both promastigotes and amastigotes. Promastigote PSA-2 comprises three polypeptides with approximate molecular weight of 96, 80 and 50 kDa. Amastigote express a distinct but closely PSA-2 polypeptide with molecular weight of 50 kDa. In this study fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells with immunized mice spleenocytes infected with promastigotes of L. major intraperiton...

Ar, Khabiri; Bagheri, F.; Sr, Naddaf; Assmar, M.; Hosseini Taghavi, A.

2004-01-01

238

Anticorpos antipromastigotas vivas de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, detectados pela citometria de fluxo, para identificação da infecção ativa na leishmaniose tegumentar americana Anti-live Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis promastigote antibodies, detected by flow cytometry, to identify active infection in american cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste estudo, descrevemos etapas iniciais de padronização de uma nova metodologia para detecção de anticorpos antipromastigotas vivas de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, pela citometria de fluxo e a análise de sua aplicabilidade para estudos clínicos. Foram avaliados 39 indivíduos com sorologia convencional (RIFI positiva para leishmaniose, classificados quanto à ausência/presença de lesão (L- e L+. Os resultados foram expressos sob a forma de percentual de parasitas fluorescentes positivos (PPFP. A análise dos dados, na diluição 1:1.024, permitiu distinguir 95% dos pacientes L+ como um grupo de alta reatividade (PPFP>50% e 72% dos indivíduos L- como um grupo de baixa reatividade (PPFPIn the current study we described initial standardization steps of a new methodology to detect anti-live Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis promastigote antibodies by flow cytometry, followed by analysis of its applicability to clinical studies. We have studied 39 individuals with positive conventional serology to leishmaniasis, classified according to the absence/presence of cutaneous lesions (L- and L+. The results were expressed as percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP. Data analysis at dilution of 1:1,024, allowed the distinction of 95% of L+ patients as a group of high reactivity (PPFP>50% and 72% of L- individuals as a group of low reactivity (PPFP<50%. The analysis of immunofluorescence assay titers did not show any relationship with the absence/presence of lesion. Together, our data support the applicability of flow cytometry to identify cases of active infection, which has not been possible through conventional serological reactions.

Roberta Dias Rodrigues Rocha

2002-12-01

239

Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em felinos do município de Araçatuba, SP / Occurrence de Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Araçatuba, SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. em gatos por dois métodos (citológico e sorológico), bem como associar a ocorrência deste protozoário com as variáveis sexo, idade e raça. Amostras séricas de 283 felinos domésticos foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescê [...] ncia Indireta (RIFI), e o exame parasitológico direto de linfonodos também foi realizado para a verificação da positividade para Leishmania spp. Ocorrência de 0,7% (2/283) foi observada nos felinos examinados, por meio de imprint de linfonodos e nenhum animal apresentou títulos de anticorpos para Leishmania spp. As duas fêmeas positivas eram sem raça definida, sendo uma jovem e outra adulta. Por meio dos resultados obtidos, não foi constatada diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às variáveis sexo, raça e idade nos gatos desta pesquisa (p > 0,05). Ocorrência de Leishmania spp. nos gatos deste estudo foi baixa. Devido a esta baixa incidência sugere-se que estes não assumem importância epidemiológica na área do estudo. Abstract in english This study had the purpose to compare the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in felines through two methods (cytological and serological), as well as to associate the occurrence of this protozoan with the sex, age and breed variables. Serum samples from 283 domestic felines were processed by means of Ind [...] irect Immunofluorescence Reaction (IIR), and the direct parasitological test for linfonodes was also carried out in order to verify positivity for Leishmania spp. Occurrence of 0.7% (2/283) was observed in the tested felines by means of linfonode imprinting and no animal showed title of antibodies for Leishmania spp. The two positive females were mongrel, a young female and an adult female feline. From the obtained results, no statistically significant difference was observed as regards the sex, breed and age variables in this research (p > 0.05). Occurrence of Leishmania spp. in the cats of this study was low. Such low incidence suggests that these hosts has no epidemiological relevance in the study area.

Katia Denise Saraiva, Bresciani; Ana Claudia Marques, Serrano; Lucas Vinicius Shigaki de, Matos; Elisa San Martin Mouriz, Savani; Sandra Regina Nicoletti, D' Auria; Silvia Helena Venturoli, Perri; Fabio Luiz, Bonello; Willian Marinho Dourado, Coelho; Carolina Godoi, Aoki; Alvimar José da, Costa.

2010-06-01

240

Leishmania infantum in the Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was first reported in Pakistan over 30 years ago from the remote north-eastern Himalayan region. Sporadic cases are now widely reported from the Northern Areas, part of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Punjab Province, together with Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Two hundred and thirty-nine cases, mostly young children, have been reported in the last decade; 52% were under 2 years old, and 86% were aged less than 5 years; the male:female ratio was 3:1. In a cross sectional study of the population in 14 endemic villages, 1938 individuals of all ages were randomly skin-tested with leishmanin and 27.4% gave a positive result. The leishmanin response rate increased with age. In some areas, almost 70% of the adults over 40 years old were positive. Leishmanin positivity appeared to cluster among households (P = 0.0003), but clinical cases among households did not (P = 0.472). The leishmanin response pattern in the foci of Chilas and AJK reflected an endemic pattern of disease, whereas that seen in the Baltistan foci suggested interrupted transmission. Human sera collected in endemic villages were tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies, 580 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct agglutination test (DAT), and another 1403, as blood samples on filter paper, were tested by DAT alone. Isolations of Leishmania were made from 15 patients, 11 from bone marrow, 3 from normal skin and one from spleen. The parasites were typed as Leishmania infantum zymodeme LON-49 (= MON-1). PMID:7747300

Rab, M A; Evans, D A

1995-01-01

241

On Leishmania enriettii and Other Enigmatic Leishmania Species of the Neotropics  

OpenAIRE

There are 20 named species of the genus Leishmania at present recognized in the New World, of which 14 are known to infect man. The present paper discusses the biological, biochemical and ecological features, where known, of six species which have not till now been found to cause human leishmaniasis; namely, Leishmania (Leishmania) enriettii, L. (L.) hertigi, L. (L.) deanei, L. (L.) aristidesi, L. (L.) forattinii and L. (Viannia) equatorensis. A protocol is suggested for attempts to discover ...

Ralph Lainson

1997-01-01

242

T Cell Response of Asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi Infected Subjects to Recombinant Leishmania Antigens  

OpenAIRE

In areas of Leishmania chagasi transmission the ability to control leishmania infection is associated with IFN-g production. In visceral leishmaniasis down-regulation of T cell responses is mediated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). In this study we evaluated the lymphoproliferative response, IFN-g and IL-10 production on lymphocyte cultures stimulated with recombinant leishmania antigens in subjects with asymptomatic L. chagasi infection. There was a statistically significant difference in the lymp...

Sérgio Ricardo Costa; Oliveira Ju?nior, Argemiro D.; Olívia Bacellar; Carvalho, Edgar M.

1999-01-01

243

Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report / Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológico e sorológico por meio de exame do material da medula óssea e por imunofluorescência indireta, respectivamente. À citologia da úlcera corneana, visi [...] bilizaram-se formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. Abstract in english One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembli [...] ng Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.

F.L.C., Brito; L.C., Alves; F.C.L., Maia; A.R., Albuquerque; J.P.D., Ortiz; J.L., Laus.

2007-02-01

244

Design of inhibitors for nucleoside hydrolase from Leishmania donovani using molecular dynamics studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho é proposto o primeiro modelo por homologia para a nucleosídeo hidrolase de Leishmania donovani construído a partir das estruturas das nucleosídeo hidrolases de Crithidia fasciculata e de Leishmania major. Usando as informações de interação entre o inibidor p-aminofeniliminoribitol e a [...] nucleosídeo hidrolase de Crithidia fasciculata foram planejados dois novos potenciais inibidores, os quais apresentam novas interações com alguns resíduos da bolsa hidrofóbica do sítio ativo do modelo. Simulações por dinâmica molecular dos protótipos ancorados nos sítios ativos do modelo e das enzimas usadas como moldes, mostraram que, diferente do p-aminofeniliminoribitol, eles permaneceram ancorados nos sítios ativos das três enzimas ao longo de toda a dinâmica, interagindo fortemente com os aminoácidos da bolsa hidrofóbica. Abstract in english In this work we propose the first homology model for nucleoside hydrolase from Leishmania donovani, built based on the crystallographic structures of Crithidia fasciculata and Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolases. We used the interaction information from the crystallographic model of the enzyme of [...] C. fasciculata in complex with the inhibitor p-aminophenyliminoribitol, to design two new potential inhibitors, which present new interactions with some residues of the hydrophobic pocket of the model active site. Molecular dynamics simulations of the prototypes inside the active sites of the model and the template enzymes showed that, differently from p-aminophenyliminoribitol, they remained tightly bound inside the active sites, interacting strongly with the amino acids from the hydrophobic pocket.

Tanos C. C., França; Maria do Ramo M., Rocha; Bruno M., Reboredo; Magdalena N., Rennó; Luzineide W., Tinoco; José D., Figueroa-Villar.

245

Comparative genomic studies and in-silco strategies on Leishmania brazilensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania major: Conserved features, putative functions and potential drug target  

OpenAIRE

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease found largely in the tropics, which the World Health Organization has estimated infects 12 million people worldwide each year. More recently cases have been reported in Europe among intravenous drug users with HIV. At least 20 Leishmania species infect humans. New world parasite Leishmania. braziliensis is the causative agent of mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. The old world species Leishmania. major and Leishmania. infantum, which are present in Africa, Europ...

Rakesh N. R.; Pradeep S

2013-01-01

246

Fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition in tropical marine Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T).  

Science.gov (United States)

Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T) is an isolate from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta. This bacterium contained a long-chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbon, all-cis -3,6,9,12,16,19,22,25,28 hentriacontanonaene (C31:9), constituting 1-2% of the total fatty acid methyl ester and hydrocarbon fraction, which was produced dependently of decreased growth temperature. Analysis of its cellular fatty acid composition demonstrated that isopentadecanoic acid was the major fatty acid component and that all the main monounsaturated fatty acids had straight chains with a cis configuration. However, monoenoic cyclopropyl fatty acids, which were previously reported to be present in this bacterium, were not detected by mass spectrometric analysis. The growth temperature affected the content of ?9-cis -hexadecenoic [16:1(?9c)], palmitic, and heptadecanoic acids. These results suggest that C31:9, as well as 16:1(?9c) might be involved in adaptation to low temperature in S. amazonensis strain SB2B(T) . Our result suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase protein complex may be involved in synthesis of C31:9 but not in production of eicosapentaenoic acid. PMID:21656813

Motoigi, Taro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

2011-10-01

247

Susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) to infection by different species and strains of Leishmania Ross, 1903  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis to infection by different species or strains of New World Leishmania. The sand flies proved to be highly susceptible to infection by a strain of Le. guyanensis, with flagellates developing in all ( [...] 18/18) of the specimens examined. A lower infection rate of 37 per cents (10/27) was recorded in flies exposed to infection by a strain of Le. amazonensis. Flagellates developed in 13 per cents (6/46) of the sand flies that glood fed on dogs in the earlly stage of experimental infection with an old laboratory strain of Le. chagasi. In contrast, promastigotes did not develop in sand flies that blood fed on dogs with naturally acquired Le. chagasi. The naturally infected dogas were in an advanced stage of disease. Flagellates developed in 9// (3/32) of the sand flies that blood fed on lesions of hamsters infected with a strain of Le. braziliensis and in 9 per cents (3/34) of those that fed on hamsters with lesions due to a parasite fo the mexicana complex (strain MHOM/BR/73/BH121). Sand flies did not develop flagellate infections after blood feeding on hamsters bearing lesions induced by strain MHOM/BR/71/BR49. Factors influencing the susceptibility of Lu. longipalpis to infection by New World species of Leishmania are discussed.

Ana Lúcia F. F. da, Silva; Paul, Williams; Maria Norma, Melo; Wilson, Mayrink.

1990-12-01

248

Susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 to infection by different species and strains of Leishmania Ross, 1903  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to compare the susceptibility of laboratory-reared female Lutzomyia longipalpis to infection by different species or strains of New World Leishmania. The sand flies proved to be highly susceptible to infection by a strain of Le. guyanensis, with flagellates developing in all (18/18 of the specimens examined. A lower infection rate of 37 per cents (10/27 was recorded in flies exposed to infection by a strain of Le. amazonensis. Flagellates developed in 13 per cents (6/46 of the sand flies that glood fed on dogs in the earlly stage of experimental infection with an old laboratory strain of Le. chagasi. In contrast, promastigotes did not develop in sand flies that blood fed on dogs with naturally acquired Le. chagasi. The naturally infected dogas were in an advanced stage of disease. Flagellates developed in 9// (3/32 of the sand flies that blood fed on lesions of hamsters infected with a strain of Le. braziliensis and in 9 per cents (3/34 of those that fed on hamsters with lesions due to a parasite fo the mexicana complex (strain MHOM/BR/73/BH121. Sand flies did not develop flagellate infections after blood feeding on hamsters bearing lesions induced by strain MHOM/BR/71/BR49. Factors influencing the susceptibility of Lu. longipalpis to infection by New World species of Leishmania are discussed.

