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Sample records for crop rotation systems

  1. Estimation of USLE crop and management factor values for crop rotation systems in China

    GUO Qian-kun; LIU Bao-yuan; XIE Yun; LIU Ying-na; YIN Shui-qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion on cropland is a major source of environmental problems in China ranging from the losses of a non-renewable resource and of nutrients at the source to contamination of downstream areas. Regional soil loss assessments using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) would supply a scientiifc basis for soil conservation planning. However, a lack of in-formation on the cover and management (C) factor for cropland, one of the most important factors in the USLE, has limited accurate regional assessments in China due to the large number of crops grown and their complicated rotation systems. In this study, single crop soil loss ratios (SLRs) were col ected and quantiifed for 10 primary crops from past studies or re-ports. The mean annual C values for 88 crop rotation systems in 12 cropping system regions were estimated based on the combined effects of single crop SLRs and the percentage of annual rainfal erosivity (R) during the corresponding periods for each system. The C values in different cropping system regions were compared and discussed. The results indicated that the SLRs of the 10 primary crops ranged from 0.15 to 0.74. The mean annual C value for al 88 crop rotation systems was 0.34, with a standard deviation of 0.12. The mean C values in the single, double and triple cropping zones were 0.37, 0.36 and 0.28, respectively, and the C value in the triple zone was signiifcantly different from those in single and double zones. The C values of dryland crop systems exhibited signiifcant differences in the single and triple cropping system regions but the differences in the double regions were not signiifcant. This study is the ifrst report of the C values of crop rotation systems in China at the national scale. It wil provide necessary and practical parameters for accurately assessing regional soil losses from cropland to guide soil conservation plans and to optimize crop rotation systems.

  2. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Strašil Zdeněk; Vach Milan; Smutný Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT) method, minimum tillage (MT) and a system with no tillage (NT). The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter) of the primary product and the total ...

  3. Recycling of crop residues for sustainable crop production in a wheat-peanut rotation system

    Field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil at west Samalout, Minia, Egypt, from December 1996 to October 1999. The main objectives were (i) to examine long-term effects of applications of crop residues on crop nutrition, yields and soil fertility; (ii) to improve process-level understanding of nutrient flows through the use of isotopic techniques, and (iii) to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by a wheat-peanut rotation system. There were four treatments: (i) T1, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N with unlabelled residues; (ii) T2, 15N-labelled wheat residues, 26 kg N/ha at 1.94% 15N a.e, applied at the end of the first season; (iii) T3, to generate unlabelled residues and yield; and (iv) T4, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N atom excess, applied at the beginning of the first season, without residues. The Ndff recoveries during the first season in treatments T1 and T4 were 27% and 26% respectively, while 25% of the 15N remained in the soil for T1 and T4. Thus, the total amounts of 15N accounted for (in plant and soil) were 51% for T1 and 50% for T4. After the second crop, the total 15N recovery was 25% and 13% for T1 and T4, respectively. Application of the crop residues seemed to decrease N losses from the soil. Values for %N derived from labelled residues (%Ndfr) by wheat (T2) were 1.0% and 0.4% during seasons 3 and 5, respectively, while recoveries of %Ndfr by peanut from T2 treatments were 3.7, 4.1 and 0.3 during seasons 2, 4 and 6, respectively. In the following five seasons (peanut-wheat-peanut-wheat-peanut), total 15N recoveries by plant and soil were 67, 54, 34, 25 and 16%, respectively. (author)

  4. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  5. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  6. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  7. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS, Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS were compared, namely: 1 no tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4 conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum. This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  8. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  9. Fungal communities of the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane of yellow lupine in a crop rotation system

    Bożena Cwalina-Abroziak; Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2014-01-01

    Fungal community populating the rhizosphere and lhe rhizoplane of yellow lupine Juno and Markiz cultivated in the crop rotation with the 20% and 33% portion of lupine was analyzed. The total fungus number was reduced when the participation of lupine in the crop rotation was established at level 20%. Then the pathogenic fungi were replaced by more frequently appeared saprofitic species representing the following genera: Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Pathogenic Fusarium were more f...

  10. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  11. TOTAL CARBON STOCK IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM HAVING CROP ROTATION IN TARAI REGION OF NORTHERN INDIA

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon pools are important in maintaining soil productivity and influencing the CO2 loading into the atmosphere. Agricultural soils can mitigate the problem of carbon concentration increase in atmosphere if proper management practices are involved. In the present study, total carbon stock in crops and soil was analyzed for two years along with crop rotation practice to observe its impact on the carbon pool. For that two agricultural fields C12 and D7 were incorporated with differ...

  12. Fungal communities of the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane of yellow lupine in a crop rotation system

    Bożena Cwalina-Abroziak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal community populating the rhizosphere and lhe rhizoplane of yellow lupine Juno and Markiz cultivated in the crop rotation with the 20% and 33% portion of lupine was analyzed. The total fungus number was reduced when the participation of lupine in the crop rotation was established at level 20%. Then the pathogenic fungi were replaced by more frequently appeared saprofitic species representing the following genera: Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Pathogenic Fusarium were more frequently isolated from the lupine rhizoplane cultivated in combination with its 33% participation.

  13. Economic analysis of stockless, horticultural crop rotations on a model farm in temperate zone organic systems

    Schmutz, Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Rayns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Research draws on an organic research farm site in central England with a temperate zone climate - fairly common for the northern lowlands of Europe. The soil type is a sandy loam with 591 mm rainfall. Detailed economic and agronomic data have been collected since conversion began in 1995. The economic analysis discusses rotational gross and net margins of more than 30 different rotations with different fertility building and vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, onions, carrots, leeks and par...

  14. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C

  15. TOTAL CARBON STOCK IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM HAVING CROP ROTATION IN TARAI REGION OF NORTHERN INDIA

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon pools are important in maintaining soil productivity and influencing the CO2 loading into the atmosphere. Agricultural soils can mitigate the problem of carbon concentration increase in atmosphere if proper management practices are involved. In the present study, total carbon stock in crops and soil was analyzed for two years along with crop rotation practice to observe its impact on the carbon pool. For that two agricultural fields C12 and D7 were incorporated with different crop rotations for two years and on the basis of this SOC, Total Carbon, soil respiration and carbon stock were measured. In the end of the study C12 showed higher biomass carbon stock (2.61 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (1.98 t ha-1 and also higher total carbon stock (plant+soil (40.09 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (38.30 t ha-1. Results prove that agriculture can not only be the source but also an effective sink if it is properly managed with different crop rotation practices and also with no-till practice.

  16. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas;

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen...... sound representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects....... crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types...

