WorldWideScience

Sample records for crop rotation systems

  1. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems. PMID:18574163

  2. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O’Donovan, John T.; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P.; Campbell, Con A.; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on ‘mining’ soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  3. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O'Donovan, John T; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P; Campbell, Con A; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on 'mining' soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  4. Fates of Setaria faberi and Abutilon theophrasti seeds in three crop rotation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed seeds in and on the soil are the primary cause of weed infestations in arable fields. Previous studies have documented reductions in weed seedbanks due to cropping system diversification through extended rotation sequences, but the impacts of different rotation systems on additions to and losse...

  5. Recycling of crop residues for sustainable crop production in a wheat-peanut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil at west Samalout, Minia, Egypt, from December 1996 to October 1999. The main objectives were (i) to examine long-term effects of applications of crop residues on crop nutrition, yields and soil fertility; (ii) to improve process-level understanding of nutrient flows through the use of isotopic techniques, and (iii) to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by a wheat-peanut rotation system. There were four treatments: (i) T1, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N with unlabelled residues; (ii) T2, 15N-labelled wheat residues, 26 kg N/ha at 1.94% 15N a.e, applied at the end of the first season; (iii) T3, to generate unlabelled residues and yield; and (iv) T4, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N atom excess, applied at the beginning of the first season, without residues. The Ndff recoveries during the first season in treatments T1 and T4 were 27% and 26% respectively, while 25% of the 15N remained in the soil for T1 and T4. Thus, the total amounts of 15N accounted for (in plant and soil) were 51% for T1 and 50% for T4. After the second crop, the total 15N recovery was 25% and 13% for T1 and T4, respectively. Application of the crop residues seemed to decrease N losses from the soil. Values for %N derived from labelled residues (%Ndfr) by wheat (T2) were 1.0% and 0.4% during seasons 3 and 5, respectively, while recoveries of %Ndfr by peanut from T2 treatments were 3.7, 4.1 and 0.3 during seasons 2, 4 and 6, respectively. In the following five seasons (peanut-wheat-peanut-wheat-peanut), total 15N recoveries by plant and soil were 67, 54, 34, 25 and 16%, respectively. (author)

  6. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared.The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made.The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on the basis of weed biomass was higher in the system with potato. The similarity indices, which express the convergence of floristic composition as well as of the density and biomass of weeds growing in pea fields in the two crop rotation systems compared, were within a broad range (42–86%. The biodiversity of weed communities was more closely correlated to total precipitation than to air temperature.

  7. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  8. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS, Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS were compared, namely: 1 no tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4 conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum. This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  9. Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkeviciene, A.; Boguzas, V.; Balnyte, S.; Pupaliene, R.; Velicka, R.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of crop rotation systems with different portions of nitrogen-fixing crops, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the enzymatic activity and humus content of soils in organic farming was studied. The highest activity of the urease and invertase enzymes was determined in the soil under the crop rotation with 43% nitrogen-fixing crops and with perennial grasses applied twice per rotation. The application of manure and the growing of intermediate crops for green fertilizers did not provide any significant increase in the content of humus. The activity of urease slightly correlated with the humus content ( r = 0.30 at the significance level of 0.05 and r = 0.39 at the significance level of 0.01).

  10. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils. PMID:26647157

  11. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in the rotation; furthermore, a considerable number of lesser-known energy crops such as biomass sorghum (Sorghum spp.), hemp (Cannabis sativa), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) could be expected to lead to even greater benefits according to literature. Therefore, this review aimed at systematizing and reorganizing the existing and fragmentary information on these crops while stressing major knowledge gaps to be urgently investigated. (author)

  12. Fungal communities of the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane of yellow lupine in a crop rotation system

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?ena Cwalina-Abroziak; Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2001-01-01

    Fungal community populating the rhizosphere and lhe rhizoplane of yellow lupine Juno and Markiz cultivated in the crop rotation with the 20% and 33% portion of lupine was analyzed. The total fungus number was reduced when the participation of lupine in the crop rotation was established at level 20%. Then the pathogenic fungi were replaced by more frequently appeared saprofitic species representing the following genera: Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Pathogenic Fusarium were more f...

  13. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas; Manevski, Kiril; Müller, Christoph; Palosuo, Taru; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Bindi, Marco; Charfeddine, Monica; Conradt, Tobias; Constantin, Julie; Eitzinger, Josef; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; Gaiser, Thomas; de Cortazar-Atauri, Iñaki Garcia; Giglio, Luisa; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, Holger; Hoffmann, Munir P; Launay, Marie; Manderscheid, Remy; Mary, Bruno; Mirschel, Wilfried; Moriondo, Marco; Olesen, Jørgen E; Öztürk, Isik; Pacholski, Andras; Ripoche-Wachter, Dominique; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Roncossek, Svenja; Rötter, Reimund P; Ruget, François; Sharif, Behzad; Trnka, Mirek; Ventrella, Domenico; Waha, Katharina; Wegehenkel, Martin; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agri...

  14. Fungal communities of the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane of yellow lupine in a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Cwalina-Abroziak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal community populating the rhizosphere and lhe rhizoplane of yellow lupine Juno and Markiz cultivated in the crop rotation with the 20% and 33% portion of lupine was analyzed. The total fungus number was reduced when the participation of lupine in the crop rotation was established at level 20%. Then the pathogenic fungi were replaced by more frequently appeared saprofitic species representing the following genera: Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Pathogenic Fusarium were more frequently isolated from the lupine rhizoplane cultivated in combination with its 33% participation.

  15. Recycling of crop-residue N for sustainable production in maize-groundnut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the contribution of crop residues to the N-economy of a maize-groundnut rotation, a long-term field experiment was established in February 1997. It consisted of the following treatments: (i) T1 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer plus residues, (ii) T2 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer without residues, and (iii) T3 - a combination of organic fertilizer (chicken dung), chemical fertilizer, and residues. In order to investigate the possible contribution of residue N to subsequent crops, the first maize crop was labelled with 15N. The first crop was sown in March 1997 and 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied at 60 kg N ha-1 to the T1 and T2 treatments, in microplots within yield plots, to generate labelled maize residues. At the same time, 90 kg N ha-1 unlabelled N fertilizer was applied to provide the locally recommended rate for maize of 150 kg N ha-1. Treatment T3 was included for comparison of yields and appraisal of effects on soil properties. After the first crop was harvested, the labelled aboveground residues in T1 were applied to a different microplot so that the fate of the labelled residue-N could be followed. Groundnut was grown in rotation with maize, and, after each harvest, the labelled aboveground residues in the microplots of T1 and T2 were removed and unlabelled residues were added to T1. Because variability between replicates was high in the treatment T2, the average yields in plots with residues, T1 and T3, in the second and third crop cycles were not significantly different from those without residues. Maize yields were similar in the first and second years

  16. Recycling of crop-residue N for sustainable production in a maize-groundnut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the contribution of crop residues to the N-economy of a maize-groundnut rotation, a long-term field experiment was established in February 1997. It consisted of the following treatments: (i) T1 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer plus residues, (ii) T2 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer without residues, and (iii) T3 - a combination of organic fertilizer (chicken dung), chemical fertilizer, and residues. In order to investigate the possible contribution of residue N to subsequent crops, the first maize crop was labelled with 15N. The first crop was sown in March 1997 and 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied at 60 kg N ha-1 to the T1 and T2 treatments, in microplots within yield plots, to generate labelled maize residues. At the same time, 90 kg N ha-1 unlabelled N fertilizer was applied to provide the locally recommended rate for maize of 150 kg N ha-1. Treatment T3 was included for comparison of yields and appraisal of effects on soil properties. After the first crop was harvested, the labelled aboveground residues in T1 were applied to a different microplot so that the fate of the labelled residue-N could be followed. Groundnut was grown in rotation with maize, and, after each harvest, the labelled aboveground residues in the microplots of T1 and T2 were removed and unlabelled residues were added to T1. Because variability between replicates was high in the treatment T2, the average yields in plots with residues, T1 and T3, in the second and third crop cycles were not significantly different from those without residues. Maize yields were similar in the first and second years

  17. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area. The perennial legume rotation was identified as the most beneficial and eco-friendly energy crop rotation by showing an increase in Chum, lower GHG emissions per product and area and positive effects on nitrogen dynamics. However, the absolute magnitude of changes and effects differs between the sites indicating an influence of soil type and local climate on the final performance of the energy crop rotation. Generally, the results showed that the positive effect of a certain crop rotation on particular environmental indicators can have a less beneficial effect on another indicator, making an overall evaluation of the energy crop rotation complicated. The weighing of different environmental indicators finally depends on the environmental priorities, political targets and describes a further challenge.

  18. Crop rotation impact on soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)

  19. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types, tillage, residues, intermediate or catch crops). We found that the continuous simulation of multi-year crop rotations yielded results of slightly higher quality compared to the simulation of single years and single crops. Intermediate crops (oilseed radish and grass vegetation) were simulated less accurately than main crops (cereals). The majority of models performed better for the treatments of increased CO2 and nitrogen fertilisation than for irrigation and soil-related treatments. The yield simulation of the multi-model ensemble reduced the error compared to single-model simulations. The low degree of superiority of continuous simulations over single year simulation was caused by (a) insufficiently parameterised crops, which affect the performance of the following crop, and (b) the lack of growth-limiting water and/or nitrogen in the crop rotations under investigation. In order to achieve a sound representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects.

  20. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  2. Sequential Decision Rules for Managing Nematodes with Crop Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, O. R.; Ferris, H.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of nematode populations under a crop rotation that includes both host and nonhost crops is developed and used to conceptualize the problem of economic control. The steady state of the dynamic system is used to devise an approximately optimal decision policy, which is then applied to cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) control in a rotation of sugarbeet with nonhost crops. Long-run economic returns from this approximately optimal decision rule are compared with results from so...

  3. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on ecosystem services from rice rotated crop systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing; Li, Changsheng; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Yali; Huang, Guorui

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable intensification in agriculture has stressed the need for management practices that could increase crop yields while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. It is well recognized that water and nutrient management hold great promise to address these goals. This study uses the DNDC biogeochemical model to stimulate the impacts of water regime and nitrogen fertilizer management interactions on ecosystem services of rice rotated crop systems in China. County-level optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rates under various water management practices were captured and then multiple scenarios of water and nitrogen fertilizer management were set to more than 1600 counties with rice rotations in China. Results indicate that an national average of 15.7±5.9% (the mean value and standard deviation derive from variability of three water management practices) reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs can be achieved without significantly sacrificing rice yields. On a national scale, shallow flooding with optimal N application rates appear most potential to enhance ecosystem services, which led to 10.6% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs, 34.3% decrease of total GHG emissions, 2.8% less of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and a 1.7% increase of rice yields compared to the baseline scenario. Regional GHG emissions mitigation derived from water regime change vary with soil properties and the multiple crop index. Among the main production regions of rice in China, the highest reduction happened in Jiangxu, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei (more than 40% reduction) with high SOC, high multiple crop index and low clay fraction. The highest reduction of GHG emissions derived from reducing current N application rate to optimal rate appeared in Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu where the serious over-application of mineral N exit. It was concluded that process models like DNDC would act an essential tool to identify sustainable agricultural management practices and evaluate their impacts on agro-ecosystem services.

  4. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation comparing with that under succession (4.95 and 4.14 MgC ha-1, respectively). No differences between succession X rotation (1st year) and succession X rotation (3rd year) were found for litter. Differences in C stock in litter were found only comparing succession (2.42 MgC ha-1) X rotation (2nd year) (3.44 MgC ha-1). Average values of soil C stocks at depth 0-30cm under succession (67.79 MgC ha-1) and rotation (64.83 MgC ha-1) don't differ among treatments. These values in comparison with other determined for similar soil-climate conditions for soils under native forest (60.83 MgC ha-1) and under conventional tillage (60.68 MgC ha-1) reveals a beneficial effect of ZT in soil C stock. Finally, the C stocks determined for plants and litter, representing only 4.0% and 6.4% of that determined for soil, confirm the relevance of soil as a terrestrial C reservoir. Acknowledgments: The authors express thanks for the financial support and technical facilities receipt from Embrapa Trigo, CEPAGRI/ UNICAMP, and FAEPEX/ UNICAMP. CAPES/GOV.BRAZIL is also acknowledged by Dr. Michele K. C. Walter for the greeted scholarship.

  5. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  6. Diversifying cereal-based rotations to improve weed control. Evaluation with the AlomySys model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on a grass weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simplified rotations often select weed flora consisting of one or several dominant species. In rotations consisting mainly of winter cereals, one of the most frequent weeds in Atlantic European countries is blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.. In order to reduce environmental impacts and avoid the selection of herbicide-resistant populations, alternative weed management strategies are necessary. The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology for using a weed dynamics model called ALOMYSYS for evaluating prospective diversified crop rotations based on expert opinion. These prospective rotations were developed for a particular region aiming at reducing herbicide use while keeping weed infestation similar to that in current cropping systems. The prospective systems were also evaluated economically by calculating costs and margins for the farmer. The simulations showed that the more diverse the rotation, the better blackgrass was controlled and the less herbicides (rates and frequencies were necessary. Optimal herbicide spraying conditions and mouldboard ploughing were also less essential in diverse rotations. It was though essential to reason herbicide programs over the whole rotation and not simply as function of the preceding crop. The economic evaluation identified the interest of spring or winter pea either replacing or preceding oilseed rape (OSR in OSR/wheat/barley rotations.

  7. Response of soil microbial biomass and community structures to conventional and organic farming systems under identical crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, Jürgen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schloter, Michael; Fliessbach, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In this study the influence of different farming systems on microbial community structure was analyzed using soil samples from the DOK long-term field experiment in Switzerland, which comprises organic (BIODYN and BIOORG) and conventional (CONFYM and CONMIN) farming systems as well as an unfertilized control (NOFERT). We examined microbial communities in winter wheat plots at two different points in the crop rotation (after potatoes and after maize). Employing extended polar lipid analysis up to 244 different phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) were detected. Higher concentrations of PLFA and PLEL in BIODYN and BIOORG indicated a significant influence of organic agriculture on microbial biomass. Farmyard manure (FYM) application consistently revealed the strongest, and the preceding crop the weakest, influence on domain-specific biomass, diversity indices and microbial community structures. Esterlinked PLFA from slowly growing bacteria (k-strategists) showed the strongest responses to long-term organic fertilization. Although the highest fungal biomass was found in the two organic systems of the DOK field trial, their contribution to the differentiation of community structures according to the management regime was relatively low. Prokaryotic communities responded most strongly to either conventional or organic farming management. PMID:17442013

  8. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  9. Irrigation management of crops rotations in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity, the crops rotations can decrease the water deficit of the rainfed crops cultivated after the irrigated crops. This is due to the storage of water in the deepest soil layers during the irrigated crops with shallow roots that increase the available soil water at the planting date of the wheat crop. For the soils with small water storage capacity and small depth, such as the Évora silt-clay-sandy soil, it was not observed the benefic effects of crops rotation in the reduction of the water deficit of the rainfed crops. The results obtained for the several climate change scenarios (2071-2100) show an increase in irrigation requirements between 13% and 70%, with the higher values corresponding to the Autumn-Winter crops (sugar beet), due to the combined effect of an increased evapotranspiration and a reduced precipitation during the crop cycle. The irrigation requirements for the peak period increased between 10% to 46%. For the climate change scenarios it was also found an increased risk of crop failure for the rainfed crops, with a water deficit value for the wheat ranging between 32% to 59%, and for the barley ranging between 34% to 45%. Keywords: Crops Rotation, Soil water balance, Irrigation, Climate change, Model

  10. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for the baseline period (1961–90) and in combination with two regional circulation models (RCM) to generate climatic data under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario for four different 20-year time slices (denoted by midpoints 2020, 2040, 2060 and 2080) for two locations in Denmark, differing in soil and climate, and representative of the selected production systems. The CO2 effects were modelled using projected CO2 concentrations for the A1B emission scenario. Crop rotations were irrigated (sandy soil) and unirrigated (sandy loam soil), and all included systems with and without catch crops, with field operation dates adapted to baseline and future climate change. Model projections showed an increase in the productivity and N leaching in the future that would be dependent on crop rotation and crop management, highlighting the importance of considering the whole rotation rather than single crops for impact assessments. Potato and sugar beet in arable farming and grain maize in pig farming contributed most to the productivity increase in the future scenarios. The highest productivity was obtained in the arable system on the sandy loam soil, with an increase of 20% on average in 2080 with respect to the baseline. Irrigation and fertilization rates would need to be increased in the future to achieve optimum yields. Growing catch crops reduces N leaching, but current catch crop management might not be sufficient to control the potential increase of leaching and more efficient strategies are required in the future. The uncertainty of climate change scenarios was assessed by using two different climate projections for predicting crop productivity and N leaching in Danish crop rotations, and this showed the consistency of the projected trends when used with the same crop model

  11. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Claps; Pasquale Martiniello; Giovanni Annichiarico

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were...

  12. Resource use at the cropping system level.

    OpenAIRE

    Struik, P. C.; Bonciarelli, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper illustrates the basic ideas of good crop rotations, adequate crop husbandry and high resource-use efficiencies and some relevant ecological approaches. The use of special crops to prevent the need of high inputs of crop protectants or to reduce losses of nutrients at the level of the cropping system deserves special attention in research. Examples are given for the ecological control of soil-borne fungi, parasitic weeds, nitrogen loss and other sustainable techniques to increase th...

  13. Three-year measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from cotton and wheat-maize rotational cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable expansion of fertilization and irrigation may stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems in northern China. High-resolution measurements were conducted in irrigated cotton and wheat-maize rotational systems in Shanxi Province, P.R. China, between 2007 and 2010 (three year-round crop cycles, hereinafter referred to as Y1, Y2 and Y3) to investigate the impacts of natural inter-annual variations and agricultural management on annual N2O emissions and direct emission factors (EFs). Overall, N2O emissions fluctuated diurnally, seasonally and inter-annually in the fertilized treatments. The hourly N2O fluxes closely followed the daily air temperature patterns. The daily mean fluxes corresponded to these hourly fluxes, which were observed between 09:00-10:00 and 19:00-20:00. An optimized sampling protocol could improve the reliability of discrete measurements when estimating cumulative emissions. The N2O emissions for the fertilized treatments were 2.7 ± 0.2 (Y1) and 1.6 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2) from the cotton field and 6.2 ± 0.4 (Y1), 4.5 ± 0.3 (Y2) and 4.5 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y3) from the wheat-maize field. Peak N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation/rainfall lasted one to three weeks and accounted for 16-55% of the annual emissions. Leaching losses were estimated at 10.4 ± 3.0 (Y1) and 12.5 ± 3.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2), which accounted for 16-17% of the fertilizer-N applied to the cotton field. Annual N2O emissions did not increase with increasing fertilization rates or water inputs because significant amounts of fertilizer-N were lost through leaching. Background emissions amounted to one-third to one-half of the total N2O emissions from the fertilized treatments. The direct EFs were 2.2 ± 0.3% (Y1) and 0.9 ± 0.2% (Y2) in the cotton field and 1.3 ± 0.2% (Y1), 0.8 ± 0.1% (Y2) and 0.7 ± 0.1% (Y3) in the wheat-maize field. The large inter-annual variations in N2O emissions and direct EFs emphasize the importance of multiple-year continuous observations.

  14. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, JØrgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.

  15. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  16. Effect of four cropping systems on variant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adult and egg densities and subsequent larval injury in rotated maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jared B; Ratcliffe, Susan T; Gray, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    The cultural practice of rotating corn, Zea mays L., with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to manage larval injury by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was used extensively throughout east central Illinois and northern Indiana until the mid-1990s. The effectiveness of this management tactic diminished due to a shift in the ovipositional behavior of the western corn rootworm. The variant western corn rootworm has since spread as far as northwestern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, and eastern Ohio. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of four cropping systems on adult and egg densities of the western corn rootworm and to quantify the level of root injury in rotated corn after each system. The four cropping systems used included: 1) corn; 2) soybean; 3) double-cropped winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., followed by soybean; and 4) winter wheat. Research trials were conducted near Monmouth (northwestern), DeKalb (northern), and Urbana (east central), IL, during 2003 and 2004. Results indicated variant western corn rootworm adults can be found in all four treatments at each location and consequently no crop was immune to oviposition or root injury by corn rootworm larvae in rotated corn the following season. Adults were found primarily in corn and soybean, whereas egg densities were greatest in corn plots in all three locations in both years of the study. Root injury by larvae was most abundant in corn following corn at all three sites. Of the four systems evaluated, the use of wheat demonstrated the most potential for preventing yield reducing levels of root injury in rotated corn. PMID:16334328

  17. JET SYSTEM OF MIXTURE OF FERTILIZERS AT FERTIGATION IRRIGATION CROP ROTATION OF TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS FOR CULTIVATION IN THE PROTECTED SOIL IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyareva K. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the scheme of landing of early tomatoes and cucumbers in the climatic conditions of the Rostov region is described; we have also calculated the dose of fertilizers for jet system of mixture at a fertigation irrigation. The conclusion is drawn with a possibility of cultivation crop rotation of tomatoes and cucumbers in not heated greenhouses with application of fertilizers

  18. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A

    2014-01-01

    Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different organic arable crop rotations with different sources of N supply. Data from long-term field experiments at three different locations in Denmark were used to analyse three different organic cropping systems (‘Slurry’, ‘Biogas’ and ‘Mulching’), one conventional cropping system (‘Conventional’) and a “No input” system as reference systems. The ‘Slurry’ and ‘Conventional’ rotations received slurry and mineral fertilizer, respectively, whereas the ‘No input’ was unfertilized. The ‘Mulching’ and ‘Biogas’ rotations had one year of grass-clover instead of a faba bean crop. The grass-clover biomass was incorporated in the soil in the ‘Mulching’ rotation and removed and used for biogas production in the ‘Biogas’ rotation (and residues from biogas production were simulated to be returned to the field). A method was suggested for allocating effects of fertility building crops in life cycle assessments. The results showed significantly lower carbon footprint of the crops from the ‘Biogas’ rotation (assuming that biogas replaces fossil gas) whereas the remaining crop rotations had comparable carbon footprints per kg cash crop. The study showed considerable contributions caused by the green manure crop (grass-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included.

  19. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems Estoque e compartimentos de carbono em um latossolo vermelho subtropical sob diferentes sistemas de longo prazo de preparo e rotação de culturas

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos; Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado; Cimélio Bayer; Rodrigo da Silveira Nicoloso; Jackson Ernani Fiorin

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Souther...

  20. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability.

  1. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  2. Lucratividade e risco de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação e sucessão de culturas / Profitability and risk of soil tillage and crop rotation and succession systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Ivo, Ambrosi; Julio Cesar Barreneche, Lhamby; Cristiano do, Carmo.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de rotação e de sucessão de culturas reduzem o nível de risco pela diversificação da produção. De 1994/95 a 1997/98, foram avaliados sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação e sucessão de culturas, em Passo Fundo, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro sistemas de manejo de solo - 1) plant [...] io direto, 2) cultivo mínimo, 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas - em três sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas: sistema I (trigo/soja), sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/sorgo ou milho) e sistema III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/sorgo ou milho e aveia branca/soja). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela principal foi constituída pelos sistemas de manejo de solo e as subparcelas pelos sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas. Foram aplicados à receita líquida nos sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação e sucessão de culturas dois tipos de análise: análise da média variância e análise de risco. Pela análise da média variância, foi possível separar o plantio direto e o cultivo mínimo como as melhores alternativas a serem oferecidas ao agricultor, por apresentarem maior lucratividade. Pela análise da dominância estocástica, foi possível separar o plantio direto e a rotação de culturas com dois invernos sem trigo como os tratamentos mais lucrativos e de menor risco. Abstract in english Crop rotation and succession systems lesser the risk level due to diversification of cultivities. Soil tillage and crop rotation and succession systems were assessed in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, from 1994/95 to 1997/98. Four soil tillage systems - 1) no-tillage, 2) minimum tillage, 3) conventional ti [...] llage using a disk plow, and 4) conventional tillage using a moldboard plow - and three crop rotation and succession systems [system I (wheat/soybean), system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/sorghum or corn), and system III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/sorghum or corn, and white oats/soybean)] were compared. An experimental design of randomized blocks with split-plots and three replications was used. The main plot was formed by the soil tillage systems, while the split-plots consisted of the crop rotation and succession systems. Two types of analysis were applied to the net return of soil tillage and crop rotation and succession systems: mean-variance and risk analysis. By the mean-variance analysis, no-tillage and minimum tillage, which presented higher net return, were the best alternatives to be offered to the farmer. By the stochastic dominance analysis, no-tillage and crop rotation with two winters without wheat showed the highest profit and the lowest risk.

  3. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how improvement of NUE traits of individual crops affects the succeeding crops and the NUE of the crop rotation. Based on experimental results parameterization was altered for different types of improved ...

  4. Atributos físicos do solo em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on the soil physical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão e a quantificação do impacto do uso e manejo do solo na qualidade física são fundamentais no desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas sobre alguns atributos físicos de solo em um experimento instalado em 1985, em Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico argiloso, em Passo Fundo (RS, estudou-se a variação desses atributos entre 2001 e 2005. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro modos de manejo de solo: 1 plantio direto (PD; 2 cultivo mínimo (CM; 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado e grade de discos (PCD e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e grade de discos (PCA, e três sistemas de rotação de culturas: I (trigo/soja, II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos sistemas de manejo de solo, e as subparcelas, pelos sistemas de rotação de culturas. Amostras de solo também foram coletadas em um fragmento de floresta subtropical adjacente ao experimento, como testemunha da condição original do solo. Os sistemas de manejo e de rotação de culturas influenciaram os atributos físicos do solo quando comparados entre si e com a condição sob floresta subtropical. Em quatro anos (2001 a 2005 ocorreram alterações significativas nos atributos físicos dos solos entre os distintos tipos de manejo. No sistema PD houve maior densidade de solo e microporosidade em comparação aos demais, principalmente na camada subsuperficial, e os sistemas de rotação de plantas não afetaram positivamente os atributos físicos de solo independentemente do tipo de manejo.Evaluation and quantification of soil use impact on its physical quality are important to achieve sustainable cropping systems. Soil physical attributes were assessed after twenty years of implementation (1985 to 2005 on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Rodic Hapludox located in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems were evaluated: 1 no-tillage; 2 minimum tillage; 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow. Three crop rotation systems were evaluated: I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn or sorghum and white oats/soybean. A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main plots were formed by the soil tillage systems, while split-plots were composed by crop rotation systems. As control, soil samples were collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems influenced soil physical parameters when compared to the samples collected in a fragment of subtropical forest. During four years (2001 to 2005 the physical attributes were altered among different soil tillage management. The no-tillage system (PD presented higher soil bulk density and microporosity in comparison to the other systems, mainly in 0.10 to 0.15 m layer, characterizing high soil compaction levels. Crop systems did not promote favorable changes in physical attributes independent of the type of soil management.

  5. Atributos físicos do solo em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas / Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on the soil physical attributes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Tulio, Spera; Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Gilberto Omar, Tomm; Rainoldo Alberto, Kochhann; Alexandre, Ávila.

    Full Text Available A compreensão e a quantificação do impacto do uso e manejo do solo na qualidade física são fundamentais no desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas sobre alguns atributos físicos de solo em um experi [...] mento instalado em 1985, em Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico argiloso, em Passo Fundo (RS), estudou-se a variação desses atributos entre 2001 e 2005. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro modos de manejo de solo: 1) plantio direto (PD); 2) cultivo mínimo (CM); 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado e grade de discos (PCD) e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e grade de discos (PCA), e três sistemas de rotação de culturas: I (trigo/soja), II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo) e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos sistemas de manejo de solo, e as subparcelas, pelos sistemas de rotação de culturas. Amostras de solo também foram coletadas em um fragmento de floresta subtropical adjacente ao experimento, como testemunha da condição original do solo. Os sistemas de manejo e de rotação de culturas influenciaram os atributos físicos do solo quando comparados entre si e com a condição sob floresta subtropical. Em quatro anos (2001 a 2005) ocorreram alterações significativas nos atributos físicos dos solos entre os distintos tipos de manejo. No sistema PD houve maior densidade de solo e microporosidade em comparação aos demais, principalmente na camada subsuperficial, e os sistemas de rotação de plantas não afetaram positivamente os atributos físicos de solo independentemente do tipo de manejo. Abstract in english Evaluation and quantification of soil use impact on its physical quality are important to achieve sustainable cropping systems. Soil physical attributes were assessed after twenty years of implementation (1985 to 2005) on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Rodic Hapludox) located in Passo Fundo, Rio [...] Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems were evaluated: 1) no-tillage; 2) minimum tillage; 3) conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4) conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow. Three crop rotation systems were evaluated: I (wheat/soybean), II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum), and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn or sorghum and white oats/soybean). A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main plots were formed by the soil tillage systems, while split-plots were composed by crop rotation systems. As control, soil samples were collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems influenced soil physical parameters when compared to the samples collected in a fragment of subtropical forest. During four years (2001 to 2005) the physical attributes were altered among different soil tillage management. The no-tillage system (PD) presented higher soil bulk density and microporosity in comparison to the other systems, mainly in 0.10 to 0.15 m layer, characterizing high soil compaction levels. Crop systems did not promote favorable changes in physical attributes independent of the type of soil management.

  6. The role of short-rotation woody crops in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society's needs

  7. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  8. Sequence and Rotation Effects on Pest Incidence and Grain Yield of Double-cropped Soybean and Pearl Millet After Winter Wheat and Canola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop sequence and rotational effect of incorporating alternative crops of canola (Brassica napus) as a winter crop and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) as a summer crop into a double-crop system of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) on crop pest incidence, stand, and grain y...

  9. Maize nitrogen fertilization in two crop rotation systems under no-till / Adubação nitrogenada para o milho em dois sistemas de rotação de culturas sob plantio direto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria do Carmo, Lana; Rodrigo Vianei, Czycza; Jean Sérgio, Rosset; Jucenei Fernando, Frandoloso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o parcelamento de doses de nitrogênio (N), aplicadas na semeadura e em cobertura do milho, com e sem rotação de culturas, em semeadura direta, foi realizado um experimento com seis doses de N na semeadura (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 kg ha-1), combinadas com três doses em cobert [...] ura (40, 70, 100 kg ha-1) e dois sistemas de manejo: após cinco cultivos de milho e com rotação de culturas (milho+soja+aveia+soja+milho), em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O sistema de rotação de culturas proporcionou incremento de aproximadamente 7%, no rendimento de grãos, em relação ao da área sem rotação. O parcelamento da adubação nitrogenada, com doses acima de 39 e 54 kg ha-1, na semeadura, com 70 e 40 kg ha-1, em cobertura, respectivamente, resultou em produtividade superior à obtida com aplicação de 100 kg ha-1, em cobertura. O rendimento de grãos foi maior com o parcelamento da dose de 50 e 70 kg ha-1 de N, na semeadura e cobertura, em comparação com o obtido com o parcelamento de 20 e 100 kg ha-1, na semeadura e cobertura, respectivamente. A dose de 70 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura apresentou maior produtividade de grãos com menor custo, em comparação com os rendimentos e custos verificados em relação às doses de 40 e 100 kg ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate split nitrogen (N) fertilization of maize applied in band at sowing and top dressing with and without crop rotation, under no-till. The experiment was conducted with six N rates at sowing (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kg ha-1) combined with three rates in top [...] dressing (40, 70, 100 kg ha-1) and two management systems: after five cropping sequences of maize and crop rotation (maize + soybean + oat + soybean + corn) in a randomized block design with four replications. The crop rotation system increased yield in approximately 7% in relation to the area without rotation. The split of nitrogen fertilization, in rates above 39 and 54 kg ha-1 at sowing and 70 and 40 kg ha-1 in top dressing, resulted in yield higher than that obtained with the application of 100 kg ha-1 in top dressing. Grain yield was higher with the rates 50 and 70 kg ha-1 of N compared with that obtained with 20 and 100 kg ha-1 at sowing and top dressing, respectively. The rate 70 kg ha-1 of N resulted in the highest yield at the lowest cost compared with the revenues and costs incurred with the rates 40 and 100 kg ha-1.

  10. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended to focus on the effect of faba bean as a pre-crop in mainly cereal intensive rotations, whereas similar information on the effect of preceding crops on faba bean is lacking. Faba bean has the highest average reliance on N2 fixation for growth of the major cool season grain legumes. As a consequence the N benefit for following crops is often high, and several studies have demonstrated substantial savings (up to 100–200 kg N ha?1) in the amount of N fertilizer required to maximize the yield of crops grown after faba bean. There is, however, a requirement to evaluate the potential risks of losses of N from the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies, in order to provide farmers with strategies to minimize any possible undesirable effects on the environment that might result from their inclusion of faba bean in cropping system. This needs to be combined with research that can lead to a reduction in the current extent of yield variability, so that faba bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean in cropping systems.

  11. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems / Rendimento de grãos e características agronômicas de soja em função de sistemas de rotação de culturas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Renato Serena, Fontaneli; João, Pires; Evandro Ademir, Lampert; Ana Maria, Vargas; Amauri Colet, Verdi.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRC) sobre o rendimento de grãos e as características agronômicas de soja no período de 1996/1997 a 2010/2011 em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Embrapa Trigo, em Passo Fundo, RS. Foram comparados quatro tip [...] os de manejo de solo (TMS): 1) sistema plantio direto (SPD); 2) cultivo mínimo (CM); 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos (PCD); e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas (PCA) e três SRC: sistema I (monocultura de trigo/monocultura de soja); sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo); e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos TMS, e as subparcelas, pelos SRC. No presente trabalho serão abordados somente os dados sobre sistemas de rotação de culturas. A análise conjunta dos dados obtidos não indicou diferença entre os SRC em relação ao número de grãos por planta, à massa de mil grãos e à altura de inserção das primeiras vagens de soja. A rotação de culturas por um verão utilizando milho ou sorgo propicia maior rendimento de grãos de soja em comparação com os demais sistemas estudados e com a soja em monocultura. A combinação de sistemas conservacionistas (SPD e CM) e SRC favoreceu o maior rendimento de grãos de soja. Os menores rendimentos de grãos e massa de grãos ocorreram em monocultura de soja. Abstract in english The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS) on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS) were compared, namely: 1) no tillage, 2) minimum tillage, 3) conventional tillage using [...] a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4) conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean), system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum) and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum). This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage) and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  12. Energy performances of intensive and extensive short rotation cropping systems for woody biomass production in the EU.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo, S. N.; A?, Alexander; Zenone, T.; De Groote, T.; Bergante, S.; Facciotto, G.; Sixto, H.; Ciria Ciria, P.; Weger, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 41, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 845-854. ISSN 1364-0321 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : poplar * willow * bioenergy crops * energy balance * energy efficiency Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2014

  13. Cropping systems modulate the rate and magnitude of soil microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ge, Tida; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Zhu, Zhenke; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different cropping systems on CO2 fixation by soil microorganisms was studied by comparing soils from three exemplary cropping systems after 10 years of agricultural practice. Studied cropping systems included: continuous cropping of paddy rice (rice-rice), rotation of paddy rice and rapeseed (rice-rapeseed), and rotated cropping of rapeseed and corn (rapeseed-corn). Soils from different cropping systems were incubated with continuous 14C-CO2 labeling for 110 days. The CO2-fixin...

  14. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  15. Weed control through crop rotation and alternative management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic as well as agricultural and socio-political changes have an impact on crop management and thus also on crop rotation design and the related effects on the weed flora. Likewise other changes in cultivation such as reduced tillage practices, earlier sowing date, etc. cause an increase in weed infestation resp. an increased use of herbicides and if so contribute to herbicide resistance. The positive effects of crop rotation, but also of alternative management practices such as choice of varieties, catch crops, mixed cropping, green chop, and the share of predators, as well as methods of direct non-chemical weed control are presented and discussed for both, conventional and organic farming. If alternative management methods should be more practiced, especially trade-offs need to be broken, or incentives be offered.

  16. Principal factors of fodder crops production process in forage and grain-fodder crops rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research of energy- and mass-exchange dynamics of fodder crops and agrophytocenoses in intensive fodder and grain fodder crops rotations for various soil fertility are analysed. Elements of water balance regime of mineral nutrition, photosynthetic activity, radiation, productivity index and quality of raw materials are presented

  17. Soil organic carbon dynamics and crop yield for different crop rotations in a degraded ferruginous tropical soil in a semi-arid region: a simulation approach

    OpenAIRE

    SOLER, C. M. TOJO; BADO, V. B.; Traore, K.; BOSTICK, W. MCNAIR; Jones, J.W.; Hoogenboom, G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation ex...