Ana Lúcia F. F. da Silva

1990-12-01

249

Evidence for a neotropical origin of Leishmania  

OpenAIRE

Contradictory biogeographic hypotheses for either a Neotropical or a Palaearctic origin of the genus Leishmania have been proposed. Hypotheses constructed on the basis of biogeographic data must be tested against an independent dataset and cannot be supported by biogeographic data alone. In the absence of a fossil record for the Leishmania these two hypotheses were tested against a combined dataset of sequences from the DNA polymerase A catalytic subunit and the RNA polymerase II largest subu...

Ha, Noyes; Da, Morrison; Ml, Chance; Jt, Ellis

2000-01-01

250

Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Implicated in Human and Dog T-Cell Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

High in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were induced in humans and dogs by a recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cysteine proteinase, with secretion of IFN-? in asymptomatic subjects or of IFN-?, interleukin 4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in oligosymptomatic subjects. In contrast, responses of symptomatic patients and dogs were lower, with production of IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:15908413

da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; de Souza Dias, Suzana; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Mendonça, Ivete L.; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

2005-01-01

251

Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Implicated in Human and Dog T-Cell Responses  

OpenAIRE

High in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were induced in humans and dogs by a recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cysteine proteinase, with secretion of IFN-? in asymptomatic subjects or of IFN-?, interleukin 4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in oligosymptomatic subjects. In contrast, responses of symptomatic patients and dogs were lower, with production of IL-4 and IL-10.

Da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Souza Dias, Suzana; Eula?lio, Kelsen Dantas; Mendonc?a, Ivete L.; Katz, Simone; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2005-01-01

252

Transfer of the myrmecophilous soft scale insect Neolecanium amazonensis Foldi to Foldilecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccidae), with description of a new species from Colombia  

OpenAIRE

Neolecanium amazonensis Foldi se redescribe e ilustra y se transfiere al nuevo género Foldilecanium Kondo como Foldilecanium amazonensis (Foldi) comb. nov. Una nueva especie, Foldilecanium multisetosus Kondo, es descrita e ilustrada con base en ejemplares colectados sobre Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. y Thomson (Annonaceae) en Cali, Colombia. Se provee una clave actualizada para la subfamilia Myzolecaniinae del Nuevo Mundo y otra para separar las dos especies de Foldilecanium. Palabras clav...

Kondo, Takumasa

2011-01-01

253

Proteomic analysis of the secretome of Leishmania donovani  

OpenAIRE

Analysis of Leishmania-conditioned medium resulted in the identification of 151 proteins apparently secreted by the parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani and suggested a vesicle-based secretion system.

Silverman, J. Maxwell; Chan, Simon K.; Robinson, Dale P.; Dwyer, Dennis M.; Nandan, Devki; Foster, Leonard J.; Reiner, Neil E.

2008-01-01

254

Speculations on the origin and evolution of the genus Leishmania  

OpenAIRE

Recently two hypotheses have been proposed for the evolution of Leishmania involving respectively a Neotropical or Paleartic origin for the species. Here an alternative proposal on the phylogeny of Leishmania based on the major divisions within the genus is presented. In this hypothesis a Neotropic origin is retained for L. (Viannia) and Paraleishmania, a recently desribed section within the genus Leishmania, while an African origin is proposed for L. (Leishmania) and possibly Sauroleishmania...

Hooman Momen; Elisa Cupolillo

2000-01-01

255

Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20 / Detection of Leishmania spp. based on the gene encoding HSP20  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20) para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR).Se normalizó la P [...] CR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (? = 0,731), lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas. Abstract in english Objectives. Explore a new target for molecular diagnosis of Leishmania. Materials and methods. We evaluated the utility of the gene that encodes the heat shock protein 20-kDa (Hsp20) for detecting Leishmania by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was normalized and analytical parameters were determ [...] ined, as well as the validity and diagnostic accuracy, and concordance with the PCR - 18S. PCR-Hsp20 with DNA was obtained from a group of clinical samples from different sources. Results. The analytical parameters were adequate. The sensitivity obtained was 86% and the specificity was 100%. The concordance with the reference method was good (? = 0.731), which supports its potential use for diagnosis. The possibility of subsequent identification of the species by sequencing the amplified product gives an additional advantage. Conclusions. The usefulness of this gene as a new target for the detection of Leishmania was demonstrated. Because of its potential, it is recommended to improve the sensitivity of the method and to evaluate it in different endemic regions.

Ana M., Montalvo; Jorge, Fraga; Omaira, Rodríguez; Orestes, Blanco; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas; Ana L., García; Braulio M., Valencia; Carlos, Muskus; Gert, Van der Auwera; José M., Requena.

2014-12-01

256

Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20 / Detection of Leishmania spp. based on the gene encoding HSP20  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20) para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR).Se normalizó la P [...] CR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (? = 0,731), lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas. Abstract in english Objectives. Explore a new target for molecular diagnosis of Leishmania. Materials and methods. We evaluated the utility of the gene that encodes the heat shock protein 20-kDa (Hsp20) for detecting Leishmania by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was normalized and analytical parameters were determ [...] ined, as well as the validity and diagnostic accuracy, and concordance with the PCR - 18S. PCR-Hsp20 with DNA was obtained from a group of clinical samples from different sources. Results. The analytical parameters were adequate. The sensitivity obtained was 86% and the specificity was 100%. The concordance with the reference method was good (? = 0.731), which supports its potential use for diagnosis. The possibility of subsequent identification of the species by sequencing the amplified product gives an additional advantage. Conclusions. The usefulness of this gene as a new target for the detection of Leishmania was demonstrated. Because of its potential, it is recommended to improve the sensitivity of the method and to evaluate it in different endemic regions.

Ana M, Montalvo; Jorge, Fraga; Omaira, Rodríguez; Orestes, Blanco; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas; Ana L, García; Braulio M, Valencia; Carlos, Muskus; Gert, Van der Auwera; José M, Requena.

2014-10-01

257

Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania parasites are maintained by multiple hosts included in seven mammal orders.•Reservoir hosts are the assemblage of species responsible for Leishmania maintenance.•Mammal host–Leishmania interaction determines host competence to infect vectors.•Associate ecological and parasitological data are crucial to understand the wild cycle.•Prevention of human cases is dependent on a thorough knowledge of the wild cycle.

Roque, Andre? Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

258

Role of protein kinase R in the killing of Leishmania major by macrophages in response to neutrophil elastase and TLR4 via TNF? and IFN?  

Science.gov (United States)

In cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania amazonensis activates macrophage double-stranded, RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) to promote parasite growth. In our study, Leishmania major grew normally in RAW cells, RAW-expressing dominant-negative PKR (PKR-DN) cells, and macrophages of PKR-knockout mice, revealing that PKR is dispensable for L. major growth in macrophages. PKR activation in infected macrophages with poly I:C resulted in parasite death. Fifty percent of L. major-knockout lines for the ecotin-like serine peptidase inhibitor (ISP2; ?isp2/isp3), an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), died in RAW cells or macrophages from 129Sv mice, as a result of PKR activation. Inhibition of PKR or NE or neutralization of Toll-like receptor 4 or 2(TLR4 or TLR2) prevented the death of ?isp2/isp3. ?isp2/isp3 grew normally in RAW-PKR-DN cells or macrophages from 129Sv pkr?/?, tlr2?/?, trif?/?, and myd88?/? mice, associating NE activity, PKR, and TLR responses with parasite death. ?isp2/isp3 increased the expression of mRNA for TNF-? by 2-fold and of interferon ? (IFN?) in a PKR-dependent manner. Antibodies to TNF-? reversed the 95% killing by ?isp2/isp3, whereas they grew normally in macrophages from IFN receptor–knockout mice. We propose that ISP2 prevents the activation of PKR via an NE-TLR4-TLR2 axis to control innate responses that contribute to the killing of L. major.—Faria, M. S., Calegari-Silva, T. C., de Carvalho Vivarini, A., Mottram, J. C., Lopes, U. G., Lima, A. P. C. A. Role of protein kinase R in the killing of Leishmania major by macrophages in response to neutrophil elastase and TLR4 via TNF? and IFN?. PMID:24732131

Faria, Marilia S.; Calegari-Silva, Tereza C.; de Carvalho Vivarini, Aislan; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.

2014-01-01

259

Identification of monomeric and oligomeric forms of a major Leishmania infantum antigen by using monoclonal antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

Ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced against isolated Leishmania infantum membranes were used as probes of L. infantum membrane antigens. Western blots of L. infantum membranes, sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized and heated at 100 degrees C before analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showed that all 10 MAbs recognized a band at 58 kilodaltons (kDa). However, when solubilized membranes were not heated, 2 of the 10 MAbs recognized, in addition to the 58-kD...

Soteriadou, K. P.; Tzinia, A. K.; Hadziantoniou, M. G.; Tzartos, S. J.

1988-01-01

260

Caracterização cinética e estrutural do sintase do óxido nítrico de Leishmania infantum  

OpenAIRE

A leishmaniose é uma doença que ameaça cerca de 350 milhões de pessoas a nível mundial. O tipo mais grave da doença é a leishmaniose visceral, causada pelo parasita Leishmania infantum, com incidência na bacia do Mediterrâneo e América latina. Não existem ainda vacinas humanas nem tratamentos eficazes para a leishmaniose, o controlo desta doença é insuficiente e a área afectada pelo parasita tem aumentado. Consequentemente, a identificação de novos alvos terapêuticos eficazes...

Sabino, Fa?bio Mira Rocha

2012-01-01

261

Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Leishmania donovani infantum polypeptides in human visceral leishmaniasis.  

OpenAIRE

Using the immunoblot technique, we have compared the reactions of Leishmania donovani infantum polypeptides with the immunoglobulin G of human sera from patients with parasitologically proven L. d. infantum infection, with suspected visceral leishmaniasis, and with other leishmaniases, protozoiases, helminthiases, and fungal or bacterial diseases. A 94-kDa component reacted with all L. d. infantum-infected sera and with 75% of sera from patients with clinical and serological but no parasitolo...

Rolland-burger, L.; Rolland, X.; Grieve, C. W.; Monjour, L.

1991-01-01

262

Identification of monomeric and oligomeric forms of a major Leishmania infantum antigen by using monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced against isolated Leishmania infantum membranes were used as probes of L. infantum membrane antigens. Western blots of L. infantum membranes, sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized and heated at 100 degrees C before analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showed that all 10 MAbs recognized a band at 58 kilodaltons (kDa). However, when solubilized membranes were not heated, 2 of the 10 MAbs recognized, in addition to the 58-kDa band, bands of higher molecular weight. Limited digestion of heated or nonheated membranes showed that both groups of MAbs (i.e., not capable or capable of binding to the high-molecular-weight bands) recognized the same proteolytic digests. Hydrophilic forms of the above proteins, possessing proteolytic activity, were detected and isolated by gel filtration. Protein staining of the isolated monomer analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under reducing and heating conditions, revealed incomplete reduction of the 58-kDa protein. The reduced form of the 58-kDa protein migrated at 63 to 65 kDa and was not recognized by the MAbs. These results suggest the existence of a monomeric and an oligomeric form of the 58-kDa antigen. The observed inhibition of Leishmania promastigote-macrophage binding caused by MAbs representative of the two groups (capable of oligomeric and/or monomeric antigen recognition) suggest that the 58-kDa monomer and oligomer play an important role in promastigote-macrophage interaction. We suggest that the 58-kDa L. infantum antigen is the major surface Leishmania antigen (p63) identified by others. PMID:3281902

Soteriadou, K P; Tzinia, A K; Hadziantoniou, M G; Tzartos, S J

1988-05-01

263

Detection of Leishmania infantum in the smegma of infected dogs / Detecção de Leishmania infantum no esmegma de cães infectados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tendo em vista a transmissão venérea da leishmaniose visceral do cão para a cadela, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a superfície peniana e o esmegma de cães infectados poderiam ser a fonte de parasitas para a fêmea. Amostras de sêmen e esmegma de 12 cães infectados com Leishmania infantum f [...] oram submetidas à identificação do DNA do parasita por PCR. As incidências de positividade no sêmen (41,7%) e no esmegma (50,0%) foram semelhantes (P>0,05; teste exato de Fisher), sendo 58,3% dos cães positivos para sêmen e/ou esmegma. A positividade para sêmen e esmegma juntos ocorreu em 33,3%, mas em 8,3% dos casos apenas no sêmen, e em 16,7% apenas no esmegma, o que revela uma concordância moderada entre os testes (K=0,5; índice Kappa). Conclui-se que a Leishmania infantum está presente no esmegma de cães contaminados, podendo ser a fonte de parasitas para o sêmen e a cadela. Abstract in english Considering the venereal transmission of visceral leishmaniasis from dogs to bitches, the aim of this study was to verify if the penile surface and smegma from infected dogs can be the source of parasites in bitches. Twelve Leishmania infantum infected dogs had semen and smegma samples collected for [...] submission to PCR identification of the DNA of the parasite. Semen (41.7%) and smegma (50.0%) have similar positive incidence (P>0.05; Fisher's exact test), with 58.3% of the dogs positive for semen and/or smegma samples. The proportion of positivity for both semen and smegma was 33.3%, but 8.3% was positive only for semen, and 16.7% only for smegma, revealing a moderate agreement between tests (K=0.5; Kappa index). It was concluded that Leishmania infantum is present in the smegma of contaminated dogs and it can be a source of parasites for the semen and the bitch.