  17. Crop rotation impact on soil quality

    Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)

  18. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area

  19. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  1. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  2. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  3. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on ecosystem services from rice rotated crop systems in China

    Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing; Li, Changsheng; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Yali; Huang, Guorui

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable intensification in agriculture has stressed the need for management practices that could increase crop yields while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. It is well recognized that water and nutrient management hold great promise to address these goals. This study uses the DNDC biogeochemical model to stimulate the impacts of water regime and nitrogen fertilizer management interactions on ecosystem services of rice rotated crop systems in China. County-level optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rates under various water management practices were captured and then multiple scenarios of water and nitrogen fertilizer management were set to more than 1600 counties with rice rotations in China. Results indicate that an national average of 15.7±5.9% (the mean value and standard deviation derive from variability of three water management practices) reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs can be achieved without significantly sacrificing rice yields. On a national scale, shallow flooding with optimal N application rates appear most potential to enhance ecosystem services, which led to 10.6% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs, 34.3% decrease of total GHG emissions, 2.8% less of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and a 1.7% increase of rice yields compared to the baseline scenario. Regional GHG emissions mitigation derived from water regime change vary with soil properties and the multiple crop index. Among the main production regions of rice in China, the highest reduction happened in Jiangxu, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei (more than 40% reduction) with high SOC, high multiple crop index and low clay fraction. The highest reduction of GHG emissions derived from reducing current N application rate to optimal rate appeared in Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu where the serious over-application of mineral N exit. It was concluded that process models like DNDC would act an essential tool to identify sustainable agricultural

  4. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  5. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for...... locations in Denmark, differing in soil and climate, and representative of the selected production systems. The CO2 effects were modelled using projected CO2 concentrations for the A1B emission scenario. Crop rotations were irrigated (sandy soil) and unirrigated (sandy loam soil), and all included systems...... with and without catch crops, with field operation dates adapted to baseline and future climate change. Model projections showed an increase in the productivity and N leaching in the future that would be dependent on crop rotation and crop management, highlighting the importance of considering the...

  6. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  7. Diversifying cereal-based rotations to improve weed control. Evaluation with the AlomySys model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on a grass weed

    Colbach Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simplified rotations often select weed flora consisting of one or several dominant species. In rotations consisting mainly of winter cereals, one of the most frequent weeds in Atlantic European countries is blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.. In order to reduce environmental impacts and avoid the selection of herbicide-resistant populations, alternative weed management strategies are necessary. The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology for using a weed dynamics model called ALOMYSYS for evaluating prospective diversified crop rotations based on expert opinion. These prospective rotations were developed for a particular region aiming at reducing herbicide use while keeping weed infestation similar to that in current cropping systems. The prospective systems were also evaluated economically by calculating costs and margins for the farmer. The simulations showed that the more diverse the rotation, the better blackgrass was controlled and the less herbicides (rates and frequencies were necessary. Optimal herbicide spraying conditions and mouldboard ploughing were also less essential in diverse rotations. It was though essential to reason herbicide programs over the whole rotation and not simply as function of the preceding crop. The economic evaluation identified the interest of spring or winter pea either replacing or preceding oilseed rape (OSR in OSR/wheat/barley rotations.

  8. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  9. Crop rotation planning tool for organic farms

    Bachinger, J.; Zander, P.

    2001-01-01

    To support the development and expansion of organic farming, more research is needed to optimise the function and practices of individual farms. Furthermore, it is important to assess the ecological effects of organic farming on a regional scale in order to show potential ad-vantages of organic farming compared to conventional farming. Both issues require model-ling of cropping methods and crop rotations. The authors present a rule-based model for the generation of site-specific and agronomic...

  10. Learning from a long-term crop rotation experiment

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing differ-ent soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different propor-tions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rota-tional level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal...

  11. Estimation of USLE crop and management factor values for crop rotation svstems in China

    GUO Qian-kun; LIU Bao-yuan; XIE Yun; LIU Ying-na; YIN Shui-qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion on cropland is a major source of environmental problems in China ranging from the losses of a non-renewable resource and of nutrients at the source to contamination of downstream areas. Regional soil loss assessments using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) would supply a scientific basis for soil conservation planning. However, a lack of in- formation on the cover and management (C) factor for cropland, one of the most important factors in the USLE, has limited accurate regional assessments in China due to the large number of crops grown and their complicated rotation systems. In this study, single crop soil loss ratios (SLRs) were collected and quantified for 10 primary crops from past studies or re- ports. The mean annual C values for 88 crop rotation systems in 12 cropping system regions were estimated based on the combined effects of single crop SLRs and the percentage of annual rainfall erosivity (R) during the corresponding periods for each system. The C values in different cropping system regions were compared and discussed. The results indicated that the SLRs of the 10 primary crops ranged from 0.15 to 0.74. The mean annual C value for all 88 crop rotation systems was 0.34, with a standard deviation of 0.12. The mean C values in the single, double and triple cropping zones were 0.37, 0.36 and 0.28, respectively, and the C value in the triple zone was significantly different from those in single and double zones. The C values of dryland crop systems exhibited significant differences in the single and triple cropping system regions but the differences in the double regions were not significant. This study is the first report of the C values of crop rotation systems in China at the national scale. It will provide necessary and practical parameters for accurately assessing regional soil losses from cropland to guide soil conservation plans and to optimize crop rotation systems.

  12. Effects of crop rotation and management system on water-extractable organic matter concentration, structure, and bioavailability in a chernozemic agricultural soil.

    Xu, Na; Wilson, Henry F; Saiers, James E; Entz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) in soil affects contaminant mobility and toxicity, heterotrophic production, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study focuses on the influences of land use history and agricultural management practices on the water extractability of organic matter and nutrients from soils. Water-extractable organic matter was extracted from soils under different crop rotations (an annual rotation of wheat-pea/bean-wheat-flax or a perennial-based rotation of wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) and management systems (organic or conventional) and examined for its concentration, composition, and biodegradability. The results show that crop rotations including perennial legumes increased the concentration of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and water-extractable organic nitrogen (WEON) and the biodegradability of WEOC in soil but depleted the quantity of water-extractable organic phosphorus (WEOP) and water-extractable reactive phosphorus. The 30-d incubation experiments showed that bioavailable WEOC varied from 12.5% in annual systems to 22% for perennial systems. The value of bioavailable WEOC was found to positively correlate with WEON concentrations and to negatively correlate with C:N ratio and the specific ultraviolet absorbance of WEOM. No significant treatment effect was present with the conventional and organic management practices, which suggested that WEOM, as the relatively labile pool in soil organic matter, is more responsive to the change in crop rotation than to mineral fertilizer application. Our results indicated that agricultural landscapes with contrasting crop rotations are likely to differentially affect rates of microbial cycling of organic matter leached to soil waters. PMID:23673753

  13. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  14. Determinants of crop rotation choices by pig farmers in Britany

    Martel, Gilles; TERSIGUEL, Elodie; Giteau, Jean-Luc; Ramonet, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Pig farms in Brittany have on average 65 ha of cultivated area (UAA), which is far from the image of battery farming commonly accepted. There is very little data on how pig farmers use this area and moreover on the links between crop rotations and production system. The aim of this study is to review the diversity of crop rotations of pig farms and to identify factors influencing their choice. A survey was carried out in 28 swine farms in Brittany. The farms were chosen to represent a diversi...

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pcultivation when compared to a control treatment. Subsequent measurements will be necessary to further quantify and assess the mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices

  16. Cadmium contamination of soil and crops is affected by intercropping and rotation systems in the lower reaches of the Minjiang River in south-western China.