  18. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  19. Propriedades do solo e sistema radicular do feijoeiro irrigado em rotação de culturas / Soil properties and root system of irrigated common beans in crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E. B., Wutke; F. B., Arruda; A. L., Fancelli; J. C. V. N. A., Pereira; E., Sakai; M., Fujiwara; G. M. B., Ambrosano.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento do sistema radicular do feijoeiro irrigado, cultivar IAC-Carioca, sob pivô central, em rotação com pousio, milho, aveia preta, Crotalaria juncea L., guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) e mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima), no período não-convencional de cultivo no outono-inverno, foi avali [...] ado de 1993 a 1995, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico típico, em área experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. A rotação de culturas do feijoeiro com milho e adubos verdes favoreceu a redução da resistência do solo à penetração na camada arável, garantiu a manutenção do teor de matéria orgânica do solo, bem como possibilitou a redução da acidez e o aumento do índice de saturação por bases (V%) em profundidade em relação ao teor inicial. A velocidade de infiltração básica da água no solo foi favorecida pela inclusão da mucuna preta, da Crotalaria juncea L. e do milho, no esquema de rotações. A profundidade efetiva observada do seu sistema radicular foi de 0,35 a 0,40 m. Abstract in english Root system growth of the common bean, variety IAC-Carioca, under center pivot irrigation in rotation with fallow; corn; black oat; sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.); pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) was evaluated during a non-conventional (Autumn - Winter) cu [...] ltivation period, from 1993 to 1995, on a typic Haplorthox soil, at an experimental area of the Instituto Agronômico, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The crop sequences of common bean with corn and green manure reduced the soil resistance to penetration into the ploughed layer; maintained the normal contents of the soil organic matter; reduced acidity and increased the base saturation index in depth, in relation to the initial content. The basic infiltration rate was increased with the inclusion of velvet bean, sunn hemp and corn in the crop sequence. Effective root depth (80% of the total) was around 0.35 to 0.40 m.

  20. Manual on prototyping methodology and multifunctional crop rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, J.J., de; Garcia Diaz, A.

    2002-01-01

    This VEGINECO manual is one of a series of publications resulting from the VEGINECO project. VEGINECO specialises in producing tested and improved multi-objective farming methods for key farming practices – e.g. crop rotation, fertilisation and crop protection – to facilitate the integration of potentially conflicting objectives like economy and ecology. This report consists of two parts. The first part describes the prototyping methodology and how it was used in the VEGINECO project (Chapter...

  1. Produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo em plantio direto no Cerrado com rotação de culturas / Herbaceous cotton yield in no-till system in rainfed Savannah conditions with crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Corrêa; Ravi Datt, Sharma.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, instalado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo muito argiloso, teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas na produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch) em plantio direto sob condições de sequeiro no Cerrado. O delineamento experimental [...] foi de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das rotações soja-milheto-soja-milheto-algodoeiro; soja-amaranto-soja-nabo forrageiro-soja-algodoeiro; soja-sorgo granífero-soja-sorgo granífero-algodoeiro; soja-aveia preta-soja-aveia preta-algodoeiro e soja-soja-algodoeiro. A maior produtividade do algodoeiro foi obtida com a rotação de soja e milheto, em que houve melhor controle de plantas daninhas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in a heavy red yellow latosol and aimed at evaluating crop rotation on herbaceous cotton yields in no-till system under rainfed Savannah conditions. The experimental design used was a completely randomised blocks with five treatments: soybean-millet-soybean-millet-cott [...] on; soybean-amaranth-soybean-forage radish-soybean-cotton; soybean-grain sorghum-soybean-grain sorghum-cotton; soybean-black rye-soybean-black rye-cotton and soybean-soybean-cotton and four replications. The highest cotton seed yield was obtained in the sequence soybean-millet-soybean-millet-cotton, in which best weed control also occurred.

  2. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national agriculture adaptation strategy decisions.

  3. Crop rotation with no-till methods in cotton production of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botir Khaitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of Uzbekistan have low water and nutrient holding capacity because of their sandy texture, low organic matter concentrations and degradation caused by long years of cotton monoculture. Conservation tillage production systems have the potential to increase the productivity of these soils by increasing soil humus and nitrogen content. As practiced conservation tillage helped to lessen N leaching losses, holding more of these elements within the topsoil as well as increase crop productivity. Conventional tillage cotton/wheat/maize crop rotation has resulted very low humus and nitrogen content in soil by degreasing crop yield. Therefore, the effects of tillage, and crop rotation were examined on growth and yield of crops in three cotton-based rotation systems, (i cotton/wheat/maize, (ii cotton/wheat/sorghum and (iii cotton/wheat/soybean, in Tashkent region in middle east of Uzbekistan. This obtained result suggests that no tillage with inserting legumes in crop rotation is able to improve soil quality and plant productivity.

  4. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R

    2013-01-01

    Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation, but few have quantified the long term integrated effects of both. We studied the issue using a 30-year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C–C–S–S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard ploughing, MP. Topsoil structural quality was visually evaluated in early June and mid October. Minimal disturbed soil cores collected in early June were used for X-ray CT scanning and to quantify water content and porosity. Soil friability was determined on the soil samples using a drop shatter test. Crop yield was determined and correlated to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a diverse crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a diverse crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT for the studied soil.

  5. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ce...

  6. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.

  7. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described

  8. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  9. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 2. Impact of crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation. Fertilizer was the main energy input, accounting from 52% in B-V to 62% in B-B. EO increased in the order B-B (19.1 GJ ha-1 year-1) ? B-F B-F > B-S > B-B (2.00), indicating the low energy use efficiency of barley monoculture. Vetch was the most energetically efficient crop (yield/input), a result of the low requirements for producing a unit of vetch hay. EP ranged from 360 kg GJ-1 for B-V to 137 kg GJ-1 for B-B. As conclusions and in terms of energy efficiency, cereal monoculture, independent of the crop management system used, appeared to be an energetically unsustainable practice. However, crop rotations, especially those that include a leguminous crop, increase energy efficiency.

  10. Winter Canola as a Rotation Crop in the Low and Intermediate Precipitation Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple-year experiments are being conducted in the low and intermediate precipitation regions to document the rotation benefits of winter canola (WC) in wheat-based cropping systems. Farmers in both the low and intermediate precipitation zones have reported economically viable winter canola yields...

  11. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-RotateN simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-RotateN simulation model. EU-RotateN was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. - The EU-RotateN model can satisfactorily simulate crop N uptake and Nmin dynamics in a typical greenhouse cucumber production system of North China

  12. Nuclear methods for plant nutrient and water balance studies. Results of an FAO/IAEA regional technical co-operation programme on nuclear methods for plant nutrients and water balance studies under legume-cereal or fallow-cereal crop rotation systems implemented for Middle Eastern countries (1991-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In semi-arid Middle Eastern countries, the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products calls for urgent measures to increase plant nutrient availability and water use efficiency. Water and plant nutrients are the two main crop yield limiting factors in these regions. Improved methods must be developed to sustain crop productivity of the legume-cereal rotation systems. It has been recognized for years that the growth of leguminous crops can improve the N status of the soil through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The conditions to improve the efficiency of the fixation process should be further investigated in order to fully benefit from this cheap N source. The BNF process is especially interesting for those areas facing limited fertilizer N availability or where the price of the fertilizers is too high for the farmers. In view of sustainable productivity, even with adequate supply of nutrients (nitrogen) and water, crop rotations have been promoted for years. However, the best rotation, taking into account the available nutrients and water in a specific place, is not always known. Furthermore, if a leguminous crop can be incorporated into a crop rotation system, free N is provided for this crop and some of it can serve as residual N for the next crop in the rotation. The use of 15N technology provides a unique tool to separately study the behaviour of fertilizer N as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N is possible, as well as the quantification of BNF. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Effect of Rotation Crops on Heterodera glycines Population Density in a Greenhouse Screening Study

    OpenAIRE

    Warnke, S.A.; S. Y. Chen; Wyse, D.L.; Johnson, G.A.; Porter, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after planting, when the soil was mi...

  14. Effect of diversified crop rotations on groundwater levels and crop water productivity in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Guangya; Yan, Peng; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-03-01

    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable yield of agriculture in the North China Plain. Due to the over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigating the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping systems, a groundwater crisis is becoming increasingly serious. To help identify more efficient and sustainable utilization of the limited water resources, the water consumption and water use efficiency of five irrigated cropping systems were calculated and the effect of cropping systems on groundwater table changes was estimated based on a long term field experiment from 2003 to 2013 in the North China Plain interpreted using a soil-water-balance model. The five cropping systems included sweet potato ? cotton ? sweet potato ? winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle), ryegrass-cotton ? peanuts ? winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle), peanuts ? winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle), winter wheat-summer maize (WS, 1-year cycle), and continuous cotton (Cont C). The five cropping systems had a wide range of annual average actual evapotranspiration (ETa): Cont C (533 mm/year) RCPWS (0.7 m/year) > PWS (0.6 m/year) > SPCSPWS and Cont C (0.4 m/year). The annual average economic output water use efficiency (WUEe) increased in the order SpCSpWS (11.6 yuan ¥ m-3) > RCPWS (9.0 ¥ m-3) > PWS (7.3 ¥ m-3) > WS (6.8 ¥ m-3) > Cont C (5.6 ¥ m-3) from 2003 to 2013. Results strongly suggest that diversifying crop rotations could play a critically important role in mitigating the over-exploitation of the groundwater, while ensuring the food security or boosting the income of farmers in the North China Plain.

  15. Influência de rotações de culturas nas propriedades físico-hídricas de um Latossolo Vermelho em plantio direto / Influence of crop rotations on the physical-hydrical properties of an oxisol in no-tillage system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eurâimi de Q., Cunha; Luiz C., Balbino; Luís F., Stone; Wilson M., Leandro; Geraldo C. de, Oliveira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do plantio direto, com a inclusão de espécies gramíneas de relação C/N alta, poderá minimizar a degradação estrutural do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da inclusão da braquiária na rotação de culturas nas propriedades físico-hídricas e no conteúdo de matéria orgâni [...] ca de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico em plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro sistemas de rotação, e as subparcelas, por quatro profundidades de amostragem (0-10; 10-20; 20-40, e 40-60 cm). As culturas utilizadas foram: arroz (A); feijão irrigado (F); milho (M); soja (S), e arroz (A+B), milho (M+B) e soja (S+B) consorciados com braquiária. Os sistemas de rotação foram: S1 - A/F/M/F/S/F; S2 - A+B/F/M+B/F/S+B/F; S3 - M/F/S/F/S/F, e S4 - M+B/F/S+B/F/S+B/F. Uma área de mata nativa, situada a 500 m do experimento, foi considerada como controle. A inclusão da braquiária na rotação de culturas não afetou a densidade, a macroporosidade e a capacidade de água disponível do solo. A porosidade total e o teor de matéria orgânica do solo foram favorecidos pelas rotações que incluíam maior número de cultivos de soja. A associação de soja com a braquiária contribuiu para a estabilidade dos agregados, e a de gramíneas de verão com a braquiária, para a diminuição da resistência do solo à penetração. Abstract in english The adoption of no-tillage system, with the inclusion of grass species of high C/N relationship, can minimize the structural degradation of the soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of including Brachiaria in crop rotation systems on the physical-hydric properties and th [...] e organic matter content in a Dystrophic Oxisol under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in split plots, with four replications. The plots were composed by four systems of crop rotation and the subplots by four sampling depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-40, and 40-60 cm). The crops were: rice (R); irrigated dry bean (DB); corn (C); soybean (S); rice (R+B), corn (C+B), and soybean (S+B) intercropped with Brachiaria. The crop rotation systems were: S1 - R/DB/C/DB/S/DB; S2 - R+B/DB/C+B/DB/S+B/DB; S3 - C/DB/S/DB/S/DB; and S4 - C+B/DB/S+B/DB/S+B/DB. It was considered a native forest, located at 500 m from the experiment, as reference. The inclusion of Brachiaria in crop rotation systems did not affect soil bulk density, macroporosity, and available soil water capacity. Total soil porosity and organic matter content of the soil were favored in the crop rotations that included more number of soybean cultivations. The association of soybean with Brachiaria contributed to the stability of the aggregates and the summer grasses with Brachiaria to reduce the soil resistance to penetration.

  16. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuels and in taking pressure off native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benefits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above- and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 10 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20 to 50 year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context, could generate a global levelling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years. 16 refs., 7 figs

  17. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuel and in taking pressure off of native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benetfits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above-ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 30 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20- to 56-year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terrestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context. could trencrate a global leveling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years

  18. Rotação de culturas para trigo, após quatro anos: efeitos na fertilidade do solo em plantio direto Crop rotation systems for wheat, after four years: effects on soil fertility under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A fertilidade do solo foi avaliada, após quatro anos (1990 a 1994, num latossolo bruno álico, em Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, em quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo: sistema I (trigo/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e aveia branca/soja; sistema III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/ milho e aveia branca/soja; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja, cevada/soja e ervilhaca/ milho. As culturas, tanto de inverno como de verão, foram estabelecidas sob plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Através de contrastes, foram comparados os sistemas e as profundidades de amostragem de solo. Em todos os sistemas de rotação de culturas, na camada de solo 0 a 5cm, observaram-se valores maiores de pH e de Ca+Mg e menores de Al (com exceção do sistema III, em relação à camada 15 a 20cm. Houve elevação dos teores de Ca+Mg, de K e de P na camada de solo com a maior concentração de raízes (0 a 10cm. Os valores de matéria orgânica do solo decresceram progressivamente da camada 0 a 5cm para a camada 15 a 20cm.Soil fertility parameters were evaluated after four years (1990 to 1994 on a alic dusky latosol located in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil, under four wheat crop rotation systems as follows: system I (wheat/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and white oats/soybean; system III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oats/soybean; and system IV (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, barley/soybean and common vetch/cor. Both winter and summer crops were seeded under no tillage. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. Crop systems and soil samples at different depths were compared using the contrast procedure. All crop rotation systems, in the 0 to 5cm soil layer, higher values were observed for pH in water and Ca+Mg and lower contents for Al (except system III, as compared to the 15 to 20cm layer. Raising in Ca+Mg, K, and P levels occurred in the soil layer with the greatest root concentration (0 to 10cm. The soil organic matter contents decreased with depth from 0-5cm to 15-20cm.

  19. Can non-inversion tillage and straw retainment reduce N leaching in cereal based crop rotations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly MØller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2010-01-01

    Finding ways of reducing nitrate leaching in Northern Europe has become an extremely important task, especially under the projected climate changes that are expected to exacerbate the problem. To this end, two field experiments were established under temperate coastal climate conditions to evaluate the effect of tillage, straw retainment and cropping sequences, including cover crops, on nitrate leaching. The experiments were established in autumn 2002 on a loamy sand with 92 g clay kg-1 and a sandy loam with 147 g clay kg-1. The tillage treatments were stubble cultivation to 8-10 cm or 3-4 cm, direct drilling, or ploughing to 20 cm. The hypothesis was that (i) decreasing soil tillage intensity would decrease leaching compared to ploughing, (ii) leaving straw in the field would decrease leaching compared to removing straw, and (iii) a spring/winter crop rotation with catch crops would be more efficient in reducing nitrate leaching than a winter crop rotation. Overall, we were not able to confirm the three hypotheses. The effect of soil tillage on leaching might be blurred because the studied crop rotations had a high proportion of winter crops and because catch crops were grown whenever the alternative would have been bare soil in autumn and winter. The spring/winter crop rotation with catch crops was not found to be more efficient in reducing nitrate leaching than the winter crop rotation. In contrast, in a single year the winter crop rotation showed significantly lower leaching than the spring/winter crop rotations, probably due to the spring/winter crop rotation including peas, which may be considered a high-risk crop. Our study highlights that management practices that improve biomass production throughout the year are crucial in order to tighten the nitrogen cycle and thereby reduce nitrate leaching.

  20. Soil water retention and s index after crop rotation and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. An experiment was carried out with soybean (Glycine max in rotation with triticale (X Triticosecale and sunflower (Helianthus annuus in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea in spring. Crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil quality was estimated using the S index and soil water retention curves (in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.075-0.125, 0.15-0.20, 0.275-0.325, and 0.475-0.525 m deep. Crop rotation and chiseling improved soil quality, increasing the S index to over 0.035 to a depth of 20 cm in the soil profile. The improved soil quality, as shown by the S index, makes the use of mechanical chiseling unnecessary, since after 3 years the soil physical quality under no-tilled crop rotation and chiseling was similar.

  1. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard

    Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation but few have quantified long term integrated effects tillage and rotation. We studied the issue using a 30 year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C-C-S-S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard plowing, MP. Topsoil structural quality was visually evaluated early June and mid October. Minimal disturbed soil cores early June and these were used for X-ray CT scanning and more traditional analysis. Soil friability was determined on the soil samples using a drop shatter test. Crop yield was determined and correlated to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a versatile crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a versatile crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT for the studied soil.

  2. Rotating Aperture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnak, Brian (Livermore, CA); Hall, James M. (Livermore, CA); Shen, Stewart (Danville, CA); Wood, Richard L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  3. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain...

  4. On the effect of crop rotation on artificially established weed species in two field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flucke, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate links between regional occurrence of well adapted weed species and crop rotations. Monocultures or very short crop rotation, which increased in the past decades are crucial for the establishment and dispersion of problematic weed species. In this study the impact of crop rotation on the occurrence of the species Amaranthus retroflexus (L., Anchusa arvensis (L. M. Bieb., Echinochloa crus-galli (L., Galium aparine (L., Geranium pusillum (L., Sisymbrium officinale (L., Solanum nigrum (L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Viola arvensis Murray is investigated in four crop rotations with varying potential of crop health risks. Therefore, maize (M, oilseed rape (WR and winter wheat [early sowing (WWF and late sowing (WWS] are cropped in four different rotations (M, WR – WWF, WR – M – WWS and WR – WWF – M – WWS at two study sites in Germany since year 2008 (Rostock and 2009 (Göttingen. At the start of the project selected weed species were sown into some plots in order to simulate an artificial similar weed pressure. In all plots weed species densities were counted before spraying in a standardized observation method. Analyses of four, respectively three years give evidences of crop specific effects regarding A. arvensis, E. crus-galli, G. pusillum, S. nigrum and S. media. Moreover, first effects of crop rotations on problematic weed species indicates that expanding crop rotations is a preventive tool to reduce weed densities.

  5. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring barley–(faba bean or grass-clover)–potato–winter wheat. Experiments were done at three locations representative of the different soil types and climatic conditions in Denmark. The three organic systems that included faba bean as the N fixing crop comprised a system with manure (stored pig slurry) and undersowing catch crops (OF + C + M), a system with manure but without undersowing catch crops (OF ? C + M), and a system without manure and with catch crops (OF + C ? M). A grass-clover green manure was used as N fixing crop in the other organic system with catch crops (OG + C + M). Cuttings of grass-clover were removed from the plots and an equivalent amount of total-N in pig slurry was applied to the cropping system. Theconventional rotation included mineral fertilizer and catch crops (CF + C + F), although only non-legume catch crops were used. Measurements of cereal dry matter (DM) at harvest and of grain N contents were done in all plots. On average the FASSET model was able to predict the yield and grain N of cereals with a reasonable accuracy for the range of cropping systems and soil types studied, having a particularly good performance on winter wheat. Cereal yields were better on the more loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark

  6. Genome Scan of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for Genetic Variation Associated with Crop Rotation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the United States Corn Belt. This failure appears to be d...

  7. Atributos bioquímicos e químicos do solo rizosférico e não rizosférico de culturas em rotação no sistema de semeadura direta / Biochemical and chemical attributes of rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil in no till crop rotation system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meire Aparecida Silvestrini, Cordeiro; José Eduardo, Corá; Ely, Nahas.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas autossustentáveis favorecem as populações microbianas devido à conservação e ao aumento da matéria orgânica no solo. Além disso, as plantas que fazem parte desses sistemas promovem o efeito rizosférico, por meio da zona de influência das raízes, que resulta no aumento da atividade e na modi [...] ficação da população microbiana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas de inverno sobre sequências de verão, em sistema de semeadura direta, nos atributos bioquímicos (amilase, urease, celulase e protease) e químicos (carbono orgânico total - COT, carboidratos totais e proteínas totais) em solo rizosférico (SR) e não rizosférico (SNR). Este estudo foi constituído de três culturas de inverno: milho (Zea mays L.), girassol (Helianthus anuus L.) e guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), que estavam em rotação sobre três sequências de verão: soja/soja (Glycine max L.), milho/milho e soja/milho, e duas posições no solo: solo aderido às raízes das plantas (SR) e solo da entrelinha de plantio (SNR). As atividades da amilase, celulase, protease e urease no SR foram 16, 85, 62 e 100 % maiores do que no SNR; para COT e proteínas totais a diferença foi de 21 %. Das culturas de inverno, o milho foi a que mais estimulou as atividades das enzimas amilase, celulase, urease e protease no SR, bem como a atividade das enzimas amilase, urease e protease no SNR. De modo geral, os teores de proteínas totais não foram influenciados pelas culturas de inverno e pelas sequências de verão; os carboidratos totais foram influenciados pelas culturas de inverno milho e girassol. Para o COT houve influência apenas da sequência de verão milho/milho. Os atributos bioquímicos e químicos avaliados neste estudo podem ser utilizados como indicadores das alterações no solo promovidas pelas culturas de inverno e pelas sequências de verão. Abstract in english Self-sustaining systems encourage microbial populations due to the conservation and improvement of organic matter in the soil. In addition, the plants constituents of these systems produce the rhizospheric effect through the influence zone of the roots, increasing activity and modifying the microbia [...] l population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter crop rotation and summer crop sequences in a no tillage system, based on biochemical (amylase, urease, cellulase, and protease) and chemical (organic carbon, total carbohydrates, and total protein) characteristics in rhizospheric (SR) and non-rhizospheric soil (SNR). Three winter crops were studied: corn (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), in rotation with three summer sequences: soybean/soybean (Glycine max L.), corn/corn, and soybean/corn. Samples were taken from soil adhering to the plant roots (SR) and from in-between the rows (SNR). The activities of amylase, cellulase, protease, and urease in SR were 16, 85, 62, and 100 % higher, respectively, than in SNR. For total organic carbon and total protein, the difference was 21 %. Of the winter crops, corn stimulated higher amylase, cellulase, protease, and urease activity in SR, as well as amylase, protease, and urease activity in SNR. The winter crops and the summer sequences did not affect total protein levels. The total carbohydrates were influenced by winter corn and sunflower crops. Only the summer corn/corn sequence influenced total organic carbon. The biochemical and chemical properties analyzed in this study can be used as indicators of changes in soil caused by winter crops and summer sequences.

  8. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljevi?, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species-Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. PMID:26470320

  9. THE NUTRIENTS BALANCE OF CROP ROTATION AS AN INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING ON ARABLE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Haná?ková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.

  10. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, JØrgen E

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ceramic suction cells and modelled drainage. There were significant effects on annual N leaching of location (coarse sand > loamy sand > sandy loam) and catch crops (without > with). Including a grass-clover green manure on 25% of the area did not increase N leaching compared with crop rotations without green manure. Also the application of animal manure did not influence N leaching, probably because even in the manured treatments the application rate was lower than crop demand. The results identify management of crop and soil during autumn as the main determinant of N leaching. Nitrate leaching was lowest for a catch crop soil cover during autumn and winter (avg. 20 kg N ha?1), a soil cover of weeds/volunteers had on avg. 30 kg N ha?1, and the largest N leaching losses were found after stubble cultivation (avg. 55 kg N ha?1). The N leaching losses increased with increasing number of autumn soil cultivations

  11. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Crop rotations in maintaining organic matter levels in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi, Centre (Fagna, Firenze and South (Foggia of Italy, characterized by different climate, soil, and cropping systems. In the two experiments conducted in the South of Italy, in a dry Mediterranean climate, the stock of C was kept steady in most of the rotations compared with the monoculture of durum wheat. In such environment, with very dry and hot summers, introducing a year of fallow seems to improve SOM content, but these data need further investigation. In the Centre of Italy (Fagna, with less extreme climate than in Foggia, the effect of rotation compared to the monoculture of maize is negligible, but investigation on the soil organic matter composition, showed that in the rotation the SOM appeared to be more stable and, in the long term, probably more resistant to degradation. Eventually, experiments conducted in the North of Italy, showed that the monoculture, despite the application of FYM (Farm Yard Manure or semi-liquid manure, led to a decrease of SOM. To an increase of the rotation complexity, corresponded an increase in the stock of C in soil. Summarizing, results showed that crop rotation could guarantee the maintenance of SOM level, given that the input of C to the soil is maintained at a good level or, in other word, that productivity of the system is high. Other practices such as conservation tillage, appropriate management of residues, and manure application could enhance the positive effect of rotations. Moreover, preliminary investigation of soil microbial diversity, suggests the positive effect of rotations on soil biological fertility.

  12. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, JØrgen E

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type, catch crops, of grass-clover used as green manure, and of animal manure application. Soil was sampled from winter wheat and spring barley plots on 19 September 2007, 14 April 2008 and 22 September 2008, i.e. before, during, and after the growth season. The soils were analyzed for multiple attributes: total soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, microbial biomass N (MBN), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), and levels of potential ammonium oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA). In situ measurements of soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration and nitrous oxide emissions were conducted in plots with winter wheat. In April 2008, prior to field operations, intact soil cores were collected at two depths (0–5 and 5–10 cm) in plots under winter wheat. Water retention characteristics of each core were determined and used to calculate relative gas diffusivity (DP/Do). Finally, crop growth was monitored and grain yields measured at harvest maturity. The different management strategies between 1997 and 2007 led to soil carbon inputs that were on average 18–68% and 32–91% higher in the organic than inorganic fertilizer-based rotations for the sampled winter wheat and spring barley crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha?1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application and inclusion of catch crops generally increased soil respiration, PMN and PAO. At field capacity, relative gas diffusivity at 0–5 cm depth was >50% higher in the organic than the inorganic fertilizer-based system (P < 0.05). Crop yields in 2008 were generally lower in the low-input organic rotations than in the high-input inorganic fertilizer-based system; only spring barley in rotations with pig slurry application and incorporation of a catch crop prior to sowing obtained grain yields similar to levels achieved in the system where inorganic fertilizer was applied. These results suggest that within organic cropping systems, both microbial activity and crop yields could be enhanced through inclusion of catch crops. However, the timing of catch crop incorporation is critical.

  13. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas / Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus, Bezerra; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Geocleber Gomes de, Sousa; Vânia Felipe Freire, Gomes; Paulo Furtado, Mendes Filho.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L.) e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.). A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas [...] subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa): 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2), principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca. Abstract in english This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops [...] irrigated in the dry season and two dry in the rainy season. The study was conducted under field conditions using a randomized block design with five replications. In irrigated crops were used the following water with electrical conductivity (ECw): 0.8; 2.2; 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The rainfed crops were conducted on the same plots that were cultivated during the dry season, which remained demarcated and identified. At the beginning and end of each crop were collected samples in two subareas in the region of root system plant, in the middle third of the central row of each plot. Increasing of salinity in irrigation water led to increase in the total number of spores and reduced soil basal respiration, biomass carbon and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2), mainly in the area cultivated with cowpea. The genus Glomus accounted for more than 70% of total spores found, and this percentage increased in treatments with high salinity in dry season crops. The data reveal no residual negative effect of salinity on the microbial variables assessed in function irrigation with saline water during the dry season crops.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF TURKEY MANURE IN CROP ROTATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agafonov E. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Five-year data of the influence of direct affect and the post action of decomposed turkey droppings on the sunflower husk on crop productivity in three-level field crop rotation of spring barley - sunflower -spring barley and in a comparison of its action with the effect of fertilizers on crop yields were presented in the article. The affect of the droppings exceeded affect of mineral fertilizers on the productivity of field crop ro-tation link in a dose of N90P90K90 on 0,79 t/ ga or on 16%

  15. SOIL PHYSICAL QUALITY INDICES UNDER TECHNICAL CROP ROTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Jigau; Ecaterina Chislari; Maria Motelica; Ina Chircu

    2011-01-01

    The multiple processes which assists in the physical indices evolution of soil quality, within technical rotation are correlated, this being materialized in their hierarchization to the different integration levels and structural functional organization of the soil system. More pronounced, the technical anthropic modifications affect the levels aggregate – horizon – profile (pedon) being concretized in the agrogen layer compaction and profile stratification. Integrated index of the agrogen mo...

  16. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems / Estoque e compartimentos de carbono em um latossolo vermelho subtropical sob diferentes sistemas de longo prazo de preparo e rotação de culturas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ben-Hur Costa de, Campos; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Cimélio, Bayer; Rodrigo da Silveira, Nicoloso; Jackson Ernani, Fiorin.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) desempenha papel relevante na qualidade do solo e pode atuar como dreno de C-CO2 atmosférico em solos sob sistemas de manejo conservacionista. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos) de sistemas de preparo do solo (PC- [...] preparo convencional e PD-plantio direto) e de rotação de culturas (R0- sucessão de monoculturas, R1- rotação de culturas de inverno e R2- rotação intensiva de culturas) no estoque de carbono (C) orgânico total, particulado e associado a minerais de um Latossolo Vermelho, originalmente degradado, do Sul do Brasil. O clima é subtropical úmido Cfa 2, segundo a classificação de Köppen, com média anual de precipitação pluvial de 1.774 mm e média anual de temperatura de 19,2 ºC. As parcelas experimentais foram divididas em três segmentos, e em cada um destes foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. As amostras foram coletadas por meio da abertura manual de pequenas trincheiras. O estoque de C no solo apresentou relação linear com o aporte anual de C, independentemente do sistema de preparo investigado. Assim, o preparo do solo teve pequeno efeito no incremento da taxa de decomposição da MOS. Na camada de 0-0,30 m, a taxa de sequestro de C variou de zero a 0,51 Mg ha-1 ano-1 considerando o tratamento CT R0 como referência, sendo a rotação de culturas uma estratégia mais eficiente em determinar o acúmulo de C do que os sistemas de preparo. Na média dos sistemas de cultura, uma taxa de sequestro de C de 0,13 Mg ha-1ano-1 foi observada sob PD em relação ao PC. Isso é claro? Esse resultado foi determinado pelo maior aporte de C proporcionado pela melhoria da qualidade do solo em PD adotado por longo prazo. A fração particulada de C foi um indicador eficiente da qualidade dos sistemas de manejo, enquanto o C orgânico associado aos minerais foi um importante dreno de C-CO2 atmosférico nesse Latossolo argiloso. A retenção de C nessa fração estável da MOS contribuiu com 81 e 89 % do total de C sequestrado no solo em PD, nos sistemas R1 e R2, respectivamente. O maior índice de manejo de C foi verificado sob PD R2, confirmando o potencial de práticas de manejo em melhorar qualitativamente o C armazenado no solo, em relação ao PC R0. Esses resultados mostram que a diversificação da rotação de culturas, notadamente com a inclusão de plantas de cobertura, é uma importante estratégia para o sequestro de C-CO2 atmosférico e melhoria da qualidade da MOS em Latossolos subtropicais intemperizados. Abstract in english Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture sy [...] stem, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification), the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the i

  17. Biomassa microbiana e sua atividade em solos sob diferentes sistemas de preparo e sucessão de culturas / Microbial biomass and its activity in soils under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E. L., Balota; A., Colozzi-Filho; D. S., Andrade; M., Hungria.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a biomassa microbiana e sua atividade, em solo submetido às sucessões de culturas trigo/soja e trigo/milho, preparado pelo sistema convencional e em plantio direto. A avaliação foi realizada em um experimento realizado em um Latossolo Roxo desde 1976 na Estação Experimental do Instituto [...] Agronômico do Paraná-IAPAR, em Londrina (PR). Foram coletadas amostras na profundidade de 0-15 cm, dez dias após o plantio e sete dias antes da colheita da cultura de verão e de inverno dos anos de 1992, 1993 e 1994. Avaliaram-se a respiracão basal do solo e o carbono da biomassa microbiana pelo método de fumigação-incubação; o nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana, pelo método da fumigação-extração, o quociente metabólico e a relação Cmic/Corg dos solos. Houve poucas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, em função das diferentes sucessões de culturas. As parcelas sob plantio direto apresentaram incrementos de 118 e 101% no carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana, respectivamente, de 73% na respiração basal e de 96% na relação Cmic/Corg, enquanto houve um decréscimo de 28% no quociente metabólico (qCO2). Os dados obtidos evidenciam que a prática do plantio direto proporciona maior biomassa microbiana e menor perda relativa de C via respiração, podendo determinar, assim, maior acúmulo de C no solo a longo prazo. Conseqüentemente, os parâmetros microbiológicos mostraram-se bons indicadores de alterações do solo em função do manejo. Abstract in english In this study, microbial biomass and its activity were evaluated on a soil submitted to crop rotations with wheat/soybean and wheat/maize under the no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. The evaluation was performed on an experiment established since 1976 at the Experimental Station of Institu [...] to Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR), Londrina (PR), Brazil. Soil samples were taken in the plough layer (0-15 cm) ten days after planting and seven days before harvesting summer and winter crops during 1992, 1993 and 1994. The basal respiration and the microbial biomass carbon were evaluated by the fumigation-incubation method, and the microbial biomass nitrogen was evaluated by fumigation-extraction, the determination of the metabolic coefficient and the relation Cmic/Corg of the soil. There were few significant differences on the parameters related above as a result of the different crop rotations. However, when compared with the conventional tillage, the plots under the no-tillage system have shown increases of 118 and 101% on carbon and nitrogen microbial biomass, respectively, of 73% on basal respiration and of 96% on the relation Cmic/Corg, while the metabolic quotient (qCO2) has decreased by 28%. The continuous use of the no-tillage system, either under wheat/soybean or wheat/maize crop rotation resulted in increases in microbial biomass and decreases in microbial respiration, therefore having measurable long term effects on the increase of soil C content. Consequently, microbial biomass has shown to be a good indicator to evaluate the effects of long term management on soil alteration.

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas em feijão num sistema de rotação culturas em plantio direto Weed control in beans in a no-tillage crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar culturas de inverno para formação de cobertura morta que reduza a população de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris. Ocupou-se o terreno durante o ano todo, com a sucessão, em plantio direto, de pousio ou cultura de inverno/feijão/cultura para silagem, estudando-se três modalidades de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão. A maior renda líquida acumulada após duas safras foi obtida com feijão semeado sobre palha de aveia-preta e controle de plantas daninhas com um gramicida pré-emergente, completando-se com capinas, quando necessário.This study was undertaken to select winter crops for mulching to reduce the weed infestation and to lower weed control costs in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production. The soil was kept convered all the year under no-tillage with a sequence of a winter crop or fallow/beans/silage crop. Three weed control methods for beans were studied. After two complete crop sequences, the highest total net income was obtained with the beans directly drilled on the black oats (Avena strigosa mulching, spraying a pre-emergence grasskiller plus hoeing when needed.

  19. Efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas na fertilidade do solo, após vinte anos Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on soil fertility attributes after twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são escassos os estudos disponíveis com experimentos de longa duração em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas. Após vinte anos (1985 a 2005, a fertilidade de solo foi avaliada, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo (RS, em quatro sistemas de manejo de solo (SMSs - 1 plantio direto (PD, 2 cultivo mínimo (CM, 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com grade de discos (PCD e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e com grade de discos (PCA - e em três sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRCs: I (trigo/soja, II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho e III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja, incluindo como testemunha um fragmento adjacente de floresta subtropical (FST. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas (4 x 90 m no total de 12, foram constituídas pelos SMSs, e as subparcelas, pelos SRCs (4 x 10 m, no total de 72. Os valores de pH, carbono, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os SMSs. No PD, houve acúmulo de carbono orgânico, P e K, na camada superficial. Não houve diferença do nível de matéria orgânica (MOS entre PD e FST, em todas as camadas estudadas. O nível de MOS e os teores de P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-0,05 m, quando comparados com os observados de 0,15-0,20 m de profundidade, sob PD e nas rotações II e III. Observou-se que em FST os valores de pH, Ca, P e de K foram menores do que os dos SMSs e SRCs.Long term field studies on crop rotation and soil tillage systems under Brazilian conditions are scarce. Soil fertility characteristics were assessed after twenty years (1985 to 2005 on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol located in Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Four soil tillage systems (STS - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using disk plow followed by disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using moldboard plow followed by disk harrow - and three crop rotation systems (CRS: I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oat/soybean were evaluated, including as check a fragment of subtropical forest (FST. A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main field plots (4 x 90 m in a total of 12, were the soil tillage systems, whereas the subplots (4 x 10 m, in a total of 72 comprised the crop rotation systems. Values of soil pH, soil organic carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were affected by soil tillage systems (STSs. Higher levels of soil organic matter and contents of soil carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were observed in the 0-0,05 m layer for the no-tillage system. No statistical differences were found in soil organic matter levels between no-tillage and tropical forest, in any soil layer. Values of soil organic matter, P, and K were higher in the 0-0,05 m layer, when compared to the ones observed in the 0,15-0,20 m layer, in no-tillage and II and III CRSs. Values of pH, Ca, P, and K observed in all STSs and CRSs were higher than in the tropical forest area.

  20. Efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas na fertilidade do solo, após vinte anos / Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on soil fertility attributes after twenty years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Silvio Tulio, Spera; Gilberto Omar, Tomm; Rainoldo Alberto, Kochann; Alexandre, Ávila.