L.C., Silva; V.P., Assis; V.M., Ribeiro; W.L., Tafuri; J.C., Toledo Júnior; S.O., Silva; M.N., Melo; M.A., Rachid; G.R., Valle.

2014-06-01

264

Estudo comparativo das alterações clínicas e laboratoriais em canídeos mono-infectados com Leishmania infantum versus canídeos co-infectados com Leishmania infantum e com Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis e/ou Rickettsia conorii  

OpenAIRE

A Leishmaniose Canina é uma doença sistémica grave, crónica, debilitante e potencialmente fatal, provocada por um protozoário difásico, a Leishmania infantum. È endémica em grande parte do território de Portugal Continental e nos últimos anos têm-se assistido a um aumento da sua prevalência nos cães. É transmitida ao hospedeiro vertebrado através da picada do insecto vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus. As doenças transmitidas por vectores constituem um grupo de doe...

Aguiar, Maria Catarina Costa Mendonc?a

2011-01-01

265

T Cell Response of Asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi Infected Subjects to Recombinant Leishmania Antigens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In areas of Leishmania chagasi transmission the ability to control leishmania infection is associated with IFN-g production. In visceral leishmaniasis down-regulation of T cell responses is mediated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). In this study we evaluated the lymphoproliferative response, IFN-g and IL- [...] 10 production on lymphocyte cultures stimulated with recombinant leishmania antigens in subjects with asymptomatic L. chagasi infection. There was a statistically significant difference in the lymphoproliferative response of the subjects with asymptomatic infection as compared to patients with visceral leishmaniasis and healthy subjects with respect to crude antigens (p

Sérgio Ricardo, Costa; Argemiro, D' Oliveira Júnior; Olívia, Bacellar; Edgar M, Carvalho.

1999-05-01

266

Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality  

OpenAIRE

In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania) major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain) grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%). As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also...

Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de; Pereira Mirian Claudia de Souza; Côrte-Real Suzana

1997-01-01

267

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of an Organic Tellurium Compound on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi  

OpenAIRE

Tellurium compounds have shown several biological properties and recently the leishmanicidal effect of one organotellurane was demonstrated. These findings led us to test the effect of the organotellurium compound RF07 on Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. In vitro assays were performed in L. (L.) chagasi-infected bone marrow derived macrophages treated with different concentrations of RF07. In in vivo experiments Golden hamsters were infect...

Pimentel, Isabella Aparecida Salerno; Paladi, Carolina Siqueira; Katz, Simone; Ju?dice, Wagner Alves Souza; Cunha, Rodrigo L. O. R.; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2012-01-01

268

Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a divergent Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus: a mini review  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni is the Leishmania species that presents the most distinct biological (morphology, growth in axenic culture medium), biochemical (enzymatic electrophoresis profile), and molecular biology characteristics, when compared to other species of the Viannia subgenus. Development of promastigote forms of this parasite attached to the wall of the pyloric and hind gut regions of sand fly vectors is a solid characteristic that allows its positioning in the Viannia subgenus. ...

Corre?a, Jose? R.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Soares, Maurilio J.

2005-01-01

269

A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA ...

Freitas-lidani, Ka?rita Cla?udia; Messias-reason, Iara J.; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y.

2014-01-01

270

Activity of an engineered synthetic killer peptide on Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to analyze the effect of an engineered, killer decapeptide (KP) on Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes. The KP was synthesized on the basis of the sequence of a recombinant, single-chain anti-idiotypic antibody acting as a functional internal image of a yeast killer toxin. The evaluation of in vitro inhibitory activity of KP on L. major and L. infantum, release of intracellular green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules by L. major, DNA fragmentatio...

Savoia, Dianella; Raimondo, Stefania; Scutera, Sara Agata Caterina

2006-01-01

271

Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi  

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Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

Travi BL

2002-01-01

272

Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laborat [...] ory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID) in the snout or feet with 10(7) promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7) promastigotes) or ID in the ear (10(8) promastigotes). PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i.) and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies) and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

BL, Travi; LT, Arteaga; AP, León; GH, Adler.

2002-09-01

273

In Vitro Evaluation of a Soluble Leishmania Promastigote Surface Antigen as a Potential Vaccine Candidate against Human Leishmaniasis  

Science.gov (United States)

PSA (Promastigote Surface Antigen) belongs to a family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins present in several Leishmania (L.) species. PSA is recognized by human Th1 cells and provides a high degree of protection in vaccinated mice. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses induced by a L. amazonensis PSA protein (LaPSA-38S) produced in a L. tarentolae expression system. This was done in individuals cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CCLm) or L. braziliensis (CCLb) or visceral leishmaniasis due to L. donovani (CVLd) and in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals were subdivided into immune (HHR-Lm and HHR-Li: Healthy High Responders living in an endemic area for L. major or L. infantum infection) or non immune/naive individuals (HLR: Healthy Low Responders), depending on whether they produce high or low levels of IFN-? in response to Leishmania soluble antigen. Low levels of total IgG antibodies to LaPSA-38S were detected in sera from the studied groups. Interestingly, LaPSA-38S induced specific and significant levels of IFN-?, granzyme B and IL-10 in CCLm, HHR-Lm and HHR-Li groups, with HHR-Li group producing TNF-? in more. No significant cytokine response was observed in individuals immune to L. braziliensis or L. donovani infection. Phenotypic analysis showed a significant increase in CD4+ T cells producing IFN-? after LaPSA-38S stimulation, in CCLm. A high positive correlation was observed between the percentage of IFN-?-producing CD4+ T cells and the released IFN-?. We showed that the LaPSA-38S protein was able to induce a mixed Th1 and Th2/Treg cytokine response in individuals with immunity to L. major or L. infantum infection indicating that it may be exploited as a vaccine candidate. We also showed, to our knowledge for the first time, the capacity of Leishmania PSA protein to induce granzyme B production in humans with immunity to L. major and L. infantum infection. PMID:24786587

Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Petitdidier, Elodie; Markikou-Ouni, Wafa; Aoun, Karim; Moreno, Javier; Carrillo, Eugenia; Salotra, Poonam; Kaushal, Himanshu; Negi, Narender Singh; Arevalo, Jorge; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Privat, Angela; Cruz, Maria; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard-Marie; Rhouma, Faten Bel Haj; Torres, Pilar; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Chenik, Mehdi; Meddeb-Garnaoui, Amel

2014-01-01

274

First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam  

OpenAIRE

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective.

Thiel, Pieter-paul A. M.; Gool, Tom; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert

2010-01-01

275

Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Here we report the sequencing of the genomes of two species of Leishmania: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The comparison of these sequences with the published genome of Leishmania major reveals marked conservation of synteny and identifies only ?200 genes with a differential distribution between the three species. L. braziliensis, contrary to Leishmania species examined so far, possesses components of a putat...

Peacock, Christopher S.; Seeger, Kathy; Harris, David; Murphy, Lee; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.; Quail, Michael A.; Peters, Nick; Adlem, Ellen; Tivey, Adrian; Aslett, Martin; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Ivens, Alasdair; Fraser, Audrey; Rajandream, Marie-adele; Carver, Tim

2007-01-01

276

Efeito leishmanicida in vitro de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae In vitro leishmanicidal effect of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A atividade anti-Leishmania do extrato hidroalcoólico de Stachytarpheta cayennensis, espécie utilizada popularmente no tratamento de lesões cutâneas causadas por Leishmania sp, foi testado em ensaios in vitro utilizando formas promastigotas de Leishmania braziliensis e L. amazonensis. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi preparado a partir das folhas secas e utilizado em culturas de L. amazonensis e L. braziliensis nas concentrações de 500 a 32,5 µg/mL. Após 24 horas as formas promastigotas foram quantificadas para o cálculo da CI50. A citotoxicidade do extrato foi avaliada também em culturas de macrófagos peritoneais. O extrato apresentou efeito leishmanicida dose e espécie-dependente para promastigotas de Leishmania sendo mais eficaz para L. braziliensis. O extrato não apresentou efeito citotóxico quando utilizado nas culturas de macrófagos. Concluiu-se que o extrato hidroalcoólico de S. cayennensis inibe formas promastigotas de Leishmania in vitro o que poderia justificar, pelo menos parcialmente, o uso popular dessa espécie no tratamento de úlceras causadas por Leishmania.Leishmanicidal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, species that is usually employed in ulcers caused by Leishmania, was evaluated in vitro using Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis promastigotes forms. The hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from dried leaves and used in L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis promastigotes cultures at concentrations of 500 to 32.5 µg/mL. After 24 hours the promastigotes forms were quantified and the IC50 was calculated. The cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using peritoneal macrophages. The extract presented a dose and specie-dependent leishmanicidal effect to Leishmania promastigotes, mainly to the L. braziliensis ones. The cytotoxic effect was not observed in macrophage cultures. In conclusion, the hydroalcoholic extract of S. cayennensis inhibits the growing of Leishmania promastigotes forms in vitro accounting for the folk use of this vegetal in skin ulcers caused by Leishmania.

Rosilene C.R. Moreira

2007-03-01

277

Synthesis, characterization and study of activity inhibitory of new dialkylphosphorylhdrazones on the growth of trypanosomatids; Sintese, caracterizacao e estudo da atividade inibitoria de novas dialquilfosforilarilidrazonas sobre o crescimento de tripanossomatideos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new series of dialkylphosphorylhydrazones was synthesized through the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with different phosphorylhydrazines. All synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopies. The in vitro investigation of the activity of these compounds against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and epimastigotes of T. cruzi, showed an efficient inhibition of proliferation, at non toxic concentrations to mammalian cells. The results have shown some derivatives as potential antiparasitic agents against trypanosomatids. (author)

Nogueira, Andrea Janaina M.; Lima, Marco Edilson F. de; DaCosta, Joao Batista N., E-mail: dacosta@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Alves, Eliomara Sousa Sobral; Anjos, Danielle Oliveira dos; Vannier-Santos, Marcos Andre; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz

2011-07-01

278

Detecção de DNA de Leishmania braziliensis em pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana Detección de DNA de Leishmania braziliensis en pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentaria americana Detection of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado diagnóstico para leishmaniose tegumentar americana a partir de sangue de pacientes residentes em dois municípios endêmicos do estado de Pernambuco. O DNA de 119 amostras de sangue foi extraído e submetido a reação em cadeia da polimerase. Utilizaram-se primers do minicírculo do DNA do cinetoplasto (kDNA de Leishmania braziliensis, circulante em Pernambuco, cuja seqüência-alvo gera um fragmento de 750 pares de bases. No total 58 (48,7% indivíduos apresentaram amplificação positiva e 61 (51,3% negativa. Das amostras positivas para a PCR, 37 (? 64% pertenciam a indivíduos tratados e sem lesão. Conclui-se que a técnica de PCR é eficaz para identificar o DNA de leishmânia em material de biópsias e em sangue venoso.Fue realizado diagnóstico para leishmaniosis tegumentaria americana a partir de sangre de pacientes residentes en dos municipios endémicos del estado de Pernambuco (Noreste de Brasil. El DNA de 119 muestras de sangre fue extraído y sometido a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se utilizaron primers del minicírculo del DNA del cinetoplasto (kDNA de Leishmania braziliensis, circulante en Pernambuco, cuya secuencia blanco genera un fragmento de 750 pares de bases. En total 58 (48,7% individuos presentaron amplificación positiva y 61 (51,3% negativa. De las muestras positivas para la PCR, 37 (?64% pertenecían a individuos tratados y sin lesión. Se concluyó que la técnica de la PCR es eficaz para identificar el DNA de Leishmania en material de biopsias y en sangre venosa.Diagnostic tests for American tegumentary leishmaniasis were performed on blood samples of patients living in two endemic municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. DNA was extracted from 119 samples and used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. The tests used primers specific for the kinetoplast mini-circle DNA (kDNA of Leishmania braziliensis, a species circulating in Pernambuco, which amplify a 750 base pair target sequence. In total, 58 subjects (48.7% showed positive PCR amplification and 61 (51.3% were negative. Of the PCR-positive samples, 37 (?64% were from treated, lesion-free subjects. In conclusion, the PCR technique is efficacious at identifying Leishmania DNA in biopsy and venous blood samples.