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Kai; Li, Yong; Yang, Wanqin; Wu, Fuzhong; Zhu, Peng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Lianghua; Gao, Shun; Zhang, Li

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and pollution in arable soils are particularly serious in the lower reaches of the Minjiang River in southwest of China. In this study, the remediation efficiency of Cd contamination in arable soils, the distribution pattern of Cd concentration in crops, and the food safety to humans of three typical cropping systems (S1: maize + sweet potato-Chinese cabbage, S2: maize + ginger-stem mustard, and S3: rice) were investigated and evaluated. After 1-year rotation, the percentage of Cd extracted by crops from the plough soil layer was observed in three system fields with the trend of S1 (2.30 %) > S2 (1.16 %) > S3 (0.21 %) and Cd extraction amount in crops was maximum in sweet potato, then in maize. The same kind of crop had the same pattern of Cd distribution in organs, and the edible parts generally accumulated less Cd amount than the inedible parts. Further, the grain crops were found to possibly be suitable one for using as phytoaccumulators of Cd contamination for farmlands. Direct consumption of these crops from the three systems would pose a high health risk to local inhabitants since it would result in the monthly intake of Cd (247 μg kg(-1) body weight) being nearly 10 times higher than the recommended tolerable monthly intake (RTMI) (25 μg kg(-1) body weight), resulting mainly from the consumption of vegetables rather than the grains, which would be potentially reduced by these foods being consumed by livestock firstly. PMID:26323960

  17. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  18. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Chang-An Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer, N (nitrogen, P (phosphorus, and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008 on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil.

  19. Evaluation of oilseed crop rotations with agro-environmental indicators

    Pouzet André

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Common Agricultural Policy is shifting an increasing part of the subsidies to eco-conditionality. Henceforth, it becomes essential to evaluate the environmental effect of agricultural practices, and more generally performances of cropping and farming systems, in order to design and to develop more sustainable systems. This assessment is being implemented for the main cropping systems of some French regions, using environmental indicators. Eleven exposure indicators were chosen in order to represent a wide range of specific sustainability objectives dealing with water, soil, air, non-renewable resources, biodiversity, and landscape. The results present the sustainability assessment for the crop rotations of Champagne Berrichonne region in the Centre of France.

  20. Calagem em cultivos sucessivos de cenoura e alface Liming on crop rotation system of carrot and lettuce

    Paulo E Trani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de calcário indicada de forma rotineira para hortaliças tem pouca experimentação de campo para dar suporte a níveis de aplicação. Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer valores para a saturação por bases (V e pH (CaCl2 para melhor produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (de inverno e alface (de verão, cultivadas sucessivamente por três anos agrícolas em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP. Avaliou-se a calagem aplicada no ano, bem como o efeito residual da calagem no segundo e terceiro anos subseqüentes. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no primeiro ano, e 4 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no segundo e terceiro anos. Constatou-se efeito positivo da calagem sobre a produção e qualidade comercial da cenoura e da alface nos três anos agrícolas e efeito residual da calagem aplicada no primeiro ano do experimento sobre as produções de cenoura e alface nos anos seguintes. No primeiro ano, a produtividade de cenoura comercial foi de 24% a 39% maior do que a testemunha sem calcário, enquanto o peso médio da cabeça de alface aumentou de 79% a 199%. As maiores produtividades de cenoura foram de 46 t ha-1 obtidas com V=73% e pH (CaCl2= 5,7. As melhores produções de alface foram atingidas com V entre 72% e 80% e o pH (CaCl2 entre 5,5 e 5,6. A omissão de B, Cu, Mn e Zn em um dos tratamentos com calagem acarretou na queda de produtividade e qualidade da cenoura nos três anos agrícolas.Amounts of lime recommended for carrots and lettuce have little experimental support for the amounts indicated. This research was developed to determine the adequate value of soil bases saturation (V and pH (CaCl2 to obtain the best yield and commercial quality of carrot (winter and lettuce (summer cultivated on crop rotation system during three years. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil, on a Typic Kandaudult soil. The residual effect of liming, at the

  1. Plant protection in an organic crop rotation experiment for grain production

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Jørgen E. Olesen

    1999-01-01

    The plant protection carried out in the Danish crop rotation experiment is described. These measures can be quite different in the different systems. While mechanical weed control can be carried out in systems without catch crops, it is not possible to do so in systems with catch crops without affecting the establishment of the catch crop. The occurrence of weeds, pests and diseases is recorded, and the results are described. Since the results are only from the two first years of the expe...

  2. Crop production during the first course of an organic crop rotation trial in Denmark

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær

    2000-01-01

    Three factors are included in a factorial field experiment: 1) fraction of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation (crop rotation), 2) catch crop (with or without catch crop), and 3) manure (with or without animal manure). Manure is applied as slurry in rates corresponding to 40 % of the nitrogen demand. Grain yields for three sites and three years of the experiment are presented for two four-course rotations. One rotation has a green-manure crop, which is replaced by winter wheat in the o...

  3. National-scale modelling of N leaching in organic and conventional horticultural crop rotations - policy implications

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Rayns, Dr Francis; Firth, Chris; Nendel, Dr Claas; Lillywhite, Mr Rob; Zhang, Dr Kefeng; Rahn, Dr Clive

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to model N leaching in crop rotations on a national scale. Representative crop rotations for different regions and soil types are used in the cross-disciplinary, plant, soil, environment & economics model EU-Rotate_N. By comparing contrasting farming systems (organic and conventional) in the UK, their strengths and weaknesses in delivering environmental and economic sustainability can be assessed. Modelling results show that the annual leaching in different horticultural...

  4. Rotylenchulus reniformis Management in Cotton with Crop Rotation

    Davis, R. F.; Koenning, S. R.; Kemerait, R. C.; Cummings, T. D.; Shurley, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    One-year crop rotations with corn or highly resistant soybean were evaluated at four locations for their effect on Rotylenchulus reniformis population levels and yield of a subsequent cotton crop. Four nematicide (aldicarb) regimes were included at two of the locations, and rotation with reniform-susceptible soybean was included at the other two locations. One-year rotations to corn or resistant soybean resulted in lower R. reniformis population levels (P ≤ 0.05) than those found in cotton at...

  5. Long-term organic crop rotation experiments for cereal production – yield development and dynamics

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing different soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different proportions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rotational level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal ma...

  6. Nitrate leaching from arable crop rotations in organic farming

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from crop rotations for organic grain production were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2002. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) cover crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and without). Two four-course rotations were compared. They had one year of grass-clover as a green manure crop, either followed by spring whea...

  7. The role of short-rotation woody crops in sustainable development

    One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society's needs

  8. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2014-01-01

    incorporated in the soil in the ‘Mulching’ rotation and removed and used for biogas production in the ‘Biogas’ rotation (and residues from biogas production were simulated to be returned to the field). A method was suggested for allocating effects of fertility building crops in life cycle assessments. The......-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included.......Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different...

  9. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  10. Energy performances of intensive and extensive short rotation cropping systems for woody biomass production in the EU

    Djomo, S. N.; Ač, Alexander; Zenone, T.; De Groote, T.; Bergante, S.; Facciotto, G.; Sixto, H.; Ciria Ciria, P.; Weger, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, jan (2015), s. 845-854. ISSN 1364-0321 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : poplar * willow * bioenergy crops * energy balance * energy efficiency Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2014

  11. Identification of key factors for reducing N and P leaching from organic crop rotations

    Neumann, Angelika; Torstensson, Gunnar; Aronsson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for different 6-year organic crop rotations was examined in separately tile-drained field plots on two different sites in southwest Sweden. On each site, two different farming systems, one with dairy cows and one without stock, were evaluated to identify parts of the crop rotations with the greatest risks of N and P leaching and to examine the scope for improvement. Although organic farming methods themselves already led to a reduction in nutrient l...