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são escassos os estudos disponíveis com experimentos de longa duração em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas. Após vinte anos (1985 a 2005), a fertilidade de solo foi avaliada, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo (RS), em quatro sistemas de manejo [...] de solo (SMSs) - 1) plantio direto (PD), 2) cultivo mínimo (CM), 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com grade de discos (PCD) e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e com grade de discos (PCA) - e em três sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRCs): I (trigo/soja), II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho) e III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja), incluindo como testemunha um fragmento adjacente de floresta subtropical (FST). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas (4 x 90 m) no total de 12, foram constituídas pelos SMSs, e as subparcelas, pelos SRCs (4 x 10 m), no total de 72. Os valores de pH, carbono, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os SMSs. No PD, houve acúmulo de carbono orgânico, P e K, na camada superficial. Não houve diferença do nível de matéria orgânica (MOS) entre PD e FST, em todas as camadas estudadas. O nível de MOS e os teores de P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-0,05 m, quando comparados com os observados de 0,15-0,20 m de profundidade, sob PD e nas rotações II e III. Observou-se que em FST os valores de pH, Ca, P e de K foram menores do que os dos SMSs e SRCs. Abstract in english Long term field studies on crop rotation and soil tillage systems under Brazilian conditions are scarce. Soil fertility characteristics were assessed after twenty years (1985 to 2005) on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol located in Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. [...] Four soil tillage systems (STS) - 1) no-tillage, 2) minimum tillage, 3) conventional tillage using disk plow followed by disk harrow, and 4) conventional tillage using moldboard plow followed by disk harrow - and three crop rotation systems (CRS): I (wheat/soybean), II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn), and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oat/soybean) were evaluated, including as check a fragment of subtropical forest (FST). A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main field plots (4 x 90 m) in a total of 12, were the soil tillage systems, whereas the subplots (4 x 10 m), in a total of 72 comprised the crop rotation systems. Values of soil pH, soil organic carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were affected by soil tillage systems (STSs). Higher levels of soil organic matter and contents of soil carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were observed in the 0-0,05 m layer for the no-tillage system. No statistical differences were found in soil organic matter levels between no-tillage and tropical forest, in any soil layer. Values of soil organic matter, P, and K were higher in the 0-0,05 m layer, when compared to the ones observed in the 0,15-0,20 m layer, in no-tillage and II and III CRSs. Values of pH, Ca, P, and K observed in all STSs and CRSs were higher than in the tropical forest area.

  1. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters / Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudivan F., Lacerda; Geocleber G., Sousa; Francisco L. B., Silva; Francisco V. A., Guimarães; Giovana L., Silva; Lourival F., Cavalcante.

    Full Text Available A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água d [...] e baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa sobre o acúmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijão-de-corda em sistema de rotação. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estação seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1). As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS), sendo realizadas as avaliações: crescimento vegetativo, produção de grãos por planta, matéria seca de 1.000 grãos e produtividade. Durante a estação chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijão caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliações de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e após o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijão caupi. A salinidade da água de irrigação acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o período seco. Os elevados totais de precipitação pluviométrica durante a estação chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviação dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estação seca e eliminaram os possíveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijão caupi. Porém, o feijão caupi apresentou um comportamento atípico com uma expressiva proporção de massa vegetativa e baixa produção de vagens, o que reduziu a eficiência dessa estratégia de rotação de culturas, nas condições do presente estudo. Abstract in english The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and [...] fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1). The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS), and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.

  2. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan F. Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água de baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa sobre o acúmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijão-de-corda em sistema de rotação. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estação seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS, sendo realizadas as avaliações: crescimento vegetativo, produção de grãos por planta, matéria seca de 1.000 grãos e produtividade. Durante a estação chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijão caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliações de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e após o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijão caupi. A salinidade da água de irrigação acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o período seco. Os elevados totais de precipitação pluviométrica durante a estação chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviação dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estação seca e eliminaram os possíveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijão caupi. Porém, o feijão caupi apresentou um comportamento atípico com uma expressiva proporção de massa vegetativa e baixa produção de vagens, o que reduziu a eficiência dessa estratégia de rotação de culturas, nas condições do presente estudo.

  3. Current utilization and perspective of short rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-wide, there is an increasing demand for phytomass for production of renewable CO2-neutral fuel and as an inexpensive environmentally friendly raw material source for food and industry production. Together with the development of appropriate technology, is becoming a matter of paramount importance. Amaranth species hold much promise in fulfilling these demands. Amaranth could be characterised as a high energy multipurpose C4 plant, fits the bill as a true '4F crop' (Food, Feed, Fuel and Fibre) as well as being a short cycle, drought and salinity tolerant crop. The Amaranth agro-ecological system is a key link in the sustainable production of agriculture. It will play an important role in 'healthy' food as well as environmental protection in the next century. From the environmental point of view it should be mentioned that Amaranth is the plant species, which is also suitable for marginal lands and contaminated soils. It is known for its dry or saline land resistance as well as contamination by radioactive dust or other harmful material. (author)

  4. Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application. These field plot studies are serving as the basis for a water shed study initiated in 1997. Results from the two studies will be used to develop and model nutrient and hydrologic budgets for woody crop plantings to identify potential constraints to sustainable deployment of short-rotation woody crops in the southeastern United States. (author)

  5. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.; Lourenço, E.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influ...

  6. Crop rotations in the sea: Increasing returns and reducing risk of collapse in sea cucumber fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagányi, Éva Elizabeth; Skewes, Timothy; Murphy, Nicole; Pascual, Ricardo; Fischer, Mibu

    2015-05-26

    Rotational harvesting is one of the oldest management strategies applied to terrestrial and marine natural resources, with crop rotations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. The efficacy of this strategy for sessile marine species is of considerable interest given that these resources are vital to underpin food security and maintain the social and economic wellbeing of small-scale and commercial fishers globally. We modeled the rotational zone strategy applied to the multispecies sea cucumber fishery in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and show a substantial reduction in the risk of localized depletion, higher long-term yields, and improved economic performance. We evaluated the performance of rotation cycles of different length and show an improvement in biological and economic performance with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. As sea cucumber fisheries throughout the world succumb to overexploitation driven by rising demand, there has been an increasing demand for robust assessments of fishery sustainability and a need to address local depletion concerns. Our results provide motivation for increased use of relatively low-information, low-cost, comanagement rotational harvest approaches in coastal and reef systems globally. PMID:25964357

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in soybean-based crop rotations under conventional and zero tillage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 70% of Brazilian agriculture is based on the cultivation of highly weathered soils located in tropical and subtropical savannah areas, where the zero or no tillage (ZT) system is now considered as the best alternative to the traditional conventional tillage (CT). During the period 1999-2004 the Agrobiology Centre of Embrapa implemented a research program using nuclear and related techniques to study the main processes involved in the dynamics and cycling of N for predominant crop rotations grown at five locations under ZT in comparison to CT, on acidic savannah soils of both southern and Cerrado regions of Brazil. The most relevant results of these studies were: (1) The soybean crop derived a high proportion of its N (over 80%) from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The BNF system is so efficient that attempts to increase grain yields by addition of N fertilizer are hardly ever successful as long as the plants have been effectively inoculated with the recommended Bradyrhizobium strains. (2) The N fertilizer use efficiency by the maize crop fertilized with 80 to 90 kg N ha-1 varied from 40 to 60%. (3). A maximum 10% of N-urea applied broadcast over the soil surface (40 kg N ha-1) in a maize crop was lost via NH3 volatilization, with the highest values under ZT. (4). The inclusion of green manure legumes (GMLs) such as lupin and vetch, which are highly efficient in BNF was essential to promote a positive soil N balance in crop rotations and to increase the stock of soil organic C. (5) Less than 900 g N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 were lost from the soil surface, and the highest values were found under CT. (6) Even thought the contribution of BNF to the Brazilian soybean crop is high (over 80%), the accurate assessment of this input to the soil N balance still remain unclear due to methodological problems using the leaf labeling technique to estimate residual below-ground N. Results obtained so far suggest that these methodological issues need to be overcome before these estimates can be considered as reliable. These results demonstrate the enormous potential impact of BNF in legumes such as soybean and green manures and their management under ZT and CT on the N cycling processes and overall C and N stocks in tropical acid savannah soils, thus contributing to the productivity and sustainability of the agricultural production systems. (author)

  8. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  9. SOIL HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES FOR DIFFERENT SOILS, SLOPES, AND CROP ROTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop management can alter soil physical properties, but variability of these properties may mask treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to compare soil physical property variation under two crop rotations, and to examine interrelations among different soil physical properties. A six-year r...

  10. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. PMID:26070897

  11. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  12. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Duli; Wright, David L.; Marois, James J.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Brennan, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) (i.e. sod-based rotation) can greatly improve soil health and increase crop yields and profitability. In the sod-based rotation, the winter c...

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  14. Análise de risco em quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo, num período de dez anos, em Passo Fundo, RS / Risk analysis of four crop rotation systems for wheat, over a ten-year period, in Passo Fundo, RS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Ivo, Ambrosi; Julio Cesar Barreneche, Lhamby.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Num período de dez anos (1980 a 1989), foi conduzido, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT), em Passo Fundo, RS, experimento reunindo quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo (Triticum aestivum L.): sistema I (trigo/soja); sistema II (trigo/soja, colza/soja, cevada/soja e t [...] remoço ou serradela/milho); sistema III (trigo/soja, trevo vesiculoso/trevo vesiculoso, trevo vesiculoso/milho, de 1980 a 1983, e trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989); e sistema IV (trigo/soja, colza/soja, linho/soja e tremoço ou serradela/milho). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcelas com área útil de 120 m². No presente trabalho, mostra-se a análise de risco naquele período. Foram aplicados dois tipos de análise na receita líquida dos sistemas: análise da média variância e análise de risco (distribuição de probabilidade acumulada e dominância estocástica). Pela análise da média variância da receita líquida, os sistemas II e IV foram superiores aos sistemas I e III. Pelo método da dominância estocástica, o sistema II apresentou- se como a melhor alternativa de produção a ser oferecida aos agricultores, do ponto de vista de lucratividade e menor risco. Abstract in english During ten years (1980 to 1989), at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT), in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, the effects of crop rotation systems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were assessed. Four rotation systems for wheat were studied: system I (wheat/soybean); system II (wheat/soybea [...] n, rapeseed/soybean, barley/soybean, lupine or serradella/corn); system III (wheat/soybean, arrowleaf clover/arrowleaf clover, and arrowleaf clover/corn, from 1980 to 1983, and wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989); and system IV (wheat/soybean, rapeseed/soybean, flax/soybean, and lupine or serradella/corn). A randomized complete block design, with four replications and plots with 120 m², was used. Risk analysis over that period is presented in this paper. Two types of analysis were applied to the net return of the systems: mean-variance analysis and risk analysis (safety-first and stochastic dominance). By the mean-variance analysis, systems II and IV showed higher net returns as compared to systems I and III. The system II showed the highest profit and the lowest risk to be offered to the farmer, as compared to the remaining systems studied.

  15. Análise de risco em quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo, num período de dez anos, em Passo Fundo, RS Risk analysis of four crop rotation systems for wheat, over a ten-year period, in Passo Fundo, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Num período de dez anos (1980 a 1989, foi conduzido, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT, em Passo Fundo, RS, experimento reunindo quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo (Triticum aestivum L.: sistema I (trigo/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja, colza/soja, cevada/soja e tremoço ou serradela/milho; sistema III (trigo/soja, trevo vesiculoso/trevo vesiculoso, trevo vesiculoso/milho, de 1980 a 1983, e trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, colza/soja, linho/soja e tremoço ou serradela/milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcelas com área útil de 120 m². No presente trabalho, mostra-se a análise de risco naquele período. Foram aplicados dois tipos de análise na receita líquida dos sistemas: análise da média variância e análise de risco (distribuição de probabilidade acumulada e dominância estocástica. Pela análise da média variância da receita líquida, os sistemas II e IV foram superiores aos sistemas I e III. Pelo método da dominância estocástica, o sistema II apresentou- se como a melhor alternativa de produção a ser oferecida aos agricultores, do ponto de vista de lucratividade e menor risco.During ten years (1980 to 1989, at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT, in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, the effects of crop rotation systems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were assessed. Four rotation systems for wheat were studied: system I (wheat/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean, rapeseed/soybean, barley/soybean, lupine or serradella/corn; system III (wheat/soybean, arrowleaf clover/arrowleaf clover, and arrowleaf clover/corn, from 1980 to 1983, and wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989; and system IV (wheat/soybean, rapeseed/soybean, flax/soybean, and lupine or serradella/corn. A randomized complete block design, with four replications and plots with 120 m², was used. Risk analysis over that period is presented in this paper. Two types of analysis were applied to the net return of the systems: mean-variance analysis and risk analysis (safety-first and stochastic dominance. By the mean-variance analysis, systems II and IV showed higher net returns as compared to systems I and III. The system II showed the highest profit and the lowest risk to be offered to the farmer, as compared to the remaining systems studied.

  16. Análise econômica de sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo, num período de dez anos, sob plantio direto Economic analysis of crop rotation systems for wheat, over a ten year period, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1984 a 1993, foi conduzido, em Guarapuava, PR, experimento composto de sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo: sistema I (trigo/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989, e trigo/soja e aveia-branca/soja, de 1990 a 1993; sistema III (trigo/soja, linho/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989, e trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia-branca/soja, de 1990 a 1993; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, leguminosas/milho, cevada/soja e aveia-branca/soja. A análise econômica do período é apresentada neste trabalho. De 1984 a 1989, os sistemas I, II, III e IV não mostraram diferenças entre as médias quanto à receita líquida. Da mesma forma, de 1990 a 1993, os sistemas II, III e IV não diferiram significativamente no tocante a receita líquida, em relação ao sistema I; no entanto, considerando-se as comparações anuais, o sistema II apresentou maior lucratividade do que o sistema I, em seis anos, e não diferiu em quatro anos, sendo, portanto, aquele, uma boa alternativa em relação a este, principalmente no primeiro período.From 1984 to 1993, in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil, the effect of crop rotation systems on wheat were assessed. Four rotation systems for wheat were studied: system I (wheat/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989, and wheat/soybean and white oats/soybean, from 1990 to 1993; system III (wheat/soybean, flax/soybean, and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989, and wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oats/soybean, from 1990 to 1993; and system IV (wheat/soybean, legume/corn, barley/soybean, and white oats/soybean. The economic analysis on that period is presented in this paper. From 1984 to 1989, systems I, II, III, and IV showed no differences in their net return means. Similarly, from 1990 to 1993, systems II, III, and IV mean net returns did not differ significantly in relation to the system I; however, considering the annual comparison, the system II showed higher profit than the system I in six years and did not differ in four years, making it a good alternative, mainly in the first period.

  17. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for the baseline period (1961–90) and in combination with two regional circulation models (RCM) to generate climatic data under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario fo...

  18. THE EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF OILSEED CROPS (CANOLA, SOY IN A FIELD ROTATION FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibis V. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the long-term stationary experiment since 1968, we have studied the influence of crop rotation on soil fertility and productivity. The modernization schemes of field rotations in the direction of alternation crop change were held 40 years later, by introducing a scheme of oilseeds (canola, soy. According to the research, the authors made conclusions about the efficiency of cultivation of oil crops in crop rotations in the region. The resulting materials can be used in the development of crop rotations schemes for forest-steppe of Western Siberia

  19. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Alberg, Kristian R; Ambus, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John Roy; Petersen, Søren O

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year. The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in...

  20. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, SØren O

    2015-01-01

    Legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may act as an important source of nitrogen (N) in organic crop rotations because of biological N fixation. However, the potential risk of high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions needs to be taken into account when including LBCCs in crop rotations. Here, we report the results from a one-year field experiment, which investigated N availability and N2O emissions as affected by three LBCCs, i.e., red clover (CL), red clover–ryegrass mixture (GC) and winter vetch (WV), two non-LBCCs, i.e., perennial ryegrass (GR) and fodder radish (FR), and a control (CO) without catch crops. The effect of two catch crop management strategies was also tested: autumn harvest of the catch crop versus incorporation of whole-crop residues by spring ploughing. LBCCs accumulated 59–67 kg N ha?1 in their tops, significantly more than those of the non-LBCC, 32–40 kg N ha?1. Macro-roots accounted for >33% of total N in the catch crops. In accordance with this, LBCCs enhanced the performance of the succeeding unfertilised spring barley, thus obtaining a grain yield of 3.3–4.5 Mg ha?1 compared to 2.6–3.3 Mg ha?1 grain yield from non-LBCC and the fallow control treatments. Autumn harvest of catch crops, especially LBCCs, tended to reduce crop yield. The annual N2O emissions were comparable across treatments except for fodder radish, which had the highest N2O emission, and also the highest average yield-scaled N2O emission, at 499 g N2O-N Mg?1 grain. Although the sampling strategy employed in this study introduces uncertainty about the spatial and temporal variability, differences in seasonal emission patterns among catch crops were captured and harvest of catch crops in late autumn induced significantly higher emissions during winter, but lower emissions after residue incorporation in spring. In comparison with non-LBCC, LBCCs have the potential to partly replace the effect of manure application in organic cropping systems with greater crop production and less environmental footprint with respect to N2O emissions. However, harvest of the catch crops may reduce crop yield unless the harvested N is recycled as fertiliser to the crops in the rotation.

  1. Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. There is evidence that effects of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (NT on the LLWR. Crop rotations involving triticale (X Triticosecale and sunflower (Helianthus annuus in the fall-winter associated with millet (Pennisetum glaucum, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea as cover crops preceding soybean (Glycine max were repeated for three consecutive years. In the treatment with chiseling (performed only in the first year, the area was left fallow between the fall-winter and summer crops. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006 on a Typic Rhodudalf. The LLWR was determined in soil samples taken from the layers 0-20 cm and 20- 40 cm, after chemical desiccation of the cover crops in December of the first and third year of the experiment. Chiseling decreases soil bulk density in the 0-20 cm soil layer, increasing the LLWR magnitude by lowering the soil water content at which penetration resistance reaches 2.0 MPa; this effect is present up to the third year after chiseling and can reach to a depth of 0.40 m. Crop rotations involving sunflower + sunn hemp, triticale + millet and triticale + sunn hemp for three years prevented soil bulk density from exceeding the critical soil bulk density in the 0- 0.20 m layer. This effect was observed to a depth of 0.40 m after three years of chiseling under crop rotations involving forage sorghum. Hence, chiseling and some crop rotations under no tillage are effective in increasing soil quality assessed by the LLWR.

  2. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DO PREPARO DE SOLO E DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS NA SEVERIDADE DE PODRIDÕES RADICULARES NO FEIJOEIRO COMUM EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION ON DRY BEAN ROOT ROT SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.

    Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn-bean-corn-bean-rice-bean (R4. The severity of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli was evaluated 25 days after planting. The interaction was significant for this variable. The higher severity was under R3 with soil tillage system treatment P1. The lowest severity was under interaction R2 with soil preparation P3. Significant differences were found in the severity of the disease caused by R. solani. Soil tillage system P3 presented significantly higher disease severity than P4, whereas rotation R3 presented significantly higher disease severity when compared to other treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani f. sp. haseoli; cropping practices; fungi.

  4. Simulated effects of crop rotations and residue management on wind erosion in Wuchuan, west-central Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Harman, Wyatte L; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    For decades, wind erosion has triggered dust and sand storms, buffeting Beijing and areas of northwestern China to the point of being hazardous to human health while rapidly eroding crop and livestock productivity. The EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) field-scale simulation model was used to assess long-term effects of improved crop rotations and crop residue management practices on wind erosion in Wuchuan County in Inner Mongolia. Simulation results indicate that preserving crop stalks until land is prepared by zone tillage for the next year's crop in lieu of using them as a source of heating fuel or livestock fodder significantly reduces wind erosion by 60%. At the same time, grain and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yields were maintained or improved. Significant reductions in erosion, 35 to 46%, also resulted from delaying stalk removal until late January through late April. Yearly wind erosion was concentrated in April and May, the windiest months. Additionally, the use of alternative crop rotations resulted in differences in wind erosion, largely due to a difference in residue stature and quality and differences in biomass produced. As a result, altering current crop rotation systems by expanding corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and millet [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and reducing potato and pea (Pisum sativum L.) production significantly reduced simulated wind erosion, thus diminishing the severity of dust and sand storms in northwestern China. Saving and protecting topsoil over time will sustain land productivity and have long-term implications for improving conditions of rural poverty in the region. PMID:12175042

  5. Propriedades físicas do solo em sistemas de rotação de culturas conforme o uso de corretivos da acidez / Soil physical properties in crop rotation systems as affected by liming materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral, Castro; Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de rotação de culturas e de corretivos da acidez nas propriedades físicas do solo. O experimento foi realizado entre outubro de 2006 e julho de 2008, em Botucatu, SP, em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e oito repetições. As parcel [...] as foram constituídas por quatro sistemas de rotação: soja/pousio/milho/pousio, soja/aveia-branca/milho/feijão, soja/milheto/milho/guandu e soja/braquiária/milho/braquiária. As subparcelas consistiram do tratamento testemunha, sem correção, e da aplicação de 3,8 Mg ha-1 de calcário dolomítico (PRNT = 90%) ou de 4,1 Mg ha-1 de silicato de cálcio e magnésio (PRNT = 80%), na superfície de um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso. Foram determinadas: estabilidade de agregados, densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração e umidade do solo. A aplicação dos corretivos de acidez em superfície não reduz a agregação do solo e aumenta a macroporosidade até 0,20 m de profundidade, após aplicação de silicato, e até 0,10 m, após aplicação de calcário. A manutenção do solo em pousio, na entressafra, prejudica a estruturação do solo, reduz a estabilidade de agregados e aumenta a resistência à penetração nas camadas superficiais. A semeadura de braquiária, entre as safras de verão, aumenta a estabilidade de agregados até 0,10 m de profundidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crop rotation systems and liming materials on soil physical properties. The experiment was carried out from October 2006 to July 2008, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design in a split-plot arrangement with eight rep [...] licates. Main plots consisted of four crop rotation systems: soybean/fallow/maize/fallow, soybean/white-oat/maize/bean, soybean/millet/maize/pigeon pea and soybean/signal grass/maize/signal grass. Subplots consisted of the control treatment, without soil correction, and of the application of 3.8 Mg ha-1 of dolomitic lime (ECC = 90%) or 4.1 Mg ha-1 of calcium-magnesium silicate (ECC = 80%), on the surface of a clayed Rhodic Ferralsol. Aggregate stability, soil bulk density, total porosity, macro and microporosity, soil penetration resistance and moisture content were evaluated. Superficial application of the lime materials does not reduce soil aggregation and increases macroporosity down to 0.20 m, with calcium-magnesium silicate application, and to 0.10 m, when lime is applied. Soil under fallow in off-season decreases aggregate stability and increases soil penetration resistance in upper layers. The cultivation of Congo signal grass, between summer crops, increases aggregate stability down to 0.10-m depth.

  6. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems? : a simulation study of GxExM interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DresbØll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how improvement of NUE traits of individual crops affects the succeeding crops and the NUE of the crop rotation. Based on experimental results parameterization was altered for different types of improved NUE in the EU-Rotate_N model, e.g. through higher N harvest index, reduced litter loss or improved root depth penetration rate. The different ways of improving NUE have different effects on the cropping system, affecting either N uptake, the ability of the crop to hold on to N already taken up, or the fraction of crop N being harvested. Due to the different modes of action, the model simulations show that these changes in NUE traits will also have different effects on N leaching loss and on N availability and N loss in the following years. Simulations also show that the effect of genotypes with improved NUE depend on environment and crop management. This is true for the improved crop itself and when its effect is analyzed for the whole cropping system. The environmental conditions, crop choices and management will all affect the fate of the N left in the soil, and whether this will contribute mainly to leaching loss or be used for production in later crops. As an example, increasing pre-crop fertilization was shown to affect the leaching after the following oilseed rape crop with up to 50 kg N ha?1 taken up before it was lost to the environment when pre-crop fertilization as well as root depth penetration rate was high. All in all, the simulations illustrate the concept of NUE as the result of interactions between genotype, environment and crop management (G×E×M).

  7. Cropping systems for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, R J; Coale, F J; Momen, B; Harrison, M R; Pearce, J T; Schlosnagle, S

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater bodies is frequently attributed to elevated phosphorus (P) concentrations in surface runoff from P-enriched agricultural soils. Forage and grain-cropping systems were compared for their effectiveness at remediating P-enriched soils. At each of four locations, one of three forage systems (Forage I = cereal rye silage and corn silage annually; Forage II = alfalfa; Forage III = annual ryegrass and corn silage annually) and the grain system (corn, small grain, and soybean rotation) were maintained for 3 yr on soils with five distinct initial soil P concentrations that were established by using four annual applications (1994-1997) of five different rates (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg total P ha(-1) y(-1)) of poultry manure, dairy manure, or commercial fertilizer. Across all manure P treatments at all locations, the forage systems had greater removal of P than the grain system. Soil P concentration changes (2001-2004) did not reflect differences in crop P removal. Few significant reductions in soil P concentration were observed for either crop system. When reductions did occur, they were for the more highly enriched soil P treatments. No significant reductions in soil P concentration have occurred for the lowest manure P treatments. Considerable variability in crop P concentrations was observed among species at locations and among years produced. However, crop P concentrations did increase uniformly as soil P concentration increased, indicating that luxury consumption of P does occur in agronomic species produced on P-enriched soils. PMID:16924961

  8. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, SØren O; SchjØnning, Per

    2013-01-01

    In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in four experimental cropping systems established in 1997 on three soil types. Three of the four systems were under organic management. Topsoil N, depth of the A horizon, and cumulated inputs of N since 1997 were determined at plot level. Labile soil N pools [mineral N, potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were correlated across all sites and rotations (r2 = 0.72). The MBN corresponded to 46 to 85, 85 to 145, and 74 to 172 kg N ha?1 at the three sites and differed significantly between cropping systems, but MBN could not explain differences in wheat grain N yields. Instead, a multiple linear regression model explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all contributed to winter wheat N supply.

  9. Economic evaluation of a crop rotation portfolio for irrigated farms in central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, González U; Pablo, Undurraga; Juan, Hirzel; Ingrid, Martínez G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of productive resources by agricultural producers in the central valley of Chile should be compatible with economic results so that producers can select an appropriate rotation or succession of annual crops and pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic beha [...] vior of four food crop and supplementary forage rotations using indicators of profitability and profit variability. Productive data were used from a long-term experiment (16 yr) in the central valley of Chile under conditions of irrigation. With productive data and information on historic input/output prices, the real net margin per rotation (RNMR) and its coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. The results indicated that the highest economic benefits and greatest economic stability were obtained with rotations that only included crops, namely sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (CR2) and corn (Zea mays L.)-wheat-bean-barley (CR4). These rotations included crops with low CV of the net margin, such as wheat, barley and beans, with values between 0.31 and 0.34. The rotations with crops and pasture, sugar beet-wheat-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) (2) (CR1) and corn-wheat-red clover (2) (CR3) had lower net margins and more variability of this indicator. Red clover had the highest CV value (1.00). The selection of crops for rotations and their sequence were determining factors in the economic behavior of rotations, affecting the level of RNMR and the degree of inter-annual variability of this indicator. Thus, differences among rotations of 47% in net margin were determined (CR2 vs. CR1), which only differed in the replacement of pasture with red clover (2) by bean-barley. The economic analysis based on the net margin and its variability allow for discriminating among rotations, providing valuable information for producers in deciding which crops to use in rotations.

  10. Controle de doenças de plantas pela rotação de culturas / Control of plant disease by crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erlei Melo, Reis; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Vânia, Bianchin.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão aborda a importância da escolha e da adoção de práticas culturais e seus reflexos na intensidade de doenças de plantas. São apresentados conceitos básicos referente ao tema e os de rotação e monocultura. Discutem-se os princípios ou fundamentos e potencialidade do uso da rotação e do ma [...] nejo integrado de doenças, as consequências da nutrição de fitopatógenos, dos eventos biológicos ocorrentes nos restos culturais, as características dos fitopatógenos potencialmente controláveis e dos não controláveis pela rotação. Abstract in english This review deals with the importance of the selection and use of cultural practices and their reflex in plant disease intensity. Basic concepts related to the subject and crop rotation and monoculture are presented. Principles fundaments are discussed in addition to, the potential use of crop rotat [...] ion integrated disease management. The consequences of plant pathogens nutrition, biological events in crop residues, characteristics of phytopathogens potentially controlled and not controlled by rotation are also dealt.

  11. NITROGEN TRANSFORMATION FROM POTATO AND ROTATIONAL CROP RESIDUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) from the crop residues and soil organic matter transformed into inorganic forms, i.e. ammonium and nitrate forms, during January through September 2000 in a sandy soil under irrigation. Corn, wheat, and potato residues were evaluated....

  12. Electrical spectra of undisturbed soil from a crop rotation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil permittivity can be determined across a range of frequencies, but little is known about how the factors derived from the frequency spectra are related to soil pore structure or crop management. The purpose of this study was to test the use of a 12-wire, quasi-coaxial probe for determining soil ...

  13. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  14. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe; Kristensen, Kristian; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Elytrigia repens is a noxious perennial weed in organic cropping systems in Scandinavia. It can easily spread in any crop type and reach unacceptable infestation levels through its proliferation from rhizome fragments. This study aimed at analyzing and quantifying the population dynamics of E. repens recorded in a long-termed crop rotation experiment on coarse sand in Southern Denmark. The study gives an insight into the factors responsible for E. repens population changes and especially those t...

  15. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg? 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha? 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha? 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  16. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Elytrigia repens is a noxious perennial weed in organic cropping systems in Scandinavia. It can easily spread in any crop type and reach unacceptable infestation levels through its proliferation from rhizome fragments. This study aimed at analyzing and quantifying the population dynamics of E. repens recorded in a long-termed crop rotation experiment on coarse sand in Southern Denmark. The study gives an insight into the factors responsible for E. repens population changes and especially those that require particular attention to prevent outbreaks of E. repens. Data originated from three 4-year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without’ not in the last course) and with and without catch crops. E. repens was controlled by different tillage tactics and mowing strategies between and within crops and were conducted whenever the population had exceeded certain thresholds. Pulses, either in pure stands or in mixtures with spring barley, and spring cereals (barley and wheat) caused the highest population increases (up to eightfold), especially when preceded by grass-clover. Winter rye and potatoes with ridging cultivations were neutral to the E. repens population. Cultivations between crops were necessary to diminish the infestation and were the main reason for lower infestations in treatments without catch crops. Manuring resulted in a general reduction of E. repens by 28 % when analyzing data from all three courses. The study has identified the crop types that need particular attention when designing crop sequences, the importance of sufficient nutrients supplies to strengthen crop suppression of weeds and the need for mechanical interventions to mange E. repens satisfactorily.

  17. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research.

  18. Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P.; Tsay, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 10...

  19. Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems / Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elcio Liborio, Balota; Miriam, Kanashiro; Arnaldo, Colozzi Filho; Diva Souza, Andrade; Richard Peter, Dick.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas que reduzam a degradação do solo e promovam sustentabilidade são importantes para os agrossistemas tropicais/subtropicais. O plantio direto (PD) diminui as perdas de solo e, se combinado com rotação de culturas pode proteger o solo da degradação físico-química provocada pela agric [...] ultura intensiva. A atividade enzimática do solo pode fornecer importantes informações de como o manejo do solo está afetando a decomposição da material orgânica e a ciclagem dos nutrientes. Assim, avaliou-se a atividade das enzimas amilase, celulose, arilsulfatase, fosfatase ácida e fosfatase alcalina em um experimento a campo, instalado em 1976 em Londrina, PR, que tem como tratamentos o preparo do solo (plantio direto ou convencional) nas parcelas e a rotação de culturas (soja/trigo, milho/trigo e algodão/trigo) nas subparcelas. Amostras de solos foram coletadas a 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm de profundidade em 1997 e 1998. Na profundidade de 0-5 cm sob PD, observaram-se aumentos de 68% na atividade da amilase, 90% na celulase, 219% na arilsulfatase, 46% na fosfatase ácida e 61% na fosfatase alcalina. Observaram-se correlações significativas entre a atividade enzimática e o C-orgânico total do solo e o C e N da biomassa microbiana. Esses resultados evidenciam que a atividade enzimática do solo é um indicador sensível de alterações na qualidade do solo, promovidas pelo manejo. Abstract in english Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can p [...] rovide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a split-plot experiment (3 replications) where tillage (no till and conventional) was the main plot and crop rotation (soybean/wheat, S/W; maize/wheat, M/W or cotton/wheat, C/W) was the subplot. The experiment was established in 1976 in southern Brazil. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in 1997 and 1998. The 0-5 cm layer under NT system showed increases up 68% for amylase, 90% for cellulase, 219% for arylsulfatase, 46% for acid phosphatase, and 61% for alkaline phosphatase. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with total organic C, and C and N microbial biomass. These results showed that NT increased microbial activity and that soil enzyme activity is a sensitive indicator of alteration soil quality by management.

  20. Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Nuñoz, P

    2010-01-01

    Two different modeling approaches were used to simulate the N leached during an intensively fertigated crop rotation: a recently developed crop-based simulation model (EU-Rotate_N) and a widely recognized solute transport model (Hydrus-2D). Model performance was evaluated using data from an experiment where four N fertigation levels were applied to a bell pepper-cauliflower-Swiss chard rotation in a sandy loam soil. All the input data were obtained from measurements, transfer functions or were i...

  1. Biogas from ley crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  2. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, SØren O

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and cash-crop yields in an organic arable crop rotation on a sandy loam soil in a cool temperate climate. The four-course crop rotation included spring barley (with undersown grass-clover), grass-clover, potato and winter wheat (with undersown cover crop). Two fertilization treatments were compared: “?M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was left in the field to decompose and no fertilizer or manure was applied to any crop in the rotation; and “+M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was harvested and equivalent amounts of N in digested manure used for fertilization of cash crops in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had little or no effect on N2O emissions. Periods of high N2O emissions coincided with cover crop and grass-clover residue turnover, with little added effect of digested manure application. Annual N2O emissions did not vary between fertilization treatments, but the +M treatment had cash crop dry matter yields that were 14% higher than in the ?M treatment, and cash crop N yields were increased by 40%. The results show that reallocation of nutrients from grass-clover to cash crops following anaerobic digestion can help solve problems with low N availability. However, issues remain regarding N2O from cover crops and grass-clover in spring.

  3. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems / Emissões deC-CO2 de longo prazo e a mineralização do carbono dos resíduos culturais em um latossolo sob diferentes sistemas de preparo e rotação de culturas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ben-Hur Costa de, Campos; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Carlos Gustavo, Tornquist; Rodrigo da Silveira, Nicoloso; Jackson Ernani, Fiorin.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A emissão de C-CO2 do solo é considerada um indicador sensível dos impactos de sistemas de manejo sobre a matéria orgânica do solo (MOS). Nos sistemas agrícolas, as principais fontes de C-CO2 são as decomposições dos resíduos culturais e da MOS, além da respiração das raízes das culturas e da biota [...] do solo. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto de sistemas de preparo do solo e culturas nas emissões de longo prazo de C-CO2 do solo e sua relação com a mineralização do carbono (C) de resíduos culturais. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em experimento de longa duração, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, de ocorrência na região de Cruz Alta, RS, Brasil. O clima é o subtropical Cfa, segundo a classificação de Köppen, com precipitação pluvial anual média de 1.744 mm e temperatura média anual de 19,2 ºC. Os tratamentos investigados foram dois sistemas de preparo - convencional (PC) e plantio direto (PD) - e três sistemas de culturas: R0- sucessão de monoculturas (trigo/soja); R1- rotação de culturas de inverno (aveia-preta/soja/trigo/soja); e R2- rotação intensiva de culturas (aveia-preta/soja/aveia-preta+ervilhaca/milho /nabo forrageiro/trigo/soja). O efluxo de C-CO2 do solo foi avaliado em intervalos fixos de 14 dias, durante dois anos (48 avaliações), por meio da captura do dióxido de carbono em solução alcalina. A umidade gravimétrica do solo, na camada de 0-0,05 m, foi determinada concomitantemente com as medições de C-CO2. Ainda, foi avaliada a taxa de liberação do C dos resíduos culturais utilizando o método dos sacos de decomposição, com amostragens aos 14, 28, 56, 84, 112 e 140 dias após o início das avaliações de mineralização do C. Foram utilizados quatro índices de conservação do C para avaliar a relação entre as emissões de C-CO2 e estoques de C e seus compartimentos no solo. A mineralização do C dos resíduos culturais no tempo seguiu o modelo exponencial. Para os resíduos de aveia-preta, trigo e milho, a mineralização do C foi maior no CT do que no PD, enquanto para a soja foi semelhante entre os sistemas de preparo do solo. A umidade do solo foi maior sob PD do que no PC, especialmente no segundo ano de avaliação. Não houve diferença na emissão média anual de C-CO2 entre sistemas de preparo; diferenças foram observadas apenas em algumas avaliações individuais. As emissões de C-CO2 seguiram padrão bimodal, com picos nos meses de outubro-novembro e fevereiro-março. As maiores emissões de C-CO2 foram registradas no verão, e as menores, no inverno. As emissões de C-CO2 apresentaram baixa correlação com a temperatura do ar e não foram influenciadas pela umidade do solo. Com base nos índices de conservação de C investigados, o PD associado à rotação intensiva de culturas foi mais conservador de C do que o PC com sucessão de culturas. Abstract in english Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM). The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluat [...] e the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C) mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification), mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a) conventional tillage (CT) and (b) no tillage (NT) in combination with three cropping systems: (a) R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat), (b) R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat), and (c) R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat). The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements), by trapping the CO2 in a

  4. Chiral symmetry in rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2015-08-01

    The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ?Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator ? ˆ =Rˆy (?) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.