Leila Martins

2010-06-01

279

Transfection of Leishmania enriettii and expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene.  

OpenAIRE

We report a transient expression transfection system in Leishmania enriettii. A hybrid gene containing an intergenic region of the alpha-tubulin cluster and the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.28) gene is expressed after transfection of L. enriettii with the hybrid plasmid. The expression of the CAT gene is dependent on the presence of sequences from the alpha-tubulin gene. The hybrid gene is also active in Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania major.

Laban, A.; Wirth, D. F.

1989-01-01

280

Transmission potential of antimony-resistant leishmania field isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr; Sereno, Denis

2014-10-01

281

Captação de ferro por amastigotas de Leishmania infantum  

OpenAIRE

O ferro é um elemento essencial para quase todos os organismos, a Leishmania não é excepção. Pouco é conhecido sobre o metabolismo do ferro em Leishmania, especialmente no seu estadío intracelular, o amastigota. Por isso foram estudadas quais as fontes de ferro utilizáveis pela forma amastigota. Usando um meio pobre em ferro foi demonstrado que amastigotas axénicos de Leishmania infantum são capazes de adquirir ferro proveniente de diferentes fontes como a hemoglob...

Santare?m, Nuno Pedro Moreira

2006-01-01

282

Comparative genomic studies and in-silco strategies on Leishmania brazilensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania major: Conserved features, putative functions and potential drug target  

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Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease found largely in the tropics, which the World Health Organization has estimated infects 12 million people worldwide each year. More recently cases have been reported in Europe among intravenous drug users with HIV. At least 20 Leishmania species infect humans. New world parasite Leishmania. braziliensis is the causative agent of mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. The old world species Leishmania. major and Leishmania. infantum, which are present in Africa, Europe and Asia, are parasites that cause cutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis respectively. Aim of this Study is determination of major common genes and Protein identified Gene location on each of the chromosomes, and identification of a common protein drug target Promastigote surface antigen with available lead molecule acetylglucosamine (6-(acetylamino-6-deoxyhexopyranose and docking studies on those considered Leishmania species.

Rakesh N. R.

2013-06-01

283

Presence of Leishmania amastigotes in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas, Northeast Brazil Presença de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de cão com leishmaniose proveniente de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available The goal of this short communication is to report the uncommon presence of intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas State, Brazil. Physical examination of an adult male rottweiler suspected to be suffering of leishmaniasis revealed severe loss of weight, ascitis, splenomegaly, moderately enlarged lymph nodes, onychogryphosis, generalized alopecia, skin ulcers on the posterior limbs, and conjunctivitis. Samples of bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, skin ulcer, and peritoneal fluid were collected and smears of each sample were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Numerous amastigotes were detected in bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, and skin ulcer smears. Smears of peritoneal fluid revealed the unusual presence of several free and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania. Future studies are needed to determine whether the cytology of ascitic fluid represents a useful tool for diagnosis Leishmania infection in ascitic dogs, particularly in those living in areas where canine leishmaniasis is enzootic.O objetivo desta comunicação é descrever a presença incomum de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de um cão com leishmaniose proveniente do Estado de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil. O exame físico de um cão macho adulto da raça rottweiler, apresentando suspeita de leishmaniose, revelou perda de peso severa, esplenomegalia, linfonodos moderadamente aumentados, ascite, onicogrifose, alopecia generalizada, conjuntivite e presença de lesões cutâneas ulceradas localizadas nos membros posteriores. Foram coletadas amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo, fluido peritoneal e úlcera cutânea. A partir das amostras, foram elaborados esfregaços, os quais foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina. Inúmeras formas amastigotas foram detectadas na medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo e úlcera cutânea. Esfregaços de fluido peritoneal revelaram a presença, não usual, de várias formas amastigotas livres e intracelulares. Futuros estudos serão necessários a fim de determinar se a citologia de líquido ascítico representa uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico da infecção por Leishmania em cães com ascite, particularmente naqueles que vivem em áreas onde a leishmaniose canina é enzoótica.

Filipe Dantas-Torres

2006-08-01

284

Comparative in-silico genome analysis of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani: A step towards its species specificity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative genome analysis of recently sequenced Leishmania (L.) donovani was unexplored so far. The present study deals with the complete scanning of L. (L.) donovani genome revealing its interspecies variations. 60 distinctly present genes in L. (L.) donovani were identified when the whole genome was compared with Leishmania (L.) infantum. Similarly 72, 159, and 265 species specific genes were identified in L. (L.) donovani when compared to Leishmania (L.) major, Leishmania (L.) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis respectively. The cross comparison of L. (L.) donovani in parallel with the other sequenced species of leishmanial led to the identification of 55 genes which are highly specific and expressed exclusively in L. (L.) donovani. We found mainly the discrepancies of surface proteins such as amastins, proteases, and peptidases. Also 415 repeat containing proteins in L. (L.) donovani and their differential distribution in other leishmanial species were identified which might have a potential role during pathogenesis. The genes identified can be evaluated as drug targets for anti-leishmanial treatment, exploring the scope for extensive future investigations. PMID:25606461

S, Satheesh Kumar; R K, Gokulasuriyan; Ghosh, Monidipa

2014-12-01

285

Proteases de Leishmania: novos alvos para o desenvolvimento racional de fármacos Leishmania proteases: new targets for rational drug development  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania causes tegumental and visceral diseases called leishmaniasis. Disease control is possible interrupting the transmission cycle, but HIV co-infection, chemotheraphy toxicity and lack of a vaccine are paramount difficulties. So, is necessary to study new Leishmania molecules and investigate the possibility to develop rational drugs using these molecules as targets. Leishmania express many peptidases during their life, and cysteine are the most abundant proteas...

Raquel Elisa da Silva-López

2010-01-01

286

Clonal variation within a mucosal isolate derived from a patient with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis infection Variação clonal de um isolado derivado de um paciente com infecção mucosa pela Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis  

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Full Text Available Three isolates over 5 years from a patient with persistent relapsing mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and 7 clones from one of these isolates were studied by zymodemes and scrodemes analysis. Results showed evidences of clonal phenotypic variation. Eight isoenzymes markers demonstrated clear differences on Cellulose Acetate (CA and thin starch gel electrophoresis. Also a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies showed such differences. Our observations provide additional evidence that Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis is composed by subpopulations of parasites with peculiar biochemical and antigenic characteristics.No transcurso de um período de 5 anos foram estudados 3 isolados de um paciente com leishmaniose mucosa recidivante causada pela Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e 7 clones de um desses isolados. Este estudo foi feito pela análise dos serodemas e zimodemas. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de variações fenotípicas clonais. Oito marcadores isoenzimáticos demonstraram diferenças nos padrões eletroforéticos em Acetato de Celulose (AC, bem como em camada fina de amido. Da mesma forma foram consultadas diferenças em um painel de anticorpos monoclonais específicos e subespecíficos. Nossas observações indicam ainda que a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis está composta por subpopulações de parasitas com características bioquímicas e antigênicas peculiares.

César Augusto Cuba-Cuba

1991-10-01

287

Diffuse intralobular liver fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%). PMID:18689624

Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner

2008-08-01

288

Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis in corticosteroid – treated patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of leishmaniasis cases associated with immunosuppression has increased regularly over the past 20 years. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection, immunosuppressive treatment, organ transplantation, and neoplastic diseases increases the risk for Leishmania-infected people to develop visceral illness. Case presentation Three cases of Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis in corticosteroid (CS-treated patients are reported: an isolated lingual leishmaniasis in a farmer treated with CS for asthma, a severe visceral leishmaniasis associated with cutaneous lesions in a woman with myasthenia gravis, and a visceral involvement after cutaneous leishmaniasis in a man receiving CS. Conclusion Physicians should recognise CS-treated patients as a population likely to be immunesuppressed. In immunodeficiency conditions, unusual forms of leishmaniasis can develop and foster the risk of a diagnostic delay and of poor response to therapy.

De Marco Michele

2006-12-01

289

Genes and Chromosomes of Leishmania infantum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english During recent years, several Leishmania infantum genes have been cloned and characterized. Here, we have summarized the available information on the gene organization and expression in this protozoan parasite. From a comparative analysis, the following outstanding features were found to be common to [...] most of the genes characterized: tandemly organized genes with conserved coding regions and divergent untranslated regions, polycistronic transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The analysis of chromosomes of L. infantum by pulsed-field electrophoresis showed the existence of both size and number polymorphisms such that each strain has a distinctive molecular karyotype. Despite this variability, highly conserved physical linkage groups exists among different strains of L. infantum and even among Old World Leishmania species. Gene mapping on the L. infantum molecular karyotype evidenced a bias in chromosomal distribution of, at least, the evolutionary conserved genes

Jose, María Requena; Manuel, Soto; Luis, Quijada; Carlos, Alonso.

1997-11-01

290

Genes and Chromosomes of Leishmania infantum  

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Full Text Available During recent years, several Leishmania infantum genes have been cloned and characterized. Here, we have summarized the available information on the gene organization and expression in this protozoan parasite. From a comparative analysis, the following outstanding features were found to be common to most of the genes characterized: tandemly organized genes with conserved coding regions and divergent untranslated regions, polycistronic transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The analysis of chromosomes of L. infantum by pulsed-field electrophoresis showed the existence of both size and number polymorphisms such that each strain has a distinctive molecular karyotype. Despite this variability, highly conserved physical linkage groups exists among different strains of L. infantum and even among Old World Leishmania species. Gene mapping on the L. infantum molecular karyotype evidenced a bias in chromosomal distribution of, at least, the evolutionary conserved genes

Jose María Requena

1997-11-01

291

Qualidade espermática de sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania sp: Semen quality of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania sp  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se alterações espermáticas associadas à infecção por leishmaniose no sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se, durante oito semanas consecutivas, ejaculados de seis cães soronegativos e seis cães soropositivos. As amostras foram colhidas uma vez por semana e avaliadas quanto ao volume, concentração, motilidade, vigor, morfologia espermática, integridade da cromatina, avaliação simultânea da integridade da membrana plasmática, acrossoma e potencial mitocondrial. Concomitantemente foram dosadas a proteína total do plasma seminal e sanguíneo. A leishmaniose visceral causou aumento dos defeitos maiores e menores nos espermatozoides dos animais acometidos pelo estágio moderado a severo da doença. Em estágios mais avançados da enfermidade, a integridade das membranas acrossomal e plasmática foi afetada negativamente. Não foi possível estabelecer um critério quanto à avaliação do potencial mitocondrial. A incidência de alterações morfológicas nos animais acometidos não promoveu aumento de injurias à cromatina. Todos os animais com leishmaniose apresentaram hiperproteinemia do sêmen.The spermatic changes associated with the natural infection in dogs by Leishmania sp was evaluated during eight consecutive weeks, using ejaculates of six seronegative and six seropositive dogs. The samples were collected once a week and evaluated for volume, concentration, motility, vigor, sperm morphology, chromatin integrity, simultaneous evaluation of the plasmatic membrane integrity, acrosome, and mitochondrial potential. The total proteins of the seminal plasma and blood were measured. The visceral leishmaniasis caused increase of major and minor defects in spermatozoa of animals attacked by moderate to severe stages of the disease. In more advanced stages of the illness, the acrosomal and plasmatic membranes integrity was adversely affected. It was not possible to establish a pattern refering the evaluation of the mitochondrial potential. The incidence of morphological changes in the seropositive animals did not promote an increase of injuries to the chromatin. All animals with leishmaniasis presented hyperproteinemia of the semen.