  12. Weed control through crop rotation and alternative management practices

    Böhm, Herwart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic as well as agricultural and socio-political changes have an impact on crop management and thus also on crop rotation design and the related effects on the weed flora. Likewise other changes in cultivation such as reduced tillage practices, earlier sowing date, etc. cause an increase in weed infestation resp. an increased use of herbicides and if so contribute to herbicide resistance. The positive effects of crop rotation, but also of alternative management practices such as choice of varieties, catch crops, mixed cropping, green chop, and the share of predators, as well as methods of direct non-chemical weed control are presented and discussed for both, conventional and organic farming. If alternative management methods should be more practiced, especially trade-offs need to be broken, or incentives be offered.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN SPRING LENTIL-WHEAT ROTATION ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELDS

    AVCI, Muzaffer; ATAMAN, Yener

    1994-01-01

    Various management techniques in spring lentil-wheat rotation were compared as yield, emergence and some physical properties of soil in order to find a suitable method which provides less compaction of soil and high grain yields. After lentil harvest, lowest bulk density, highest total and  aeration porosities and hydraulic conductivity of soil were obtained with the method of "fall plowing, sweep + harrowing in spring and seeding lentil with cereal drill". The analysis of samples taken after...

  14. Soil solarization and crop rotation to manage root-knot nematodes in organic greenhouses

    Védie, H.; Mateille, Thierry; Tavoillot, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, several on-farm experiments were conducted in Mediterranean organic greenhouse cropping systems in France to assess the efficacy of two complementary methods designed to control root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.): soil solarization and crop rotations with non-susceptible host plants. Results showed that soil solarization reduced root and soil infestation of root-knot nematodes in subsequent crops and that nematode suppression gradually increased when used every year. This tech...

  15. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  16. Crop rotation and crop management effects on cereal yields in arable organic farming in Denmark

    J. E. Olesen; Askegaard, M.; Rasmussen, I. A.; K. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in organic crop production is to ensure high and stable crop yields. In this study we used data from a 12 year old crop rotation experiment in Denmark to estimate the contribution of various management factors to yields of winter and spring cereals. The experiment included three factors in two replicates: 1) Grass-clover green manure crop (with and without), 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) animal manure (with and without). Animal manure was the most importa...

  17. An organic vegetable crop rotation aimed at self-sufficiency in nitrogen

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the organic vegetable crop rotation. The ideas behind the design of the crop rotation, the use of green manures and catch crops, and how information on crop root growth has been used to try to design a crop rotation with a high NUE and minimal N leaching losses. The results from the first years of the rotation, in terms of yield and N uptake of the crops and of the content of inorganic N in the soil are presented.

  18. Principal factors of fodder crops production process in forage and grain-fodder crops rotations

    The results of research of energy- and mass-exchange dynamics of fodder crops and agrophytocenoses in intensive fodder and grain fodder crops rotations for various soil fertility are analysed. Elements of water balance regime of mineral nutrition, photosynthetic activity, radiation, productivity index and quality of raw materials are presented

  19. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Annual progress report for 1985

    Ranney, J.W.; Trimble, J.L.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress and accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. The SRWCP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division. The SRWCP is an integrated program of 17 resarch projects aimed at improving the productivity and economic efficiency of short-rotation intensive culture (SRIC) of hardwood trees and shrubs for energy. Development of a viable technology using SRIC for energy production is the ultimate goal of the program. This report presents research results that indicate that SRIC technology is becoming economically competitive under specific regional and local conditions. In most areas of the United States, additional technological improvements are needed and are attainable. This report is a synthesis of research results and conclusions in the areas of selecting and breeding for rapid juvenile growth, efficiently utilizing and manipulating site characteristics, maximizing coppice-rotation productivity, evaluating harvesting equipment, and analyzing the economic competitiveness of SRIC wood for energy. Future programmatic research priorities are presented, as well as general conclusions about SRIC woody production systems in the United States. 65 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Economics, energy, and environmental assessment of diversified crop rotations in sub-Himalayas of India.

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Meena, Roshan Lal; Sharma, N K; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30.2-36.2 t/ha) than other crop rotations (5.04-7.68 t/ha). But interestingly in terms of energy efficiencies, traditional maize-wheat system (energy efficiency 7.9, human energy profitability of 177.8 and energy profitability of 6.9 MJ/ha) was significantly superior over other systems. Maize + ginger rotation showed greater competitive advantage over other rotations because of less consumption of non-renewable energy resources. Similarly, maize-tomato rotation had ability of the production process to exploit natural resources due to 14-38% less use of commercial or purchased energy sources over other crop rotations. Vegetable-based crop rotations (maize + ginger and maize-tomato) maintained significantly the least carbon footprint (0.008 and 0.019 kg CO2 eq./kg grain, respectively) and the highest profitability (154,322 and 274,161 Rs./ha net return, respectively) over other crop rotations. As the greatest inputs of energy and carbon across the five crop rotations were nitrogen fertilizer (15-29% and 17-28%, respectively), diesel (14-24% and 8-19%, respectively) and irrigation (10-27% and 11-44%, respectively), therefore, alternative sources like organic farming, conservation agriculture practices, soil and water conservation measures, rain water harvesting etc. should be encouraged to reduce dependency of direct energy and external

  1. Meeting the demand for crop production: the challenge of yield decline in crops grown in short rotations.

    Bennett, Amanda J; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Hilton, Sally; Mills, Peter

    2012-02-01

    There is a trend world-wide to grow crops in short rotation or in monoculture, particularly in conventional agriculture. This practice is becoming more prevalent due to a range of factors including economic market trends, technological advances, government incentives, and retailer and consumer demands. Land-use intensity will have to increase further in future in order to meet the demands of growing crops for both bioenergy and food production, and long rotations may not be considered viable or practical. However, evidence indicates that crops grown in short rotations or monoculture often suffer from yield decline compared to those grown in longer rotations or for the first time. Numerous factors have been hypothesised as contributing to yield decline, including biotic factors such as plant pathogens, deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms, mycorrhizas acting as pathogens, and allelopathy or autotoxicity of the crop, as well as abiotic factors such as land management practices and nutrient availability. In many cases, soil microorganisms have been implicated either directly or indirectly in yield decline. Although individual factors may be responsible for yield decline in some cases, it is more likely that combinations of factors interact to cause the problem. However, evidence confirming the precise role of these various factors is often lacking in field studies due to the complex nature of cropping systems and the numerous interactions that take place within them. Despite long-term knowledge of the yield-decline phenomenon, there are few tools to counteract it apart from reverting to longer crop rotations or break crops. Alternative cropping and management practices such as double-cropping or inter-cropping, tillage and organic amendments may prove valuable for combating some of the negative effects seen when crops are grown in short rotation. Plant breeding continues to be important, although this does require a specific breeding target to be identified. This

  2. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  3. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. PMID:26836846

  4. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  5. Potentials of RapidEye time series for improved classification of crop rotations in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes: experiences from irrigation systems in Central Asia

    Conrad, Christopher; Machwitz, Miriam; Schorcht, Gunther; Löw, Fabian; Fritsch, Sebastian; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    In Central Asia, more than eight Million ha of agricultural land are under irrigation. But severe degradation problems and unreliable water distribution have caused declining yields during the past decades. Reliable and area-wide information about crops can be seen as important step to elaborate options for sustainable land and water management. Experiences from RapidEye classifications of crop in Central Asia are exemplarily shown during a classification of eight crop classes including three rotations with winter wheat, cotton, rice, and fallow land in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan covering 230,000 ha of irrigated land. A random forest generated by using 1215 field samples was applied to multitemporal RapidEye data acquired during the vegetation period 2010. But RapidEye coverage varied and did not allow for generating temporally consistent mosaics covering the entire region. To classify all 55,188 agricultural parcels in the region three classification zones were classified separately. The zoning allowed for including at least three observation periods into classification. Overall accuracy exceeded 85 % for all classification zones. Highest accuracies of 87.4 % were achieved by including five spatiotemporal composites of RapidEye. Class-wise accuracy assessments showed the usefulness of selecting time steps which represent relevant phenological phases of the vegetation period. The presented approach can support regional crop inventory. Accurate classification results in early stages of the cropping season permit recalculation of crop water demands and reallocation of irrigation water. The high temporal and spatial resolution of RapidEye can be concluded highly beneficial for agricultural land use classifications in entire Central Asia.