  5. Self-seeding small grain cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops provide environmental benefits, yet adoption in agronomic farming systems is low. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn (Zea m...

  6. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root lengt...

  7. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, JØrgen Eivind

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type, catch crops, of grass-clover used as green manure, and of animal manure application. Soil was sampled from winter wheat and spring barley plots on 19 September 2007, 14 April 2008 and 22 September 2008, i.e. before, during, and after the growth season. The soils were analyzed for multiple attributes: total soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, microbial biomass N (MBN), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), and levels of potential ammonium oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA). In situ measurements of soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration and nitrous oxide emissions were conducted in plots with winter wheat. In April 2008, prior to field operations, intact soil cores were collected at two depths (0–5 and 5–10 cm) in plots under winter wheat. Water retention characteristics of each core were determined and used to calculate relative gas diffusivity (DP/Do). Finally, crop growth was monitored and grain yields measured at harvest maturity. The different management strategies between 1997 and 2007 led to soil carbon inputs that were on average 18–68% and 32–91% higher in the organic than inorganic fertilizer-based rotations for the sampled winter wheat and spring barley crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha-1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application and inclusion of catch crops generally increased soil respiration, PMN and PAO. At field capacity, relative gas diffusivity at 0–5 cm depth was >50% higher in the organic than the inorganic fertilizer-based system (P < 0.05). Crop yields in 2008 were generally lower in the low-input organic rotations than in the high-input inorganic fertilizer-based system; only spring barley in rotations with pig slurry application and incorporation of a catch crop prior to sowing obtained grain yields similar to levels achieved in the system where inorganic fertilizer was applied. These results suggest that within organic cropping systems, both microbial activity and crop yields could be enhanced through inclusion of catch crops. However, the timing of catch crop incorporation is critical.

  8. Dinâmica da agregação de um solo franco-arenoso em cinco sistemas de culturas em rotação e em sucessão / Aggregation dynamics of a sandy soil under five cropping systems in rotation and in succession

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E. V., Wohlenberg; J. M., Reichert; D. J., Reinert; E., Blume.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de cobertura, aliadas a práticas de manejo e conservação, recuperam ou mantêm características físicas do solo como a agregação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, ao longo do tempo, a influência de sistemas de culturas, de cobertura do solo e do teor de matéria orgânica sobre a agreg [...] ação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico em seu estado natural e sob rotação e sucessão de culturas. O estudo foi realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Solos da UFSM, em Santa Maria (RS). Amostras indeformadas, coletadas em intervalos de 60 dias, de outubro de 1997 a outubro de 1998, na profundidade de 0-0,05 m, foram analisadas quanto à estabilidade de agregados, teor de C orgânico e outros atributos físicos e químicos. A maior estabilidade estrutural ocorreu no solo sob campo natural e a menor em solo descoberto, em virtude do intenso preparo do solo e da redução do teor de matéria orgânica, aumentando os agregados de menor tamanho. Existe uma ação direta das culturas na formação e estabilização dos agregados, sendo a estabilidade e a distribuição do tamanho de agregados maiores em sistemas de cultivo que aportam material orgânico e cobrem o solo durante todo o ano. As seqüências de culturas influem diferenciadamente na agregação do solo, dependendo da época do ano e tempo de estabelecimento dos sistemas de culturas. Abstract in english Cover crops along with proper soil management recover or maintain soil physical properties such as aggregation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cropping systems, cover crops, and soil organic matter (SOM) content on the temporal variation of soil aggregation in an Hapludal [...] f in its natural state and under different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Soil Department of the UFSM, Brazil. Undisturbed soil samples were collected in 60 day-intervals throughout an year (Ocotober/1997 to October/1998) from a depth of 0-0.05 m and analyzed for aggregate stability, SOM content, and selected physical and chemical properties. The greatest structural stability was observed under grassland and the smallest stability for bare soil due to the intense soil tillage and reduction in SOM, increasing the proportion of small aggregates. Cover crops formed and stabilized soil aggregates directly, and the stability and proportion of aggregates were greater under cultivation systems that increase SOM and cover the soil during the whole year. Different cropping sequences affect soil aggregation distinctly, depending on the time of the year and time of establishment of the crops.

  9. Effect of Rotation Crops on Heterodera glycines Population Density in a Greenhouse Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, S A; Chen, S Y; Wyse, D L; Johnson, G A; Porter, P M

    2006-09-01

    Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after planting, when the soil was mixed, a sample of the soil removed to determine egg density, and shoots and roots chopped and mixed into the soil. After 56 days, soil samples were again taken for egg counts, and a susceptible soybean ('Sturdy') was planted in the soil as a bioassay to determine egg viability. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), forage pea (Pisum sativum), lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus), Illinois bundleflower (Desman-thus illinoensis), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) generally resulted in smaller egg population density in soil or number of cysts formed on soybean in the bioassay than the fallow control. Sunn hemp most consistently showed the lowest numbers of eggs and cysts. As a group, legumes resulted in lower egg population densities than monocots, Brassica species, and other dicots. PMID:19259545

  10. Soil water retention and s index after crop rotation and chiseling Retenção de água no solo e índice s influenciados por rotação de culturas e escarificação

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Carlos Calonego,; Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-01-01

    Soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. An experiment was carried out with soybean (Glycine max) in rotation with triticale (X Triticosecale) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in spring. Crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. The experiment was carried out in...

  11. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – white clover (Trifolium repens L.) catch crop followed by a first crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and second crop of winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide L.). The rotation sequence was repeated twice. Natural 15N abundance techniques were used to determine grain legume N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing was observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop after grain legumes had a higher grass proportion before incorporation as compared to grass-clover after oat, which had the greatest clover proportion. The dynamic response of interspecific interactions in the catch crop to the soil mineral N levels is moderating the preceding effect of main crops in the subsequent cereal – and sometimes to a higher degree than the main crop effect. For research involving rotation principles it is recommended to evaluate cumulative effects over several years and not only single seasons.

  12. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume-cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L), pea (Pisum sativum L), oat (Avena sativa L) and pea-oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) - white clover (Trifolium repens L) catch crop followed by a first crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and second crop of winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide L). The rotation sequence was repeated twice. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine grain legume N-2 fixation and N-15 labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing was observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop after grain legumes had a higher grass proportion before incorporation as compared to grass-clover after oat, which had the greatest clover proportion. The dynamic response of interspecific interactions in the catch crop to the soil mineral N levels is moderating the preceding effect of main crops in the subsequent cereal - and sometimes to a higher degree than the main crop effect. For research involving rotation principles it is recommended to evaluate cumulative effects over several years and not only single seasons.

  13. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinli, Liang; Caihong, Bai; Lan, Mu; Maojuan, Zhou.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.) fields in solar greenhouses, soil [...] respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year) from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK), kidney bean (KB), cowpea (CP), maize for green manure (MGM), black bean for green manure (BGM), tomato (TM), bok choy (BC). As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  14. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Báez, D; Louro, A; Chirinda, N

    2015-01-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture should be assessed across cropping systems and agroclimatic regions. In this study, we investigate the ability of the FASSET model to analyze differences in the magnitude of N2O emissions due to soil, climate and management factors in cereal-based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two Eu...

  15. Effects of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on soil nitrate and wheat yield under rainfed Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael J. López-Bellido Garrido,; López-Bellido, Luis

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted from 1988 to 1998 to determine the effects of crop rotation and N fertilizer on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in a rainfed Vertisol Mediterranean region. Over the last 3 years of the study, the effect of crop rotation on residual soil NO$^-_3$-N before sowing and after wheat harvest was also examined. Crop rotations were wheat-sunflower, wheat-chickpea, wheat-faba bean, wheat-fallow and continuous wheat, with three different N fertilizer rates: 50, 100 and 150...

  16. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on residual nitrate in the crop root zone and nitrate accumulation in the intermediate vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katupitiya, A.; Eisenhauer, D.E.; Ferguson, R.B.; Spalding, R.F.; Roeth, F.W.; Bobier, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tillage influences the physical and biological environment of soil. Rotation of crops with a legume affects the soil N status. A furrow irrigated site was investigated for long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on leaching of nitrate from the root zone and accumulation in the intermediate vadose zone (IVZ). The investigated tillage systems were disk-plant (DP), ridge-till (RT) and slot-plant (SP). These tillage treatments have been maintained on the Hastings silt loam (Udic Argiustoll) and Crete silt loam (Pachic Argiustoll) soils since 1976. Continuous corn (CC) and corn soybean (CS) rotations were the subtreatments. Since 1984, soybeans have been grown in CS plots in even calendar years. All tillage treatments received the same N rate. The N rate varied annually depending on the root zone residual N. Soybeans were not fertilized with N-fertilizer. Samples for residual nitrate in the root zone were taken in 8 of the 15 year study while the IVZ was only sampled at the end of the study. In seven of eight years, root zone residual soil nitrate-N levels were greater with DP than RT and SP. Residual nitrate-N amounts were similar in RT and SP in all years. Despite high residual nitrate-N with DP and the same N application rate, crop yields were higher in RT and SP except when DP had an extremely high root zone nitrate level. By applying the same N rates on all tillage treatments, DP may have been fertilized in excess of crop need. Higher residual nitrate-N in DP was most likely due to a combination of increased mineralization with tillage and lower yield compared to RT and SP. Because of higher nitrate availability with DP, the potential for nitrate leaching from the root zone was greater with DP as compared to the RT and SP tillage systems. Spring residual nitrate-N contents of DP were larger than RT and SP in both crop rotations. Ridge till and SP systems had greater nitrate-N with CS than CC rotations. Nitrate accumulation in IVZ at the upstream end of the field was twice as high with DP compared to RT and SP. At the downstream end, it was 2.4 and 1.6 times greater with DP than RT and SP, respectively. Nitrate concentration was greater in the IVZ of DP compared to RT and SP tillage systems. Nitrate accumulations in IVZ of RT and SP were not different. Continuous corn had slightly higher nitrate levels in IVZ than CS. The depth of nitrate penetration at the upstream end was greater than that of the downstream end. Estimated rates of nitrate movement ranged from 0.87 to 0.92 m yr-1 at the upstream end and 0.73 to 0.78 m yr-1 at the downstream end.

  17. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species: Elymus repens and Cirsium arvense.

  18. Long-term effects of crop rotation and fertilizers on weed community in spring barley

    OpenAIRE

    CHAMANABAD, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust; GHORBANI, Ardavan

    2009-01-01

    Integrated weed management programs require a clear understanding of the mechanisms influencing the establishment, growth, and reproduction of unwanted plants (weeds) in agro-ecosystems. This study evaluates the effect of long-term (95 years after the establishment of the site) crop rotation and chemical fertilizers on the weed community dynamics in spring barley at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Agricultural Site in Moscow. The weed community occurring on plots of spring barley (...

  19. ESTIMATION OF RESOURCE-HEALING ROLE LUPINE AND STRAW IN THE GRAIN-ROW CROP ROTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2014-01-01

    In field experiences on soddy-podzolic sandy soil of Meshchersky lowland high agroeconomic efficiency of an adaptive link of a crop rotation with, grown up on grain, a potato and barley is established, at entering winter wheat straw under lupine . Straw in a combination with lupine has proved to be a perspective reserve of reproduction of fertility of soils without participation of nitrogen of mineral fertilizers.

  20. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  1. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  2. AGRONOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF TROPICAL COVER CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...

  3. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorp...

  4. Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lehuger, Simon; Gabrielle, Benoit; Laville, Patricia; Lamboni, Matieyendou; Loubet, Benjamin; Cellier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in a systemic approach, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used experimental data sets from intensively-monitored cropping systems in France and Germany to calibrate and evaluate the ability of the ...

  5. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Özyaz?c?, Mehmet Arif

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control wi...

  6. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. ...

  7. EUE (energy use ef?ciency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Grignani, Carlo; MORETTI, BARBARA; ALLUVIONE, Francesco; Sacco, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Energy ef?ciency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy ?ows of a wheatemaizeesoybeanemaize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most ef?cient techniques to reduce energy input...

  8. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop management on quality parameters and (iv) environmentally benign crop rotation systems. Differently mat

  9. Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto / Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da, Silva.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrn [...] ero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L) guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L), lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L.) e soja (Glycine max L.) e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L). girassol (Helianthus annuus L.), milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek), milho (Zea mays L), mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy) e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.) não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto. Abstract in english The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera. Curculionidae) was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, o [...] viposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L), grandull (Cajanus cajan L.), dolichos (Dolichos lablab L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) and not in bengal hemp (Crotalaria júncea L ), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), millet (Pennisetum americanum Leek), corn (Zea mays L.), black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) did not complete lhe life cycle Results indicated that P. vulgaris, C. cajan, D. lablab and G. max increased insect populatron but, a reduction was observed on C. juncea, H. annuus, P. americanum, Z. mays, S. aterrimum and S. bicolor. The first four related species are the preferred hosts and may be used as trap crops. The other six species did not host the insect, decreasing its populations and thus being ideal to be included in Summer crop rotafion systems to subslitute soybean monocropping under no-tillage.

  10. Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrnero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L, lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L. e soja (Glycine max L. e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L. girassol (Helianthus annuus L., milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek, milho (Zea mays L, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto.The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera. Curculionidae was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, oviposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L, grandull (Cajanus cajan L., dolichos (Dolichos lablab L. and soybean (Glycine max L. and not in bengal hemp (Crotalaria júncea L , sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., millet (Pennisetum americanum Leek, corn (Zea mays L., black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. did not complete lhe life cycle Results indicated that P. vulgaris, C. cajan, D. lablab and G. max increased insect populatron but, a reduction was observed on C. juncea, H. annuus, P. americanum, Z. mays, S. aterrimum and S. bicolor. The first four related species are the preferred hosts and may be used as trap crops. The other six species did not host the insect, decreasing its populations and thus being ideal to be included in Summer crop rotafion systems to subslitute soybean monocropping under no-tillage.

  11. Nitrogen management in organic farming: comparison of crop rotation residual effects on yields, N leaching and soil conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Manfred; Müller, Jürgen; Isselstein, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    After 3 years of different crop rotations in an organic farming experiment on a sandy soil in northwest Germany, spring triticale was cultivated on all plots in the fourth year to investigate residual effects on yield, nitrogen (N) leaching and nutrient status in the soil. Previous crop rotations differed in the way N was supplied, either by farmyard manure (FYM, 100 and 200 kg N ha?1 year?1) or by arable legumes like grass-red clover and field beans, or as a control with no N. Other crops in...

  12. Effects of biophysical interactions of the alley cropping system on yield and nutrition of forage crops in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Issah, G.; Kimaro, A.A.; Kort, J.; Knight, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition between trees and crops in alley cropping systems for soil moisture, light and nutrients, especially N can lead to decreased crop yield. However, there is tree-crop interactions in alley cropping the Canadian prairies are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of light and soil moisture conditions in the alleyways on yield and nutrition of forage crops. The experiment was conducted using a 9-yeald old Manitoba maple alley cropping site with oats inter-planted in the al...

  13. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction cups. The effects of climate, soil and management were examined in a linear mixed model, and only parameters with significant effect (P < 0.05) were included in the final model. The model explained 61% and 47% of the variation in the square root transform of flow-weighted annual NO3single bondN concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop management. There were significant effects on annual N concentration and NO3single bondN leaching of location, rotation, previous crop and crop cover during autumn and winter. The relative effects of temperature and precipitation differed between seasons and cropping systems. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the predicted N concentration and leaching increased with increases in temperature and precipitation.

  14. Weed infestation of a cereal-legume mixture depending on its concentration and position in a crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.

  15. Crop rotation in the Valle Calido del Alto Magdalena a sustainable focus of high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out during five years at the Nataima Research Center, located at 431 m.a.s.l, with average temperature of 28 Celsius degrades and annual rainfall of 1274 Boyaca mm, on a soil classified as Arenic Haplustalf, to evaluate different crops rotation based on rice and sorghum; the combinations used were as follows; rice-rice (R-R), rice-- soybean (R-SY), rice-crotalaria-sorghum (R-C-S), sorghum-sorghum (S-S), sorghum-soybean (S-SY) and cotton-sorghum (Al-S). Simultaneously it was evaluated the response to four nitrogen levels, which allowed to find out yield functions and optimum economical. The rotations S-SY, R-SY and AI-S have been the best qualified from an environmental perspective. Sorghum-soybean rotation presents increases in yield compared with expected values, which allows thinking that it is a truly sustainable rotation. This rotation also had an excellent profitability and for that reason is considered the best option within the goals of this work

  16. Fission of rapidly rotating fluid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in understanding of the problem of fissional breakup of an equilibrium fluid system through the growth of dynamical distortional instabilities caused by rapid rotation is reviewed. Classic results on equilibrium states, stability, and routes to fission are reviewed, and the equilibrium states of uniformly rotating incompressible fluids, uniformly rotating polytropes, differentially rotating polytropes, rotating isothermal gas clouds, and nonisentropic fluids are discussed in detail. The Bardeen, Friedman, Schutz, and Sorkin (1977) criterion for linear stability in fission modes is considered along with the generic instability of rotating bodies and linear stability of fission modes in hydrodynamic simulations of fission are described in detail

  17. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha?1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  18. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  19. Produção de trigo e triticale em rotações de sequeiro / Wheat and triticale in crop rotations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Castro; João, Coutinho; Nuno, Moreira; António, Crespi.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos em Vila Real (Trás-os-Montes). O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro de Trás-os-Montes, cereal-alqueive (TA), e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal [...] -leguminosa (TL), cereal-consociação forrageira (TC) e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP). Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha, os teores de nutrientes do grão e da palha e acompanharam-se os parâmetros do solo, pH, matéria orgânica e os teores de P2 O 5, K2 O e bases de troca. Destacam-se alguns resultados importantes, tais como: as produções de grão de cereal das rotações não mostrarem diferenças significativas entre si; a produção de palha da rotação TL ser superior às das restantes; o trigo cultivado após prado de sequeiro não dispensar a adubação azotada; as rotações conduzirem a modificações dos teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio de troca ou do valor do pH do solo, factores a que se deve atender, caso a rotação se prolongue por muitos anos. Abstract in english The results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal) are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA), traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these con [...] ditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL), cereal-forage mixture (TC) and cereal-rain-fed pasture (TP). The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields were evaluated together with concentrations of nutrients. The soil parameters studied were pH, organic matter and P 2 O 5, K2O and exchange cations. Wheat straw yield of TL rotation was higher than that of the others. Wheat from TP rotation still requires nitrogen fertilization. The soils of the different rotations registered changes of organic matter, Ca, Mg and pH values, which should be taken into account if these rotations are practised over several years.

  20. Produção de trigo e triticale em rotações de sequeiro Wheat and triticale in crop rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos em Vila Real (Trás-os-Montes. O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro de Trás-os-Montes, cereal-alqueive (TA, e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL, cereal-consociação forrageira (TC e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP. Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha, os teores de nutrientes do grão e da palha e acompanharam-se os parâmetros do solo, pH, matéria orgânica e os teores de P2 O 5, K2 O e bases de troca. Destacam-se alguns resultados importantes, tais como: as produções de grão de cereal das rotações não mostrarem diferenças significativas entre si; a produção de palha da rotação TL ser superior às das restantes; o trigo cultivado após prado de sequeiro não dispensar a adubação azotada; as rotações conduzirem a modificações dos teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio de troca ou do valor do pH do solo, factores a que se deve atender, caso a rotação se prolongue por muitos anos.The results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA, traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL, cereal-forage mixture (TC and cereal-rain-fed pasture (TP. The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields were evaluated together with concentrations of nutrients. The soil parameters studied were pH, organic matter and P 2 O 5, K2O and exchange cations. Wheat straw yield of TL rotation was higher than that of the others. Wheat from TP rotation still requires nitrogen fertilization. The soils of the different rotations registered changes of organic matter, Ca, Mg and pH values, which should be taken into account if these rotations are practised over several years.

  1. Fungi Associated With Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Relation to Zero and Conventional Tillage Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Iftikhar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil mycoflora play an important role in agricultural economy of a country. Soil borne pathogen produces serious losses to the yield of a crop. In rice Bwheat cropping system due to continuous cropping and reduced rotation, soil borne pathogens have become increasingly important with the yield decline. The current study was made to have the knowledge about soil borne fungi associated with rice and wheat crop in rice- wheat cropping system under zero and conventional tillage technologies. One hundred and seven fungal species belonging to 54 genera were isolated from foliar parts, roots and soil on general and specific media. Forty three genera including 59 species were isolated for the first time from rice, wheat plants and soil of rice-wheat cropping system. The fungi were categorized into four groups (pathogenic, saprophytic, toxin producing and beneficial. Aspergillus flavus was identified as only toxin producing fungus and isolated from both rice and wheat crops. Trichoderma spp were isolated from both crops and Paecilomyces spp were isolated only from wheat fields and are known as beneficial fungi. Among the pathogenic fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were isolated as pathogenic fungi both from rice and wheat soils. Alternaria trtiticina, Fusarium equiseti, F. grameniarum, F. poae, F. solani and Pythium sp. were isolated only from wheat fields whereas Nigrospora oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and Sclerotium oryzae were isolated only form rice fields. Total fungal colony counts isolated from soil on five specific media show some effect of zero tillage on soil mycoflora.

  2. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  3. Agro-climatic adaptation of cropping systems under climate change in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuoran; Gu, Tingting; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Liang, Yuqi

    2015-09-01

    Climate change affects the heat and water resources required by agriculture, thus shifting cropping rotation and intensity. Shanghai is located in the Taihu Lake basin, a transition zone for various cropping systems. In the basin, moderate climate changes can cause major shifts in cropping intensity and rotation. In the present study, we integrated observational climate data, one regional climate model, land use maps, and agricultural statistics to analyze the relationship between heat resources and multi-cropping potential in Shanghai. The results of agro-climatic assessment showed that climate change over the past 50 years has significantly enhanced regional agroclimatic resources, rendering a shift from double cropping to triple cropping possible. However, a downward trend is evident in the actual multi-cropping index, caused principally by the increasing costs of farming and limitations in the supply of labor. We argue that improving the utilization rate of the enhanced agro-climatic resources is possible by introducing new combinations of cultivars, adopting more laborsaving technologies, and providing incentives to farmers.

  4. Phosphorus and potassium balance in soil under crop rotation and fertilizationBalanço de fósforo e potássio no solo sob rotação de culturas e adubações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Steiner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of crop rotation and manure application can provide sustainability for an agricultural production system by improving soil quality and increasing nutrient use efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mineral, organic and mineral+organic fertilization on grain yield and on soil phosphorus and potassium balance, in two crop systems under no-till, with and without rotation of cover crops. The experiment was carried out from 2006 to 2008 on a clayey Rhodic Hapludox in Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil. The cropping sequence in the rotation system involving cover crops was black oat + hairy vetch + forage turnip/corn/pigeon pea/wheat/mucuna + brachiaria + sunn hemp, and in the succession system was wheat/corn/wheat/soybean. Organic and mineral+organic fertilizations consisted of the application of solely manure and manure combined with mineral fertilizer, respectively. Soil P and K balances were calculated after the second year of the experiment, up to a depth of 0.40 m. First year corn yields were higher in the crop succession system accompanied by mineral fertilization. In the second year, wheat and soybean yield did not vary between crop systems and nutrient sources, demonstrating the residual effect of crop rotation and manure use. Crop rotation with cover crops resulted in an increase in soil K levels by promoting the recycling of this nutrient in the soil. In both crop systems, the application of mineral and organic fertilizers – either in isolation or in combination – resulted in a negative soil P and K balance in the short term. This represents a threat to the sustainability of the agricultural production system in the long term, due to the depletion of soil nutrient reserves. A utilização de rotação de culturas e a aplicação de esterco pode conferir sustentabilidade ao sistema de produção agrícola, por melhorar a qualidade do solo e aumentar a eficiência de uso de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral, orgânica e mineral+orgânica na produtividade de grãos e no balanço de fósforo e de potássio no solo em dois sistemas de culturas sob plantio direto, com e sem rotação de plantas de cobertura. O experimento foi conduzido em Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná, Brasil, de 2006 a 2008, em um Latossolo Vermelho. A sequência de culturas no sistema em rotação com plantas de cobertura foi aveia preta + ervilhaca + nabo/milho/guandu/trigo/mucuna + braquiária + crotalária / milho, e no sistema em sucessão foi trigo/milho/trigo/soja/milho. As adubações, orgânica e mineral+orgânica consistiram, respectivamente, da aplicação de esterco e de esterco combinado com fertilizante mineral. O balanço de P e de K no solo foi avaliado, após o segundo ano de condução do experimento, na camada de 0,0–0,40 m de profundidade. A produtividade do milho, no primeiro ano, foi superior na sucessão de culturas e na adubação mineral. No segundo ano, a produtividade de trigo e de soja não se alterou entre os sistemas de culturas e fontes de nutrientes, o que demonstra o efeito residual da rotação de culturas e do uso de esterco. Rotação de culturas com plantas de cobertura proporcionou aumento na quantidade de K no solo, por favorecer o processo de ciclagem deste nutriente do solo. Ambos os sistemas de culturas associados à aplicação fertilizante mineral e esterco de forma isolada ou combinada resultaram em saldo negativo do balanço de P e K no solo em curto prazo, representando uma ameaça para a sustentabilidade do sistema de produção em longo prazo, devido o esgotamento das reservas desses nutrientes do solo.

  5. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation pipes were pressed into the soil as enclosures to restrict root access to soil nitrogen. Soil samples were taken as close to 2-week intervals as possible from both inside and outside the enclosures. The crop rotation N values were also compared to triple replicated perennial native grassland plot areas (predominate sp. Western wheatgrass - Pascopyrum smithii, Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis, Little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium, Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum). Trends identified for both NH4-N and NO3-N indicate that the values are relatively similar with respect to seasonal change over time. There was a greater amount of soil nitrogen accumulation inside the enclosures indicating that outside the enclosures roots scavenge nitrogen for plant growth and production. Seasonally, comparing the cropping system crops, NO3-N declined mid-July and then rebounded by mid-August and continued to increase until leveling off in September. Corn NO3-N, however, did not follow this pattern, but increased from early June to the end of June and remained high until the first of September. We will present the results of bulk density data and seasonal N fertility data providing evidence for the impact of previous CC on corn production. Probable explanation for the mid-summer nitrogen decline will be presented and justification for reduced fertilizer application will be discussed.

  6. Scientific Basis for Sustainable Management of Eucalyptus and Populus as Short-Rotation Woody Crops in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Eric D. Vance; Craig Loehle; T. Bently Wigley; Philip Weatherford

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), fast growing tree species that are harvested on short, repeated intervals, can augment traditional fiber sources. These crops have economic and environmental benefits stemming from their capability of supplying fiber on a reduced land base in close proximity to users and when sensitive sites cannot be accessed. Eucalyptus and Populus appear to be genera with the greatest potential to provide supplemental fiber in the U.S. Optimal productivity can be achieved...

  7. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  8. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  9. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  10. Cooling system for rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstler, William Dwight (Niskayuna, NY); El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); Quirion, Owen Scott (Clifton Park, NY); Palafox, Pepe (Schenectady, NY); Shen, Xiaochun (Schenectady, NY); Salasoo, Lembit (Schenectady, NY)

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  11. GROUND BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) ASSEMBLAGES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL, AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground beetle assemblages were compared in organic, no-till, and chisel-till cropping systems of the USDA Farming Systems Project in Maryland. The cropping systems consisted of three-year rotations of corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that were p...

  12. Long-term effects of cropping systems on N2O emission potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, SØren O; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0–4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha?1. A simulated freeze–thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, which could be mainly from microbial sources. Other samples were adjusted to approximately ?10, ?30 or ?100 hPa and amended with excess 15NO3? prior to freezing and thawing. Denitrification was the main source of N2O during a 72-h incubation at 22 °C, as judged from N2O and total 15N evolution. Although the input of C in the conventionally managed cropping system was significantly less than in the organic cropping systems, it showed higher N2O evolution at all three matric potentials. Estimates of relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0) in soil from the four cropping systems indicated that C input affected soil aeration. Soil from the two cropping systems with highest C input showed N2O evolution at DP/D0 in excess of 0.02, which is normally considered a threshold for development of anaerobic sites in the soil, presumably because the oxygen demand was also high. The study shows that cropping system affects both soil gas diffusivity and C availability, and that both characteristics significantly influence the N2O emission potential.

  13. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  14. Enhancing productivity of salt affected soils through crops and cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)

  15. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  16. Work and energy in rotating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manjarres, Diego A.; Herrera, William J.; Diaz, Rodolfo A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature analyzes the way in which Newton's second law can be used when non-inertial rotating systems are used. However, the treatment of the work and energy theorem in rotating systems is not considered in textbooks. In this paper, we show that the work and energy theorem can still be applied to a closed system of particles in a rotating system, as long as the work of fictitious forces is properly included in the formalism. The coriolis force does not contribute to the wo...

  17. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  18. Scientific Basis for Sustainable Management of Eucalyptus and Populus as Short-Rotation Woody Crops in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Vance

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Short rotation woody crops (SRWC, fast growing tree species that are harvested on short, repeated intervals, can augment traditional fiber sources. These crops have economic and environmental benefits stemming from their capability of supplying fiber on a reduced land base in close proximity to users and when sensitive sites cannot be accessed. Eucalyptus and Populus appear to be genera with the greatest potential to provide supplemental fiber in the U.S. Optimal productivity can be achieved through practices that overcome site limitations and by choosing the most appropriate sites, species, and clones. Some Eucalyptus species are potentially invasive, yet field studies across multiple continents suggest they are slower to disperse than predicted by risk assessments. Some studies have found lower plant and animal diversity in SRWC systems compared to mature, native forests, but greater than some alterative land uses and strongly influenced by stand management, land use history, and landscape context. Eucalyptus established in place of grasslands, arable lands, and, in some cases, native forests can reduce streamflow and lower water tables due to higher interception and transpiration rates but results vary widely, are scale dependent, and are most evident in drier regions.

  19. Avaliação do potencial de coberturas verdes e de sitemas de rotações de cultura na supressão do nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax) em pré-plantio ao pessegueiro / Evaluation of green covering potential and crop rotation systems in the suppression of the ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) in peach pre-planting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Flávio Luiz Carpena, Carvalho; João Guilherme, Casagrande Júnior; Elizete Beatriz, Radmann.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área naturalmente infestada com o nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax), coberturas verdes foram testadas quanto a sua hospedabilidade, em cultivos de inverno e verão, comparativamente às parcelas mantidas sob pousio. Três sistemas de rotação de culturas, com as mesmas espécies vegetais [...] (aveia-preta/feijão-de-porco/milheto/nabo-forrageiro; nabo-forrageiro/milheto/aveia-branca/milho, e aveia-branca/mucuna-anã/trigo/sorgo), foram avaliados quanto ao potencial supressor do nematóide de M. xenoplax por dois anos, utilizando-se, como testemunhas, de parcelas mantidas sob pousio e alqueive. Os experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Antes e após o estabelecimento de cada cultivo, as populações do nematoide foram avaliadas quanto ao número de M. xenoplax/100cm³ de solo e fator de reprodução (FR= população final/população inicial) do nematoide anelado, onde FR1,00, favorecimento da reprodução. A maioria das culturas testadas foi hospedeira desfavorável (FR Abstract in english In a field naturally infested with ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax), green covering were tested for their hostel in winter and summer crops comparing to plots kept in fallow lands. Tree crop rotation system with the same plant species (black oat/pig bean/ millet/forage radish; forage radish/ m [...] illet/white oat/corn; and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum) were evaluated for suppression potential to nematode M. xenoplax for two years, using as witness plots that were kept in fallow lands. The experiments were conducted in the field in a randomized block design with six repetitions. Before and after the establishment of each plot, the nematode populations were evaluated on the number of M. xenoplax/100cm³ of soil and the reproduction factor (RF= final population/initial population) of the ring nematode, where RF 1,00, favoring of the reproduction. Most of the crops analyzed were unfavorable host (RF

  20. Cropping System to Limit Blast Disease in Upland Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Sester, M.; Raveloson, H.; Michellon, R.; Dusserre, J.; Tharreau, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cropping system is an essential aspect to take into account to manage blast disease (caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae). In addition to the selection of resistant cultivars, studies report opportunities to limit blast incidence by managing mineral amendment (N, Si, P, etc.), cultivar mixtures or other cropping system adaptations. In Madagascar, rice is the staple crop and food. Farmers traditionally grow irrigated or rainfed lowland rice wherever possible. In the mid-1980s, CIRAD and FO...

  1. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  2. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  3. Impact of Reduced Tillage and Cover Cropping on the Greenhouse Gas Budget of a Maize/Soybean Rotation Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an alternative management scenario (reduced tillage and cover cropping) on ecosystem respiration and N2O and CH4 exchange in a maize (Zea mays L)/soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation agroecosystem in north-central Minnesota. The control treatmen...

  4. Linking N Cycling to Microbial Function Within Soil Microenvironments in Cover Crop Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. Y.; Scow, K. M.; Hristova, K.; Six, J.

    2007-12-01

    Cover crops have emerged as a crop management strategy to achieve agricultural sustainability and maintain environmental quality. Thus, fundamental knowledge of microbial-mediated C and N cycling is vital to understanding soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in cover cropped agroecosystems. We investigated the effects of short-term cover crop-C input on N processing by microbial communities within SOM microenvironments and in bulk soil, across a gradient of organic to conventional crop management. We hypothesized that cover crop C and N inputs promote soil aggregation, which increases the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and stimulates greater microbial cycling of N within soil microenvironments, thereby leading to potential increases in N stabilization coupled with decreases in N loss. Our hypothesis was tested on the long-term organic, low-input, and conventional maize-tomato rotations at the Center for Integrated Farming Systems experiment (Davis, CA). We collected soil samples (0-15cm) across the cover crop and subsequent maize growing seasons and then isolated three SOM fractions soil: coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM; >250um), microaggregates (53-250um), and silt-and-clay (crop induced N cycling to N-transforming bacteria. Total soil C and N concentrations and soil aggregation were higher in the organic than conventional and low-input systems. The amoA and no Z copy numbers g-1 dry soil were highest in the microaggregate fraction and similar between the cPOM and silt-and-clay fractions, among all cropping treatments. Abundances of AOB and denitrifiers were lower in bulk soil from the conventional and low- input than organic system. Our study indicates that long-term, annual cover crop inputs to the organic system lead to greater aggregation and development of microaggregate structures. Consequently, the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers as well as the rates of ammonification and nitrification are augmented in the organic system compared to the conventional, which does not receive a cover crop, and the low-input system, which receives cover crops only in alternate years. These results shed light on the specific mechanisms governing short-term N stabilization versus losses under long-term crop management.

  5. On weed competition and population dynamics. Considerations for crop rotations and organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: organic farming, weeds, weed management, weed ecology, weed diversity, matrix population model, elasticity analysis, neighbourhood model, survey, crop row spacing, mechanical hoe, harrow, Polygonum convolvulus , Polygonum persicaria , Stellaria mediaExperiments, monitoring studies and modelling of weed population dynamics were carried out to investigate potential methods for reducing weed populations in farming systems where herbicides are not applied (organic farming). Six years o...

  6. Chapter 3.1. Dynamics of legume nitrogen fixation in intercrops and in crop rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of nitrogen-15 lends understanding of the dynamics and interactions between various pools in agricultural systems, including nitrogen fixation by legumes and utilization of soil and fertilizer nitrogen by crops in general. Biological nitrogen fixation in sole and intercropped legumes is discussed, as are intercrop design and methods of assessing possible yield benefits from intercropping. Advantages that accrue from inclusion of legumes, only some of which are linked with nitrogen transfer, are discussed with particular reference to two case studies

  7. Effects of Tillage, Rotation and Cover Crop on the Physical Properties of a Silt-Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Samuel Idoko; Nkongolo, Nsalambi Vakanda

    2015-04-01

    Soil and crop management practices can affect the physical properties and have a direct impact on soil sustainability and crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate how soil physical properties were affected by three years of tillage, cover crop and crop rotation treatments in a corn and soybean field. The study was conducted on a Waldron siltyloam soil at Lincoln University of Missouri. Soil physical properties studied were soil bulk density, volumetric and gravimetric water contents, volumetric air content, total pore space, air-filled and water-filled pore space, gas diffusion coefficient and pore tortuosity factor. Results showed significant interactions (pbulk density, gravimetric and total pore space in 2013. In addition, cover crop also significantly interacted (pbulk density and total pore space. All soil physical properties studied were significantly affected by the depth of sampling (pbulk density, the pore tortuosity factor and total pore space in 2012, and gravimetric and volumetric in 2013. Overall, soil physical properties were significantly affected by the treatments, with the effects changing from one year to another. Addition of a cover crop improved soil physical properties better in rotation than in monoculture.