É. Labat

2010-06-01

292

Qualidade espermática de sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania sp: / Semen quality of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania sp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se alterações espermáticas associadas à infecção por leishmaniose no sêmen de cães naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se, durante oito semanas consecutivas, ejaculados de seis cães soronegativos e seis cães soropositivos. As amostras foram colhidas uma vez por semana e avaliadas quanto ao [...] volume, concentração, motilidade, vigor, morfologia espermática, integridade da cromatina, avaliação simultânea da integridade da membrana plasmática, acrossoma e potencial mitocondrial. Concomitantemente foram dosadas a proteína total do plasma seminal e sanguíneo. A leishmaniose visceral causou aumento dos defeitos maiores e menores nos espermatozoides dos animais acometidos pelo estágio moderado a severo da doença. Em estágios mais avançados da enfermidade, a integridade das membranas acrossomal e plasmática foi afetada negativamente. Não foi possível estabelecer um critério quanto à avaliação do potencial mitocondrial. A incidência de alterações morfológicas nos animais acometidos não promoveu aumento de injurias à cromatina. Todos os animais com leishmaniose apresentaram hiperproteinemia do sêmen. Abstract in english The spermatic changes associated with the natural infection in dogs by Leishmania sp was evaluated during eight consecutive weeks, using ejaculates of six seronegative and six seropositive dogs. The samples were collected once a week and evaluated for volume, concentration, motility, vigor, sperm mo [...] rphology, chromatin integrity, simultaneous evaluation of the plasmatic membrane integrity, acrosome, and mitochondrial potential. The total proteins of the seminal plasma and blood were measured. The visceral leishmaniasis caused increase of major and minor defects in spermatozoa of animals attacked by moderate to severe stages of the disease. In more advanced stages of the illness, the acrosomal and plasmatic membranes integrity was adversely affected. It was not possible to establish a pattern refering the evaluation of the mitochondrial potential. The incidence of morphological changes in the seropositive animals did not promote an increase of injuries to the chromatin. All animals with leishmaniasis presented hyperproteinemia of the semen.

É., Labat; J.T., Carreira; B.H., Matsukuma; M.T.A., Martins; V.M.F., Lima; S.R.M., Bomfim; S.H.V., Perri; M.B., Koivisto.

2010-06-01

293

Multiple products of the Leishmania chagasi major surface protease (MSP or GP63) gene family.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major surface protease (MSP or GP63) of the Leishmania spp. protozoa facilitates parasite evasion of complement-mediated killing, phagocytosis by macrophages, and intracellular survival in macrophage phagolysosomes. Immunoblots of several Leishmania species have shown there are distinct MSP isoforms, but the biochemical bases for these differences are unknown. Northern blots show that transcripts of the three tandem gene classes encoding Leishmania chagasi MSP (MSPS, MSPL, MSPC) are differentially expressed during parasite growth in vitro. Cell-associated MSPs increase in abundance during growth, correlating directly with parasite virulence. We examined whether distinct products of these >18 MSP genes are either differentially expressed or differentially processed during parasite growth. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblots delineated more than 10 MSP isoforms in stationary phase L. chagasi, distributed between pIs of 5.2-6.1 and masses of 58-63 kDa. Post-translational modifications including N-glycosylation, GPI anchor addition and phosphorylation did not account for all differences among the isoforms. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that at least some L. chagasi MSPs were the products of different MSP genes. One isoform was not available for surface biotinylation, suggesting it could be located internally. Parasites in logarithmic growth expressed only four MSP isoforms, and an attenuated strain of L. chagasi (L5) did not express one of the MSP classes (MSPS). These data demonstrate that the products of individual MSP genes are differentially expressed during Leishmania development. We hypothesize they may play different roles during parasite migration through its two hosts. PMID:15110459

Yao, Chaoqun; Luo, Jiwen; Storlie, Patricia; Donelson, John E; Wilson, Mary E

2004-06-01

294

Prevalência de adultos infectados por Leishmania leishmania chagasi entre doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil / Prevalence of adults infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi among blood donors of the Hemominas Foundation in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a prevalência de adultos infectados por L. L. chagasi entre doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Montes Claros/MG .Realizou-se estudo epidemiológico, transversal e quantitativo, no período de 16/09/08 a 13/11/08. Participaram da pesquisa 421 doadores apt [...] os na triagem clínica, sendo realizada imunofluorescência indireta para L.L.chagasi. Aqueles que apresentaram resultados positivos foram submetidos ao teste rápido antígeno-específico para Leishmania donovani. A análise das variáveis gênero, faixa etária, procedência, número de doações, resultados sorológicos para leishmaniose e chagas, foi realizada pelos testes estatísticos qui-quadrado (x2), x2 com tendência linear e teste Fisher. Foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the prevalence of adults infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi among blood donors of the Hemominas Foundation in Montes Claros, Brazil. A cross-sectional, quantitative epidemiological study was performed of 421 blood donors from September 16 2008 to Nove [...] mber 13 2008. The L. l. chagasi indirect immunofluorescence test (RIFI) was utilized. Donors that presented with positive results in RIFI were retested using the fast immunochromatographic test (Trald). The gender, age, place of origin, number of donations, leishmania and chagas disease serum results were studied with statistical correlations being analyzed utilizing the chi-square test (x2), x2 with linear tendency and the Fisher test; a level of significance of 5% (p

Elaine V. R., Urias; Silvio F. G., Carvalho; Cláudia L., Oliveira; Maria de Lourdes M., Carvalho; Leandro F., Teles; Murilo C., Rodrigues; Caroline N., Maia.

295

Adenine and adenosine salvage in Leishmania donovani  

OpenAIRE

6-aminopurine metabolism in Leishmania is unique among trypanosomatid pathogens since this genus expresses two distinct routes for adenine salvage: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and adenine deaminase (AAH). To evaluate the relative contributions of APRT and AAH, adenine salvage was evaluated in ?aprt, ?aah, and ?aprt/?aah null mutants of L. donovani. The data confirm that AAH plays the dominant role in adenine metabolism in L. donovani, although either enzyme alone is sufficien...

Boitz, Jan M.; Ullman, Buddy

2013-01-01

296

The SNARE protein family of Leishmania major  

OpenAIRE

Background Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite with a highly polarised cell shape that depends upon endocytosis and exocytosis from a single area of the plasma membrane, the flagellar pocket. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors) are key components of the intracellular vesicle-mediated transports that take place in all eukaryotic cells. They are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the docking and fusion of vesicles with ...

Besteiro, S.; Coombs, G. H.; Mottram, J. C.

2006-01-01

297

Structure of tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum  

OpenAIRE

The trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is usually fatal unless treated. VL has an incidence of 0.5 million cases every year and is an important opportunistic co-infection in HIV/AIDS. Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) has an important role in the metabolism of trypanosomatids, catalyzing the first step in the degradation pathway of aromatic amino acids, which are ultimately converted into their corresponding l-2-oxoacids. Unl...

Moreno, M. A.; Abramov, A.; Alonso Ayala, Ana Mari?a; Zhang, S.; Alcolea, Pedro J.; Edwards, T.; Lorimer, D.; Myler, P. J.; Larraga, Vicente

2014-01-01

298

Genes and Chromosomes of Leishmania infantum  

OpenAIRE

During recent years, several Leishmania infantum genes have been cloned and characterized. Here, we have summarized the available information on the gene organization and expression in this protozoan parasite. From a comparative analysis, the following outstanding features were found to be common to most of the genes characterized: tandemly organized genes with conserved coding regions and divergent untranslated regions, polycistronic transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of gene ...

Jose María Requena; Manuel Soto; Luis Quijada; Carlos Alonso

1997-01-01

299

Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov., a novel metal-reducing facultative anaerobe from Amazonian shelf muds  

Science.gov (United States)

A new bacterial species belonging to the genus Shewanella is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization and sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA-encoding and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This organism, isolated from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta, is a Gram-negative, motile, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium and has a G&C content of 51.7 mol%. Strain SB2BT is exceptionally active in the anaerobic reduction of iron, manganese and sulfur compounds. SB2BT grows optimally at 35 degrees C, with 1-3% NaCl and over a pH range of 7-8. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed a clear affiliation between strain SB2BT and members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria. High similarity values were found with certain members of the genus Shewanella, especially with Shewanella putrefaciens, and this was supported by cellular fatty acid profiles and phenotypic characterization. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain SB2BT and its phylogenetically closest relatives revealed low similarity values (24.6-42.7%) which indicated species status for strain SB2BT. That SB2BT represents a distinct bacterial species within the genus Shewanella is also supported by gyrB sequence analysis. Considering the source of the isolate, the name Shewanella amazonensis sp. nov. is proposed and strain SB2BT (= ATCC 700329T) is designated as the type strain.

Venkateswaran, K.; Dollhopf, M. E.; Aller, R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Nealson, K. H.

1998-01-01

300

Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality  

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Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

1997-01-01

301

Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania) major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain) grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%). As seen in Giemsa-stai [...] ned smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%). Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

Maria Auxiliadora de, Sousa; Mirian Claudia de Souza, Pereira; Suzana, Côrte-Real.

1997-11-01

302

Tipificación de especies de Leishmania de importancia médica basada en el gen que codifica la proteína HSP70 citoplasmática  

OpenAIRE

Con el propósito de diseñar una propuesta que permita la identificación de las principales entidades taxonómicas de Leishmania en diversas áreas geográficas, se investigó el gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 70kDa. Se detectaron mediante PCR 16 especies de importancia médica de este parásito, de las cuales 9 se estudian por primera vez con relación a este gen. Se obtuvieron y caracterizaron 44 secuencias nucleotídicas hsp70, y se realizó un análisis filogenétic...

Montalvo Alvarez, Ana Margarita

2011-01-01

303

Disseminated Leishmania infantum infection in two sibling foxhounds due to possible vertical transmission  

OpenAIRE

Two sibling foxhounds born to a Leishmania seropositive bitch were presented after testing seropositive for Leishmania. Leishmania infantum infection was detected via histopathology, culture, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). This is the first report of natural infection with Leishmania infantum with the possibility for vertical transmission in North America.

Gibson-corley, Katherine N.; Hostetter, Jesse M.; Hostetter, Shannon J.; Mullin, Kathleen; Ramer-tait, Amanda E.; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Petersen, Christine A.

2008-01-01

304

Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.  

OpenAIRE

Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid dep...

Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castan?o, M.; Rueda, A.

1983-01-01

305

Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi em canídeos silvestres mantidos em cativeiro, no Estado de Mato Grosso / Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in wild canids kept in captivity in the State of Mato Grosso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Leishmaniose visceral é uma zoonose que acomete diversos mamíferos tendo os canídeos domésticos como principais reservatórios em ambiente urbano. A presente nota descreve a infecção de canídeos silvestres por Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi mantidos em cativeiro no Estado de Mat [...] o Grosso, Brasil. MÉTODOS: De seis raposas (Cerdocyon thous) e um cachorro vinagre (Spheotos venaticus), foram coletadas amostras de pele, medula óssea e linfonodo para detecção e caracterização de Leishmania sp pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. RESULTADOS: Todos as animais pesquisados apresentaram-se positivos para Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. CONCLUSÕES: Destaca-se a importância de monitoramento adequado dos mesmos, além do maior controle desta enfermidade já que estes animais estão em ambientes de recreação pública. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis that affects many mammals, and domestic canids are the main reservoirs in urban environments. This note describes infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi among wild canids kept in captivity in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: [...] Skin, bone marrow and lymph node samples were collected from six crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) and one bush dog (Spheotos venaticus), in order to detect and characterize Leishmania using the PCR-RFLP technique. RESULTS: All the animals studied were positive for Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of adequate monitoring of these animals, as well as greater control of this disease, given that these animals are in a public recreation environment.

Nely Pinheiro, Souza; Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de, Almeida; Tatiana Pádua Tavares de, Freitas; Regina Celia Rodrigues da, Paz; Valéria, Dutra; Luciano, Nakazato; Valéria Régia Franco, Sousa.