  6. Influence of Organic Management with Different Crop Rotations on Selected Productivity Parameters in a Long-Term Canadian Field Study

    Entz, Martin; Hoeppner, J.W.; Tenuta, M.; Bamford, K.C.; Holliday, N.; Wilson, Leanne C.

    2005-01-01

    The Glenlea long-term rotation study, located near Winnipeg, is Canada’s oldest conventional vs organic crop comparison study. Since 1992, three farming systems (grain only; grain with green manure crops; combined grain-forage rotation) were evaluated under two management systems (organic and conventional). Organic system ranked higher than conventional systems in energy efficiency and biodiversity while conventional system ranked higher in yield, weed management and soil nutrient status. ...

  7. NDICEA as a user friendly model tool for crop rotation planning in organic farming

    Koopmans, Chris J.; van der Burgt, Geert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    For organic farming systems, the challenge is to become more specific in practices to maintain high standards in sustainability. Soil processes need to be clearly understood if rotations and manure applications are to become more precise. Simulation models like the NDICEA model help in the design and maintenance of these farming systems. These models play a key-role in the design of organic precision farming. The NDICEA model has been calibrated for a number of long-term crop rotation ex...

  8. Carbon Turnover in a Crop Rotation Under Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)

    H. J. WEIGEL; K. LEWIN; J. NAGY; A. PACHOLSKI; S. BURKART; M. HELAL; O. HEINEMEYER; B. KLEIKAMP; R. MANDERSCHEID; C. FR(U)HAUF; G. F. HENDREY

    2005-01-01

    Mostly based on assumptions derived from controlled-environment studies, predicted future atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2] are expected to have considerable impacts on carbon (C) turnover in agro-ecosystems. In order to allow the in situ examination of C-transformations in the plant-soil system of arable crop rotations under future [CO2], a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment (550 μmol mol-1 CO2) was started at Braunschweig, Germany in 1999.The crop rotation under investigation comprised winter barley, a cover crop (ryegrass), sugar beets and winter wheat.Assessments of CO2 effects included the determination of above- and belowground biomass production, measurements of canopy CO2- and H2O- fluxes, soil microbial biomass and in situ soil respiration. The results obtained during the 1st crop rotation cycle (3 years) showed that for the selected crops elevated [CO2] entailed significant positive effects (P<0.05) on aboveground (6%-14% stimulation) and belowground biomass production (up to 90% stimulation), while canopy evapotranspiration was reduced. This resulted in increased soil water content. Also, depending on crop type and season, high CO2 stimulated in situ soil respiration (up to 30%), while soil microbial biomass did not show significant respoases to elevated [CO2] during the first rotation cycle.

  9. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.

  10. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: i) crop rotation, ii) catch crop and iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentation in ce...

  11. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described

  12. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  13. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 2. Impact of crop rotations.

    Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation

  14. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 2. Impact of crop rotations.

    Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation

  15. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-RotateN simulation model

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-RotateN simulation model. EU-RotateN was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. - The EU-RotateN model can satisfactorily simulate crop N uptake and Nmin dynamics in a typical greenhouse cucumber production system of North China

  16. Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986

    Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  18. The Danish organic crop rotation experiment for cereal production 1997-2004

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    In 1997 a crop rotation experiment was initiated at three sites in Denmark. The objective of the experiment was to explore the possibilities for both short-term and long-term increases in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design on different soil types. The experiment included three factors (proportion of grass-clover in the rotation, catch crops and manure application) in a randomised factorial design. The main indicators measured in the experiment were crop yie...

  19. Whole-rotation dry matter and nitrogen grain yields from the first course of an organic farming crop rotation experiment

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær; Askegaard, Margrethe; K. Kristensen

    2002-01-01

    The possibilities for increasing total grain yield in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2000. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and without). Three four-course rotations were compared. Two of the rotations had on...

  20. Nuclear methods for plant nutrient and water balance studies. Results of an FAO/IAEA regional technical co-operation programme on nuclear methods for plant nutrients and water balance studies under legume-cereal or fallow-cereal crop rotation systems implemented for Middle Eastern countries (1991-1994)

    In semi-arid Middle Eastern countries, the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products calls for urgent measures to increase plant nutrient availability and water use efficiency. Water and plant nutrients are the two main crop yield limiting factors in these regions. Improved methods must be developed to sustain crop productivity of the legume-cereal rotation systems. It has been recognized for years that the growth of leguminous crops can improve the N status of the soil through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The conditions to improve the efficiency of the fixation process should be further investigated in order to fully benefit from this cheap N source. The BNF process is especially interesting for those areas facing limited fertilizer N availability or where the price of the fertilizers is too high for the farmers. In view of sustainable productivity, even with adequate supply of nutrients (nitrogen) and water, crop rotations have been promoted for years. However, the best rotation, taking into account the available nutrients and water in a specific place, is not always known. Furthermore, if a leguminous crop can be incorporated into a crop rotation system, free N is provided for this crop and some of it can serve as residual N for the next crop in the rotation. The use of 15N technology provides a unique tool to separately study the behaviour of fertilizer N as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N is possible, as well as the quantification of BNF. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  2. EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZATION AND SOIL CULTIVATION IN CROP ROTATION

    Eva CANDRÁKOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment with the crop rotation: winter wheat, pea, corn, spring barley and cow-grass were founded in 2001- 2004. We examined the effect of the preceding crop, the soil cultivation and fertilization on yield of grain of the main product. The methods of soil cultivation: tillage to the depth of 0.25 m, to the depth of 0.15 m and cultivation where we used disk tools to the depth of 0.10 m. In the variants of fertilization had been used fertilization of the artificial fertilizer with the balance method and fertilization with the artificial fertilizer with the placement of the remains of the preceding crop. By grain corn were statistically significant yield achieved after the tillage to the depth of 0.25 m and 0.15 m. Spring barley reacted positive on the soil cultivation with disk tools. Yield of the winter wheat and the pea were not statistically significant. Fertilization affected statistically significant on yield of winter wheat. The effect of the artificial fertilizers and the residues of the preceding crop on yield of corn, spring barley and pea did not show statistically significant.

  3. Rotating shielded crane system

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  4. Yield trends in the long-term crop rotation with organic and inorganic fertilisers on Alisols in Mata (Rwanda)

    Rutunga, V.; Neel, H.