  8. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  9. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year. The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg-eastern Denmark and Foulum-western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165-170 kg N ha-1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100-110 kg N ha-1 as pig slurry. For at least 11 months, as from September 2007, static chambers were used to measure N2O emissions at least twice every calendar month. Mean daily N2O emissions across the year ranged from 172 to 438 µg N m-2 d-1 at Flakkebjerg, and from 173 to 250 µg N m-2 d-1 at Foulum. A multiple linear regression analysis showed inter-seasonal variations in emissions (P < 0.001), but annual N2O emissions from organic and conventional systems were not significantly different despite the lower N input in organic rotations. The annual emissions ranged from 54 to 137 mg N m-2, which corresponded to 0.5-0.8% of the N applied in manure or mineral fertilizer. Selected soil attributes were monitored to support the interpretation of N2O emission patterns. A second multiple linear regression analysis with potential drivers of N2O emissions showed a negative response to soil temperature (P = 0.008) and percent water-filled pore space (WFPS) (P = 0.052) at Foulum. However, there were positive interactions of both factors with NO3-N, i.e., high N2O emissions occurred during periods when high soil nitrate levels coincided with high soil temperature (P = 0.016) or high soil water content (P = 0.056). A positive effect (P = 0.03) of soil temperature was identified at Flakkebjerg, but the number of soil samplings was limited. Effects of cropping system on N2O emissions were not observed.

  10. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year. The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg—eastern Denmark and Foulum—western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165–170 kg N ha?1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100–110 kg N ha?1 as pig slurry. For at least 11 months, as from September 2007, static chambers were used to measure N2O emissions at least twice every calendar month. Mean daily N2O emissions across the year ranged from 172 to 438 ?g N m?2 d?1 at Flakkebjerg, and from 173 to 250 ?g N m?2 d?1 at Foulum. A multiple linear regression analysis showed inter-seasonal variations in emissions (P < 0.001), but annual N2O emissions from organic and conventional systems were not significantly different despite the lower N input in organic rotations. The annual emissions ranged from 54 to 137 mg N m?2, which corresponded to 0.5–0.8% of the N applied in manure or mineral fertilizer. Selected soil attributes were monitored to support the interpretation of N2O emission patterns. A second multiple linear regression analysis with potential drivers of N2O emissions showed a negative response to soil temperature (P = 0.008) and percent water-filled pore space (WFPS) (P = 0.052) at Foulum. However, there were positive interactions of both factors with NO3-N, i.e., high N2O emissions occurred during periods when high soil nitrate levels coincided with high soil temperature (P = 0.016) or high soil water content (P = 0.056). A positive effect (P = 0.03) of soil temperature was identified at Flakkebjerg, but the number of soil samplings was limited. Effects of cropping system on N2O emissions were not observed.

  11. Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling Intervalo hídrico ótimo em solo sob rotação de culturas e escarificação

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Carlos Calonego,; Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-01-01

    Soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. There is evidence that effects of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (NT) on the LLWR. Crop rotation...

  12. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (physical and chemical properties were improved. PMID:26571667

  13. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  14. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T L; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  15. COMPARISON OF CROP ROTATION FOR VERTICILLIUM WILT MANAGEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a major disease in non-fumigated and organic strawberry production systems in California. A comparative study of the effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on strawberry growth, Verticillium wilt, and yield were evaluated in conventional and organic producti...

  16. Password Based Rotational Multistory Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Nayab Suhail Hamirani; Imdad Ali Ismaili; Asad Ali Shaikh; Faheem Ahmed; Azhar Ali Shah

    2011-01-01

    Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to...

  17. Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with cropping systems in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of intensive traditional cropping systems with burning crop residues and soil plough down with heavy machinery in food production is considered the cause of environmental degradation, i.e. soil erosion and atmospheric contamination with carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions. At a world scale the soil holds 1500 Gt of carbon, which can decrease by the inadequate soil management, increasing at the same time CO2 emission. Thus, traditional soil management can produce a large soil carbon reduction, whereas conservative soil management can increase soil carbon at a rate of 1 ton ha-1 per year. Research done by the IPCC, stated that in the next 50 to 100 years, soil might be a sink for 40-80 Gt of atmospheric carbon, if soil plough is substituted by no till with crop residues management over the soil surface, the use of appropriate crop rotations with the inclusion of grain legumes and the use of animal manure. In southern Chile, 70% of cropped land area is found, along with high level of soil degradation, since the dominant use of the traditional soil management. An exercise done with data collected from a Nitrogen Use Efficiency Research Project, on an Ultisol soil, the most eroded in southern Chile, demonstrate the feasibility of increase soil carbon sequestration shifting from soil ploughing to no burn-no till system and by the inclusion of legume crop in rotations. Soil carbon input can increase from 24 to 30.5 Gg under no burn no till, from crop residues decomposition. These figures matches with real soil carbon variation content in the 0-20 cm depth, +2,2 10-6 Mg C ha-1 in no burn-no till systems in a 3 year period, and -3 10-1 Mg C ha-1 under traditional soil management. In the other hand with the continuous inclusion of grain legume crops in 188.000 has in rotation with grain annual crops, there is a potential to decrease carbon emission in 50 G, moreover, the shifting in the IX Region from traditional to conservation soil management system would mitigates carbon atmospheric emissions from 350 to 450 Gg

  18. Effects of Cropping Systems on No3-N Losses to Tile Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Rameshwar S.

    2006-12-01

    Diverse cropping systems can have significant impacts on nutrient losses through tile drain systems and to surface water bodies (rivers and streams). Increased transport of nitrogen to water bodies can reduce dissolved oxygen and enrich the supply of nutrients, resulting in hypoxic zones. With the objective of reducing the transport of nutrients from agricultural watersheds, long term studies (1990 to 1998) were conducted in Iowa to investigate the impact of tillage, crop rotation, and N-management practices on NO3-N leaching losses to tile drain water. Results of these studies indicated that continuous corn production systems required higher input of nitrogen fertilizers and resulted in significantly higher NO3-N leaching losses compared to rotated corn in plots either fertilized with manure or urea ammonium nitrate. Also, rotated corn gave higher corn yields, 8 megagrams per hectare (Mg/ha) versus 6 Mg/ha, than continuous corn. The higher N application rates resulted in increased NO3-N concentrations in tile water. A strip cropping system with alfalfa lowered NO3-N concentrations in tile water to less than 10 mg/l. These studies indicated that better land use practices can reduce NO3-N leaching losses to surface and ground water systems and will help in mitigating environmental concerns of the production agriculture.

  19. Crop rotation effect on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under limited irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited irrigation management practices are being used in the Central Great Plains to conserve water by optimizing crop water use efficiency. Limited irrigation may reduce total crop biomass production and amount of crop residue returned to the soil. Crop residue production within four no-till (NT...

  20. The crop assessment subsystem: System implementation and approaches used for the generation of crop production reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallum, W. E.; Hatch, R. E.; Boatwright, S. M.; Liszcz, C. J.; Evans, S. M. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the crop assessment subsystem (CAS) during the three phases of LACIE was to produce crop reports that included estimates of wheat area, yield, and production, as well as a specified set of associated statistical descriptors. The operations of CAS are described with emphasis on sampling strategy, input/output data, evolution of aggregation/reporting system capabilities, and CAS aggregation procedures.

  1. Conversão e balanço energético de sistemas de rotação de culturas para triticale, sob plantio direto Energy and balance conversion of crop rotation systems for triticale , under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura moderna, interessam sistemas de produção eficientes no uso da energia. Objetivou-se avaliar a conversão e o balanço energético de cinco sistemas de rotação de culturas envolvendo o triticale. Os sistemas avaliados, no período de 1987 a 1991, foram: I (triticale/soja, II (triticale/soja e aveia preta/soja, III (triticale/soja e ervilhaca/milho, IV (triticale/ soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja e V (triticale/soja, triticale/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja. Em 1990, nos sistemas II, IV e V, a aveia preta foi substituída por aveia branca. O experimento foi estabelecido em plantio direto, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas com área útil de 24 m². Na média do período de 1987 a 1989, o sistema III apresentou conversão (9,30 e balanço energético (23.860 Mcal/ha maiores do que os demais sistemas estudados (I: 5,38, II: 5,02, IV: 8,12 e V: 7,37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivamente. Nesse período, as condições climáticas transcorreram normalmente. Na média do período de 1990 a 1991, não houve diferenças significativas entre as médias para conversão e para balanço energético. Nesse período, as condições climáticas foram adversas às culturas em estudo.Efficient energy conversion production systems are important for modern agriculture. The objetive was to evaluate the energy conversion and balance of five rotation systems that included triticale. The evaluated systems, from 1987 to 1991, were: I (triticale/soybean, II (triticale/soybean and black oats/soybean, III (triticale/soybean and common vetch/corn, IV (triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/soybean, and V (triticale/soybean, triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/ soybean. In 1990, black oats was replaced by white oats in systems II, IV, and V. The experiment was set up under no-tillage, using a randomized block design with three replications and plots totalizing 24 m² . On average, for the period 1987 to 1989, system III showed higher energy conversou (9.30 and balance (23.860 Mcal/ha, as compared to the othen studied systems (I: 5.38, II: 5.02, IV: 8.12 e V: 7.37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivily. In this period, the climatic conditions were normal. On average, the period 1990 to 1991, there were no significant differences between energy conversion and balance means. In this period, climatic conditions were adverse.

  2. Energy efficiency in long-term Mediterranean cropping systems with different management intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimising the implementation of energy used in agriculture is an important objective in the 'Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package' adopted by the European Union. Therefore, studying the management of different cropping systems represents a good method to optimise input requirements, yield and net energy supply. The aim of this study is to compare the energy use of a 12-year rainfed cropping system, located in Tuscany, Italy. The system is cultivated under two different management intensities: a conventional system (CS) and a low input system (LIS) for a six-year crop rotation that included sugar beet, durum wheat, sorghum, sunflower, and durum wheat. In the sixth year, the soil was set-aside. The results showed that crop yield and energy yield were not significantly affected by management intensities, whereas energy efficiency of the low input system increased significantly, by about 30%. Future research should include more crops and locations to obtain further information about the range of energy parameters and their long-term trends. Furthermore, could be interesting to evaluate the overall reduction of environmental impacts and production costs that could occur limiting the use of chemicals and adopting conservative soil tillage strategies.

  3. Feature Recognition System for Rotational Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of a knowledge-based features recognition system for mechanical parts. The main aim of the research was to concentrate on recognition of rotational features, namely, blind hole, through hole and slanting hole to be used in automatic process planning system. The rule-based technique was applied to recognize rotational features. The recognition criteria were based upon geometrical data from Standard for Exchange of Product data file (STEP of Computer-aided Design (CAD system. The system consists of several modules, namely, pre-processing module, inference engine module and user interface module. The developed system succeeds the design activities in manufacturing industries.

  4. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil / Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de Jesus, Vernetti Junior; Algenor da Silva, Gomes; Luis Osmar Braga, Schuch.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação quantitativa com diferentes tipos de indicadores é fundamental na determinação da sustentabilidade dos sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a sustentabilidade de algumas sucessões de culturas em solo de várzea, nos sistemas de plantio direto [...] (PD) e convencional (SC). O trabalho foi conduzido em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), em área experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco anos de implantação de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas de inverno e de primavera-verão, seguidos de dois anos de pousio e três anos da cultura do arroz irrigado. As culturas de primavera-verão foram o milho e a soja, além do arroz; enquanto que as de inverno foram gramíneas, leguminosas, consórcios, nabo forrageiro e campo natural. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As culturas de verão ocuparam as parcelas, enquanto as espécies de inverno foram alocadas nas subparcelas. Os parâmetros observados foram transformados em índices para padronizar as diversas variáveis, cada uma em relação àquela de melhor comportamento mensurado, e dispostos em quatro categorias de análise: (a) indicadores agronômicos (matéria seca e rendimento de grãos); (b) indicadores ambientais (fertilidade do solo); (c) indicadores energéticos (produção e eficiência energética); d) indicadores econômicos (valor bruto da produção e rentabilidade). Pela média harmônica obtida entre os índices dos indicadores, foram comparados os diferentes sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas, inferindo-se daí sua sustentabilidade e suas diferenças (Teste t P?0,05). Concluiu-se que: (a) todos os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas dos quais o milho faz parte apresentam maior índice de sustentabilidade; (b) os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas S1 [gramínea x soja x arroz (PD)] e S4 [nabo x soja x arroz (PD)] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c) o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC)] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d) o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD)] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e) o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC)] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f) o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura. Abstract in english The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consiste [...] d of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT) or conventional (CT). The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a) Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield); (b) Environmental indicators (soil fertility); (c) Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency); d) Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production). Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then performed, and its sustaina

  5. Vibration Monitoring of Rotating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. PROBERT; Ogaji, S. O. T.; M. T. LILLY; K. N. EDE; E. A. OGBONNAYA

    2010-01-01

    Most energy-conversion machines (e.g. vehicle engines and electric motors) involve rotating components (e.g. roller bearings and gears), which generate vibrations. The behavior of a pump which includes a deliberate fault was chosen to illustrate this assertion. The test bearing at the driven end of the pump’s motor was deliberately damaged using a 1.5mm wire-cutting method and an adjustable coupling disk introduced to impose a shaft misalignment of 40. The resulting undesirable behavior of th...

  6. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  7. Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in integrated crop-livestock systems in subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system is an agricultural practice in which crop-pasture rotation is carried out in the same field over time. In Brasil, ICL associated with no-tillage farming is increasingly gaining importance as a soil use strategy that improves food production (grain, milk and beef) and economic returns to farmers. Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) is a recent modification of ICL in Brazil, with the inclusion of trees cultivation aiming at additional wood production and offering thermal comfort to livestock (Porfírio-da-Silva & Moraes, 2010). However, despite the increasing importance of ICL, little information is available on how this system may affect soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)

  8. Microbial soil quality indicators under different crop rotations and tillage management / Indicadores microbianos da qualidade do solo sob diferentes rotações de culturas e manejo do solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enderson Petrônio de Brito, Ferreira; Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Janaina Ribeiro, Costa; Helvécio, De-Polli; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento sob condições de campo para avaliar o efeito da forma de manejo do solo (Plantio direto - PD e plantio convencional - PC) e dos sistemas de rotação de culturas sobre o carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic), respiração basal do solo (RBS), quociente metabólico (qCO2), car [...] bono orgânico total (Corg) e relação carbono da biomassa microbiana: carbono orgânico total (Cmic/Corg). As amostras de solo foram coletadas em uma área cultivada com trigo como cultura de inverno e soja como cultura de verão, ambas em rotação com ervilhaca, milho e aveia preta. Amostras de solo também foram coletadas em uma floresta secundária usada com referência. Os dados de cada sistema de manejo do solo (PD e PC) foram comparados com a floresta secundária pelo teste "t" (p Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions to assess the effects of soil management (no-tillage- NT and conventional tillage- CT) and crop rotation systems on microbial biomass-C (Cmic), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2), soil organic carbon content (Corg) and microbi [...] al carbon to organic carbon ratio (Cmic/Corg). Soil samples were collected on an area cultivated with wheat as winter crop and soybean as summer crop, both in rotation with vetch, maize and oats. Samples were also collected in a secondary forest used as reference. Data of each management system (NT and CT) were compared to forest area by "t" test (p

  9. Crop rotation and seasonal effects on fatty acid profiles of neutral and phospholipids extracted from no-till agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Alejandro E.; Ravnskov, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipids (PLFA) and neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFA) was used to characterizeno-till productive agricultural soils associated with different crop rotation levels, replicated across a400 km transect in the Argentinean pampas, during two sampling seasons, summer and winter. Highrotation (HR) management consisted in maize–wheat–soybean intense rotation including cover crops.Low rotation (LR) management trend to soybean monocultures. Soils from nearby naturalenvironments (NEs) were used as references. Fatty acids concentration in soils (nmol/g) decreased c.a.50% from summer to winter differentially according to soil treatment being the smallest decrease inHR management 35%. Both PLFA and NLFA profiles showed strong potential to discriminatebetween different land uses. In winter samples, some rare or unknown fatty acids were relevant forthe discrimination of agricultural practices while NLFA 20:0 appears to be a good marker of HRsoils despite season or location. The PLFA-based taxonomic biomarkers for total bacteria, Gramnegativebacteria and arbuscular mycorrhiza showed a significant trend NE>HR>LR in the wintersampling. HR management was also characterized by high levels of NLFA in winter samples as ifhigh crop rotation improves lipids reserves in soil during winter more than in monocropping soilmanagement. In conclusion, PLFA and particularly NLFA profiles appear to provide useful andcomplementary information to obtain a footprint of different soil use and managements, improvingsoil biochemistry characterization tools.

  10. Lentil production in Germany : testing different mixed cropping systems, sowing dates and weed controls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lina

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of legume crop, lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) with their high nutritional value are grown mainly for human consumption in many regions of the world. The crop has benefits in crop rotation due to its symbiotic N-fixation, which is important especially in organic farming, and it can also increase crop biodiversity in arable land. In Europe, lentils are considered one of the popular leguminous food crops. However, the cultivation and scientific research on lentils were neglected in G...

  11. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J. P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  12. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was equipped to measure environmental parameters and N2O fluxes. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using six stainless steel automatic chambers coupled with an infra red gas analyzer every 6 hours. We first analyzed N2O flux rates obtained between the two treatments and then we quantified the impact of temperature and soil moisture on their daily and seasonal variations.

  13. Establishment and Growth of Self-Seeded Winter Cereal Cover Crops in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  14. Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thornton, F.C.; Joslin, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Div.] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application.

  15. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year-old grassland and a pea field as reference. Aboveground and root biomass were determined and soils were incubated to study CO2 emissions after soil disturbance. Aboveground biomass was highest in 1-year-old grassland with slurry application and lowest in 4-year-old grassland without slurry application. Root biomass was highest in 4-year-old grassland, but all 1–4-year-old grasslands were in between the pea field (0.81 ± 0.094 g kg?1 soil) and the 17-year-old grassland (3.17 ± 0.22 g kg?1 soil). Grazed grasslands had significantly higher root biomass than cut grasslands. There was no significant difference in the CO2 emissions within 1–4-year-old grasslands. Only the 17-year-old grassland showed markedly higher CO2 emissions (4.9 ± 1.1 g CO2 kg?1 soil). Differences in aboveground and root biomass did not affect CO2 emissions, and slurry application did not either. The substantial increase in root biomass with age but indifference in CO2 emissions across the age and management in temporary grasslands, thus, indicates potential for long-term sequestration of soil C.

  16. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg-1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg-1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg-1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: ? We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. ? Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. ? Energy flows were compared using indicators. ? Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. ? Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  17. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  18. Atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho e produtividade de culturas cultivadas em sucessão e rotação / Physical properties of an Oxisol and crops yield under succession and rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Aymone, Genro Junior; Dalvan José, Reinert; José Miguel, Reichert; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da sucessão e rotação de culturas nos atributos físicos e na produtividade dos cultivos agrícolas de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto, localizado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os tratamentos contaram de quatro seqüências de culturas cultivadas de 19 [...] 98 a 2001: 1) sucessão trigo / soja; 2) rotação milho / aveia / milho+guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo; 3) rotação guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo / soja / aveia; e 4) rotação Crotalária / trigo / soja / aveia / milho / trigo. Em outubro de 2000 e de 2001, foram coletadas amostras de solo para determinar os atributos físicos do solo. Em todas as safras foi medida a produtividade das culturas. O Latossolo Vermelho cultivado com plantio direto apresenta um grau de compactação elevado, com densidade do solo acima e volume de macroporos abaixo do limite crítico para a classe textural muito argiloso. As maiores limitações ocorrem abaixo da camada de 0 a 0,03m, pois na camada mais superficial, apesar das pressões exercidas, a mobilização do solo nas operações de semeadura e adubação em linha aumenta a porosidade e reduz a densidade do solo. Nessa camada, houve maior volume de poros entre a saturação e a capacidade de campo, responsáveis pela aeração do solo, e entre a capacidade de campo e o ponto de murcha permanente, responsáveis pelo armazenamento da água disponível para as plantas. A introdução de plantas de cobertura a cada três anos não foi eficiente para reduzir a compactação. A produtividade das culturas foi influenciada positivamente na rotação com Crotalária, enquanto os demais sistemas não diferiram da sucessão de culturas. Abstract in english This study had as objective to evaluate the effects of crops succession and rotation on physical properties and crops yield on an Oxisol (clayey Haplortox) under no tillage system, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The treatments included four cropping sequences, used from 1998 to 2001: 1) success [...] ion wheat / soybean, 2) rotation corn / oat / corn+ Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat, 3) rotation Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat / soybean / oat, and 4) rotation Crotalaria juncea L. / wheat / soybean / oat / corn / wheat. In October of 2000 and 2001, soil samples were collected to determine physical properties. In all years, the crops yield was measured. The Oxisol cultivated under no-tillage had a high compaction degree, with soil bulk density greater and macroporosity smaller than the critical limit for clay texture. The largest limitations were observed below the layer of 0 to 0,03m, because in the uppermost layer soil mobilization by successive operations of fertilization and sowing increases soil porosity and reduces soil density. Thus, greater volume of pores is observed between soil saturation and field capacity, responsible for soil aeration, and between field capacity and wilting point, responsible for storage of plant available water. The use of cover crops once every three years was not efficient to reduce soil compaction. The yield of the subsequent crops was influenced positively in the rotation with Crotalaria juncea, while the other cropping systems did not differ from crop succession.

  19. Sucessão de cultura sob pivô central para controle de fitonematoides: variação populacional, patogenicidade e estimativa de perdas / Crop rotation in center-pivot for phytonematode control: density variation, pathogenicity and crop loss estimation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário M., Inomoto; Kércya M.S., Siqueira; Andressa C.Z., Machado.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de campo realizado em três anos consecutivos, em propriedade agrícola com sucessão de cultura, irrigada por pivô central e infestada pelos nematoides Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. zeae, Meloidogyne incognita, Paratrichodorus minor, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema ornata e M. onoense, c [...] omprovou que o controle dos nematoides polífagos é muito difícil. Dentre as culturas implantadas durante o período (algodão, milho, soja e caupi), o algodão se destacou pelas perdas causadas por M. incognita e a soja por P. brachyurus. A exclusão do milho, por ser suscetível a ambos os nematóides, porém tolerante a M. incognita, beneficiaria as culturas de algodão, soja e caupi. Resultados obtidos em condições controladas confirmaram a patogenicidade de P. brachyurus a algodoeiro. O uso da resistência genética como componente do manejo mostrou-se válido para o binômio soja/M. incognita, embora prejudicado pela baixa resistência da soja a P. brachyurus. Concluiu-se que a sucessão de cultura precisa ser cuidadosamente planejada em áreas infestadas com nematoides polífagos, principalmente naquelas em que ocorrem mais de duas espécies patogênicas às culturas utilizadas. Abstract in english A field study conducted over three consecutive years, on a farm using crop rotation system under center-pivot and infested with the nematodes Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. zeae, Meloidogyne incognita, Paratrichodorus minor, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema ornata and M. onoense, demonstrated t [...] hat intensive crop systems provide conditions for the maintenance of high densities of polyphagous phytonematodes. Of the crops established on the farm (cotton, maize, soybean and cowpea), cotton and soybean suffered the most severe crop losses, caused respectively by M. incognita and P. brachyurus. Since maize is a good host for both nematodes, but tolerant of M. incognita, its exclusion from cropping system would be favorable to the performance of cotton, soybean and cowpea. Results from experiments carried out in controlled conditions confirmed the pathogenicity of P. brachyurus on cotton. Additional management with genetic resistance was useful in fields infested with M. incognita, although the soybean performance was affected by low resistance of the cultivars used for P. brachyurus. In conclusion, crop rotation must be carefully planned in areas infested with polyphagous nematodes, specifically in the case of occurrence of two or more major pathogenic nematodes.

  20. Crop Nitrogen Uptake in A Legume-wheat Rotation Using1'5N Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afield experiment was conducted to assess the impact of residual N from legume crops, fertilizer applied N, and fallow on the subsequent wheat production. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complex block design for the years 1993 and 1994. In 1993, barley was planted as a reference crop in legume plots. Micro plots, in both years were treated with 15 N. In 1994, whole plots were planted with wheat. In 1993, the yield of lentil treatments was not significantly different. The wheat yield, responded significantly to N addition. Lentil and chickpea derived 2/3 and 3/4 of their N needs from the atmosphere, respectively. In contrast, wheat derived most of its N needs(90%) from the soil. Water consumption was similar expect for wheat fertilized at low rate of N (179.5 mm). In 1994, wheat yields, the harvesting index and water consumption were not significantly different. Traditional harvesting of lentil and fertilizing wheat at a low rate reduced significantly the N% of wheat bio-mass. The % of N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) by wheat was much higher in 1994 (4.18 to 9.24%), but it was 3.62% for the fallow treatments. The % of N derived from soil (%Ndfs) by wheat 93% in 1994 for wheat planted after legume. The results indicated that legumes depleted soil N under the croping system currently adopted in Jordan, and the benefit of fallow to the subsequent wheat crop is attributed to the increase of soil organic N mineralization. (Author) 35 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain cro...

  2. Rotating Convection in an Anisotropic System

    CERN Document Server

    Roxin, A; Roxin, Alex; Riecke, Hermann

    2002-01-01

    We study the stability of patterns arising in rotating convection in weakly anisotropic systems using a modified Swift-Hohenberg equation. The anisotropy, either an endogenous characteristic of the system or induced by external forcing, can stabilize periodic rolls in the K\\"uppers-Lortz chaotic regime. For the particular case of rotating convection with time-modulated rotation where recently, in experiment, chiral patterns have been observed in otherwise K\\"uppers-Lortz-unstable regimes, we show how the underlying base-flow breaks the isotropy, thereby affecting the linear growth-rate of convection rolls in such a way as to stabilize spirals and targets. Throughout we compare analytical results to numerical simulations of the Swift-Hohenberg equation.

  3. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem (Andropogon geradii Vitman), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass [ Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.). Generally, the optimum rate of fertilization for biomass yield by the grasses was 140 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen inputs also had pronounced but grass-specific effects on biomass and nutrient partitioning, and on carbon storage. For big bluestem and switchgrass, 140 kg N ha -1. maximized root biomass, favored allocation of nutrients to roots over shoots, and led to net increases in carbon storage over the study duration. In contrast, for indiangrass and eastern gamagrass, root biomass and root nutrient allocation were generally adversely affected by N fertilization and carbon storage increased only with 0 or 65 kg N ha-1. For all grasses, 220 kg N ha -1 tended to shift allocation of nutrients to shoots over roots and resulted in no net increase in carbon storage. Optimal nitrogen management strategies for perennial, warm-season grass energy crops should take into consideration the effects of N on biomass yield as well as factors such as nutrient and carbon balance that will also impact economic feasibility and environmental sustainability.

  4. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 ?g g(-1) dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 ?g g(-1) and 7.36±1.0 ?g g(-1)) and glucose (3.12±0.5 ?g g(-1) and 3.01± ?g g(-1)) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ?97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates with plant growth promoting activity (nitrogen fixation, phosphate-solubilization, IAA production). Among these, the most predominant genera were Arthrobacter, Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Cyanobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. PMID:26121588

  5. The potential for short-rotation woody crops to reduce US CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) could potentially displace fossil fuels and thus mitigate CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. To determine how much fossil fuel SRWC might displace in the United States and what the associated fossil carbon savings might be, a series of assumptions must be made. These assumptions concern the net SRWC biomass yields per hectare (after losses); the amount of suitable land dedicated to SRWC production; wood conversion efficiencies to electricity or liquid fuels; the energy substitution properties of various fuels; and the amount of fossil fuel used in growing, harvesting, transporting, and converting SRWC biomass. Assuming the current climate, present production, and conversion technologies and considering a conservative estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (14 x 106 ha), it is calculated that SRWC energy could displace 33.2 to 73.1 x 106 Mg of fossil carbon releases, 3-6% of the current annual US emissions. The carbon mitigation potential per unit of land is larger with the substitution of SRWC for coal-based electricity production than for the substitution of SRWC-derived ethanol for gasoline. Assuming current climate, predicted conversion technology advancements, an optimistic estimate of the US land base available for SRWC (28 x 106 ha), and an optimistic average estimate of net SRWC yields (22.4 dry Mg/ha), it is calculate that SRWC energy could displace 148 to 242 x 106 Mg of annual fossil fuel carbon releases. Under this scenario, the carbon migration potential of SRWC-based electricity production would be equivalent to about 4.4% of current global fossil fuel emissions and 20% of current US fossil fuel emissions. 21 refs., 5 tabs

  6. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO INCORPORATE BIOFUEL CROPS INTO CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beston Bille Maonga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.

  7. Infiltração de água no solo sob escarificação e rotação de culturas / Water infiltration in soil as influenced by chiseling and crop rotations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maryara Buriola, Prando; Dácio, Olibone; Ana Paula Encide, Olibone; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos solos com restrições físicas e, ou, físico-hídricas ao crescimento de raízes, aumentar o potencial de armazenagem de água por meio de melhorias na infiltração pode ser uma estratégia viável para aumento da produtividade das culturas. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a infi [...] ltração de água em um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, com três sistemas de rotação de culturas sob semeadura direta com e sem escarificação inicial. O sistema de rotação de culturas constou de: (1) milheto/soja/sorgo/milho/sorgo (M/S/So/Mi/So), (2) milheto/soja/Brachiaria ruziziensis/milho/Brachiaria ruziziensis (M/S/B/Mi/B) e (3) milheto/soja/Brachiaria ruziziensis + mamona/milho/Brachiaria ruziziensis + mamona (M/S/B+Ma/Mi/B+Ma). A infiltração de água no solo foi avaliada em campo com anéis concêntricos instalados na superfície, a 0,10 e 0,20 m de profundidade, em 2006 e 2007. Após o primeiro ano, o manejo com escarificação inicial do solo apresentou a maior infiltração de água. A rotação Brachiaria ruziziensis + mamona proporcionou maior infiltração da água no solo. A atividade do sistema radicular das espécies nas parcelas sem escarificação inicial aumentou a velocidade de infiltração da água no solo. Abstract in english In soils with physical and/or physical hydric restrictions for root growth, it may be a viable strategy to increase crop productivity by increasing water storage potential through improvements in water infiltration. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine water infiltration in a Ha [...] pludult in three crop rotations under no-tillage, with and without initial chiseling. Crop rotations consisted of: millet/soybean/sorghum/maize/sorghum; millet/soybean/Brachiaria ruziziensis/corn/Brachiaria ruziziensis; and millet/soybean/Brachiaria ruziziensis + castor bean/corn/Brachiaria ruziziensis + castor bean. Water infiltration in soil was evaluated in the field, using concentric discs at the soil surface and at depths of 0.10 and 0.20 m, in 2006 and 2007. After the first year, chiseling led to increased infiltration of water into the soil. Water infiltration was greatest in the crop rotation system with Brachiaria ruziziensis + castor bean. The activity of root systems of crops in the plots without chiseling increased the rate of water infiltration into the soil.

  8. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess th...

  9. Crop-livestock systems: old wine in new bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Keulen, H. van; Schiere, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Many farmers in tropical and temperate countries manage a mix of crops and animals. In these systems crop residues can be used to feed the animals and the excreta from the animals as nutrients for the crops. Other forms of mixing take place where grazing under fruit-trees keeps the grass short, where manure from pigs is used to 'feed' fish in a pond or where young animals bred in remote areas are fattened near urban centres with high demands for meat. In addition, inclusion of livestock alter...

  10. MODELIMG CROP PATTEN SYSTEM USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq A. Lone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural situations, farmers usually faced with the problem of how to allocate their limited production resources among cropping and livestock activities. Farmer's planners can offer effective techniques, such as linear programming (lp to address the problem and produce optimal solution. In this paper we have demonstrated that how a farmer who has limited resources such as farmers availability ,storage capacity and availability of land can be formulated as a linear programming having linear objective function with three constraints. The objective is to develop an understanding of utility of farmer's availability resources and then maximization of total profit. In our case we have selected two crops rice and corn, formulate the (lp problem and after solving through LINGO, the results showed that farmer obtained maximum profit using his resources.

  11. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the highest expenses in beef cattle production. Senior research investigating the impact of livestock integration and multi-species cover crop grown within the crop rotation is studying changes in soil attributes resulting from the crop-animal integration by measuring bulk density and in-season soil fertility in the crop rotation. These responses are further contrasted with results from within the crop rotation and responses from perennial native range. Students that become engaged in the research represent a broad cross section of the consuming public and include high school junior and senior students, college undergraduate students that conduct research projects, postdoctoral research scientists engaged in senior level research, agricultural extension educators, and finally, farmer and rancher businessmen. The integrated nature of the research provides a wealth of learning opportunities for these various groups. For the high school students, visits to the living laboratory increase awareness and introduces students to a potential career path in agriculture, natural resource fields, and the many allied vocational fields that support agriculture. When college undergraduate students visit the living laboratory, they seek to address a researchable question or a problem in agriculture, while fulfilling requirements for graduation by conducting a research project. Because postdoctoral students want to be actively engaged in research and advanced learning, they are interested in conducting research in the living laboratory that can be published in peer reviewed journals. Agricultural extension educators, who advise farmers and ranchers, are looking for research results from the living laboratory that can be convey to their constituents. Farmers and ranchers participate in workshop events that give them face-to-face learning opportunities that they can use to effect change in their farm and ranch businesses. Each of these demographic groups are unique in their interest in the interaction between agricultural production and soil science. The authors will desc

  12. Crop Yields and Nematode Population Densities in Triticale-Cotton and Triticale-Soybean Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Dowler, C. C.; Baker, S H; Handoo, Z.A.

    1998-01-01

    Triticale cv. Beagle 82, cotton cv. McNair 235, and soybean cv. Twiggs were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage for 4 years. The cropping sequences were triticale (T)-cotton (C)-T-C, T-soybean (S)-T-S, and T-C-T-S. Numbers of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles declined on trificale but increased on cotton and soybean each year. Root-gall indices o...

  13. Rotation Numbers for Random Dynamical Systems on the Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weigu; Lu, Kening

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study rotation numbers of random dynamical systems on the circle. We prove the existence of rotation numbers and the continuous dependence of rotation numbers on the systems. As an application, we prove a theorem on analytic conjugacy to a circle rotation.

  14. Effects of different cropping systems and weed management methods on free energy and content of pigments in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Spasojevi?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotation is a cropping system that has many advantages and ensures better crop growth and yielding. Its combinination with other cropping measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximal growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems: monoculture and two rotations, including maize, wheat and soybean (MSW and MWS, and different weed management methods (weed removal by hoeing, application of a full recommended herbicide dose (RD and half that dose (0.5 RD, and weedy check on weed biomass and maize growth parameters - leaf area index (LAI, free energy, contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, grain yield, and their possible relationships in two fields of the maize hybrids ZP 677 (H1 and ZP 606 (H2. The lowest LAI and grain yield were found in monoculture, particularly in weedy check, which had relatively high weed infestation. Higher weed biomass was also observed in herbicide treated plots in monoculture. Such high competition pressure indicates a stress reflected on reduced LAI and chlorophyll content, and increased free energy and content of carotenoids. On the other hand, rotation, particularly if it is combined with the application of herbicides or hoeing, had a positive impact on yielding potential by increasing LAI and the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and decreasing free energy.

  15. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed) of north-west Pakistan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W, Mohammad; S. M, Shah; S, Shehzadi; S. A, Shah.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC), fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE) in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yi [...] eld, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i) Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice) ii) Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii) Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i) Tillage (crop residues removed) and Tillage (crop residues retained) and ii) No-tillage (crop residues removed) and No-tillage (crop residues retained). Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1) to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1) to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry) conditions.

  16. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed of north-west Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yield, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice ii Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i Tillage (crop residues removed and Tillage (crop residues retained and ii No-tillage (crop residues removed and No-tillage (crop residues retained. Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1 to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1 to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry conditions.

  17. Using the DNDC model to compare soil organic carbon dynamics under different crop rotation and fertilizer strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, L.; Liang, Y.; Xue, Q.; Chen, C.; Lin, X.

    2014-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC) to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i) single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ii) in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security. (Author)

  18. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  19. Password Based Rotational Multistory Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Suhail Hamirani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to verify the object and detects number of free spaces available in the parking lot. The world has become a global market and numbers of vehicles are also increased to an uncontrollable situation. Keeping this problem the intended model is designed. Password locking system embedded in the work has made the parking of vehicles very much secure.

  20. Efeito da rotação de culturas, da monocultura e da densidade de plantas na incidência de grãos ardidos em milho / Effect of crop rotation, monoculture and plant density on the incidence of rot corn grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SIMONE M., TRENTO; HELBER H., IRGANG; ERLEI M., REIS.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito de sistemas de rotação de culturas, de monocultura e de densidade de plantas na incidência de grãos ardidos em milho (Zea mays). A quantificação da incidência de grãos ardidos foi determinada pelo método de separação visual de grãos com sintomas de descoloração, c [...] ausada pela infecção por fungos na lavoura. A maior incidência de grãos ardidos ocorreu em monocultura, com média de 10,02%, enquanto sob rotação de culturas esta foi de 4,81%. A incidência de grãos ardidos foi maior à medida que a densidade de plantas aumentou para os dois sistemas. Os principais fungos isolados dos grãos de milho nos sistemas de rotação e monocultura foram Cephalosporium spp., Diplodia spp., Fusarium graminearum, F. moniliforme e F. subglutinans. Abstract in english The effect of crop rotation, monoculture, and plant density on the incidence of injuried corn (Zea mays) grains was evaluated in this work. Visual separation of grains showing symptoms of discoloration caused by fungi in the field was used to quantify the incidence. The highest incidence of injuried [...] grains, an average of 10.02% was found in continuous cropping system, while in the crop rotation system the incidence average was 4.81%.The incidence of injuried grains was highest in both systems as plant density increased. The main fungi isolated from corn grains in crop rotation and monoculture were Cephalosporium spp., Diplodia spp., Fusarium graminearum, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans.