2010-06-01

306

Wild Gorillas as a Potential Reservoir of Leishmania major.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for severe human diseases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a common form of the disease, is most often caused by the transmission of Leishmania major to humans by female phlebotomine sand ?ies. Apes are increasingly being seen as a source of zoonotic diseases, including malaria and rickettsiosis. To examine whether gorillas harbor Leishmania species, we screened fecal samples from wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Cameroon for the presence of these pathogens. Of 91 wild gorilla fecal samples, 12 contained Leishmania parasites, and 4 contained phlebotomine sand fly vectors. The molecular identity was determined by running 3 different polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of L. major. Next, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to visualize L. major parasites in fecal samples from the gorillas. Both promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite were found. This work strongly suggests that wild gorillas carry pathogenic Leishmania parasites. PMID:25001460

Hamad, Ibrahim; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

2015-01-15

307

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs caught in Palmas, TO, Brazil / Detecção molecular e parasitológica de Leishmania spp. em cães capturados em Palmas, TO, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Leishmania infantum em cães do município de Palmas-TO, comparando dados diagnósticos obtidos pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) e pelo diagnóstico parasitológico. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de aspirado de linfonodo de 63 cães machos e fêmeas, várias idades [...] e raças, domiciliares ou não de agosto de 2009 a junho de 2010. As lâminas contendo esfregaço dos aspirados de linfonodos foram coradas pelo corante Giemsa. Na PCR, a sequência alvo de 145 pb do fragmento LT1, situado no minicírculo do kDNA do grupo Leishmania donovani, foi detectada através dos oligonucleotídeos iniciadores RV1 e RV2. O teste ?² (Qui-quadrado), demonstrou haver relação significativa entre a sintomatologia e a positividade dos cães para Leishmaniose Visceral (LV). O exame parasitológico mostrou uma concordância de 66,7% com a PCR em sangue e 84,1% com a PCR de aspirado de linfonodo. Além destas análises, houve a avaliação dos diagnósticos em paralelo e em série, onde as concordâncias com o exame parasitológico foram de 76,2% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os resultados permitem sugerir a utilização da PCR de linfonodos na avaliação de grandes populações (inquéritos), e o exame parasitológico para a avaliação clínica inicial em consultórios veterinários. Abstract in english This study evaluated occurrences of Leishmania infantum in dogs in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, comparing diagnostic data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and parasitological diagnosis. Blood samples and lymph node aspirates were collected from 63 dogs of males and female [...] s and various ages and races, with or without owners, between August 2009 and June 2010. Slides containing smears of lymph node aspirates were stained with Giemsa stained. In PCR, the 145 bp target sequence of the LT1 fragment, located in the Leishmania donovani kDNA minicircle was detected using the RV1 and RV2 oligonucleotide primers. The chi-square test revealed that there was a significant relationship between the symptoms and dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The parasitological investigation showed concordance of 66.7% with PCR on blood and 84.1% with PCR on lymph node aspirate. In addition to these tests, evaluations of the diagnoses in parallel and in series were conducted, which showed concordances with the parasitological test of 76.2% and 74.6%, respectively. The results make it possible to suggest that PCR on lymph nodes should be used in evaluating large populations (surveys) and that the parasitological test should be used for initial clinical evaluations in veterinary consultation offices.

Natália Melquie Monteiro, Teles; Maria Augusta Paes, Agostini; Júlio Gomes, Bigeli; Rosalba Valadares, Noleto; Jaqueline Dias, Oliveira; Waldesse Piragé de, Oliveira Junior.

2012-09-01

308

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs caught in Palmas, TO, Brazil Detecção molecular e parasitológica de Leishmania spp. em cães capturados em Palmas, TO, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated occurrences of Leishmania infantum in dogs in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, comparing diagnostic data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and parasitological diagnosis. Blood samples and lymph node aspirates were collected from 63 dogs of males and females and various ages and races, with or without owners, between August 2009 and June 2010. Slides containing smears of lymph node aspirates were stained with Giemsa stained. In PCR, the 145 bp target sequence of the LT1 fragment, located in the Leishmania donovani kDNA minicircle was detected using the RV1 and RV2 oligonucleotide primers. The chi-square test revealed that there was a significant relationship between the symptoms and dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The parasitological investigation showed concordance of 66.7% with PCR on blood and 84.1% with PCR on lymph node aspirate. In addition to these tests, evaluations of the diagnoses in parallel and in series were conducted, which showed concordances with the parasitological test of 76.2% and 74.6%, respectively. The results make it possible to suggest that PCR on lymph nodes should be used in evaluating large populations (surveys and that the parasitological test should be used for initial clinical evaluations in veterinary consultation offices.Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Leishmania infantum em cães do município de Palmas-TO, comparando dados diagnósticos obtidos pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR e pelo diagnóstico parasitológico. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de aspirado de linfonodo de 63 cães machos e fêmeas, várias idades e raças, domiciliares ou não de agosto de 2009 a junho de 2010. As lâminas contendo esfregaço dos aspirados de linfonodos foram coradas pelo corante Giemsa. Na PCR, a sequência alvo de 145 pb do fragmento LT1, situado no minicírculo do kDNA do grupo Leishmania donovani, foi detectada através dos oligonucleotídeos iniciadores RV1 e RV2. O teste ?² (Qui-quadrado, demonstrou haver relação significativa entre a sintomatologia e a positividade dos cães para Leishmaniose Visceral (LV. O exame parasitológico mostrou uma concordância de 66,7% com a PCR em sangue e 84,1% com a PCR de aspirado de linfonodo. Além destas análises, houve a avaliação dos diagnósticos em paralelo e em série, onde as concordâncias com o exame parasitológico foram de 76,2% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os resultados permitem sugerir a utilização da PCR de linfonodos na avaliação de grandes populações (inquéritos, e o exame parasitológico para a avaliação clínica inicial em consultórios veterinários.

Natália Melquie Monteiro Teles

2012-09-01

309

PCR-RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical PCR-RFLP and RAPD for typing neotropical Leishmania  

OpenAIRE

Introducción. El análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado y el estudio del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar han demostrado ser herramientas útiles para la tipificación de Leishmania.
Objetivos. Estudiar la utilidad de las técnicas moleculares para la identificación y tipificación de cepas de referencia de Leishmania spp. del Nuevo Mundo y v...

Iván Darío Vélez; Jean Claude Dujardin; Simonne De Donck; Marcel Marín; Ivón Montano; Carlos Muskus; Jorge Fraga; Lianet Monzote; Ana Margarita Montalvo

2008-01-01

310

Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs  

OpenAIRE

Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by mic...

Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-ershadi, Mohammad Reza

2010-01-01

311

Molecular detection of Leishmania infection due to Leishmania major and Leishmania turanica in the vectors and reservoir host in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological study was carried out on the vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural areas of Damghan district, Semnan province, central Iran, during 2008-2009. Totally, 6110 sand flies were collected using sticky papers and were subjected to molecular methods for detection of Leishmania parasite. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli was the common species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Polymerase chain reaction technique showed that 24 out of 218 P. papatasi (11%) and 4 out of 62 Phlebotomus caucasicus Marzinovskyi (6.5%) were positive for parasites Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor. Twenty-one rodent reservoir hosts captured using Sherman traps were identified as Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein (95%) and Meriones libycus Lichtenstein (5%). Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animals for amastigote parasites revealed 8 (40%) rodents infected with R. opimus. L. major infection in these animals was then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction against internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci of the parasite followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Further, sequence analysis of 297 bp of ITS1-rDNA loci revealed the presence of L. major and Leishmania turanica in P. papatasi, and L. major in R. opimus. This is the first molecular report of L. major infection in both vectors (P. papatasi and P. caucasicus) and reservoir host (R. opimus) in this region. The results indicated that P. papatas was the primary vector of the disease and circulating the parasite between human and reservoirs, and P. caucasicus could be considered as a secondary vector. Further, our study showed that R. opimus is the most important host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area. PMID:20575646

Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azani, Sadegh Mohammadi; Abaie, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina; Mohebai, Mehdi; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zeinali, Mohammad kazem

2011-02-01

312

Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis / Patologia de cães naturalmente coinfectados por Leishmania infantum e Ehrlichia canis em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A infecção simultânea por parasitas de diferentes espécies pode resultar em alterações imprevisíveis. O presente estudo avaliou a patologia de cães naturalmente coinfectados por Leishmania infantum e Ehrlichia canis. A saúde dos cães foi investigada pelas análises histopatológicas, hematológicas e b [...] ioquímicas de 21 cães infectados somente por L. infantum e 22 cães coinfectados por L. infantum e E. canis. Observou-se uma reação inflamatória crônica, predominantemente linfohistioplasmocítica, na pele dos dois grupos. A plasmocitose, encontrada nos tecidos linfóides, provavelmente estava relacionada com a hipergamaglobulinemia observada em todos os cães amostrados. A desorganização da matriz extracelular da derme da região inguinal e da orelha, demonstrada pela substituição das fibras de colágeno espessas por fibras finas, foi relacionada com o grau de reação inflamatória, independente da presença de parasitas. Ainda, observamos duas vezes mais animais do grupo coinfectado apresentando formas amastigotas na pele de orelha pela histopatologia comparado ao número de cães infectados apenas por Leishmania, tornando-os desta forma mais infectivos aos vetores. Nossos resultados ressaltam que a saúde de cães coinfectados estava severamente comprometida devido aos altos níveis de proteína plasmática total, globulinas, fosfatase alcalina, creatina quinase e anemia acentuada. Abstract in english Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathologic [...] al, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

Gisele Braziliano, Andrade; Wanessa Teixeira Gomes, Barreto; Luciana Ladislau dos, Santos; Laura Raquel Rios, Ribeiro; Gabriel Carvalho de, Macedo; Keyla Carstens Marques de, Sousa; Marcos Rogério, André; Rosangela Zacarias, Machado; Heitor Miraglia, Herrera.

2014-12-01

313

Pesquisa de infecção natural de flebotomíneos por Leishmania, no Estado do Paraná / Research of natural infection of phlebotomines for Leishmania, in the State of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem sido notificada em todos os estados do Brasil e no Paraná essa doença é endêmica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a infecção natural de flebotomíneos para verificar a competência vetorial destes insetos e a identificação da espécie parasitária. Os flebo [...] tomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão e Shannon, nos municípios de Doutor Camargo, Fênix e Mandaguari, de novembro de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Coletaram-se 12.930 flebotomíneos, dos quais 2.487 fêmeas foram dissecadas e destes 1.230 fêmeas foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase. Pelo método da dissecação, foi detectada uma fêmea de Nyssomyia whitmani com infecção natural por flagelados e pela reação em cadeia da polimerase não se detectou a presença de DNA de Leishmania em nenhuma das fêmeas. Apesar de não ter sido detectada a infecção natural de Nyssomyia neivai nas localidades em apreço e ainda que os requisitos de incriminação vetorial não tenham sido atendidos, não se deve negligenciar o potencial vetorial desta espécie. Abstract in english American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in all Brazilian states and in the Paraná this disease is endemic. The objective of this work was to detect natural infections in phlebotomines to verify the vector competence of these insects and the identification of the parasite species. Phleboto [...] mines were collected using Falcão and Shannon traps, in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Fênix and Mandaguari, between November 2005 and August 2006. from 12,930 phlebotomines were collected, 2,487 females were dissected and 1,230 dissected females had been submitted to polymerase chain reaction. Flagellates were detected in a female Nyssomyia whitmani that had been dissected and for polymerase chain reaction failed to detect Leishmania DNA in any females. Even though flagellates were not detected in Nyssomyia neivai it should still be considered as a potencial vector.

Herintha Coeto, Neitzke; Regiane Bertin de Lima, Scodro; Kárin Rosi Reinhold de, Castro; Alessandra de Cássia Dias, Sversutti; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi, Silveira; Ueslei, Teodoro.

2008-02-01

314

Pesquisa de infecção natural de flebotomíneos por Leishmania, no Estado do Paraná Research of natural infection of phlebotomines for Leishmania, in the State of Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem sido notificada em todos os estados do Brasil e no Paraná essa doença é endêmica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a infecção natural de flebotomíneos para verificar a competência vetorial destes insetos e a identificação da espécie parasitária. Os flebotomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão e Shannon, nos municípios de Doutor Camargo, Fênix e Mandaguari, de novembro de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Coletaram-se 12.930 flebotomíneos, dos quais 2.487 fêmeas foram dissecadas e destes 1.230 fêmeas foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase. Pelo método da dissecação, foi detectada uma fêmea de Nyssomyia whitmani com infecção natural por flagelados e pela reação em cadeia da polimerase não se detectou a presença de DNA de Leishmania em nenhuma das fêmeas. Apesar de não ter sido detectada a infecção natural de Nyssomyia neivai nas localidades em apreço e ainda que os requisitos de incriminação vetorial não tenham sido atendidos, não se deve negligenciar o potencial vetorial desta espécie.American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in all Brazilian states and in the Paraná this disease is endemic. The objective of this work was to detect natural infections in phlebotomines to verify the vector competence of these insects and the identification of the parasite species. Phlebotomines were collected using Falcão and Shannon traps, in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Fênix and Mandaguari, between November 2005 and August 2006. from 12,930 phlebotomines were collected, 2,487 females were dissected and 1,230 dissected females had been submitted to polymerase chain reaction. Flagellates were detected in a female Nyssomyia whitmani that had been dissected and for polymerase chain reaction failed to detect Leishmania DNA in any females. Even though flagellates were not detected in Nyssomyia neivai it should still be considered as a potencial vector.

Herintha Coeto Neitzke

2008-02-01

315

Infecção natural de Equus caballus por Leishmania sp - São Paulo, Brasil (Breve comunicação científica) Natural infection of Equus caballus by Leishmania sp in São Paulo, Brazil, (Short communication)  

OpenAIRE

E assinalado, pela primeira vez, o encontro de um cavalo (Equus caballus) infeclado por Leishmania sp, no Estado de São Paulo.In São Paulo State a horse (Equus caballus) was found infected with Leishmania sp, for the first time.