    2006-01-01

    A crop rotation system with various species was established on Alisols at Mata grassland site, oriental side of Zaire-Nile Watershed Divide (CZN), Rwanda. Inorganic and organic fertilizers were applied in various plots under randomized complete blocs with three replicates. Crop yield data for each s

  5. Rotating Aperture System

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  6. Faba bean in cropping systems

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  7. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  8. Effect of diversified crop rotations on groundwater levels and crop water productivity in the North China Plain

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Guangya; Yan, Peng; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-03-01

    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable yield of agriculture in the North China Plain. Due to the over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigating the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping systems, a groundwater crisis is becoming increasingly serious. To help identify more efficient and sustainable utilization of the limited water resources, the water consumption and water use efficiency of five irrigated cropping systems were calculated and the effect of cropping systems on groundwater table changes was estimated based on a long term field experiment from 2003 to 2013 in the North China Plain interpreted using a soil-water-balance model. The five cropping systems included sweet potato → cotton → sweet potato → winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle), ryegrass-cotton → peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle), peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle), winter wheat-summer maize (WS, 1-year cycle), and continuous cotton (Cont C). The five cropping systems had a wide range of annual average actual evapotranspiration (ETa): Cont C (533 mm/year) RCPWS (0.7 m/year) > PWS (0.6 m/year) > SPCSPWS and Cont C (0.4 m/year). The annual average economic output water use efficiency (WUEe) increased in the order SpCSpWS (11.6 yuan ¥ m-3) > RCPWS (9.0 ¥ m-3) > PWS (7.3 ¥ m-3) > WS (6.8 ¥ m-3) > Cont C (5.6 ¥ m-3) from 2003 to 2013. Results strongly suggest that diversifying crop rotations could play a critically important role in mitigating the over-exploitation of the groundwater, while ensuring the food security or boosting the income of farmers in the North China Plain.

  9. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuels and in taking pressure off native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benefits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above- and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 10 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20 to 50 year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context, could generate a global levelling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years. 16 refs., 7 figs

  10. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuel and in taking pressure off of native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benetfits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above-ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 30 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20- to 56-year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terrestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context. could trencrate a global leveling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years

  11. Effect of Different Crop Rotation Systems on the Aggregates and Their SOC Accumulation in Paludalfs in North Huai Region,China%不同轮作制度对淮北白浆土团聚体及其有机碳的积累与分布的影响

    张旭辉; 李恋卿; 潘根兴

    2001-01-01

    Paludalfs under different crop rotation systems in North Huairegion,China were sampled and soil aggregates were separated by ultra-sonic dispersion followed by sedimentation and centrifuging.The particle size distribution,SOC (Soil organic matter) contents and the natural abundance of 13 C in these aggregates were studied.Significant difference in size of the aggregates and organic carbon storage in the studied soils were found after 5 years of the crop rotation on the soil.SOC was mainly found in 0.02~0.25mm fraction of aggregates in the soils.The aggregates in layers deeper than 35cm became coarse and richer in SOC under corn-peanut-sweet potato rotation.Young carbon derived from corn tended to be accumulated in the coarse fractions as revealed by heavier stable carbon composition in those aggregates from deep layer under the rotation system containing corn crop.Compared to the soil under think pine forest,All soils under crop rotation system showed rapid increase of SOC at rates ranging from 0.14C g*kg-1*a-1 to 0.22C g*kg-1*a-1,with the highest under corn-peanut-sweet potato system.Thus,the significance was indicated for increasing SOC storage by crop rotation in paludalfs and for reinforcing terrestrial carbon retention of atmospheric CO2.

  12. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  13. Rotating shielded crane system

    A rotating, radiation-shielded crane system is described comprising: a generally cylindrical, radiation-shielding wall, the top of the wall forming a first annular ledge; a second annular ledge integrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall; a generally cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material, the ceiling including a flange portion on the top thereof and a body portion, the flange portion associated with the second annular ledge such that the ceiling is supported thereby, the volume inside the wall and the ceiling forming a test cell; a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling such that the crane is outside of the test cell; removable access means in the ceiling for allowing the crane to access the inside of the test cell from the top of the ceiling; means for sealing the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling

  14. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning; Klimaschutz und Energiepflanzenanbau. Potenziale zur Treibhausgasemissionsminderung durch Fruchtfolge- und Anbauplanung

    Eckner, Jens [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany); Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-07-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  15. Rotação de culturas para trigo, após quatro anos: efeitos na fertilidade do solo em plantio direto Crop rotation systems for wheat, after four years: effects on soil fertility under no-tillage

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A fertilidade do solo foi avaliada, após quatro anos (1990 a 1994, num latossolo bruno álico, em Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, em quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo: sistema I (trigo/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e aveia branca/soja; sistema III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/ milho e aveia branca/soja; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja, cevada/soja e ervilhaca/ milho. As culturas, tanto de inverno como de verão, foram estabelecidas sob plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Através de contrastes, foram comparados os sistemas e as profundidades de amostragem de solo. Em todos os sistemas de rotação de culturas, na camada de solo 0 a 5cm, observaram-se valores maiores de pH e de Ca+Mg e menores de Al (com exceção do sistema III, em relação à camada 15 a 20cm. Houve elevação dos teores de Ca+Mg, de K e de P na camada de solo com a maior concentração de raízes (0 a 10cm. Os valores de matéria orgânica do solo decresceram progressivamente da camada 0 a 5cm para a camada 15 a 20cm.Soil fertility parameters were evaluated after four years (1990 to 1994 on a alic dusky latosol located in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil, under four wheat crop rotation systems as follows: system I (wheat/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and white oats/soybean; system III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oats/soybean; and system IV (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, barley/soybean and common vetch/cor. Both winter and summer crops were seeded under no tillage. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. Crop systems and soil samples at different depths were compared using the contrast procedure. All crop rotation systems, in the 0 to 5cm soil layer, higher values were observed for pH in water and Ca+Mg and lower contents for Al (except system III, as compared to the 15 to 20cm layer. Raising in Ca+Mg, K, and P levels occurred in the soil layer with the

  16. No tillage combined with crop rotation improves soil microbial community composition and metabolic activity.

    Sun, Bingjie; Jia, Shuxia; Zhang, Shixiu; McLaughlin, Neil B; Liang, Aizhen; Chen, Xuewen; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial community can vary with different agricultural managements, which in turn can affect soil quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of long-term tillage practice (no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)) and crop rotation (maize-soybean (MS) rotation and monoculture maize (MM)) on soil microbial community composition and metabolic capacity in different soil layers. Long-term NT increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) mainly at the 0-5 cm depth which was accompanied with a greater microbial abundance. The greater fungi-to-bacteria (F/B) ratio was found in NTMS at the 0-5 cm depth. Both tillage and crop rotation had a significant effect on the metabolic activity, with the greatest average well color development (AWCD) value in NTMS soil at all three soil depths. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the shift in microbial community composition was accompanied with the changes in capacity of utilizing different carbon substrates. Therefore, no tillage combined with crop rotation could improve soil biological quality and make agricultural systems more sustainable. PMID:26631020

  17. Studies on Water Consumption Characteristics and Crops Rotation Effects in Plateau of Northern Hebei Province

    ZHANG Li-feng; BIAN Xiu-ju; LIU Yu-hua

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in 1994 - 1998 to study crop rotation and its effects on crop water consumption characteristics of field with sandy chestnut soil in the Plateau of north Hebei Province. Five crops including spring wheat, oat, pea, flax and potato were examined. There was little difference in field water consumption among the crops during the growing season. WUE varied significantly in a range of 1. 347 - 11.177kg · ha-1· mm-1 among crops and 11.44% - 46.66% among previous crops. It was pointed out that the land equivalent ratio (LER) can be used as an index to evaluate the biological effects of crop rotation comprehensively. The 2 - 4 year crop rotation patterns with higher LER were estimated in the paper.