  1. Long-term effects of cropping system on N2O emission potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, SØren O.; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0-4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha-1. A simulated freeze-thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, which could be mainly from microbial sources. Other samples were adjusted to approximately –10, -30 or –100 hPa and amended with excess 15NO3- prior to freezing and thawing. Denitrification was the main source of N2O during a 72-h incubation at 22 °C, as judged from N2O and total 15N evolution. Although the input of C in the conventionally managed cropping system was significantly less than in the organic cropping systems, it showed higher N2O evolution at all three matric potentials. Estimates of relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0) in soil from the four cropping systems indicated that C input affected soil aeration. Soil from the two cropping systems with highest C input showed N2O evolution at DP/D0 in excess of 0.02, which is normally considered a threshold for development of anaerobic sites in the soil, presumably because the oxygen demand was also high. The study shows that cropping system affects both soil gas diffusivity and C availability, and that both characteristics significantly influence the N2O emission potential.

  2. Trigo e Triticale em rotações de sequeiro efeitos na qualidade / Wheat and triticale in crop rotations quality effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Castro; João, Coutinho; Nuno, Moreira; António, Crespi.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho resume parte dos resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos (1986-1996) em Vila Real (Trásos-Montes). O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro da região, cereal-alqueive (TA), e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas [...] condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL), cereal-consociação forrageira (TC) e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP). Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha das diversas culturas e respectivos teores em nutrientes, parâmetros do solo, peso de mil grãos, peso do hectolitro e os índices de Zeleny, Queda e Pelshenke do grão de trigo. A rotação do trigo com tremocilha (leguminosa para grão) induz no grão de trigo maiores valores do índice de Pelshenke e de teor em azoto; no triticale esta influência positiva da rotação com leguminosa fez-se sentir no peso de mil grãos e no peso do hectolitro. Como principais conclusões pode-se referir: alguma influência da rotação com tremocilha no conjunto dos parâmetros de qualida de do grão analisados, a influência decisiva do ano agrícola nos resultados e a importância da espécie de cereal para extracção de conclusões significativas. Abstract in english Results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years (19861996) in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal) are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA), traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in th [...] ese conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL), cereal-forage mixture (TC) and cereal-rain-fed seeded pasture (TP). The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields, nutrient levels of crops and soil parameters were evaluated together with one thousand grain weight, hectolitre weight, Zeleny, Falling Number and Pelshenke indices of cereal grain. Wheat grain from TL rotation have the highest Pelshenke indices and nitrogen content. Triticale grain from TL rotation was the heavier and with the highest specific weight. As main conclusions we can refer the influence of the rotation with lupin in the group of the parameters of grain quality , the decisive influence of the agricultural year on the results and the importance of the cereal species to obtain significant conclusions.

  3. Trigo e Triticale em rotações de sequeiro efeitos na qualidade Wheat and triticale in crop rotations quality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho resume parte dos resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos (1986-1996 em Vila Real (Trásos-Montes. O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro da região, cereal-alqueive (TA, e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL, cereal-consociação forrageira (TC e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP. Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha das diversas culturas e respectivos teores em nutrientes, parâmetros do solo, peso de mil grãos, peso do hectolitro e os índices de Zeleny, Queda e Pelshenke do grão de trigo. A rotação do trigo com tremocilha (leguminosa para grão induz no grão de trigo maiores valores do índice de Pelshenke e de teor em azoto; no triticale esta influência positiva da rotação com leguminosa fez-se sentir no peso de mil grãos e no peso do hectolitro. Como principais conclusões pode-se referir: alguma influência da rotação com tremocilha no conjunto dos parâmetros de qualida de do grão analisados, a influência decisiva do ano agrícola nos resultados e a importância da espécie de cereal para extracção de conclusões significativas.Results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years (19861996 in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA, traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL, cereal-forage mixture (TC and cereal-rain-fed seeded pasture (TP. The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields, nutrient levels of crops and soil parameters were evaluated together with one thousand grain weight, hectolitre weight, Zeleny, Falling Number and Pelshenke indices of cereal grain. Wheat grain from TL rotation have the highest Pelshenke indices and nitrogen content. Triticale grain from TL rotation was the heavier and with the highest specific weight. As main conclusions we can refer the influence of the rotation with lupin in the group of the parameters of grain quality , the decisive influence of the agricultural year on the results and the importance of the cereal species to obtain significant conclusions.

  4. Agregados em um Latossolo sob sistema plantio direto e rotação de culturas / Aggregates in a Rhodic Ferralsol under no-tillage and crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Arroyo, Garcia; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos cultivos de outono-inverno e primavera, em sistema de plantio direto, nos agregados e matéria orgânica de um Latossolo. O experimento foi conduzido durante as safras 2006/2007, 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. No outono-inverno foram estabelecidas parcela [...] s principais com braquiária (Urochloa ruziziensis), sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor) e sorgo consorciado com braquiária. Na primavera, foram cultivados, em subparcelas, milheto (Pennisetum glaucum), 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) ou pousio. A soja foi cultivada como safra de verão, o que totalizou 12 tratamentos. A massa de matéria seca e o crescimento radicular das plantas de cobertura da primavera foram determinados em 2006 e 2008. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, após o manejo das plantas de cobertura de primavera, no primeiro e terceiro anos agrícolas. Foram determinados o diâmetro médio ponderado, o diâmetro médio geométrico, o índice de estabilidade de agregados, os agregados maiores que 2 mm, a matéria orgânica e os teores de carbono orgânico total nas amostras coletadas no terceiro ano. O milheto e 'Cober Crop' produziram maior quantidade de massa de matéria seca e maior crescimento radicular. A estruturação do solo melhorou com a rotação dos cultivos das plantas de cobertura antecedentes à safra de verão. O cultivo de 'Cober Crop' e milheto influenciou a formação de macroagregados nas camadas superficiais Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fall-winter and spring crops, cultivated under no-tillage system, on the aggregates and organic matter of a Rhodic Ferralsol. The experiment was performed in the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Congo signal grass (Urochl [...] oa ruziziensis), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum mixed with brachiaria were cropped in the fall-winter to consist the main plots. In the spring, millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense) and Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea) were cultivated as subplots as well as a fallow treatment. Soybean was cropped in the summer, totaling 12 treatments. Cover crop dry matter and root growth were evaluated in 2006 and 2008. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, after spring cover crops managing, in the first and third years. The mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, aggregate stability index, aggregates larger than 2 mm, organic matter and total organic carbon levels were evaluated in the samples of the third year. Millet and 'Cober Crop' showed higher dry matter production and root growth. The soil aggregation was improved by cover crop rotations before the summer growing season. The cultivation of 'Cober Crop' and millet influenced the macroaggregate formation in the superficial layers

  5. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM. In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4-soybean (C3 rotation system over the period 2001–2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12–27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13–61% compared to the without dynamic case.

  6. Estabilidade de agregados do solo após manejo com rotações de culturas e escarificação / Soil aggregate stability after management with crop rotation and chiseling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos [...] consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão). No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP), nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and su [...] nflower (Helianthus annus) as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop). In the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. The study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006), in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. The samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher Mean Geometric Diameter and Mean Weight Diameter (MWD) of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher MWD at 5-10 cm. Chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and MWD values at 5-10 cm. Aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.

  7. Estabilidade de agregados do solo após manejo com rotações de culturas e escarificação Soil aggregate stability after management with crop rotation and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão. No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP, nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno.The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack and sunflower (Helianthus annus as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop. In the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. The study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. The samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher Mean Geometric Diameter and Mean Weight Diameter (MWD of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher MWD at 5-10 cm. Chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and MWD values at 5-10 cm. Aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.

  8. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  9. Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model

    OpenAIRE

    Lehuger, Simon; Gabrielle, Benoît; Cellier, Pierre; Loubet, Benjamin; Roche, Romain; Béziat, Pierre; Éric, Ceschia; Wattenbach, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between croplands and atmosphere are highly conditioned by farmer practices that involved intense atmospheric CO2 uptake during crop growing season compared to other terrestrial ecosystems. Modelling and measuring land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from arable lands are important tasks to predict the influence of vegetation dynamics on climate change and its retroactive effects on crop productivity. We tested the agro-ecosystem model CERES-EGC against gap-filled daily net CO2 exch...

  10. Potassium Nutrition In Ratoon Sugarcane Under A Conservation Cropping System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rilner, Alves Flores; Renato, De Mello Prado; Hilário, Júnior De Almeida; Márcio Alexandre, Pancelli; Jonas Pereira, De Souza Junior; Anelisa, De Aquino Vidal Lacerda Soares.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon sugarcane response to potassium is dependent on the environmental conditions of the region. Cropping systems that do not burn crop biomass after harvest leave crop residues on the soil, affecting the soil-plant nutrient dynamics system and fertilizer requirements. The objective of this study [...] was to evaluate the effect of potassium fertilization of first and second ratoon sugarcane crops on potassium contents in the soil, in the plant, and yield and quality of stalksin an Oxisol under a conservation cropping system. The following potassium rates were tested: 0, 27, 54, 108, and 162 kg K ha-1, arranged in a randomized block design with five replicates. The application of potassium increased soil nutrient concentrations at six months, reaching 2.87 and 2.61 mmol c dm-3 with the highest rate in the first and second ratoons, respectively. The increase in available exchangeable-K content in the soil favored a greater plant uptake of this nutrient, reaching 12.1 and 10.0 g kg-1 in the first and second ratoons, respectively. The increase in potassium absorption by plants was reflected in the production of stems; the highest yields (87.0 and 132.9 t ha-1) were obtained with the application of 162 kg K ha-1 in the first and second ratoons, respectively.

  11. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  12. Perturbation theory approach to rotational tunneling systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano T., Peixoto.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagrammatic perturbation theory is used to consider the problem of the coupling of a molecular group libration to the lattice vibrations in solids exhibiting rotational tunneling detected by inelastic neutron scattering. The technique is applied to a molecular group of symmetry C3 in presence of th [...] e hindering potential of the solid. The spectral density for transitions between rotational tunneling states in the ground librational level is obtained as a function of temperature. Low temperature results are presented for di erent phonon spectrum parameters. They are used to check the assumption that this coupling is the origin of the peculiar behaviour of the line shifting and broadening as a function of temperature in the INS spectra of such systems.

  13. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent. PMID:25957753

  14. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  15. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.

  16. PEARL MILLET AS A ROTATION CROP FOR REDUCING NEMATODES AND SOIL-BORNE DISEASES IN PEANUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of pearl millet on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), stem rot, and Rhizoctonia limb rot when planted in rotation with peanut. The experiment was conducted in a field naturally infested with the nematode. Peanut was rotated with either two years ...

  17. Soil water retention and s index after crop rotation and chiseling / Retenção de água no solo e índice s influenciados por rotação de culturas e escarificação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A compactação do solo pode ser corrigida mecanicamente ou usando espécies vegetais com sistema radicular vigoroso. Um experimento foi conduzido com soja (Glycine max) em rotação com triticale (X Triticosecale) e girassol (Helianthus annuus) cultivados no outono/inverno, associados com milheto (Penni [...] setum glaucum), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor) ou crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) cultivados na primavera. Rotações sob semeadura direta foram comparadas com um tratamento com escarificação no início do experimento. A qualidade do solo foi estimada usando-se o índice S e as curvas de retenção de água do solo nas profundidades de 0-0,05, 0,075-0,15, 0,15-0,20, 0,275-0,325 e 0,475-0,525 m. As rotações de culturas e a escarificação melhoraram a qualidade do solo, aumentando o índice S acima de 0,035 até 0,20 m no perfil do solo. Entretanto, a melhoria na qualidade do solo, conforme determinada por meio do índice S, não justifica o uso de escarificação mecânica, uma vez que as parcelas sob rotação de culturas em semeadura direta mostraram qualidade física do solo semelhante após três anos. Abstract in english Soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. An experiment was carried out with soybean (Glycine max) in rotation with triticale (X Triticosecale) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (P [...] ennisetum glaucum), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in spring. Crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil quality was estimated using the S index and soil water retention curves (in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.075-0.125, 0.15-0.20, 0.275-0.325, and 0.475-0.525 m deep). Crop rotation and chiseling improved soil quality, increasing the S index to over 0.035 to a depth of 20 cm in the soil profile. The improved soil quality, as shown by the S index, makes the use of mechanical chiseling unnecessary, since after 3 years the soil physical quality under no-tilled crop rotation and chiseling was similar.

  18. Development and application of a heuristic for flexible decisions about herbicide use in crop rotation field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in agriculture are controlled indirectly by strategic management tools (crop rotation, fertilization, tillage. Herbicide use is a direct tactical management tool for weed control. However, strategic and tactical measures interact together regarding weed management and thereby influence weed infestations and herbicide use. This study investigated the impact of strategic and tactical decisions in combination. It describes the development of a heuristic, which can be applied for different weed situations. By considering weed densities and species specific loss factors flexible herbicide decisions are derived for specific weed infestations and a given herbicide intensity. The implementation of decisions based on the heuristic is shown as an example for winter wheat crops in a rotation experiment at the study sites Rostock and Göttingen (Germany. The intensity of herbicide use serves for contrasts with three degrees (high, medium and low representing three levels of target efficacy (100%, 85% and 60%. The introduced heuristic enables reproducible decisions for various weed infestations. First results show reduced herbicide use from high to the low level of herbicide intensity in terms of reduced numbers of active ingredients use.

  19. Consequences for weed management in crop rotations by introducing imidazolinone-tolerant oilseed rape varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Krato, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    OSR (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important arable oil crops globally and is grown on an area of 31,680,945 ha as winter- and spring-sown varieties. The harvest is mainly used in human nutrition, animal feeding and as a renewable resource for the production of paints, varnishes and biodiesel. OSR can be considered a quite competitive crop but nonetheless weed control is carried out on the vast majority of the grown area. The most common treatments are done PRE-E or early POST-E, m...

  20. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  1. Role of Wheat in Diversified Cropping Systems in Dryland Agriculture of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym

    2005-01-01

    Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...

  2. Use of the crown competition factor concept to select clones and spacings for short-rotation woody crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Plantation spacing and rotation age are interrelated critical factors in optimizing production of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Different genotypes have different spacing and rotation-age optima. I have developed a method for estimating the optimum for new Populus clones based on a modification of the crown competition factor (CCF) concept, which was originally developed for conventional forestry practices with older trees. Measurements of as few as 100 trees of a new clone over a relatively short time period could be used to predict the optimum spacing and rotation age combinations for that clone. The technique could also be used to quantify basic differences in crown architecture and yield physiology among genotypes. One set of at least 20 trees is planted at an open-grown spacing and measured annually for crown and basal stem diameters. The regression of crown diameter on stem diameter is used to calculate the land area that would be occupied per open-grown tree at various stem diameters. This allows prediction of the spacing needed to reach the minimum density for maximum stand growth at a given age or stem size. A second set of 80 measurement trees is planted in a closely spaced set of Nelder arcs to force overstocking within the first few years of growth. Productivity measurements on these trees establish the upper limit on CCF for maximum stand growth. The data are then used to calculate the best spacing and rotation age combination for a new clone. Application of this model may lead to a better understanding of the productive advantages of the sylleptic branch habit, different branch angles and seasonal growth rates, different carbon allocation strategies, and responses to competition. PMID:14967657

  3. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  4. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and liveweight gain per hectare of bovine increased, as the nitrogen levels increased. The results showed the effect of nitrogen input on the daily accumulation rate, dry matter yield, stocking rate and liveweight gain.

  6. The Dynamical Evolution of Rotating Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabadjis, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of dense rotating systems is studied through the use of N-body simulations. The initial configuration for each experiment is an isotropic Kuzmin-Kutuzov model. Hernquist's tree code is utilized to simulate the dynamical evolution, with dynamical relaxation produced by the graininess of the low-N potential field. We have modified the code to simulate physicalstellar collisions, stellar evolution, mass loss and remnant formation, and star formation. Material ejected though stellar mass loss was allowed to escape some systems and was reprocessed through star formation in others. Systems whose constituent particles follow a Salpeter initial mass function rapidly undergo core collapse through Spitzer's mass segregation instability. The lump of high mass stars which condenses at the center wanders about the core in Brownian motion. All rotationally flattened systems show a decrease in flattening with time. Angular momentum transport is directed radially outward; systems containing equal mass stars transport angular momentum more efficiently than do systems following a Salpeter spectrum. In all systems the velocity dispersion in the halo evolves toward a radially biased state. In systems containing a central black hole, the dispersion becomes tangentially biased in the core, whereas it remains isotropic in systems with no black hole. Collisions occur primarily in the core; energy equipartition causes the merger remnants to sink to the system center. In systems where ejecta (due to stellar evolution processes) are allowed to escape the system, mass lossfrom the heavy core stars temporarily reduces the core density and collision rate. Collisions tend to produce a single dominant stellar merger remnant, as opposed to a swarm of intermediate-mass stars. In cases where we have suppressed all processes except relaxation and physical collisions, objects with greater flattening produce larger dominant stars. Most of the simulations performed reproduced the ratio of the central collision time scale to the central relaxation time scale found in the dwarf elliptical galaxy M32; many reproduced other features as well. The rapid central evolution of these systems due to collisions and relaxation suggests that we are either viewing M32 at a peculiar moment in its history, or that its dynamically-inferred central density is at least in part due to the present of a massive dark object, presumably a black hole.

  7. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

  8. Soil/plant nutrition in lowland cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming system approaches have led to rapid changes in agricultural systems in Asia and the Pacific. They have increased food and other agricultural commodities as well as developing awareness of scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation and dissemination of new agricultural technology. This paper reviews and summarizes recent research and technology on soil/plant nutrition with emphasis on nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur in rice-based lowland cropping systems in Asia and the Pacific region. It mainly focuses on the application of isotopes 15N, 32P and 35S in such studies, but some current research using conventional methods is also covered. A search of the literature shows that technology studies have mostly concentrated on identifying improved varieties for short duration rice, improving tillage practices, pest and weed management. Research in soil/plant nutrition in rice-based cropping systems particularly using isotopes, is limited. (author). 51 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Adaptation strategies of Mediterranean cropping systems to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mula, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The EPIC simulation model was used to assess the impact of climate change (CC) on intensive and extensive Mediterranean forage systems to study the effects of CC and adaptation strategies. The intensive cropping system (corn silage – Italian ryegrass) is linked to dairy cattle farms. As first step the EPIC model was calibrated based on experimental data. After calibration the EPIC model was used to perform simulations with different climate scenarios (present and future climate) with diffe...

  10. The Antonov problem for rotating systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, A; Gross, D H E

    2003-01-01

    We study the classical Antonov problem (of retrieving the statistical equilibrium properties of a self-gravitating gas of classical particles obeying Boltzmann statistics in space and confined in a spherical box) for a rotating system. It is shown that a critical angular momentum $\\lambda_c$ (or, in the canonical language, a critical angular velocity $\\omega_c$) exists, such that for $\\lambda\\lambda_c$, instead, the low-energy phase is characterized by the formation of two dense clusters (a ``binary star''). Remarkably, no Antonov limit is found for $\\lambda>\\lambda_c$. The thermodynamics of the system (phase diagram, caloric curves, local stability) is analyzed and compared with the recently-obtained picture emerging from a different type of statistics which forbids particle overlapping.

  11. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  12. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  13. Cultivation of energy crops with low-input factors short rotation forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concentrates on the cultivation of wood solely for energy purposes in the form of Short Rotation Forestry including the possibility of cultivating with the use of less fertiliser, irrigation and pesticides. Short rotation forestry is a type of forest cultivation which depends on the fast juvenile growth of a few broad-leaved tree species and their ability to cut reproduction and formation of stump shoots. Through intensive cultivation, these characteristics are exploited with the aim of producing biomass which is used for production of energy. (author)

  14. Control of the Soybean Cyst Nematode by Crop Rotation in Combination with a Nematicide

    OpenAIRE

    Sasser, J. N.; Uzzell, Grover

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the control of soybean cyst nematodes compared 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year nonhost rotations with continuous soybeans (Glycine max) in 0.2-ha plots. In a second 1-year rotation, the plots were planted to soybean or corn (Zea mays) after fumigation in the spring with a split application of 1,3-dichloropropene (748.2 liters/ha). The effects of the nematicide were apparent the first year. Soybean yield was 1,482 kg/ha compared to 233 kg/ha in the untreated plots. In the ...

  15. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1985. [Sycamore, alders, black locust, larch, poplars, saltbush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.; Trimble, J.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report covers the progress of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) during the third quarter of fiscal year 1985. This report summarizes ORNL management activities, technical activities at ORNL and subcontract institutions, and the technology transfer that is occurring as a result of subcontractor and ORNL activities. Third-year results of a nutrient utilization study confirmed that there were no benefits to quarterly fertilization with urea nitrogen. Testing of one prototype short-rotation intensive culture harvester was conducted on a sycamore plantation on Scott Paper Company land in southern Alabama. Coppice yields of European black alder reported by Iowa State University indicate potential productivity of about 7.2 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ if the best trees are selected. Coppice yields were more than double first-rotation yields. About 31,000 black locust and larch trees were established in 12 genetic tests at 4 sites in Michigan. Seedling rotation productivity rates of 4-year-old hybrid poplar, based on harvest data, were reported by Pennsylvania State University. Rates varied from 4.8 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ to 10.7 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/, depending on site, management strategy, and planting year. An efficient method for in vitro micropropagation of elite genotypes of fourwing saltbush was developed by Plant Resources Institute. A new study to evaluate yield/density relationships was established by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Dissertation research on the crown geometry of plantation-grown American sycamore was completed.

  16. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Belo; Dias, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  17. Performance testing rotating gamma camera SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems

  18. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  19. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Marques; Fátima, Baptista; Luis Leopoldo, Silva; Dina, Murcho; Maurícia, Rosado.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and [...] no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  20. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio Andújar; Roland Gerhards; Martin Weis

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance ...

  1. The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Z. M.; Taylor, G.; Alberti, G.; Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimised. Initial analyses included an extensive literature review and meta-analysis with a focus on the effects of land-use change to bioenergy on soil carbon and GHGs. This data mining exercise allowed us to understand the current state of the literature and identify key areas of research which needed to be addressed. Significant knowledge gaps were identified, with particular uncertainty around transitions from grasslands and transitions to short rotation forestry. A paired site experiment was established on a commercial SRC willow plantation and grassland to measure soil and ecosystem respiration. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transition to SRC bioenergy willow will potentially result in increased soil carbon, in the long-term. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas, and for considering future climate scenarios. The spatial modelling outputs will be used to build a modelling tool for non-specialist users which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI).

  2. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...

  3. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Short-Rotation Crops under Marginal Site Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rédei, Károly; CSIHA, Imre; KESER?, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability of renewable resources and the decline in reserves offossile raw material in the coming decades will lead to increasing demands for wood material andconsequently to a greater role of short rotation forestry (SRF). Particular efforts have been made inEurope to substitute fossils with renewables, in this context the proportion of renewable energy shouldbe increased to 20% by 2020. SRF can be provide relatively high dendromass (biomass) incrementrates if the sh...

  4. Development of NTD Hydraulic Rotation System for Kijang Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD (Neutron Transmutation Doping) production, and related research activities. During irradiation for the NTD process, the irradiation rigs containing the silicon ingot rotate at a constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. The NTDHRS requires only hydraulic piping conveniently routed to the rotating devices inside the reactor pool. The resulting layout leaves the pool area clear of obstructions which might obscure vision and hinder target handling for operators. Pump banks and control valves are located remotely in a dedicated plant room allowing easy access and online maintenance. The necessities and major characteristic of NTD hydraulic rotation system are described in this study. A new NTD hydraulic rotation system are being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at a constant speed and supply cooling flow for the irradiation rigs and reflector assembly. The configuration of the NTD hydraulic rotation device is discussed and practical methods to improve the rotational performance are suggested

  5. Yield of cotton/cowpea and sunflower/cowpea crop rotation systems during the reclamation process of a saline-sodic soil / Produtividade de sistemas de rotação algodão/ feijão-de-corda e girassol/ feijão-de-corda durante o processo de recuperação de um solo salino-sódico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos H. C. de, Sousa; Claudivan F. de, Lacerda; Francisco L. B. da, Silva; Antonia L. R., Neves; Raimundo N. T., Costa; Hans R., Gheyi.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de subsolagem, gesso agrícola e matéria orgânica, associados ao cultivo de algodão, girassol e feijão-de-corda em sistemas de rotação, visando à recuperação e o aproveitamento de um solo salino-sódico. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento em b [...] locos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, durante dois ciclos. As parcelas foram formadas pelos tratamentos: T1. Subsolagem (S); T2. S + 20 Mg ha-1 de gesso (G); T3. S + 40 Mg ha-1 de matéria orgânica (MO); T4. S + 10 Mg ha-1 de G + 20 Mg ha-1 de MO; T5. S + 20 Mg ha-1 de G + 40 Mg ha-1 de MO, e as subparcelas corresponderam às rotações culturais algodão feijão-de-corda (AL/FC) e girassol feijão-de-corda (GI/FC). O emprego dos corretivos contribuiu para a diminuição dos níveis de salinidade e sodicidade do solo. O algodão não apresentou nenhuma resposta à aplicação dos tratamentos, enquanto a cultura do girassol foi favorecida pela aplicação de corretivos apenas no segundo ciclo. As maiores produtividades do feijão-de-corda no tratamento T5, no ciclo de 2009/2010, são indicativos de que as maiores doses de gesso e de matéria orgânica aplicadas neste tratamento aceleraram o processo de recuperação. Para os demais tratamentos com corretivos, verificou-se efeito benéfico para essa cultura apenas no segundo ciclo de produção, quando os valores se igualaram ao T5. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of subsoiling, gypsum and organic matter associated with the cultivation of cotton, sunflower and cowpea in crop rotation, seeking the reclamation and use of a saline-sodic soil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in split pl [...] ots with four replications, during two crop cycles (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The plots were formed by the treatments: T1. Subsoiling (S); T2. S + 20 Mg ha-1 of gypsum; T3. S + 40 Mg ha-1 of organic matter; T4. S + 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum + 20 Mg ha-1 of organic matter; T5. S + 20 Mg ha-1 of gypsum + 40 Mg ha-1 of organic matter and the sub-plots consisted of the cotton-cowpea (C/CP) and sunflower-cowpea (S/CP) crop rotation. The use of gypsum and organic matter contributed to decrease the soil salinity and sodicity. Cotton was not affected by the treatments, while the sunflower crop was favored by the application of amendments only in the second production cycle. Higher yields of cowpea in T5 treatment, during the 2009/2010 cycle, are indicative that higher doses of gypsum and organic matter applied in this treatment accelerate the reclamation process. For other treatments with amendment application there was a beneficial effect for this crop only in the second cycle, when the values of productivity were similar to T5.

  6. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  7. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  8. A model for an innovative crop protection system in the future illustrated for maize

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, C.

    2010-01-01

    To show how innovative techniques for monitoring and precision spraying can be used we have developed a generic model for crop protection system for future high tech cropping systems. We have illustrated how to work with it taking maize as a model crop

  9. Soil C and N fractions in cropping systems integrated with livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of livestock in cropping systems of the southeastern USA could increase farm income diversity and improve nutrient cycling dynamics to increase resource efficiency. A long-term pasture was terminated and planted to cropping systems with and without cattle grazing of cover crops to deter...

  10. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  11. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    Sources of soil organic matter (SOM) input to the soil in agro-ecosystems are typically crop residues. The question arises how removing crop residues from a field influences soil carbon sequestration. We investigated four long-term maize and grass dominant cropping systems each with a different residue management. Under silage maize (SM) all stover is removed from the field and only a stubble remains, whereas under grain maize (GM) only the grains are harvested and all stover is returned to the soil. Fields with a history of at least 15 consecutive years of either SM (with or without a second annual crop of Italian ryegrass) or GM, and fields under permanent grass were selected from a geodatabase that covers 15 years of crop rotation for all of the ca. 500,000 agricultural fields in Flanders. For each cropping system 10 fields were sampled (40 in total) following the area-frame randomized soil sampling (AFRSS) protocol (Stolbovoy et al., 2007). For 6 out of 10 fields only the topsoil was sampled (0-30 cm), whereas for the 4 other fields both topsoil and subsoil (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) were sampled. The total soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content and the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) were determined for each soil sample. From each field 1 topsoil sample was fractionated by the Zimmermann fractionation procedure (Zimmermann et al., 2007) which distinguishes between 5 different SOC fractions (POM, DOC, silt and clay associated SOC, chemically resistant SOC, SOC associated with sand fraction). Besides analysis of the SOC and nitrogen content of each fraction, the origin of the carbon was determined through isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Although there was no significant difference between SM and GM regarding the total SOC stock for the upper 30 cm (ca. 75 à 80 Mg C.ha-1), fields under continuous GM contained in the 0-30 cm layer 60% more maize-derived C4-SOC as compared to fields under continuous SM (ca. 14 and 9 Mg C.ha-1 respectively). Significant differences could also be demonstrated for the carbon fractions of soils with different cropping histories. Each fraction of a GM-topsoil contained significantly more C4-SOC as compared to a SM-topsoil (with or without a second annual crop) with the sizes of the fractions being equal. The more labile POM- en DOC-fractions accounted for the biggest part of the maize C4-SOC detected in the bulk sample, whereas the silt and clay associated SOC and chemically resistant SOC consisted mainly out of old grass C3-SOC. For the deeper soil layers no significant differences could be demonstrated between GM and SM, neither for the total SOC stock nor for the C4-SOC stock. Our results suggest that the soils with maize cropping systems in Flanders are near carbon saturation, such that crop residue management does not influence the total amount, but rather the quality of the carbon sequestered. Stolbovoy, V., Montanarella, L., Filippi, N., Jones, A., Gallego, J., and Grassi, G. (2007). Soil sampling protocol to certify the changes of organic carbon stock in mineral soil of the European Union. Version 2. EUR 21576 EN/2. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 56p. Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M.W.I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J. (2007). Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 658-667.

  12. Impact of Shortened Crop Rotation of Oilseed Rape on Soil and Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity in Relation to Yield Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J.; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D.; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing analysis of short rotation woody crops grown with controlled nutrient and irrigation treatments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jungho; Jensen, John R.; Coleman, Mark; Nelson, Eric

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Hyperspectral remote sensing research was conducted to document the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of controlled forest plots subjected to various nutrient and irrigation treatments. The experimental plots were located on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. AISA hyperspectral imagery were analysed using three approaches, including: (1) normalized difference vegetation index based simple linear regression (NSLR), (2) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (3) machine-learning regression trees (MLRT) to predict the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the crops (leaf area index, stem biomass and five leaf nutrients concentrations). The calibration and cross-validation results were compared between the three techniques. The PLSR approach generally resulted in good predictive performance. The MLRT approach appeared to be a useful method to predict characteristics in a complex environment (i.e. many tree species and numerous fertilization and/or irrigation treatments) due to its powerful adaptability.

  14. Efeitos da rotação de culturas na incidência de podridões radiciais e na produtividade da soja / Effects of crop rotation on root rot incidence and on soybean grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erlei Melo, Reis; Marivane, Segalin; Nara Lucia, Moraes; Valeria Cecília, Ghissi.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Em experimentos conduzidos no campo, no sistema plantio direto, nas safras de verão de 2003/04, 2004/05 e 2005/06 foram avaliados os efeitos de culturas de inverno, da rotação e da monocultura sobre a emergência de plântulas, na incidência de podridões radiciais e no rendimento de grãos da soja. Dem [...] onstrou-se não haver efeitos das culturas de inverno sobre a emergência de plântulas da soja. Quanto à incidência de podridões radiciais em monocultura foi registrada uma intensidade de até 99,2%. O maior rendimento de grãos foi obtido na soja cultivada em rotação com uma safra com milho. Os fungos isolados do sistema radicial de plantas infectadas foram, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium spp. e Colletotrichum truncata. O solo da área experimental pode ser considerado supressivo aos fatores que reduzem a germinação, a emergência de plântulas e de morte de plântulas/plantas de soja. Quanto ao seu efeito em reduzir as podridões radiciais, ainda não se detectou efeito supressivo, porém a rotação da soja com o milho reduziu a incidência de podridões radiciais e aumentou o rendimento de grãos da soja. Abstract in english In experiments carried out in the field, under no-till planting system, in 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 summer growing seasons, the effects of winter crops, rotation and monoculture on seedling emergence, root rot incidence and soybean grain yield were assessed. There were no effects of winter crops [...] on soybean seedling emergence. As to root rot incidence on monoculture, an intensity of up to 99.2% was recorded. Grain yield was highest when soybean was cultivated in one season of rotation with corn. The fungi isolated from the root system of infected plants were Macrophomina phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum truncata. The soil at the experimental area can be considered suppressive to factors that reduce soybean germination, seedling emergence, and seedling/plant death. Considering its effect in reducing root rot, a suppressive action has not been detected yet; however, soybean rotation with corn reduced root rot incidence and increased soybean grain yield.

  15. COVER CROP SELECTION AND MANAGEMENT FOR MIDWEST FARMING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops are planted shortly before or soon after harvest of the cash crop and are killed before or soon after planting of the next cash crop. Cereal grains, such as oat, barley, winter wheat, triticale, and rye are excellent cover crops because they grow rapidly in cool weather, withstan...

  16. The effect of cover crop and crop rotation on soil water storage and on sorghum yield / Efeito de cultura de cobertura e de rotação de cultura no armazenamento de água do solo e no rendimento de sorgo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Demóstenes Marcos Pedrosa de, Azevedo; Juan, Landivar; Robson Macedo, Vieira; Daryl, Moseley.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotação de cultura e cultura de cobertura constituem importantes meios para melhoria do rendimento de culturas em áreas de sequeiro como a região "Coastal Bend" do Estado do Texas. Um ensaio foi conduzido em 1995, como parte de um experimento de longa duração (7 anos), com o objetivo de investigar o [...] efeito da aveia (Avena sativa L.) como cultura de cobertura, e da rotação de cultura, no armazenamento da água do solo e no rendimento do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As rotações foram alocadas nas parcelas, e a cultura de cobertura, nas subparcelas. A cultura de cobertura reduziu o rendimento do sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à reduzida concentração de N disponível do solo. Por atraso no extermínio e incorporação da aveia, seu resíduo, com elevada relação C/N, atuou como dreno, pela imobilização, em lugar de ser fonte de N para o sorgo. As rotações sorgo/algodão e sorgo/soja proporcionaram efeito positivo no rendimento de sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à maior concentração de N nestas seqüências. Abstract in english Crop rotation and cover crop can be important means for enhancing crop yield in rainfed areas such as the lower Coastal Bend Region of Texas, USA. A trial was conducted in 1995 as part of a long-term cropping experiment (7 years) to investigate the effect of oat (Avena sativa L.) cover and rotation [...] on soil water storage and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). The trial design was a RCB in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Rotation sequences were the main plots and oat cover crop the subplots. Cover crop reduced sorghum grain yield. This effect was attributed to a reduced concentration of available soil N and less soil water storage under this treatment. By delaying cover termination, the residue with a high C/N acted as an N sink through competition and/or immobilization instead of an N source to sorghum plants. Crop rotation had a significantly positive effect on sorghum yield and this effect was attributed to a significantly larger amount of N concentration under these rotation sequences.

  17. The effect of cover crop and crop rotation on soil water storage and on sorghum yield Efeito de cultura de cobertura e de rotação de cultura no armazenamento de água do solo e no rendimento de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes Marcos Pedrosa de Azevedo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop rotation and cover crop can be important means for enhancing crop yield in rainfed areas such as the lower Coastal Bend Region of Texas, USA. A trial was conducted in 1995 as part of a long-term cropping experiment (7 years to investigate the effect of oat (Avena sativa L. cover and rotation on soil water storage and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.. The trial design was a RCB in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Rotation sequences were the main plots and oat cover crop the subplots. Cover crop reduced sorghum grain yield. This effect was attributed to a reduced concentration of available soil N and less soil water storage under this treatment. By delaying cover termination, the residue with a high C/N acted as an N sink through competition and/or immobilization instead of an N source to sorghum plants. Crop rotation had a significantly positive effect on sorghum yield and this effect was attributed to a significantly larger amount of N concentration under these rotation sequences.Rotação de cultura e cultura de cobertura constituem importantes meios para melhoria do rendimento de culturas em áreas de sequeiro como a região "Coastal Bend" do Estado do Texas. Um ensaio foi conduzido em 1995, como parte de um experimento de longa duração (7 anos, com o objetivo de investigar o efeito da aveia (Avena sativa L. como cultura de cobertura, e da rotação de cultura, no armazenamento da água do solo e no rendimento do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As rotações foram alocadas nas parcelas, e a cultura de cobertura, nas subparcelas. A cultura de cobertura reduziu o rendimento do sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à reduzida concentração de N disponível do solo. Por atraso no extermínio e incorporação da aveia, seu resíduo, com elevada relação C/N, atuou como dreno, pela imobilização, em lugar de ser fonte de N para o sorgo. As rotações sorgo/algodão e sorgo/soja proporcionaram efeito positivo no rendimento de sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à maior concentração de N nestas seqüências.