Elizaide Luzia de Alvarenga Yoshida; Sílvio de Alencar Marques; Hamilton Ometto Stolf; Luiz Antonio Barsotti; Márcia Maria Fattori Bueno; Roberto Sogayar

1988-01-01

316

DISTINCT CELLULAR MIGRATION INDUCED BY Leishmania infantum chagasi AND SALIVA FROM Lutzomyia longipalpis IN A HEMORRHAGIC POOL MODEL / Migração celular distinta induzida por Leishmania infantum chagasi e saliva de Lutzomyia longipalpis em um modelo de pool hemorrágico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O recrutamento de uma população de células específicas após infecção por Leishmania pode influenciar o resultado da doença. A migração celular em resposta a Leishmania ou saliva do vetor tem sido reportada utilizando o modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea, entretanto, a migração celular induzida por Lei [...] shmania associada com o sangue do hospedeiro e saliva do vetor neste modelo ainda não foi descrita. Neste trabalho foi investigada a migração celular no modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea em hamster após a estimulação com a combinação de L. chagasi, sangue do hospedeiro e saliva de Lutzomyia longipalpis. A migração induzida por saliva foi três vezes maior do que a induzida por L. chagasi sozinha. Adicionalmente, L. chagasi associada com sangue e saliva induziu significativamente ainda mais leucócitos no exsudato inflamatório do que o estímulo com Leishmania sozinha. L. chagasi recrutou uma população de células distintas, no entanto, a maioria dessas células parece não ter migrado para o exsudato inflamatório, permanecendo no tecido da bolsa de ar. Estes resultados indicam que L. chagasi pode reduzir o acúmulo de leucócitos para o local inicial da infecção e que quando associada à saliva do vetor e na presença de componentes do sangue aumenta o influxo de mais neutrófilos do que macrófagos, sugerindo que o parasito desenvolveu uma estratégia para minimizar a resposta inflamatória inicial, permitindo uma progressão ilimitada dentro do hospedeiro. Este trabalho reforça a importância de mais estudos sobre os componentes da saliva dos vetores das leishmanioses no processo de transmissão e no estabelecimento da infecção. Abstract in english Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector [...] saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.

Camila Oliveira, Vasconcelos; Zirlane C. Branco, Coelho; Cristina de Souza, Chaves; Clarissa Romero, Teixeira; Margarida M. Lima, Pompeu; Maria Jania, Teixeira.

2014-01-01

317

Molecular organization of Leishmania RNA virus 1.  

OpenAIRE

The complete 5284-nucleotide sequence of the double-stranded RNA genome of Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) was determined and contains three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus (+) (mRNA) strand. The predicted amino acid sequence of ORF3 has motifs characteristic of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ORF2, which may encode the major viral coat protein, overlaps ORF3 by 71 nucleotides, suggesting a +1 translational frameshift to produce a gag-pol type of fusion protein. Two alternative mode...

Stuart, K. D.; Weeks, R.; Guilbride, L.; Myler, P. J.

1992-01-01

318

The interactions and essential effects of intrinsic insulin-like growth factor-I on Leishmania (Leishmania) major growth within macrophages  

OpenAIRE

Previously, we showed in Leishmania infections that extrinsic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I favored Leishmania proliferation and leishmaniasis development. In this study, the interaction of intrinsically expressed IGF-I and Leishmania (Leishmania) major in macrophages was addressed, and a key finding was the observation, using confocal microscopy, of the co-localization of IGF-I and parasites within macrophages. Following stimulation with interferon-? (IFN-?), which is known to inhibit...

Reis, L. C.; Ramos-sanchez, E. M.; Goto, H.

2013-01-01

319

Perpetuation of Leishmania: some novel insight into elegant developmental programs  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania spp. are polarized single-celled eukaryotic parasites, the perpetuation of which relies on two other organisms they "use" as hosts. One of the Leishmania host organisms is a blood-feeding female sand fly, the second host being a mammal that acts as a blood source for the female sand fly. Leishmania-hosting sand flies transmit the metacyclic promastigote developmental stage to the mammal skin. While many mammals are known to act as sand fly blood sources, only some of these mammals ...

Milon, Genevie?ve

2009-01-01

320

Detection of Leishmania infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Campo Grande, MS / Detecção de Leishmania infantum em Lutzomyia longipalpis capturados em Campo Grande, MS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Leishmaniose é uma zoonose causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania (Ross 1903), objetos de considerável atenção em medicina humana e veterinária. Na cidade de Campo Grande – MS, o agente etiológico da Leishmaniose Visceral é Leishmania infantum (= L. chagasi), e o principal vetor é a espécie [...] Lutzomyia longipalpis, que representa cerca de 92,9% da população de flebotomíneos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a PCR em tempo real como ferramenta para a detecção de kDNA de L. infantum em flebotomíneos, comparando-se com PCR convencional. Flebotomíneos dessa espécie foram capturados, somando 38 amostras de 1 a 4 espécimens cada, distribuídas em 13 bairros, divididos entre as 7 regiões urbanas da cidade de Campo Grande – MS, e armazenados a ?70 °C até a extração de ADN e amplificação por PCR e PCR em tempo real. Das 38 amostras testadas, foram encontradas 3 amostras positivas pela PCR convencional e 11 pela PCR em Tempo Real. Na otimização da PCR em tempo real, a temperatura de dissociação do amplificado foi de 82, 89 °C. Neste estudo, utilizando-se a técnica da PCR em tempo real, foi possível detectar a presença desse agente em 6 dos 13 bairros amostrados, todos na periferia da cidade, indicando o maior potencial enzoótico dessas regiões, que têm maior proximidade com reservas de matas naturais. Conclui-se que a PCR em tempo real pode ser utilizada para estudo epidemiológico de L. infantum. Abstract in english Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania (Ross, 1903) and is the focus of considerable attention in human and veterinary medicine. In the city of Campo Grande, MS, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania infantum (= L. chagasi) primary vector [...] , comprising approximately 92.9% of the local sandfly population, is Lutzomyia longipalpis. The aim of this work was to compare real-time PCR with PCR as a tool for the detection of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of L. infantum in sandflies. Sandflies of this species were caught, and a total of 38 samples with 1-4 individuals in each sample were obtained; these were distributed across 13 districts and divided between seven urban areas of the city of Campo Grande, MS. Three positive samples were found by PCR and, when using real-time PCR, this was able to detect the presence of this agent in 6 of the 13 districts sampled, which were all located on the outskirts of the city, where indicates the greater enzootic potential of these regions, as they are closer to natural forest reserves. We conclude that real-time PCR can be used for epidemiological studies of L. infantum.

Rodrigo Casquero, Cunha; Renato, Andreotti; Marlon Cezar, Cominetti; Elaine Araújo, Silva.

2014-04-01

321

The change of behavior of two strains of Leishmania after cultivation in a defined medium Mudanças no comportamento de duas cepas de Leishmania após cultivo em meio definido  

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Full Text Available Attempts have been made to characterize two strains of Leishmania that became infective to golden hamsters only after they had been maintained for several years in a chemically defined culture medium. Observations were made on the growth rates of promastigotes in vitro, course of infection in hamsters, morphology of amastigotes, and electrophoretic mobility patterns of eight isoenzymes. Information was obtained about the buoyant densities of n-DNA and k-DNA, and one strain was tested against monoclonal antibodies. The identity of both strains remains obscure.Duas cepas de Leishmania originalmente isoladas in vitro de casos humanos de leishmaniose cutânea e que ab initio não infectaram animais de laboratório, tornaram-se infectantes para hamnsters após serem mantidos por vários anos em meio de cultura quimicamente definido. Foram realizadas observações sobre o crescimento de promastigotas in vitro, curso da infecção em hamsters, morfologia das amastigotas, mobilidade eletroforética de oito enzimas solúveis. Foram obtidas informações sobre a densidade de flutuação do n-DNA e do k-DNA e uma das cepas foi testada contra anticorpos monoclonais. Ambas as cepas permanecem sem identificação precisa.

M. N. Melo

1987-12-01

322

The change of behavior of two strains of Leishmania after cultivation in a defined medium / Mudanças no comportamento de duas cepas de Leishmania após cultivo em meio definido  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Duas cepas de Leishmania originalmente isoladas in vitro de casos humanos de leishmaniose cutânea e que ab initio não infectaram animais de laboratório, tornaram-se infectantes para hamnsters após serem mantidos por vários anos em meio de cultura quimicamente definido. Foram realizadas observações s [...] obre o crescimento de promastigotas in vitro, curso da infecção em hamsters, morfologia das amastigotas, mobilidade eletroforética de oito enzimas solúveis. Foram obtidas informações sobre a densidade de flutuação do n-DNA e do k-DNA e uma das cepas foi testada contra anticorpos monoclonais. Ambas as cepas permanecem sem identificação precisa. Abstract in english Attempts have been made to characterize two strains of Leishmania that became infective to golden hamsters only after they had been maintained for several years in a chemically defined culture medium. Observations were made on the growth rates of promastigotes in vitro, course of infection in hamste [...] rs, morphology of amastigotes, and electrophoretic mobility patterns of eight isoenzymes. Information was obtained about the buoyant densities of n-DNA and k-DNA, and one strain was tested against monoclonal antibodies. The identity of both strains remains obscure.

M. N., Melo; Paul, Williams; N. M. Magalhães, Rocha; E. H., Babá; W., Mayrink; M. S. M., Michalick; C. A da, Costa; M., Dias; P. A., Magalhães.

1987-12-01

323

Leishmaniose causada por Leishmania viannia braziliensis (Lvb) um caso de evolução atípica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam o caso de uma criança portadora de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana causada por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis que foi infectada durante a amamentação, desenvolvendo lesão infiltrativa e nodular nos lábios, com posterior disseminação para os seios da face, fossas nasais e p [...] avilhão auricular e cuja evolução clinica pós-terapêutica caracterizou-se por períodos sucessivos de regressão e de reativação da lesão. Enfatizam a gravidade do caso, e as dificuldades terapêuticas com a utilização dos antimoniais pentavalentes, antimoniato-N-metil glucamina (Glucantime) e o stibogluconato de sódio(Pentostam). Abstract in english The authors report a case of a child infected with Leishmania viannia braziliensis during breast feeding, who developed an infiltrated, granulomatous lesion of the lips, followed by dissemination to the face, nasal fossae and external ears. Post therapeutic clinical evolution was characterized by pe [...] riods of regression and lesion reactivation. The seriousness of the case, and the therapeutic difficulties with the utilization of pentavalent antimonials, meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) and sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) are discussed.

Jackson Maurício Lopes, Costa; Kyola Costa, Vale; Flávio, França; Ednaldo L., Lago; Albino V., Magalhães; Philip D., Marsden; Raimunda N., Sampaio.

1988-06-01

324

Leishmaniose causada por Leishmania viannia braziliensis (Lvb um caso de evolução atípica  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma criança portadora de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana causada por Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis que foi infectada durante a amamentação, desenvolvendo lesão infiltrativa e nodular nos lábios, com posterior disseminação para os seios da face, fossas nasais e pavilhão auricular e cuja evolução clinica pós-terapêutica caracterizou-se por períodos sucessivos de regressão e de reativação da lesão. Enfatizam a gravidade do caso, e as dificuldades terapêuticas com a utilização dos antimoniais pentavalentes, antimoniato-N-metil glucamina (Glucantime e o stibogluconato de sódio(Pentostam.The authors report a case of a child infected with Leishmania viannia braziliensis during breast feeding, who developed an infiltrated, granulomatous lesion of the lips, followed by dissemination to the face, nasal fossae and external ears. Post therapeutic clinical evolution was characterized by periods of regression and lesion reactivation. The seriousness of the case, and the therapeutic difficulties with the utilization of pentavalent antimonials, meglumine antimoniate (glucantime and sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam are discussed.

Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

1988-06-01

325

Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in Leishmania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis can lead to an accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER lumen causing initiation of ER stress. To reestablish homeostasis and mitigate the stress, a series of adaptive intracellular signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) are activated. ER stress is of considerable interest to parasitologists because it takes place in parasites subjected to adverse environmental conditions. During a digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions that provide potential triggers of ER stress. These include nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature. Protozoan human pathogens, including the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and malaria, contain a minimal conventional UPR network relative to higher eukaryotic cells. Three different signaling pathways in the ER stress response have been described in trypanosomatids: these pathways involve (i) the down-regulation of translation by a protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), (ii) the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and (iii) the spliced leader silencing (SLS) pathway and its target mRNAs. Under short-term ER stress, signaling from PERK activates autophagy, a cell survival response. But both chronic and unresolved ER stresses lead to initiation of apoptotic events and eventual cell death. This review presents the current understanding of the ER stress response in Leishmania with an emphasis on protein folding and ER quality control, unfolded protein response, autophagy as well as apoptosis in reference to the mammalian system. PMID:25224909

Dolai, Subhankar; Adak, Subrata

2014-10-01

326

Cloning of Leishmania Major P4 Gene  

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Full Text Available Objective: Leishmania major P4 gene is normally expressed during amastigote form ofthe parasite and can be good candidate for producing an effective vaccine. In this study wecloned this gene in suitable vector (pQE-30 for further vaccine preparation studies.Materials and Methods: Leishmania promastigotes were grown in N.N.N.medium and culturein RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Total genomic DNA was extracted by centrifugationof promastigotes. The pellet was suspended in lysis buffer and followed by boiling method.PCR was carried out using P4 gene specific primers. PCR product was detected by agarosgel electrophoresis and cloned into Bluescript plasmid via T/A cloning method. Reactionwas transformed into XL1- Blue competent cell and recombinant plasmid screened usingagar plate contained X-gal and IPTG. The product was extracted, digested by restrictionenzyme and electrophoresed on agarose gel.Results: Plasmid was extracted and cloned gene was released by restriction enzyme andsubcloned into pQE-30 expression vector.Conclusion: This construct is ready for protein expression in in-vitro.