  18. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær;

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations...... in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ceramic suction cells and modelled drainage. There were significant effects on annual N leaching of location...... in the manured treatments the application rate was lower than crop demand. The results identify management of crop and soil during autumn as the main determinant of N leaching. Nitrate leaching was lowest for a catch crop soil cover during autumn and winter (avg. 20 kg N ha−1), a soil cover of weeds...

  19. Soil Carbon Budget During Establishment of Short Rotation Woody Crops

    Coleman, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon budgets were monitored following forest harvest and during re-establishment of short rotation woody crops. Soil CO2 efflux was monitored using infared gas analyzer methods, fine root production was estimated with minirhizotrons, above ground litter inputs were trapped, coarse root inputs were estimated with developed allometric relationships, and soil carbon pools were measured in loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations. Our carbon budget allows evaluation of errors, as well as quantifying pools and fluxes in developing stands during non-steady-state conditions. Soil CO2 efflux was larger than the combined inputs from aboveground litter fall and root production. Fine-root production increased during stand development; however, mortality was not yet equivalent to production, showing the belowground carbon budget was not yet in equilibrium and root carbon standing crop was accruing. Belowground production was greater in cottonwood than pine, but the level of pine soil CO2 efflux was equal to or greater than that of cottonwood, indicating heterotrophic respiration was higher for pine. Comparison of unaccounted efflux with soil organic carbon changes provides verification of loss or accrual.

  20. Atributos físicos do solo em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on the soil physical attributes

    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2009-01-01

    attributes were assessed after twenty years of implementation (1985 to 2005 on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Rodic Hapludox located in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems were evaluated: 1 no-tillage; 2 minimum tillage; 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow. Three crop rotation systems were evaluated: I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn or sorghum and white oats/soybean. A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main plots were formed by the soil tillage systems, while split-plots were composed by crop rotation systems. As control, soil samples were collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems influenced soil physical parameters when compared to the samples collected in a fragment of subtropical forest. During four years (2001 to 2005 the physical attributes were altered among different soil tillage management. The no-tillage system (PD presented higher soil bulk density and microporosity in comparison to the other systems, mainly in 0.10 to 0.15 m layer, characterizing high soil compaction levels. Crop systems did not promote favorable changes in physical attributes independent of the type of soil management.

  1. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  2. The Effect of Crop Rotation on Soil Nematode Community Composition in a Greenhouse

    Jingwen LU; Wei SHENG; Qian YU; Zijing CHEN; Qiang XU; Qian WANG; Linlin DONG

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to identify changes in a nematode community in response to crop rotation and to determine the appropriate catch crop for a green-house. [Method] The experiment was carried out in a typical 6-year-old greenhouse, in which cucumber crops were cultivated twice each year (in spring and autumn), and catch crops were planted in summer. The total number of nematodes was counted and nematode community indices were calculated after col ecting soil sam-ples in different stages. [Result] Total nematode abundance was decreased in the soils of catch crop in contrast with former crops (cucumber crops). The abundance of the nematode community was reduced in the treatment of crop rotation compared to the soils of catch crop. ln addition, the number of nematode taxa was significant-ly reduced by the treatment of crown daisy compared to the treatments of fol owing crops. Crop rotation regulated the functional composition of the nematode community by increasing the omnivores-predators functional group and decreasing the relative abundance of root herbivores. [Conclusion] These results indicate that crop rotation affects the nematode community in abundance, diversity and functional composition of the nematode community and crown daisy can be served as the most appropri-ate catch crop in the greenhouse.

  3. On the effect of crop rotation on artificially established weed species in two field experiments

    Flucke, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate links between regional occurrence of well adapted weed species and crop rotations. Monocultures or very short crop rotation, which increased in the past decades are crucial for the establishment and dispersion of problematic weed species. In this study the impact of crop rotation on the occurrence of the species Amaranthus retroflexus (L., Anchusa arvensis (L. M. Bieb., Echinochloa crus-galli (L., Galium aparine (L., Geranium pusillum (L., Sisymbrium officinale (L., Solanum nigrum (L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Viola arvensis Murray is investigated in four crop rotations with varying potential of crop health risks. Therefore, maize (M, oilseed rape (WR and winter wheat [early sowing (WWF and late sowing (WWS] are cropped in four different rotations (M, WR – WWF, WR – M – WWS and WR – WWF – M – WWS at two study sites in Germany since year 2008 (Rostock and 2009 (Göttingen. At the start of the project selected weed species were sown into some plots in order to simulate an artificial similar weed pressure. In all plots weed species densities were counted before spraying in a standardized observation method. Analyses of four, respectively three years give evidences of crop specific effects regarding A. arvensis, E. crus-galli, G. pusillum, S. nigrum and S. media. Moreover, first effects of crop rotations on problematic weed species indicates that expanding crop rotations is a preventive tool to reduce weed densities.

  4. Genome Scan of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for Genetic Variation Associated with Crop Rotation Tolerance

    Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the United States Corn Belt. This failure appears to be d...

  5. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt. PMID:26828231

  6. Can non-inversion tillage and straw retainment reduce N leaching in cereal based crop rotations?

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Melander, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    the effect of tillage, straw retainment and cropping sequences, including cover crops, on nitrate leaching. The experiments were established in autumn 2002 on a loamy sand with 92 g clay kg-1 and a sandy loam with 147 g clay kg-1. The tillage treatments were stubble cultivation to 8-10 cm or 3-4 cm, direct...... in reducing nitrate leaching than a winter crop rotation. Overall, we were not able to confirm the three hypotheses. The effect of soil tillage on leaching might be blurred because the studied crop rotations had a high proportion of winter crops and because catch crops were grown whenever the alternative...... would have been bare soil in autumn and winter. The spring/winter crop rotation with catch crops was not found to be more efficient in reducing nitrate leaching than the winter crop rotation. In contrast, in a single year the winter crop rotation showed significantly lower leaching than the spring...

  7. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark......The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring...... loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic...

  8. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël;

    2013-01-01

    is mostly higher as compared to plough-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in non-inversion tillage systems and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems...

  9. Sistemas de preparo do solo e rotação de culturas na produtividade de milho, soja e trigo Tillage systems and crop rotation on yield of corn, soybean and wheat

    Pedro M. da Silveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1 milho-feijão; 2 soja-trigo; 3 soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4 milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas.The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, under center pivot irrigation system, for six consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a moldboard plough, b harrow disc and c no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1 corn-bean, 2 soybean-wheat, 3 soybean

  10. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Annual progress report for 1988

    Wright, L.L.; Doyle, T.W.; Layton, P.A.; Ranney, J.W.

    1989-10-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1988. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and has the goal of developing a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. The most significant accomplishment has been the attainment of outstanding productivity rates by a Populus hybrid in the Pacific Northwest (43.5 Mg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}year{sup {minus}1}), highlighting the potential gains achievable with breeding. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. The implications of global warming and climate-change effects on SRWC technology and applications are discussed. The early success of several monoculture viability trials is also presented. 43 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Annual progress report for 1987

    Ranney, J.W.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wright, L.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress of the individual research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) as well as synthesizing the results for an overview of the program. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and has the goal of developing a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for biofuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, and medium Btu gas in the United States. The most significant accomplishments have been the productivity rates achieved with Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest, the establishment of monoculture viability trials, the bioengineering developments of Populus spp. (hybrid poplar), and the initiation of wood-energy quality definitions in cooperation with biofuel conversion specialists. The most serious challenges are now seen as control of diseases in Populus, lowering cutting and handling costs, increasing productivity on moderate to poor soils in the South and Midwest, local matching and development of clones with sites in monoculture trials, and identifying and learning about the physiological and genetic variability of important growth qualities within model species for genetic improvement. 39 refs.