  18. Energy and climate benefits of bioelectricity from low-input short rotation woody crops on agricultural land over a two-year rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A full energy and GHG balance of bioelectricity from SRWC was performed. • Bioelectricity was efficient; it reduced GHG by 52–54% relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix. • Bioelectricity required 1.1 m2 of land kWh?1; land conversion released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha?1. • SRWC reduced GHG emission when producing electricity during the 1st rotation period. - Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are a promising means to enhance the EU renewable energy sources while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are concerns that the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity may be nullified due to GHG emissions from direct land use changes (dLUCs). In order to evaluate quantitatively the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity from SRWC we managed an operational SRWC plantation (18.4 ha) for bioelectricity production on a former agricultural land without supplemental irrigation or fertilization. We traced back to the primary energy level all farm labor, materials, and fossil fuel inputs to the bioelectricity production. We also sampled soil carbon and monitored fluxes of GHGs between the SRWC plantation and the atmosphere. We found that bioelectricity from SRWCs was energy efficient and yielded 200–227% more energy than required to produce it over a two-year rotation. The associated land requirement was 0.9 m2kWhe-1 for the gasification and 1.1 m2kWhe-1 for the combustion technology. Converting agricultural land into the SRWC plantation released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha?1, which represented ?89% of the total GHG emissions (256–272 g CO2e kWhe-1) of bioelectricity production. Despite its high share of the total GHG emissions, dLUC did not negate the GHG benefits of bioelectricity. Indeed, the GHG savings of bioelectricity relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix power ranged between 52% and 54%. SRWC on agricultural lands with low soil organic carbon stocks are encouraging prospects for sustainable production of renewable energy with significant climate benefits

  19. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  20. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  1. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, I.

    1996-09-18

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN.

  2. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena. PMID:24331614

  3. Demanda de tração em haste sulcadora na integração lavoura-pecuária com diferentes pressões de pastejo e sua relação com o estado de compactação do solo / Draft requirement in direct drilling in crop and cattle rotation systems using different grazing pressures and its relation to soil compactness status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osmar, Conte; Renato, Levien; Carlos R., Trein; Carla T. C., Cepik; Henrique, Debiasi.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com integração lavoura-pecuária em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico para avaliar o esforço de tração em hastes sulcadoras de adubo utilizadas em semeadura direta, atuando em diferentes profundidades e intensidades de pastejo, bem como o efeito desse último fator sobre o es [...] tado de compactação do solo. Os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas alturas da pastagem de inverno (aveia + azevém): 0,10; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40 m e sem pastejo, obtidas variando-se a carga animal, e os tratamentos secundários foram duas profundidades de atuação da haste sulcadora de adubo: 0,12 e 0,15 m. A massa seca de raízes da pastagem, na camada de 0 a 0,12 m, aumentou com o incremento na intensidade de pastejo. Analisando os valores de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração, o efeito do pastejo foi detectado até 0,12 m, sendo crescentes com a intensidade de pastejo. A força de tração demandada pelas hastes aumentou de 1.900 para 4.300 N (120%), quando a profundidade de trabalho passou de 0,12 para 0,15 m. O esforço de tração nas hastes sulcadoras também foi maior quanto maior a carga de animais sobre a pastagem, embora as diferenças tenham sido significativas apenas entre os tratamentos sem pastejo e os mantidos a alturas de 0,10 e 0,20 m. Os valores de resistência do solo à penetração e de esforço de tração demandado pelas hastes sulcadoras apresentaram correlação significativa. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out with crop and cattle rotation in an Oxisoil, in Tupanciretã - RS, which aimed to evaluate the draft effort in fertilizer direct drillings used in direct seeding, working at different depths and intensities of fields under different grazing pressures. Grazing pressure ef [...] fects on soil compactness were also assessed. The main treatments were grazing maintaining 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 m pasture (Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa) without grazing, height (adjusting the number of cows on the plots) and two working depths of fertilizer shanks: 0.12 m and 0.15 m. Root dry matter in the superficial layer (0.0 - 0.12 m) was increased when higher grazing pressures were used. Soil resistance to a penetrometer showed increased values at higher grazing pressures; it was detected until 0.12 m depth. Draft requirement of fertilizer shanks increased from 1,900 to 4,300 N (120%) when the working depth changed from 0.12 m to 0.15 m condition. Draft demand by fertilizer shanks was higher on soils under higher pressures as well, but the absolute values showed that only treatments with remaining heights of 0.10 and 0.20 m were different from those found without grazing systems. Soil resistance to penetrometer and power demand by fertilizer shanks was closely related.

  4. Demanda de tração em haste sulcadora na integração lavoura-pecuária com diferentes pressões de pastejo e sua relação com o estado de compactação do solo Draft requirement in direct drilling in crop and cattle rotation systems using different grazing pressures and its relation to soil compactness status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Conte

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com integração lavoura-pecuária em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico para avaliar o esforço de tração em hastes sulcadoras de adubo utilizadas em semeadura direta, atuando em diferentes profundidades e intensidades de pastejo, bem como o efeito desse último fator sobre o estado de compactação do solo. Os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas alturas da pastagem de inverno (aveia + azevém: 0,10; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40 m e sem pastejo, obtidas variando-se a carga animal, e os tratamentos secundários foram duas profundidades de atuação da haste sulcadora de adubo: 0,12 e 0,15 m. A massa seca de raízes da pastagem, na camada de 0 a 0,12 m, aumentou com o incremento na intensidade de pastejo. Analisando os valores de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração, o efeito do pastejo foi detectado até 0,12 m, sendo crescentes com a intensidade de pastejo. A força de tração demandada pelas hastes aumentou de 1.900 para 4.300 N (120%, quando a profundidade de trabalho passou de 0,12 para 0,15 m. O esforço de tração nas hastes sulcadoras também foi maior quanto maior a carga de animais sobre a pastagem, embora as diferenças tenham sido significativas apenas entre os tratamentos sem pastejo e os mantidos a alturas de 0,10 e 0,20 m. Os valores de resistência do solo à penetração e de esforço de tração demandado pelas hastes sulcadoras apresentaram correlação significativa.An experiment was carried out with crop and cattle rotation in an Oxisoil, in Tupanciretã - RS, which aimed to evaluate the draft effort in fertilizer direct drillings used in direct seeding, working at different depths and intensities of fields under different grazing pressures. Grazing pressure effects on soil compactness were also assessed. The main treatments were grazing maintaining 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 m pasture (Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa without grazing, height (adjusting the number of cows on the plots and two working depths of fertilizer shanks: 0.12 m and 0.15 m. Root dry matter in the superficial layer (0.0 - 0.12 m was increased when higher grazing pressures were used. Soil resistance to a penetrometer showed increased values at higher grazing pressures; it was detected until 0.12 m depth. Draft requirement of fertilizer shanks increased from 1,900 to 4,300 N (120% when the working depth changed from 0.12 m to 0.15 m condition. Draft demand by fertilizer shanks was higher on soils under higher pressures as well, but the absolute values showed that only treatments with remaining heights of 0.10 and 0.20 m were different from those found without grazing systems. Soil resistance to penetrometer and power demand by fertilizer shanks was closely related.

  5. Rotating capacitor system for the tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a rotating capacitor system which uses many concentric drum-type homopolar generators in a single magnet yoke is presented. An example system is described which can develop 72,530 V and store 1150 MJ

  6. The Influence of Habitat Manipulations on Beneficial Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in a Southeast US Organic Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron F; Orr, David B; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2015-02-01

    Habitat manipulations, intentional provisioning of natural vegetation along crop edges, have been shown to enhance beneficial epigaeic invertebrate activity in many agricultural settings, but little research has been conducted on this practice in the southeast United States. We conducted a field-scale study to determine if habitat manipulations along the field edges of an organic crop rotation increase the activity-density of beneficial ground-dwelling invertebrates. Pitfall traps were used to collect micro and macro ground-dwelling organisms in nine organic crop fields (three each of maize, soybeans, and hay; 2.5-4.0 ha each) surrounded by four experimental habitat manipulations (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) during 2009 and 2010 in eastern North Carolina. Beneficial macro and micro invertebrates collected in these pitfall traps consisted primarily of Carabidae, Araneae, Collembola, and mite species. Results show that habitat manipulations had little effect on the activity-density of the dominant epigaeic invertebrates in our study system. Our results suggest that the activity-density of these organisms were instead determined by a combination of in-field characteristics, such as crop type, weed management practices, and within-field resources, along with the diversity of crop type in neighboring fields and the availability of other resources in the area. PMID:26308813

  7. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mulianga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014 to characterize cropping practices. To map the crop type and harvest mode we used ground survey and factory data over 1280 fields, digitized field boundaries, and spectral indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI were computed for all Landsat images. The results showed NDVI classified crop type at 83.3% accuracy, while NDWI classified harvest mode at 90% accuracy. The crop map will inform better planning decisions for the sugar industry operations, while the harvest mode map will be used to plan for sensitizations forums on best management and environmental practices.

  8. Optimising harvesting and storage systems for energy crops in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, W

    2003-01-01

    For perennial crops like short rotation coppice (in particular willow), rhizomatous grasses (like miscanthus, switch grass and reed canary grass) as well as the annual crop hemp all operations for harvesting and storage are discussed. These are mowing, size reduction, densification, conservation, storage and pre-treatment. The requirements for energy conversion and co-firing are given and the effect of harvest conditions or quality is shown. The best production chains for average conditions o...

  9. Effects of broad-leaf crop frequency in various rotations on soil organic C and N, and inorganic N in a Dark Brown soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhdev S. Malhi; R. L. Lemke; S.A. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of frequency of broad-leaf crops canola and pea in various crop rotations on pH, total organic C (TOC), total organic N (TON), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and light fraction organic N (LFON) in the 0 - 7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm soil depths in autumn 2009 after 12 years (1998-2009) on a Dark Brown Chernozem (Typic Boroll) loam at Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada. The field ex-periment contained monoculture canola (herbicide tolerant and blackleg...

  10. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Short-Rotation Energy Crops in Hungary: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Rédei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the establishment of short-rotation tree plantations for fuel production has been of international interest for many years. In this context, in Hungary, these plantations have been conducted for a long time. In this country, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is one of the most important stand-forming tree species, covering approximately 23% of the forested land (410 000 ha and providing about 19% of the annual timber output. This paper describes an experimental energy plantation that was established in Helvécia (Central-Hungary, sand-soil region using common black locust and its improved cultivars. The site may be considered as representative of an average yield class for black locust in Hungary. The experimental plantation was established with a spacing of 1.5 m x 1.0 m and included common black locust and two cultivars, 'Üll?i' and 'Jászkiséri, as well as a plot regenerated by coppice. At the age of 7, the highest annual increment in stem oven-dry mass was produced by the cultivar 'Üll?i' (9.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 followed by the common black locust (8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and the cultivar 'Jászkiséri (7.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1. In the plot of coppice origin, dendromass ranged from 6 to 8 Mg ha-1 yr-1 on an average.

  11. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    At the interface between atmosphere and deep sub-soil, the root zone plays a major role in regulating the flow of water between major compartments: groundwater / surface / atmosphere (drainage, runoff, evapotranspiration). This role of soil as regulator/control of water fluxes, but also as a supporting medium to plant growth, is strongly dependent on the hydric properties of the soil. In turn, the plant roots growing in the soil can change its structure; both in the plow layer and in the deeper horizons and, therefore, could change the soil properties, particularly hydric properties. Such root-related alteration of soil properties can be linked to direct effect of roots such as soil perforation during growth, aggregation of soil particles or indirect effects such as the release of exudates by roots that could modify the properties of water or of soil particles. On an another hand, the rhizosphere, the zone around roots influenced by the activity of root and associated microorganisms, could have a high influence on hydric properties, particularly the water retention. To test if crops and plant roots rhizosphere may have a significant effect on water retention, we conducted various experiment from laboratory to field scales. In the lab, we tested different soil and species for rhizospheric effect on soil water retention. Variation in available water content (AWC) between bulk and rhizospheric soil varied from non-significant to a significant increase (to about 16% increase) depending on plant species and soil type. In the field, the alteration of water retention by root systems was tested in different pedological settings for a Maize crop inoculated or not with the bacteria Azospirillum spp., known to alter root structure, growth and morphology. Again, a range of variation in AWC was evidenced, with significant increase (~30%) in some soil types, but more linked to innoculated/non-innoculated plants rather than to a difference between rhizospheric and bulk soil. Finally, in field condition, on a larger time scale, we investigated the effect of crop alternations on the Lusignan ACBB SOERE site. That site presents on the same soil type different crop alternation treatments: an old, continuous grassland, a 8-year continuous cereal rotation and an alternation of cereal/grassland (3-years cereals and 3 to 6 years grassland). Measurements of AWC in these different crop systems setting, 8 years after implementation of the SOERE, show that AWC was different in the cereal/grassland alternation compared to the continuous cereal or grassland cropping systems (~15-20% increase). If such alteration of AWC may seem modest, modeling (in the case of ACBB SOERE) shows that this increase in AWC would increase the cereal yield but also decrease the water drainage out of the root zone, and the possible associated loss of nitrate and pesticides. As a conclusion, in line with some other literature data, roots can influence soil hydric properties and this opens a way to use plants as "soil engineers" to modulate the properties of the root zone, and thus the components of water balance, to mitigate effects of drought on crops… However, how and how much plants will modify the hydric properties, a question which mixes physics, biology, microbiology, crop system settings, is still in infancy and needs further research.

  12. Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse–momentum equation (Poinsot–Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work–energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed. (paper)

  13. Thermodynamics in rotating systems -- analysis of selected examples

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with the Newton's second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an `angular' impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a `rotational' pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.

  14. Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2014-01-01

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.

  15. Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Terence 12Macnae, James

    2014-03-01

    We aim to eliminate or reduce significant impediments to conductive target detection and conductive cover penetration in airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems. Existing limitations come from the very high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth's magnetic field. We use the output of tri-axial rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors. The approach is successful in reducing rotation noise by one to two orders of magnitude at low frequencies.

  16. Energy crops for biogas plants. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  17. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  18. Energy crops for biogas plants. Baden-Wuerttemberg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others

    2013-05-01

    For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  19. A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we show how a vector parameterization of rotations can be adopted to describe the rotational motion of particles within the framework of the discrete element method (DEM). It is based on the use of a special rotation vector, called Rodrigues rotation vector, and accounts for finite rotations in a fully exact manner. The use of fictitious entities such as quaternions or complicated structures such as Euler angles is thereby circumvented. As an additional advantage, stick-slip friction models with inter-particle rolling motion are made possible in a consistent and elegant way. A few examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the scheme. We believe that simple vector descriptions of rotations are very useful for DEM models of particle systems.

  20. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control. PMID:23443401

  1. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control.

  2. Characteristics of Soil in Environment Friendly Rice-wheat Cropping System in Southern Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. Cho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to compare soil microbial populations, microbial-N status and soil physical and chemical characteristics in a no-till, unfertilized, direct-sown, wheat-rice, relay-cropping system (NTWR and also in a conventional transplanted rice single cropping system (CTR. The wheat-rice system was imposed for 2, 4 and 7 years to identify the time course responses in the soil and crop. Recycling of crop residues in the wheat-rice cropping system generally increased the soil organic matter (OM contents but reduced the level of available P2O5 compared with the conventional system. Generally the soil was fertile with a high initial organic matter contents. Organic matter was increased by 30% during the 7 years of wheat-rice cropping. Other soil physical features, bulk density and permeability to air and water indicated that soil structure could be improved in response to wheat-rice cropping. Seasonal variability of soil microorganisms suggested that 7-year cropping could improve soil physicochemical characteristics but mineral contents in relation to cation exchange capacity (CEC would decrease after 4-years cropping. Soil tillage may adversely affect soil microbial dynamics. In conclusion, a no-till, unfertilized, direct-sown, wheat-rice cropping system, is likely to sustain grain yield by improving soil bio-physicochemical factors and is one of the most ecologically stable, economically sound and socially supportive wheat-rice production systems.

  3. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  4. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel production.

  5. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel production

  6. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  7. Can the 13C natural abundance technique be applied to quantify the soil organic matter in crop rotations with mixed C3 and C4 plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the 13C natural abundance technique was used to quantify the sources of soil C in a mixed C3 and C4 system containing corn (C4) and forages (alfalfa and bromegrass, C3). Corn-derived C in soil was estimated using a mixing model as previously. The quantity of forage-derived C in soil was estimated using two independent methods for comparison, with assumptions that there is no differential decomposition and stabilization of soil C under monoculture compared to rotations. The subtraction method yielded higher values for forage-derived C than the mixing-model method, which is based on isotopic signatures. The observed differences in forage-derived C estimates may be largely due to spatial variability of soil C at the study site. Further research with proper field layout and crop selection is required to select and refine the best approach. This study shows the potential for using the ?13C technique in mixed C3-C4 systems to quantify contributing C inputs to soil. (author)

  8. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  9. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Olesen, JØrgen E

    2015-01-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture should be assessed across cropping systems and agroclimatic regions. In this study, we investigate the ability of the FASSET model to analyze differences in the magnitude of N2O emissions due to soil, climate and management factors in cereal-based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two European sites represent agricultural areas with high and low to moderate emission levels, respectively. Field trials included plots with and without catch crops that were fertilized with either mineral N fertilizer, cattle slurry, pig slurry or digested manure. Non-fertilized treatments were also included. Measurements of N2O fluxes during the growing cycle of all the crops at both sites were performed with the static chamber method with more frequent measurements post-fertilization and biweekly measurements when high fluxes were not expected. All cropping systems were simulated with the FASSET version 2.5 simulation model. Cumulative soil seasonal N2O emissions were about ten-fold higher at Mabegondo than at Foulum when averaged across systems and treatments (8.99 and 0.71 kg N2O-N ha?1, respectively). The average simulated cumulative soil N2O emissions were 9.03 and 1.71 kg N2O-N ha?1 at Mabegondo and at Foulum, respectively. Fertilization, catch crops and cropping systems had lower influence on the seasonal soil N2O fluxes than the environmental factors. Overall, in its current version FASSET reproduced the effects of the different factors investigated on the cumulative seasonal soil N2O emissions but temporally it overestimated emissions from nitrification and denitrification on particular days when soil operations, ploughing or fertilization, took place. The errors associated with simulated daily soil N2O fluxes increased with the magnitude of the emissions. For resolving causes of differences in simulated and measuredfluxes more intensive and temporally detailed measurements of N2O fluxes and soil C and N dynamics would be needed.

  10. Atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico após 12 anos sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas Chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept after 12 years under conventional and no tillage with crop succession and rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patrícia Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O manejo adequado do solo é uma das bases para a sustentabilidade do sistema agrícola. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico após 12 anos em dois sistemas de preparo do solo, com rotação e sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando preparo convencional (PC e semeadura direta (SD, sob rotação (r e sucessão (s de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As sequências de cultivo foram: feijão-pousio-milho-pousio-soja-pousio no PCr; milho-pousio no PCs; feijão-aveia-milho-nabo-soja-ervilhaca na SDr; e milho-ervilhaca na SDs. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-2,5; 2,5-5; 5-10; e 10-20cm. Avaliou-se carbono orgânico total (COT, cálcio, magnésio, alumínio trocável, fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio total (NT e pH em água. A SD aumentou os teores de COT e nutrientes em comparação ao PC, especialmente na camada superficial do solo. O cultivo de milho e ervilhaca em sucessão aumentou os teores de COT e NT na camada superficial do solo em comparação com a rotação sob semeadura direta.Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional tillage (CT and no-till (NT, with rotation (r and succession (s cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC, calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen (TN and water pH. The no-tillage system increased TOC and nutrient levels in comparison with conventional tillage, especially in the surface soil layer. Maize and vetch crop succession had higher TOC and TN contents in the surface soil layer compared to crop rotation under no-tillage.

  11. Atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico após 12 anos sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas / Chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept after 12 years under conventional and no tillage with crop succession and rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Patrícia, Andrade; Álvaro Luiz, Mafra; Cristiano Della, Picolla; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque; Ildegardis, Bertol.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O manejo adequado do solo é uma das bases para a sustentabilidade do sistema agrícola. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico após 12 anos em dois sistemas de preparo do solo, com rotação e sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, [...] utilizando preparo convencional (PC) e semeadura direta (SD), sob rotação (r) e sucessão (s) de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As sequências de cultivo foram: feijão-pousio-milho-pousio-soja-pousio no PCr; milho-pousio no PCs; feijão-aveia-milho-nabo-soja-ervilhaca na SDr; e milho-ervilhaca na SDs. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-2,5; 2,5-5; 5-10; e 10-20cm. Avaliou-se carbono orgânico total (COT), cálcio, magnésio, alumínio trocável, fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio total (NT) e pH em água. A SD aumentou os teores de COT e nutrientes em comparação ao PC, especialmente na camada superficial do solo. O cultivo de milho e ervilhaca em sucessão aumentou os teores de COT e NT na camada superficial do solo em comparação com a rotação sob semeadura direta. Abstract in english Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional t [...] illage (CT) and no-till (NT), with rotation (r) and succession (s) cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC), calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen (TN) and water pH. The no-tillage system increased TOC and nutrient levels in comparison with conventional tillage, especially in the surface soil layer. Maize and vetch crop succession had higher TOC and TN contents in the surface soil layer compared to crop rotation under no-tillage.

  12. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  13. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass-based systems. Concerning crop management practices, our results revealed an intensification gradient from low to high input farming systems. Beyond some general trends, a wide range of management practices and levels of intensification were observed among farms with a similar production system. Mixed crop-livestock farms were very heterogeneous with respect to the use of inputs. Nevertheless, our study revealed a lower potential for nitrogen pollution in mixed crop-livestock and beef production systems than in dairy and crop farming systems. Even if a wide variability exists within system, mixed crop-livestock systems appear to be a way for an environmental and economical sustainable agriculture. PMID:22717157

  14. Content of nitrates in drainage and groundwater from permanent pasture, grassland and arable crop rotation soil

    OpenAIRE

    Mašauskas, Vytas; Antanaitis, Šar?nas; Lazauskas, Sigitas; Mašauskien?, Audron?

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable land and nitrogen fertilisation management practices must be developed to secure viable agricultural production and reduce nitrate pollution of surface and groundwater. The study designed to explore nitrate concentration levels in drainage and groundwater as affected by land use type and N fertiliser levels was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2001–2005 in an experimental site with 11 separate drainage systems. Permanent pasture, managed without nitrogen fer...

  15. An expert system for vibration based diagnostics of rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very often changes in the mechanical condition of the rotating machinery can be observed as changes in its vibration. This paper presents an expert system for vibration-based diagnosis of rotating machines by describing the architecture of the developed prototype system. The importance of modelling the problem solving knowledge as well as the domain knowledge is emphasized by presenting the knowledge in several levels

  16. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  17. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N2O emissions plus CH4 uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH4 by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N2O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N2O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N2O + CH4 emission differ among cropping systems. • An alternative cropping system is recommended for the North China Plain region. • A rotation cycle of it is in sequence winter wheat, summer maize and spring maize. • This alternative is better than an optimized winter wheat–summer maize system. • It is sustainable due to saving water and N, maintaining yields and reducing GHG

  18. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ju, Xiaotang, E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Oenema, Oene [Wageningen University and Research, Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O emissions plus CH{sub 4} uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH{sub 4} by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N{sub 2}O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N{sub 2}O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N{sub 2}O + CH{sub 4} emission differ among cropping systems. • An alternative cropping system is recommended for the North China Plain region. • A rotation cycle of it is in sequence winter wheat, summer maize and spring maize. • This alternative is better than an optimized winter wheat–summer maize system. • It is sustainable due to saving water and N, maintaining yields and reducing GHG.

  19. Incorporation of Green Manure Plants into Bean Cropping Systems Contribute to Root-Knot Nematode Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Kimenju; A.M. Kagundu; J. H. Nderitu; F. Mambala; G.K. Mutua; G. M. Kariuki

    2008-01-01

    Green manure plants were evaluated to determine their suitability as rotation crops with common bean to suppress root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes. They were also evaluated as soil amendments in nematode control. The plants were Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinatum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia, Vicia villosa, Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minut...

  20. Spatiotemporal simulation of changes in rice cropping systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic development of agro-economics, population growth, and climate change, the rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) have been undergoing a major change. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to map rice cropping systems and predict future dynamics of rice cropping systems using MODIS time-series data from 2002 to 2012. A phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems. Then, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) model was used to simulate future changes in rice-cropping activities. To obtain precise prediction, a calibration of CA-Markov were implemented by using a series of rice crop maps. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies above 81%, and Kappa coefficients above 0.75, respectively. The simulated maps of rice cropping systems for 2010-2012 were extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002-2009. The comparison between the predicted scenarios and the classification maps for 2010-2012 presents a reasonably close agreement. In summary, the CA-Markov model with a long-term calibration confirmed the validity of the approach for dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems in the study region. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the approach produced satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast, and spatial pattern changes. Thus, projections of future changes would provide useful information for the agricultural policymakers in respect to formulating effective management strategies of rice cropping practices in VMD.

  1. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield / Produção de biomassa e presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em culturas utilizadas em rotação com a cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmilson José, Ambrosano; Rozario, Azcón; Heitor, Cantarella; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Eliana Aparecida, Schammass; Takashi, Muraoka; Paulo César Ocheuze, Trivelin; Fabrício, Rossi; Nivaldo, Guirado; Maria Regina Gonçalves, Ungaro; Juliana Rolim Salomé, Teramoto.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objecti [...] ve of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapó, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. Abstract in english A cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) vem sendo cultivada no Brasil para produção de açúcar e agroenergia. Em seu sistema de produção, após um ciclo de 4 a 8 anos, é possível a rotação com plantas de cobertura, antes do seu replantio, para melhoria do solo e geração de renda. Estudou-se a caracterização [...] e produtividade de biomassa de leguminosas (como adubos-verdes) e girassol (Helianthus annuus L.), a ocorrência natural de micorrizas, o teor de açúcar e a produtividade em colmos da cana-de-açúcar IAC 87-3396 e a viabilidade econômica desse sistema com cultivo após as opções de rotação, com quantificação da produtividade durante três cortes consecutivos. O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. IAC-Caiapó, girassol cv. IAC-Uruguai e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) foram as culturas que apresentaram maior percentagem de colonização por fungos micorrízicos. O girassol foi a planta de cobertura que mais extraiu nutrientes do solo, seguido por amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L.) cv. IAC-Tatu e feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). A colonização por fungos micorrízicos mostrou correlação positiva com a altura de plantas de cana no primeiro corte (p = 0,01 e R = 0,52), mas não se correlacionou com a produtividade de colmos ou açúcar. No primeiro corte, o girassol foi a cultura de rotação que ocasionou o maior aumento de produtividade, da ordem de 46% em colmos e de 50% na quantidade de açúcar, em comparação com a testemunha. Com exceção dos amendoins, todas as culturas em rotação aumentaram a renda líquida do sistema na média de três cortes de cana-de-açúcar.

  2. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  3. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat–maize cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U, urea + dicyandiamide (DCD and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP treatments in a wheat–maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha?1 yr?1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p 2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p 2O emission from the wheat–maize cropping system.

  4. Effets de la gestion des résidus de récolte sur les rendements et les bilans culturaux d'une rotation cotonnier-maïs-sorgho au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Koulibaly, B.; Traoré, O.; Dakuo, D.; Zombré, PN.; Bondé, D.

    2010-01-01

    Crops Residues Management Effects on Crops Yields and Mineral Balance in a Cotton- Maize- Sorghum Rotation in Burkina Faso. The effect of crop residues management on crops yields and nutrients balances in a cotton-cereals cropping system was studied in a long-term experiment carried out from 1982 to 2006. The experimental design was a simple nonrandomized blocks comparing extensive management of crops residues (T1), semiintensive management of crops residues (T2) and intensive management of c...

  5. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  6. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP) on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat-maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Wang, K.; Zheng, X.

    2013-04-01

    The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U), urea + dicyandiamide (DCD) and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) treatments in a wheat-maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p < 0.01). The variations of soil temperature, moisture and inorganic nitrogen content regulated the seasonal fluctuation of N2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p < 0.01); shifted the main soil inorganic nitrogen form from nitrate to ammonium; and tended to increase the dissolved organic carbon content, crop yield, aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake by aboveground plant. The results demonstrate the roles the nitrification inhibitors play in enhancing yield and nitrogen use efficiency and reducing N2O emission from the wheat-maize cropping system.

  7. Zeeman effect in NQR in the rotating coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzhaya, I. M.; Furman, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    When linearly polarized radio-frequency fields act on a spin system of nuclei having a quadrupole moment, the degeneracy of the energy levels of the system is removed in the rotating coordinate system. The possible application of this effect to the determination of the asymmetry parameters of the electric field gradient of polycrystalline samples is examined.

  8. Influência da rotação de culturas na infestação e danos causados por Sternechus Subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio direto / Influence of crop rotation on Sternechus Subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation and damage under no-tillage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da, Silva.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, a campo, a influência da rotação de culturas com milho e soja na infestação e nos danos causados pelo tamanduâ-da-soja, Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman, 1836), em solos manejados no sistema de plantio direto. no município de Cruz Alta, RS. Os resultados indicaram que a infestação de adul [...] tos, larvas olivas e larvas hibernantes e os danos de percentagem de plantas de soja atacadas e mortas foram significativamente inferiores na rotação com milho e soja do que o verificado no monocultivo de soja. A soja em rotação com o milho produziu significativamente mais grãos do que a soja em monocultivo. Concluiu-se que a rotação com milho e soja constitui-se numa prática importante a ser usada no manejo de S. subsignatus em áreas infestadas, pelo fato do inseto não se alimentar e nem ovipositar nas plantas de milho, o que propicia a diminuição da sua população. Abstract in english The corn and soybean crop rotation on Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman. 1836) infestation and damage under notillage was evaluated in the field in the county of Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul State. Brazil. The results indicated that adult infestation. active larvae and hibernating larvae, and that the [...] percent damage of soybean plants attacked and dead, were significantiy lower in the corn-soybean crop rotation in relation to soybean under monocultural system. Soybean in rotation with corn showes significant more grain productivity than soybean under monocultural system. It was concluded that the corn-soybean rotation is an important tool for the management of S. subsignatus in infested areas due to the fact that the insect neither feed nor perform oviposition on corn plants, thus reducing its population.

  9. Influência da rotação de culturas na infestação e danos causados por Sternechus Subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantio direto Influence of crop rotation on Sternechus Subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae infestation and damage under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, a campo, a influência da rotação de culturas com milho e soja na infestação e nos danos causados pelo tamanduâ-da-soja, Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman, 1836, em solos manejados no sistema de plantio direto. no município de Cruz Alta, RS. Os resultados indicaram que a infestação de adultos, larvas olivas e larvas hibernantes e os danos de percentagem de plantas de soja atacadas e mortas foram significativamente inferiores na rotação com milho e soja do que o verificado no monocultivo de soja. A soja em rotação com o milho produziu significativamente mais grãos do que a soja em monocultivo. Concluiu-se que a rotação com milho e soja constitui-se numa prática importante a ser usada no manejo de S. subsignatus em áreas infestadas, pelo fato do inseto não se alimentar e nem ovipositar nas plantas de milho, o que propicia a diminuição da sua população.The corn and soybean crop rotation on Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman. 1836 infestation and damage under notillage was evaluated in the field in the county of Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul State. Brazil. The results indicated that adult infestation. active larvae and hibernating larvae, and that the percent damage of soybean plants attacked and dead, were significantiy lower in the corn-soybean crop rotation in relation to soybean under monocultural system. Soybean in rotation with corn showes significant more grain productivity than soybean under monocultural system. It was concluded that the corn-soybean rotation is an important tool for the management of S. subsignatus in infested areas due to the fact that the insect neither feed nor perform oviposition on corn plants, thus reducing its population.

  10. CROPPING SYSTEMS ALTER WEED SEED BANK IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST, USA SEMI-ARID WHEAT REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management is an important consideration in implementing new cropping systems. Grower interest in no-till spring cropping systems is increasing in the semi-arid region of the Pacific Northwest because of wind erosion from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/tillage fallow (WWF). However, no-t...

  11. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  12. Development test procedure for the ground demonstration system rotating seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) rotating seals of the Combined Rotating Unit (CRU) assembly to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System design criteria. The test ojectives are to characterize seal performance so that data can be used for seal configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing. The various configurations that will be tested and their test parameters are shown

  13. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system

    OpenAIRE

    Oguri, Shugo; Choi, Jihoon; Kawai, Masanori; Tajima, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (> 99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes...

  14. Summer squash planting systems following a rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial organic vegetable production requires using soil improvement practices and effective weed control measures. Rye (Secale cereale) cover crops are known to suppress annual weeds. Research was begun in 2004 to measure crop yield, annual weed infestation and weed control requirements for ve...

  15. A WEB BASED TOMATO CROP EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Babu M.S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato Information System and the other is Tomato Crop Expert System where in Information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases,Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Tomato fruits and plants. In Advisory System, the user is having aninteraction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measure of disease. This Tomato Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Tomato Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to tomato crop based on the symptoms.This Rule based Expert System validates the symptoms of the tomato crop using the techniques of ID3 Algorithm and some optimization algorithms. This is a Web based Expert System with java as the front end and SQL as the backend.

  16. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    Catch crops are generally regarded as an efficient tool to reduce nitrate leaching. However, the benefits need to be balanced against potential adverse effects on the main crop yields. The objectives of the study were to study three contrasting catch crops, that is, dyer’s woad (DW) (Isatis tinctoria L.), perennial ryegrass (RG) (Lolium perenne L.) and fodder radish (FR) (Raphanus sativus L.) under three tillage systems. For that, we used a tillage experiment established in 2002 on a Danish sand...

  17. Visual Servoed Three-Dimensional Cell Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenan; Tun Latt, Win; Yih Min Tan, Steven; Ang, Wei Tech

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) positioning and orientation of embryos/oocytes is necessary to facilitate micromanipulation tasks such as cell injection and cellular structural biopsy commonly performed under a microscope. Conventional cell orientation is performed manually by using a vacuum equipped micropipette to aspirate and release the cell, which is a trial-and-error approach. The conventional method relies heavily on the skill of the operator; it also suffers from low precision, low success rate and low controllability. These drawbacks illustrate the need for a systematic 3-D cell rotational system to automate the cell orientation process. In this paper, we present a noninvasive single cell rotation system that can automatically orientate a zebrafish embryo to a desired position when both the cytoplasm and the yolk are in the focal plane. A three-point-contact model for cell rotation that involves a custom-designed rotational stage is introduced to provide precise rotational position control. A vision recognition algorithm is also proposed to enable the visual servoing function of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve high success rates of 92.5% (x-axis rotation with 40 trails) and 97.5% (about the z-axis with 80 trails). The system can also successfully complete 3-D cell orientation at an average speed of 31 s/cell with a high in-plane rotation accuracy of 0.3 (°) . As a high precise, high controllable and deterministic cell manipulating system, it provides a starting point for automated cell manipulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:25993702

  18. Crop residues as raw materials for biorefinery systems - A LCA case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N2O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well. Results show that the use of crop residues in a biorefinery saves GHG emissions and reduces fossil energy demand. For instance, GHG emissions are reduced by about 50% and more than 80% of non-renewable energy is saved. Land use change effects have a strong influence in the final GHG balance (about 50%), and their uncertainty is discussed in a sensitivity analysis. Concerning the investigation of the other impact categories, biorefinery systems have higher eutrophication potential than fossil reference systems. Based on these results, a residues-based biorefinery concept is able to solve two problems at the same time, namely find a use for the abundant lignocellulosic residues and ensure a mitigation effect for most of the environmental concerns related to the utilization of non-renewable energy resources. Therefore, when agricultural residues are used as feedstocks, best management practices and harvest rates need to be carefully established. In fact, rotation, tillage, fertilization management, soil properties and climate can play an important role in the determination of the amount of crop residue that can be removed minimizing soil carbon losses.

  19. Exact treatment of interacting bosons in rotating systems and lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Ole SØe

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems of ultra-cold particles constitute a unique tool for studying the fundamental phenomena of physics in their purest and most isolated forms. Complicated dynamics are found even for few particles and to comprehend the features of systems with many particles, we must first understand these basic building blocks. In this dissertation we investigate few-particle behavior in rotating traps and optical lattices. These systems are both experimentally realizable and are used on a daily basis in quantum gas laboratories all over the world. At temperatures near absolute zero the quantum mechanical nature of particles dominate, resulting in a behavior fundamentally different from that of classical particles. In rotating systems this causes quantization of angular momentum which can lead to macroscopic vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. In optical lattices the atom becomes extended over several lattice points causing complicated many-body dynamics and phase transitions.