Minoo Shaddel

2008-01-01

327

Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range. Several PDE inhibitors were found to be active against these PDEs in vitro, and to inhibit cell proliferation. Conclusion The genome of L. major contains only PDE genes that are predicted to code for class I PDEs, and none for class II PDEs. This is more similar to what is found in higher eukaryotes than it is to the situation in Dictyostelium or the fungi that concomitantly express class I and class II PDEs. Functional complementation demonstrated that LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are capable of hydrolyzing cAMP. In vitro studies with recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 confirmed this, and they demonstrated that both are completely cAMP-specific. Both enzymes are inhibited by several commercially available PDE inhibitors. The observation that these inhibitors also interfere with cell growth in culture indicates that inhibition of the PDEs is fatal for the cell, suggesting an important role of cAMP signalling for the maintenance of cellular integrity and proliferation.

Linder Markus

2006-03-01

328

Preliminary phytochemical and antileishmanial studies of the ethanolic extracts of Pterodon pudescens / Estudos preliminares sobre a fitoquimica e a atividade anti-leishmania de extratos etanólicos de Pterodon pudescens  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antimoniais pentavalentes são a primeira escolha para o tratamento das leishmanioses humanas. No entanto, no interior brasileiro plantas tradicionais são usadas para o tratamento dessas lesões. De fato, recentes trabalhos tem relatado o potencial terapêutico de produtos naturais, especialmente deriv [...] ados de plantas. Neste estudo avaliamos a atividade leishmanicida de Pterodon pubescens, uma árvore nativa, distribuída pela região central brasileira e usada em infusões para tratamento de inflamações. Foi realizada a análise fitoquímica e o ensaio in vitro em macrófagos infectados com Leishmania amazonensis em concentrações de 150, 300, 450, 600 µg/ml do extrato etanólico de folhas de Pterodon pudescens (PPE) para comprovar o uso tradicional desta planta como terapia para as leishmanioses. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de taninos catequímicos, flavonas, esteroides, triterpenoides, flavonoides e xantonas. Os ensaios biológicos revelaram que o PPE foi capaz de controlar a carga parasitária em macrófagos de maneira dose dependente. Estes resultados corroboram com o potencial terapêutico de compostos de Pterodon pudescens e, junto com sua ampla distribuição no Brasil, podem representar promissor agente leishmanicida. Abstract in english Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. However in rural areas the traditional plants may be preferred for the treatment of lesions. In recent years a number of papers are published related to the natural products especially plant derivative with infect [...] ious diseases. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of Pterodon pubescens which is a native tree widely distributed over the central region of Brazil and used in folk medicine as wine infusions to treat inflammatory disease. The phytochemical screening and the biological essay of ethanolic extract of Pterodon pudescens (PPE) leaves at the concentrations of 150, 300, 450, 600 µg/ml were tested in vitro in Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages to support its traditional medicinal use as a leishmaniasis remedy. Phytochemical screening of PPE has shown the presence of catechemical tannins, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids. The biological test suggests that PPE were found to control parasite burden of cell cultures in dose-dependent manner. These findings highlight the fact that the apparent potency of Pterodon pudescens compounds, together with their widely distribution over Latin America and Brazil, may represent a promising antileishmanial agent.

W.W., Arrais-Silva; P.S.G., Nunes; J.D., Carvalho; M.W., Brune; C., Arrais-Lima; C., Batalini.

2014-09-01

329

Retention of Leishmania (Leishmania) Mexicana in naturally infected rodents from the State of Campeche, Mexico  

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In the State of Campeche, Mexico, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is mainly due to Leishmania (L.) mexicana. The parasite population is maintained in a mammalian species, a reservoir in which the ideal course of infection should be long and relatively nonpathogenic. The objective of the present study was to document the retention of L. (L.) mexicana in 29 naturally infected rodents. These cricetids lived in captivity for up to two years and were tested monthly for the presence of the parasit...

Wynsberghe, Nicole R.; Canto-lara, Silvia B.; Damia?n-centeno, Alma G.; Itza?-ortiz, Mateo F.; Andrade-narva?ez, Fernando J.

2000-01-01

330

Evidência de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral por Lutzomyia cruzi no município de Jaciara, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Evidence of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis by Lutzomyia cruzi in the municipality of Jaciara, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O município de Jaciara foi classificado em 2003, como área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral em situação de surto. O trabalho objetivou determinar evidência de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi por Lutzomyia cruzi no município de Jaciara, Estado de Mato Grosso [...] , Brasil. MÉTODOS: O município situa-se a 127km da capital Cuiabá e é um importante ponto de atração para os praticantes de eco-turismo. Fêmeas de Lutzomyia cruzi, capturadas com armadilha de CDC, foram dissecadas para confirmação da espécie e armazenadas a -20ºC em pools de 10 indivíduos para extração de DNA, PCR genérico, RFLP específico e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. RESULTADOS: O levantamento entomológico demonstrou a ocorrência abundante de Lutzomyia cruzi e ausência de Lutzomyia longipalpis, principal vetora da Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. Uma das três amostras analisadas apresentou banda característica de DNA de Leishmania (120pb) em PCR genérico. Para confirmação da espécie de Leishmania, na RFLP utilizaram-se controles positivos de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi digeridas com enzima de restrição HaeIII. Constatou-se um padrão de bandas semelhante à Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi em uma amostra, confirmando a detecção de infecção natural de Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi em Lutzomyia cruzi. CONCLUSÕES: A ocorrência de casos humanos e cães positivos, a presença da Lutzomyia cruzi e a ausência de Lutzomyia longipalpis, bem como a detecção de infecção natural por Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, evidenciam a participação de Lutzomyia cruzi na transmissão da leishmaniose visceral em Jaciara, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The municipality of Jaciara was classified in 2003 as a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis in outbreak situations. This study aimed to establish evidence of transmission of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi by Lutzomyia cruzi in the municipality of Jaciara, State of Ma [...] to Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: This municipality is located 127 km from the state capital (Cuiabá) and is an important center for ecotourism practitioners. Females of Lutzomyia cruzi, captured using CDC traps, were dissected to confirm the species and stored at -20ºC in pools of 10 individuals for DNA extraction, generic PCR, specific RFLP and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. RESULTS: The entomological survey showed abundant occurrence of Lutzomyia cruzi and absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi). One of the three samples showed a characteristic DNA band from Leishmania (120 bp) in generic PCR. To confirm the Leishmania species via RFLP, positive controls for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi digested with restriction enzyme HaeIII were used. A pattern of bands similar to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was found in one sample, thus confirming the detection of natural infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in Lutzomyia cruzi. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrences of positive cases in humans and dogs, the presence of Lutzomyia cruzi and the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis together with the detection of natural infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, indicate that Lutzomyia cruzi participates in visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Jaciara, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Nanci Akemi, Missawa; Márcia Aurélia Esser, Veloso; Giovana Belem Moreira Lima, Maciel; Érika Monteiro, Michalsky; Edelberto Santos, Dias.

2011-02-01

331

Implications of a Neotropical Origin of the Genus Leishmania  

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Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania/Endotrypanum clade is reviewed. The position of the L. (Sauroleishmania external to the subgenus L. (Leishmania is not consistent with the Neotropical origin of the latter subgenus. It is suggested that this may be a consequence of a faster evolutionary rate in the L. (Sauroleishmania. The implications for the classsification of the phlebotomine sandflies of the hypothesis for a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania is also considered. The classification of Galati (1995 is proposed to be most consistent with the hypothesis of a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania, whilst classifications which place the New and Old World species in separate taxa are inconsistent with this hypothesis.

Noyes Harry

1998-01-01

332

A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 [...] Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite.

Kárita Cláudia, Freitas-Lidani; Iara J de, Messias-Reason; Edna Aoba Y, Ishikawa.

2014-07-03

333

In vitro evaluation of new terpenoid derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis  

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Full Text Available The activity of five (1-5 abietane phenol derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis was studied using promastigotes and axenic and intracellular amastigotes. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed with J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as a reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed by performing metabolite excretion and transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural studies. Compounds 1-5 were more active and less toxic than Glucantime. The infection rates and mean number of parasites per cell observed in amastigote experiments showed that derivatives 2, 4 and 5 were the most effective against both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The ultrastructural changes observed in the treated promastigote forms confirmed that the greatest cell damage was caused by the most active compound (4. Only compound 5 caused changes in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites, as measured by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All of the assayed compounds were active against the two Leishmania species in vitro and were less toxic in mammalian cells than the reference drug.

Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías

2012-05-01

334

In vitro evaluation of new terpenoid derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The activity of five (1-5) abietane phenol derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis was studied using promastigotes and axenic and intracellular amastigotes. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed with J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as a reference drug [...] . The mechanisms of action were analysed by performing metabolite excretion and transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural studies. Compounds 1-5 were more active and less toxic than Glucantime. The infection rates and mean number of parasites per cell observed in amastigote experiments showed that derivatives 2, 4 and 5 were the most effective against both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The ultrastructural changes observed in the treated promastigote forms confirmed that the greatest cell damage was caused by the most active compound (4). Only compound 5 caused changes in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites, as measured by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All of the assayed compounds were active against the two Leishmania species in vitro and were less toxic in mammalian cells than the reference drug.

Inmaculada, Ramírez-Macías; Clotilde, Marín; Rachid, Chahboun; Francisco, Olmo; Ibtisam, Messouri; Oscar, Huertas; María Jose, Rosales; Ramón, Gutierrez-Sánchez; Enrique, Alvarez-Manzaneda; Manuel, Sánchez-Moreno.

2012-05-01

335

A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite. PMID:25004147

Freitas-Lidani, Kárita Cláudia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y

2014-01-01

336

Response of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes to oxidant stress.  

OpenAIRE

At the onset of infection, Leishmania promastigotes are phagocytized by mammalian macrophages. They must survive despite exposure to toxic oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (.O2-) generated during phagocytosis. We investigated the effects of these oxidants on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and promastigote mechanisms for oxidant resistance. According to spin trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, .O2- could be generated by exposure of promastigotes...

Wilson, M. E.; Andersen, K. A.; Britigan, B. E.

1994-01-01

337

An improved purification procedure for Leishmania RNA virus (LRV)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV, Totiviridae) infect Leishmania cells and subvert mice immune response, probably promoting parasite persistence, suggesting significant roles for LRV in host-parasite interaction. Here we describe a new LRV1-4 purification protocol, enabling capsid visualization by negative [...] ly stained electron microscopy representing a significant contribution to future LRV investigations.

Marcos Michel de, Souza; Livia Regina, Manzine; Marcos Vinicius G. da, Silva; Jefferson, Bettini; Rodrigo Vilares, Portugal; Angela Kaysel, Cruz; Eurico, Arruda; Otavio Henrique, Thiemann.

2014-06-01

338

Molecular cloning of the major surface antigen of leishmania  

OpenAIRE

The gene encoding gp63, the major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania promastigotes, was isolated from Leishmania major using a synthetic oligonucleotide probe based on the NH2-terminal protein sequence of purified gp63. DNA sequence analysis and the translated amino acid sequence indicate that gp63 is synthesized as precursor molecule having both an NH2-terminal preregion (signal peptide) and an adjacent proregion. This structure is consistent with the protease activity of gp63 since many oth...

1988-01-01

339

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major  

OpenAIRE

Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H4B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H4B requirement. L. major PAH resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-t...

Lye, Lon-fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

340

Heterogeneity of Leishmania infantum chagasi Kinetoplast DNA in Teresina (Brazil)  

OpenAIRE

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles was used to evaluate genetic profiles of 48 Leishmania infantum chagasi strains from dog and human parasite cultures, fresh collected dog bone marrow aspirates, and from infected sand flies. Results revealed that heterogeneity in kDNA minicircles depends mostly on the source of the s...

Alonso, Diego Peres; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Mendonc?a, Ivete Lopes; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

2010-01-01