  20. Rotação e sucessão de culturas para o manejo do nematoide reniforme em área de produção de soja / Crop rotation and crop sequences for the management of the reniform nematode in area of soybean production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo Márcio, Leandro; Guilherme Lafourcade, Asmus.

    Full Text Available O nematoide reniforme (Rotylenchulus reniformis) tem se tornado crescente problema fitossanitário da cultura da soja. Considerando a limitada disponibilidade de cultivares de soja que aliem resistência ao nematoide a outras características agronômicas desejáveis, estuda-se a possibilidade de utiliza [...] ção de manejo cultural para seu controle. Este trabalho visou avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas no verão com milho, Crotalaria ochroleuca ou soja; e o manejo de entressafra, com Brachiaria ruziziensis como espécie de cobertura ou pousio. O experimento foi implantado em solo naturalmente infestado pelo nematoide reniforme (1245 nematoides/200cc de solo) em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (cultivos de verão x manejo de entressafra). Foram avaliadas a densidade populacional do nematoide no solo e sua variação durante as safras e entressafras, bem como a produtividade da soja na safra subsequente à rotação de culturas. Não houve efeito do manejo da entressafra com braquiária sobre o nematoide. A rotação de culturas com milho ou crotalária no verão propiciou redução da densidade populacional do nematoide reniforme em comparação ao monocultivo de soja, com reflexos positivos sobre a produtividade de soja na safra seguinte Abstract in english The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has become a growing disease problem to soybean crop. Considering the limited availability of soybean varieties that combine resistance to the nematode and other desirable agronomic traits, cultural management could be an approach for the nematode man [...] agement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of summer season crop rotations with corn or sunnhemp compared with soybean monocropping, and fall management with ruzizigrass as a covercrop compared to fallow on the nematode population. The experiment was carried-out in a naturally infested soil (1245 reniform nematodes/200cc soil) in a randomized block design, with six treatments arranged in plots with 6x3m (18m2) with four replications in a factorial 3x2 (summer crop x fall management). The nematode soil population density and its variation during the season as well as the soybean yield in the subsequent soybean crop were evaluated. Crop rotation with corn or sunnhemp led to the decrease on the reniform nematode population density compared to the monoculture of soybeans, with positive effects on soybean yield in the following season. There was no effect of cover cropping with ruzizigrass on the reniform nematode population

  1. Rotação e sucessão de culturas para o manejo do nematoide reniforme em área de produção de soja / Crop rotation and crop sequences for the management of the reniform nematode in area of soybean production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo Márcio, Leandro; Guilherme Lafourcade, Asmus.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O nematoide reniforme (Rotylenchulus reniformis) tem se tornado crescente problema fitossanitário da cultura da soja. Considerando a limitada disponibilidade de cultivares de soja que aliem resistência ao nematoide a outras características agronômicas desejáveis, estuda-se a possibilidade de utiliza [...] ção de manejo cultural para seu controle. Este trabalho visou avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas no verão com milho, Crotalaria ochroleuca ou soja; e o manejo de entressafra, com Brachiaria ruziziensis como espécie de cobertura ou pousio. O experimento foi implantado em solo naturalmente infestado pelo nematoide reniforme (1245 nematoides/200cc de solo) em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (cultivos de verão x manejo de entressafra). Foram avaliadas a densidade populacional do nematoide no solo e sua variação durante as safras e entressafras, bem como a produtividade da soja na safra subsequente à rotação de culturas. Não houve efeito do manejo da entressafra com braquiária sobre o nematoide. A rotação de culturas com milho ou crotalária no verão propiciou redução da densidade populacional do nematoide reniforme em comparação ao monocultivo de soja, com reflexos positivos sobre a produtividade de soja na safra seguinte Abstract in english The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has become a growing disease problem to soybean crop. Considering the limited availability of soybean varieties that combine resistance to the nematode and other desirable agronomic traits, cultural management could be an approach for the nematode man [...] agement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of summer season crop rotations with corn or sunnhemp compared with soybean monocropping, and fall management with ruzizigrass as a covercrop compared to fallow on the nematode population. The experiment was carried-out in a naturally infested soil (1245 reniform nematodes/200cc soil) in a randomized block design, with six treatments arranged in plots with 6x3m (18m2) with four replications in a factorial 3x2 (summer crop x fall management). The nematode soil population density and its variation during the season as well as the soybean yield in the subsequent soybean crop were evaluated. Crop rotation with corn or sunnhemp led to the decrease on the reniform nematode population density compared to the monoculture of soybeans, with positive effects on soybean yield in the following season. There was no effect of cover cropping with ruzizigrass on the reniform nematode population

  2. Relationships among bulk soil physicochemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters in an organic alfalfa-rice rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana R; Bello, Diana; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2015-08-01

    The microbial communities of bulk soil of rice paddy fields under an ancient organic agriculture regimen, consisting on an alfalfa-rice rotation system, were characterized. The drained soil of two adjacent paddies at different stages of the rotation was compared before rice seeding and after harvesting. The relationships among the soil microbial, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters were investigated using multivariate analyses. In the first year of rice cropping, aerobic cultivable heterotrophic populations correlated with lineages of presumably aerobic bacteria (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Sphingomonadales). In the second year of rice cropping, the total C content correlated with presumable anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineae). Independently of the year of rice cropping, before rice seeding, proteolytic activity correlated positively with the cultivable aerobic heterotrophic and ammonifier populations, the soil catabolic profile and with presumable aerobes (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Rhizobiales) and anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroidales, Anaerolineae). After harvesting, strongest correlations were observed between cultivable diazotrophic populations and bacterial groups described as comprising N2 fixing members (e.g., Chloroflexi-Ellin6529, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria). It was demonstrated that chemical parameters and microbial functions were correlated with variations on the total bacterial community composition and structure occurring during rice cropping. A better understanding of these correlations and of their implications on soil productivity may be valid contributors for sustainable agriculture practices, based on ancient processes. PMID:25850741

  3. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus)-related environmental burdens are released from the soil during cultivation

  4. Specimen rotation system of the WSU TRIGA-fueled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specimen rotation system presently in use at the WSU reactor has been designed to provide maximum utilization of the irradiation capabilities achieved through use of TRIGA-type fuel. This paper describes the system with particular emphasis on characteristics which are advantageous to experimenters. (author)

  5. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  6. Combined Solar System and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Hees, A; Angus, G W; Gentile, G

    2015-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this External Field Effect can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this External Field Effect also appears in the Solar System and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar System constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that LISA Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  7. Combined Solar system and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Aurélien; Famaey, Benoit; Angus, Garry W.; Gentile, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this external field effect (EFE) can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this EFE also appears in the Solar system and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar system constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  8. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farazmand, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  9. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop rotation, i.e., RT, CT, and NT, showed a lower efficiency in the reduction of water losses with regard to the efficiency of soil losses decrease. So many rainfall events during our experimental period showed similar water losses for all the management and crop systems, which was mainly true for rainfalls causing high volumes of runoff and with a small time interval between successive events. During the autumn-winter seasons water losses were lower than in the spring-summer seasons, whereas greater soil losses in the spring-summer season were solely recorded in the CT and BS treatments. Heavy water losses by runoff recorder under conservation tillage, specifically in the NT management system suggest the need for adoption of additional structural conservation practices, such as for example terracing, in order to supplement the positive effect of soil cover by crop residues in controlling water erosion. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity and the significance of this relationship decreased as the efficiency of soil management system for the control of soil erosion increased.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  11. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  12. A Greenhouse Tomato Crop Grey Mould Disease Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    NETO, M.; Baptista, F.J.; Navas, L.M.; Ruiz, G.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is a very important crop in the Mediterranean region in general and in Portugal in particular being the production for fresh consumption made essentially in greenhouses. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. is the causal agent of grey mould disease and is one of the most important diseases affecting greenhouse tomato crops, high relative humidity and the presence of free water on the plant surfaces have been recognized as favourable to the development of this disease. The avai...

  13. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  14. Estrategias de fertilización fosforada en una rotación de cultivos en el sudeste bonaerense / Phosphorus fertilization strategies in a Buenos Aires southeast crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Adrián, Divito; Hernán, Sainz Rozas; Hernán Eduardo, Echeverría.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En suelos del sudeste Bonaerense el fósforo (P) del fertilizante forma productos de mediana a alta solubilidad, lo cual le confiere un alto valor residual. A partir de esto, surge la posibilidad de definir estrategias de fertilización basadas en la frecuencia con que se efectúa su aplicación. Para r [...] otaciones de cuatro cultivos en tres años se desconoce el efecto de alternativas de fertilización fosfatada. Los objetivos fueron: 1) evaluar el rendimiento de cultivos fertilizados con P anualmente y cada tres años, a la rotación de cultivos, y 2) determinar la eficiencia de uso y de recuperación del P (EUP y ERP, respectivamente) aplicado para dichas estrategias de fertilización. El experimento se realizó sobre un complejo de Paleudol Petrocálcico y Argiudol Típico en la EEA I.N.T.A. Balcarce, con un alto nivel inicial de P-Bray (28,7 mg kg-1) y bajo siembra directa. A lo largo de dos ciclos de rotación, integrados por maíz, soja y trigo/soja de segunda, se evaluaron tres tratamientos: aplicación de P con frecuencia anual, por única vez a la rotación y un testigo sin P, en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro repeticiones. No se observaron diferencias en el rendimiento de los cultivos fertilizados en forma anual y a la rotación, durante los dos ciclos. El testigo difirió de los tratamientos fertilizados solo durante el segundo ciclo de rotación. La EUP de la rotación (EUProt) no difirió entre estrategias de aplicación (19,4 y 32,4 kg kg-1 durante el primer ciclo y 32,9 y 37,4 kg kg-1 durante el segundo, para tratamientos fertilizados anualmente y a la rotación, respectivamente). Tampoco existieron diferencias entre estrategias de fertilización en la EUP de cada cultivo. En cambio, durante el primer ciclo, la ERP resultó mayor para el tratamiento fertilizado a la rotación respecto de la aplicación anual (0,13 y 0,03 kg kg-1), mientras que en el segundo ciclo no se detectaron diferencias entre ambos (0,16 y 0,17 kg kg-1 para la aplicación anual y a la rotación, respectivamente). Se encontró una débil asociación entre la variación anual en el nivel de P-Bray y el balance de P correspondiente al cultivo implantado dicho año. Para el tratamiento testigo, se elaboró un modelo para predecir la disminución en el P disponible considerando el nivel inicial de P-Bray y la exportación de P de los cultivos como variables. Abstract in english In the soils of southeast Buenos Aires, fertilizer phosphorus (P) forms medium to high solubility products, making it possible to define different fertilization strategies based on application frequency. The effect of P application rates capable of fulfilling all crop requirements in intensive rotat [...] ions in the region is unknown. The objectives of this work were to: (1) assess yields in crops fertilized with P annually and once during the crop rotation and (2) determine P use efficiency and P recovery for each fertilization strategy. The experiment was conducted at the E.E.A. I.N.T.A. Balcarce on a Typic Argiudoll and Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex, under no-tillage and with high P-Bray (Bray & Kurts, 1945) content (28.7 mg kg-1). During the two rotation cycles for maize, soybean, and double wheat/soybean crop, three treatments were assessed: application of P annually, application once during the rotation cycle, and a control without P application. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four repetitions. No crop yield differences were found between annual and rotation fertilization strategies across the two cycles evaluated. The control crop yield did not differ from the fertilized crop during the first rotation cycle but did during the second. The crop rotation P use efficiency (EUProt) did not differ between nutrient applications strategies (19.4 and 32.4 kg kg-1 during the first cycle and 32.9 and 37.4 kg kg-1 during the second for annually and rotation fertilized treatments respectively). There were no differences between strategies in the crop P use efficiency of each crop (EUPcult). In contrast, during t

  15. Estrategias de fertilización fosforada en una rotación de cultivos en el sudeste bonaerense Phosphorus fertilization strategies in a Buenos Aires southeast crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Divito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En suelos del sudeste Bonaerense el fósforo (P del fertilizante forma productos de mediana a alta solubilidad, lo cual le confiere un alto valor residual. A partir de esto, surge la posibilidad de definir estrategias de fertilización basadas en la frecuencia con que se efectúa su aplicación. Para rotaciones de cuatro cultivos en tres años se desconoce el efecto de alternativas de fertilización fosfatada. Los objetivos fueron: 1 evaluar el rendimiento de cultivos fertilizados con P anualmente y cada tres años, a la rotación de cultivos, y 2 determinar la eficiencia de uso y de recuperación del P (EUP y ERP, respectivamente aplicado para dichas estrategias de fertilización. El experimento se realizó sobre un complejo de Paleudol Petrocálcico y Argiudol Típico en la EEA I.N.T.A. Balcarce, con un alto nivel inicial de P-Bray (28,7 mg kg-1 y bajo siembra directa. A lo largo de dos ciclos de rotación, integrados por maíz, soja y trigo/soja de segunda, se evaluaron tres tratamientos: aplicación de P con frecuencia anual, por única vez a la rotación y un testigo sin P, en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro repeticiones. No se observaron diferencias en el rendimiento de los cultivos fertilizados en forma anual y a la rotación, durante los dos ciclos. El testigo difirió de los tratamientos fertilizados solo durante el segundo ciclo de rotación. La EUP de la rotación (EUProt no difirió entre estrategias de aplicación (19,4 y 32,4 kg kg-1 durante el primer ciclo y 32,9 y 37,4 kg kg-1 durante el segundo, para tratamientos fertilizados anualmente y a la rotación, respectivamente. Tampoco existieron diferencias entre estrategias de fertilización en la EUP de cada cultivo. En cambio, durante el primer ciclo, la ERP resultó mayor para el tratamiento fertilizado a la rotación respecto de la aplicación anual (0,13 y 0,03 kg kg-1, mientras que en el segundo ciclo no se detectaron diferencias entre ambos (0,16 y 0,17 kg kg-1 para la aplicación anual y a la rotación, respectivamente. Se encontró una débil asociación entre la variación anual en el nivel de P-Bray y el balance de P correspondiente al cultivo implantado dicho año. Para el tratamiento testigo, se elaboró un modelo para predecir la disminución en el P disponible considerando el nivel inicial de P-Bray y la exportación de P de los cultivos como variables.In the soils of southeast Buenos Aires, fertilizer phosphorus (P forms medium to high solubility products, making it possible to define different fertilization strategies based on application frequency. The effect of P application rates capable of fulfilling all crop requirements in intensive rotations in the region is unknown. The objectives of this work were to: (1 assess yields in crops fertilized with P annually and once during the crop rotation and (2 determine P use efficiency and P recovery for each fertilization strategy. The experiment was conducted at the E.E.A. I.N.T.A. Balcarce on a Typic Argiudoll and Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex, under no-tillage and with high P-Bray (Bray & Kurts, 1945 content (28.7 mg kg-1. During the two rotation cycles for maize, soybean, and double wheat/soybean crop, three treatments were assessed: application of P annually, application once during the rotation cycle, and a control without P application. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four repetitions. No crop yield differences were found between annual and rotation fertilization strategies across the two cycles evaluated. The control crop yield did not differ from the fertilized crop during the first rotation cycle but did during the second. The crop rotation P use efficiency (EUProt did not differ between nutrient applications strategies (19.4 and 32.4 kg kg-1 during the first cycle and 32.9 and 37.4 kg kg-1 during the second for annually and rotation fertilized treatments respectively. There were no differences between strategies in the crop P use efficiency of each crop (EUPcult. In contrast, during the first cycle, the applied P recovery efficiency (E

  16. EFEITO DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS, ADUBAÇÃO VERDE E NITROGENADA SOBRE O RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO EFFECTS OF CROP ROTATION, GREEN MANURE, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE BEAN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORIVALDO ARF

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na região de Selvíria, MS, e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da incorporação de mucuna-preta, lab-lab e restos culturais de milho no desenvolvimento e produção do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. de inverno. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso; os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação do efeito da incorporação de restos culturais do milho, mucuna-preta e lab-lab no desenvolvimento do feijoeiro, na presença e ausência de adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Pelos resultados obtidos nas condições experimentais, pode-se concluir que a incorporação de mucuna-preta praticamente dobrou a produção de grãos de feijão em relação ao tratamento com incorporação apenas de palhada de milho; as maiores produtividades foram obtidas nos tratamentos com incorporação de mucuna-preta, lab-lab e milho + mucuna-preta semeada 100 dias após a semeadura do milho, e a aplicação de 45 kg ha-1 de N aumentou em 17,8% a produtividade do feijoeiro.The present work was carried out at Selvíria, MS, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of velvetbean, lab-lab and corn crop residues on the development and yield of winter bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crops. The experimental design utilized was a randomized blocks obtained through an arrangement between the incorporation of different organic residues, with and without nitrogen supply in the bean crop. Grain yield was higher when velvetbean was incorporated in rotation with corn crop residues. The best yield was obtained in the treatments: velvetbean incorporation, lab-lab and corn + velvetbean sowed 100 days after corn sowing. Application of 45 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer (urea increased the yield of winter bean crops in 17,8%.

  17. New climate-proof cropping systems in dry areas of the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    A climate-proof cropping system is a system which is able to mitigate the effects of climate change, which often are unpredictable and extreme. The special issue is related to the subject of improving cropping systems in the Mediterranean region, which is one of the regions in the world facing most severe consequences of climate changes, under influence of multiple abiotic stresses. These stresses are becoming even more pronounced under changing climate, resulting in drier conditions, increasing...

  18. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Styles,David

    2008-01-01

    Recent full decoupling of EU agricultural subsidy payments from production in Ireland is forecast to result in substantial destocking of grassland over the coming decade. In conjunction with increased energy prices, this presents new opportunities for energy crops. This paper uses extensive literature review and country-specific information on current prices to construct life-cycle cost assessments for production of Miscanthus and short-rotation coppice willow (SRCW) in Ireland. Gross margins...

  19. New portable sensor system for rotation seismic motion measurements.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Ji?í

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 81, ?. 8 (2010), 084501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP210/10/0925 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotational seismology * sensor system Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  20. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author)

  1. PARÁMETROS HIDRÁULICOS DETERMINADOS EN UN ANDISOL BAJO DIFERENTES ROTACIONES CULTURALES DESPUÉS DE DIEZ AÑOS Hydraulic parameters determinated in Andisol under different crop rotations after ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sandoval E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros Hidráulicos fueron medidos en un suelo de origen volcánico del Valle Central (Humic Haploxerands bajo diferentes rotaciones culturales con distinto manejo agronómico e intensidad de uso del suelo y fueron agrupadas en cuatro rotaciones que incluyeron pradera y dos rotaciones intensivas, sin pradera. Las mediciones de conductividad Hidráulica saturada (Kfs fueron realizadas in-situ. Se determinaron, además, dos parámetros Hidráulicos del suelo: El parámetro á y el potencial de flujo mátrico (?m. Todas las parcelas con pradera, dentro de la rotación tuvieron valores similares de Kfs. Las parcelas con rotaciones intensivas presentaron valores extremos el mayor y menor valor de Kfs, donde la rotación: remolacha-trigo-frejol-cebada, presentó el mayor Kfs (P?0,05 de todos los tratamientos. Nuestros resultados fueron apoyados por un análisis de correlación en que se determinó una significativa (P?0,05 relación entre Kfs y los parámetros Hidráulicos y potencial de flujo mátrico (?m.Hydraulic parameters were measured in a soil of volcanic origin of the Central Valley (Humic Haploxerands under different crop rotations with different agricultural management and soil-use intensity that were grouped in four rotations that included pastures and two intensive rotations without pastures. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ka were done in-situ. At the mean time, two hydraulic parameters of soil were determined: á parameter and matric flux potential (?m. All plots with pasture included in the rotation had similar mean Kfs values. The plots with intensive rotations had the extreme, the Highes and lower Kfs values. The Kfs in the rotation sugar beet-wheat-beans-barley was the Highest Kfs (P?0,05 of all treatments. Our results were supported by a correlation analysis that determined significant relationships (P?0,05 between Kfs, and the hydraulic parameters a and matric flux potential (?m

  2. PARÁMETROS HIDRÁULICOS DETERMINADOS EN UN ANDISOL BAJO DIFERENTES ROTACIONES CULTURALES DESPUÉS DE DIEZ AÑOS / Hydraulic parameters determinated in Andisol under different crop rotations after ten years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Sandoval E; Carolina, Castillo S; Erick, Zagal V; Neal, Stolpe L; Pablo, Undurraga D.

    Full Text Available Los parámetros Hidráulicos fueron medidos en un suelo de origen volcánico del Valle Central (Humic Haploxerands) bajo diferentes rotaciones culturales con distinto manejo agronómico e intensidad de uso del suelo y fueron agrupadas en cuatro rotaciones que incluyeron pradera y dos rotaciones intensiv [...] as, sin pradera. Las mediciones de conductividad Hidráulica saturada (Kfs) fueron realizadas in-situ. Se determinaron, además, dos parámetros Hidráulicos del suelo: El parámetro á y el potencial de flujo mátrico (?m). Todas las parcelas con pradera, dentro de la rotación tuvieron valores similares de Kfs. Las parcelas con rotaciones intensivas presentaron valores extremos el mayor y menor valor de Kfs, donde la rotación: remolacha-trigo-frejol-cebada, presentó el mayor Kfs (P?0,05) de todos los tratamientos. Nuestros resultados fueron apoyados por un análisis de correlación en que se determinó una significativa (P?0,05) relación entre Kfs y los parámetros Hidráulicos y potencial de flujo mátrico (?m). Abstract in english Hydraulic parameters were measured in a soil of volcanic origin of the Central Valley (Humic Haploxerands) under different crop rotations with different agricultural management and soil-use intensity that were grouped in four rotations that included pastures and two intensive rotations without pastu [...] res. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ka) were done in-situ. At the mean time, two hydraulic parameters of soil were determined: á parameter and matric flux potential (?m). All plots with pasture included in the rotation had similar mean Kfs values. The plots with intensive rotations had the extreme, the Highes and lower Kfs values. The Kfs in the rotation sugar beet-wheat-beans-barley was the Highest Kfs (P?0,05) of all treatments. Our results were supported by a correlation analysis that determined significant relationships (P?0,05) between Kfs, and the hydraulic parameters a and matric flux potential (?m)

  3. The earth dynamic system: the earth rotation vs mantle convection

    OpenAIRE

    Shuping Chen

    2010-01-01

    The earth dynamic system is one of the key scientific questions on the earth science. The thermodynamic behavior and gravity force of the earth and the rheology nature of the mantle prove that mantle convection is the main power source leading the lithosphere to break and move. Yet the directivity of both the structures in the crust and plate movement reminds of the earth rotation. Here we demonstrate that the mantle convection and inertia force of the earth rotation affect each other, the fo...

  4. Management of nitrogen and evaluation of water-use efficiency in traditional and improved cropping systems of the southern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative research project among the International Atomic Energy Agency, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, was initiated in 1999 with the objective of developing a set of options for improving the nitrogen (N) nutrition of dry-land cropping systems by use of N from biological N2 fixation, fertilizer and organic matter at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh. The main experiment consisted of traditional (sorghum-castor) and improved (sorghum/pigeon pea-castor) cropping systems on a two-year rotation cycle with four N-management options. Nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) were included as sources of N. In spite of low rainfall (390 mm in 1999; and 450 mm in 2000) both sorghum and castor responded to applied N. Intercropped pigeon pea had beneficial effects on the succeeding castor crop. A grain yield advantage of 88 kg ha-1 was obtained with castor following sorghum/pigeon pea compared to that following sole sorghum. In on-farm participatory trials, the yields of sorghum, castor and pigeon pea were substantially higher with improved practice compared to farmers' practice. There was no significant difference between urea alone and urea plus FYM as a source of N to sorghum and castor-based cropping systems. (author)

  5. Rotational motion of traveling spots in dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuya; Nishiura, Yasumasa

    2009-10-01

    What is the origin of rotational motion? An answer is presented through the study of the dynamics for spatially localized spots near codimension 2 singularity consisting of drift and peanut instabilities. The drift instability causes a head-tail asymmetry in spot shape, and the peanut one implies a deformation from circular to peanut shape. Rotational motion of spots can be produced by combining these instabilities in a class of three-component reaction-diffusion systems. Partial differential equations dynamics can be reduced to a finite-dimensional one by projecting it to slow modes. Such a reduction clarifies the bifurcational origin of rotational motion of traveling spots in two dimensions in close analogy to the normal form of 1:2 mode interactions.

  6. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho’s probability method, moreover, abridges in effective way the analysis of variance results, supplying precise indications about the influence of crop sequence on quali-quantitative productive variables; in particular, wheats in three-year crop rotation (F1 and F2 have higher probability to obtain higher qualitative and quantitative productions than one in one-year crop rotations (Fc+i and Fc, so as wheat in one-year crop rotation with catch crop vs. wheat monoculture.

  7. Nitrogen Release from Green Manure of Water Hyacinth in Rice Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Wisnu Widjajanto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen derived from water hyacinth and recovered in rice crops was measured to evaluate the effect of different amounts of added water hyacinth residues into rice cultivation on the performance of rice crop, N derived (Ndev from residues and N recovery (Nrec in rice crop. Dry matter production and N yield of rice crop decreased significantly as the amounts of added water hyacinth increased. The Ndev from water hyacinth was significantly increased as amounts of added water hyacinth increased. In contrast, the Nrec in rice crop was significantly decreased as amounts of added water hyacinth increased. In conclusion different quantities of added water hyacinth residues influenced the performance of rice, and the N dynamics of soil-rice systems.

  8. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Shugo; Kawai, Masanori; Tajima, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (> 99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition; cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 revolutions per minute. The developed system can be applied in various fields; e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio as...

  9. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  10. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha?1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha?1 and 4.1 t DM ha?1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha?1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe in the barley following grass-clover with large annual differences in the individual diseases. Despite different rooting depths and nutrient uptake patterns, there was no interaction between variety/mixture and the manure input regarding grain yield. In the 1st year after grass-clover, one of the two mixtures gave higher grain yield than the average yield of the individual varieties in the mixture. This was not the case in the 4th year after grass-clover and for the second variety mixture. Thus, although the present results did not indicate that some barley varieties were better adapted to conditions with low manure input than others, variety mixtures that give a robust and stable organic production may potentially be developed.

  11. Energy crops for biogas plants. Brandenburg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, L.; Barthelmes, G.; Biertuempfel, A. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration, the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzen-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on recommendations on alternative cropping systems for energy crop rotations in order to achieve high yields in combination with high diversity, risk spreading and sustainability. In particular, the natural site conditions in the Federal State of Brandenburg (Federal Republic of Germany) are determined.

  12. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  13. Describing and locating cropping systems on a regional scale. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leenhardt, Delphine; Angevin, Frédérique; Biarnès, Anne; Colbach, Nathalie; Mignolet, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    At regional scale issues such as diffuse pollution, water scarcity and pollen transfer are closely related to the diversity and location of cropping systems because agriculture interacts with many other activities. Although sustainable land use solutions for territorial development and natural resource management are needed, very few agro-environmental studies account for both the coherence and the spatial variability of cropping systems. The originality of this article is to review methods t...

  14. A WEB BASED TOMATO CROP EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Babu M.S; Ramana Murty .N.V; Narayana S.V.N.L

    2010-01-01

    Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato...

  15. Environmental benefits of growing perennial legumes in cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa offers several environmental benefits to farmers and society. Reduced nitrate leaching due to slower water flow and excellent nitrate removal are valuable in farm fields and at remediation sites. Improved N supply to following crops reduces energy use, economic costs, and greenhouse gas emis...

  16. [Characteristics of seasonal drought and its adaptation in southern China under the background of global climate change. VI. Optimized layout of cropping system for preventing and avoiding drought disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-11-01

    Southern China is an important agricultural planting region of China, but the seasonal drought severely impacted the regional agricultural production. Based on the 1981-2007 meteorological data from 13 typical meteorological stations in the seasonal drought areas in southern China and the data of related crops growth period and yield, three precipitation year types (drought year, normal year, and wet year) were classified based on the yearly precipitation, and by using five indices (coupling degree of water requirement and precipitation during crop water critical stages, meteorological crop yield, output value per unit area, and water use efficiency and precipitation during whole growth period), the comprehensive benefit of all possible cropping patterns in each typical region was evaluated, and the optimal cropping patterns in the different regions of southern China in different precipitation years were obtained. In the semi-arid region, the optimal cropping patterns in dry year included potato-maize-sweet potato and winter wheat-rice-sweet potato. In the semi-humid region and during dry year, winter wheat-rice-sweet potato was the best choice, and rape seed-rice-sweet potato was the second one. In the warm and humid region (the typical region where seasonal drought happened), the best cropping pattern in Jiangnan area in different precipitation years was potato-double cropping rice, and the suitable patterns in southwest area were the triple cropping systems with drought-resistant crops, such as winter wheat-rice-sweet potato, winter wheat-maize-sweet potato, and potato-double cropping rice. From the aspect of maximally utilizing water and heat resources, triple cropping would be the best choice, with the rice and upland crop rotation as the main and with the rice arranged in pairs in wet year. PMID:24564149

  17. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1 year-1). The difference between conservation and conventional systems was as result of the greater use of machinery and, consequently, of fuel in conventional, though the use of herbicides was slightly lower. In both systems, fertilizer was the most important energy input. EO was lower for organic (17.9 GJ ha-1 year-1) than for either conventional or conservation systems (25.7 and 23.4 GJ ha-1 year-1, respectively), a result of the lower barley grain and vetch hay yields. The highest NE was obtained in organic (14.5 GJ ha-1 year-1), and the lowest in conservation (13.0 GJ ha-1 year-1). In relation to O/I, organic farming were about 2.3 times more energetically efficient (5.36) than either the conventional or conservation systems (about 2.35). EP ranged from 400 kg GJ-1 in organic to 177 kg GJ-1 in conventional. No differences in all the energy variables considered were recorded between the conventional and conservation managements. As conclusions and in terms of energy efficiency, farming systems requiring agrochemicals in semi-arid Mediterranean conditions, whether conventional or conservation, appeared to be little efficient. Chemical fertilizer was the most important energy input in these two systems, but their use did not lead to an equivalent increase in yield because of the irregular distribution in many years. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  18. Possible impact of the Renewable Energy Directive on N fertilization intensity and yield of winter oilseed rape in different cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), established sustainability criteria for biofuels including legal thresholds for specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, expressed as g CO2eq per MJ of biofuel. Because biofuels are a major market for winter oilseed rape (WOSR), investigating the possible impact of the RED on WOSR cropping practices is prudent. This study analyses GHG emissions for WOSR cropping practices (namely N fertilization intensity, tillage method and crop rotation) basing on a 6-year field trial in a high yielding area of northern Germany. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology the field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are calculated from the nitrogen (N) inputs to the cropping system. Results showed that the predominant source of GHG emissions is the N related emissions from production of fertilizer and N2O field emissions. Specific GHG emissions are lowest without N fertilizer but rise continuously with increasing N rates. Yield per ha also responded to N fertilization resulting in lowered acreage productivity when reducing GHG emissions by reducing N fertilization level. Most calculated scenarios and cropping systems result in a drastic decrease of N fertilization to achieve thresholds, causing substantial yield losses. To a certain extent, the required drastic reduction of N fertilization in some scenarios is driven by using the IPCC methodology for calculating N2O emissions. Therefore characteristics of this methodology are also discussed within this study. To mitigate the impact of the RED on WOSR, peas (legumes) may be a possible preceding crop to WOSR. -- Highlights: •Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were calculated for varying cropping systems. •Specific GHG emissions rise continuously with increasing N fertilization. •The impact of the Renewable Energy Directive was evaluated in a scenario analysis. •Most calculation scenarios require a substantial reduction of N fertilization. •Low N fertilization results in drastic yield losses and low acreage productivity

  19. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in legume based cropping systems; a case study of West Africa farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) has been gradually depleted from West African soils and now poses serious threats to food production. Many ways of increasing N supply (e.g. judicious use of inorganic fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing plants) have been tried in West African farming systems. Herbaceous and woody legumes commonly contribute 40-70 kg N ha-l season. This represents about 30% of the total N applied as residues. Nevertheless and despite repeated demonstrations of the usefulness of green manures in enhancing soil fertility, their practices and adoption are still limited. Promiscuous soya beans are being used to develop sustainable cropping systems in the moist savannah. Reliable estimates of N2 fixed by soya beans and their residual N benefits to subsequent cereal crops in the savannah zone of southern Guinea have only infrequently been made. The actual amounts measured varied between 38 and 126 kg N ha-l assuming that only seeds of soya beans are removed from the plots, the net N accrual of soil nitrogen ranges between minus 8 kg N ha-l and plus 47 kg N ha-l depending on the soyabean cultivar. Residual soyabean N values of 10-24 kg N ha-l (14-36% of the total N in maize) were obtained in a soyabean-maize rotation. Although cereal yields following legume cultivation have been attributed to greater N accumulation, our data show that the relative increase in maize N was smaller than the relative increase in dry-matter yield. Hence, the increased yields of maize following soy beans are not entirely due to the carry-over of N from soyabean residues (as well as to conservation of soil N) but to other rotational effects as well. It is thus clear that the N benefit of grain legumes to non-legumes is small compared to the level of N fertilizer use in more intensive cereal production systems but is nevertheless significant in the context of the low amounts of input in subsistence farming. (author)

  20. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Ralph C. Martin; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tilla...

  1. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  2. Controlled Drainage As Measure to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in a Wheat Cropping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØrgesen, Christen Duus; Hvid, SØren Kolind

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface drainage of soil to avoid water logging is a prerequisite for crop cultivation for a large proportion of the agricultural land, and approximately 50% of the Danish agricultural area is artificially drained. Multifunctional drain systems can be effective measures to reduce losses of nutrients, such as Controlled Drainage (CD). With CD the water table of drained fields is raised or lowered by adjusting the drain pipe outlet elevation. By restricting drain flow at times when drainage is not needed, the overall volume of water flow is reduced, more soil moisture is available for the growing crop, and nutrient exports are reduced. CD has been shown to diminish leaching losses of soluble nutrients. So far CD has only been tested for spring sown crops but widespread implementation on drained clayey soils would rely on its adaption to winter cereal production systems. A new project on CD applied at four winter cropped fields in Denmark investigates how effects of anaerobic conditions created by CD will affect chemical/biological processes in the submerged soil, root growth, crop production, and nutrient losses. Nitrification is expected to be retarded by wet soils during winter, preserving ammonium for crop uptake in the following cropping season. Installed equipment, soil survey results and measurement results from the first winter season will be presented.

  3. Influence of Different Tillage Systems and Weed Treatments in the Establishment Year on the Final Biomass Production of Short Rotation Coppice Poplar

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Spiecker; Frieder Seidl; Jonathan Sheppard; Christopher Morhart

    2013-01-01

    In this study the influence of three different tillage systems in combination with eight varying weed treatments applied within the establishment year and its effect on the final above ground leafless biomass production (after the third growing season) of short rotation coppice poplar is presented. The three tillage systems included variants with ploughing and harrowing, variants with cultivation and ley cropping and variants without tillage. Weed treatments included the application of differ...

  4. Nine-year results on maize and processing tomato cultivation in an organic and in a conventional low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Farneselli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-year results on yields and apparent balances of organic matter and nitrogen (N are reported for maize and processing tomato cultivated in a long term comparison trial between an organic and a conventional low-input system in Central Italy. In every year, above ground biomass and N accumulation of each cash crop and green manure, including weeds, and the partitioning between marketable yield and crop residues were determined. Apparent dry matter and nitrogen balances were calculated at the end of each crop cycle by taking into account the amounts of dry matter and ex-novo N supplied to the system as green manure legume Ndfa (i.e. an estimate of N derived from the atmosphere via symbiotic fixation and fertilizers, and those removed with marketable yield. Processing tomato complied with organic cultivation better than maize. As compared to the conventional crop cultivation, organic tomato provided similar yields, used supplied N more efficiently and left lower residual N after harvest, with lower related risks of pollution. Organic maize yielded less than conventional one. The main limitation for organic maize was the low N availability during initial growth phases, due to either low N supply or low rate of N release from incorporated green manure biomass. In both organic and conventional cultivation the system sustainability could be improved by an appropriate crop rotation: wheat in fall winter likely prevented leaching loss of mineral N in both systems; green manure crops in the organic system allowed to either trap and recycle soil mineral N or supply ex novo legume Ndfa to the soil, with benefits in mitigation of N pollution and improvement in self-sufficiency of the system.

  5. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. and two control treatments: sole maize with or without fertilizer NPK. Eight months after the plantation, the legumes species were pruned and incorporated in soil. Maize was sown interows legumes, in rows spaced 80 cm. New prune carried on sixty days after the first cut. In the second cycle, the crop handlings were similar to the first cycle. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. In the alley cropping with Cajanus cajan the maize show the larger N foliar concentration, in first cycle. In the second cycle, maize+Gliricidia sepium, maize+Cajanus cajan and sole maize with NPK produced more grain than others treatments.

  6. Biomass supply from alternative cellulosic crops and crop residues: A spatially explicit bioeconomic modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highli