  12. Long-term rotation history and previous crop effects on corn seedling health

    Diverse rotations provide benefits to agroecosystems through changes in the soil environment. A long term experiment was established to study four different four-year rotation sequences in which the crop phase prior to corn was sampled. Soils from rotations ending with soybean, sunflower, corn and p...

  13. THE NUTRIENTS BALANCE OF CROP ROTATION AS AN INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING ON ARABLE LAND

    Eva Hanáčková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.

  14. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a multiple cropping system

    The fate of 15N-labelled fertilizer nitrogen, applied to the maize crop only, in a multiple cropping system for two crop rotations of maize-wheat-moong, has been studied. The pattern of fertilizer uptake by this crop, the utilization of fertilizer nitrogen residue by the succeeding crops of wheat and moong, residual nitrogen in the soil, and losses due to leaching and other processes were measured. The nitrate content of tube-well waters of an agricultural farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, monitored for three years (June 1975 - March 1978), varied from 5 ppm to 35 ppm. Broad conclusions based on the experimental data, for increasing the efficiency of applied nitrogen and reducing the nitrate pollution of groundwater in relation to fertilizer practices and the change in cropping pattern are discussed. (author)

  15. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    . Crop yields were as follows for the 5 crop years in the study (2011-2015): (1) CC was 0.25, 10.5, 8.03, 1.53, and 7.22t/ha, (2) C silage was 4.08, 9.04, 9.91, 8.65, and 14.4 t/ha, (3) C grain was 1.04, 3.81, 6.09, 3.11, and 5.1 t/ha, (4) SF was 1.10, 1.96, 2.42, 1.31, and 2.29 t/ha, (5) PBY forage was 0.0, 7.68, 11.2, 9.3, and 8.72 t/ha. When cattle grazed annual forage crops (C, PBY, and CC), animal manure and trampling contributed to the overall improvement of soil fertility. These data suggest that the combined effect of a multi-crop rotation that includes animal grazing enhances soil fertility and subsequently crop yields, and animal production for a sustainable integrated agricultural system.

  16. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Crop rotations in maintaining organic matter levels in soils

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi, Centre (Fagna, Firenze and South (Foggia of Italy, characterized by different climate, soil, and cropping systems. In the two experiments conducted in the South of Italy, in a dry Mediterranean climate, the stock of C was kept steady in most of the rotations compared with the monoculture of durum wheat. In such environment, with very dry and hot summers, introducing a year of fallow seems to improve SOM content, but these data need further investigation. In the Centre of Italy (Fagna, with less extreme climate than in Foggia, the effect of rotation compared to the monoculture of maize is negligible, but investigation on the soil organic matter composition, showed that in the rotation the SOM appeared to be more stable and, in the long term, probably more resistant to degradation. Eventually, experiments conducted in the North of Italy, showed that the monoculture, despite the application of FYM (Farm Yard Manure or semi-liquid manure, led to a decrease of SOM. To an increase of the rotation complexity, corresponded an increase in the stock of C in soil. Summarizing, results showed that crop rotation could guarantee the maintenance of SOM level, given that the input of C to the soil is maintained at a good level or, in other word, that productivity of the system is high. Other practices such as conservation tillage, appropriate management of residues, and manure application could enhance the positive effect of rotations. Moreover, preliminary investigation of soil microbial diversity, suggests the

  17. Crop rotation modelling-A European model intercomparison

    Kollas, C.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Nendel, C.; Manevski, K.; Müller, C.; Palosuo, T.; Armas-Herrera, C.; Beaudoin, N.; Bindi, M.; Charefeddine, M.; Conradt, T.; Constantin, J.; Eitzinger, J.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Gaiser, T.; de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G.; Giglio, L.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffman, H.; Hofmann, M.; Launay, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Mary, B.; Mirschel, W.; Moriondo, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Öztürk, I.; Pacholski, A.; Ripoche-Wachter, D.; Roggero, P. P.; Roncossek, S.; Rötter, R. P.; Ruget, F.; Sharif, B.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Waha, K.; Wegehenkel, M.; Weigel, H-J.; Wu, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, oct (2015), s. 98-111. ISSN 1161-0301 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : model ensemble * crop simulation models * catch crop * intermediate crop * treatment * Multi-year Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 2.704, year: 2014

  18. Rye Cover Crops in a Corn Silage-Soybean Rotation

    Corn silage is often grown in the Upper Midwest to provide feed for cattle. Silage harvest, however, does not leave enough crop residue to adequately protect the soil from erosion and can reduce soil organic matter. Winter cover crops planted after silage harvest and after other crops in the croppin...

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF RICE BIOTECHNOLOGY ON OPTIMAL RICE CROP ROTATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION

    Annou, Mamane Malam; Thomsen, Michael R.; Hansen, James M.; Wailes, Eric J.; Cramer, Gail L.

    2001-01-01

    Availability of new herbicide-resistant biotech rice varieties may affect traditional rice rotation practices to control red rice and enhance yields. This research evaluates the adoption of biotech rice and its effects on the current practice of crop rotation in the Mississippi River Delta region. The optimal utilization of biotech rice rotation is analyzed using a nonlinear mathematical programming model with mixed integers. Optimal rotation was found to be sensitive to the technology fee, r...

  20. Crop rotations in the sea: Increasing returns and reducing risk of collapse in sea cucumber fisheries.

    Plagányi, Éva Elizabeth; Skewes, Timothy; Murphy, Nicole; Pascual, Ricardo; Fischer, Mibu

    2015-05-26

    Rotational harvesting is one of the oldest management strategies applied to terrestrial and marine natural resources, with crop rotations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. The efficacy of this strategy for sessile marine species is of considerable interest given that these resources are vital to underpin food security and maintain the social and economic wellbeing of small-scale and commercial fishers globally. We modeled the rotational zone strategy applied to the multispecies sea cucumber fishery in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and show a substantial reduction in the risk of localized depletion, higher long-term yields, and improved economic performance. We evaluated the performance of rotation cycles of different length and show an improvement in biological and economic performance with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. As sea cucumber fisheries throughout the world succumb to overexploitation driven by rising demand, there has been an increasing demand for robust assessments of fishery sustainability and a need to address local depletion concerns. Our results provide motivation for increased use of relatively low-information, low-cost, comanagement rotational harvest approaches in coastal and reef systems globally. PMID:25964357

  1. Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the Eastern US

    Cover crop-based, organic rotational no-till soybean production has been gaining traction in the Eastern region of the United States because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic product...

  2. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost;

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year....... The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study...... was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg—eastern Denmark and Foulum—western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165–170 kg N ha−1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100...

  3. BIOLOGICAL AMENDMENTS AND CROP ROTATIONS FOR MANAGING SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOILBORNE DISEASES OF POTATO

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (CT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial com...

  4. Economics of Rainfed Cropping Systems: Northeast Thailand

    Johnson, Sam H., III; Charoenwatana, Terd

    1981-06-01

    Using a computer model to simulate effective rainfall, it is shown that a flexible rainfed cropping system based on a legume crop planted before rice has a greater expected return than present subsistent rainfed cropping systems. Combining a legume crop intercropped with cassava or kenaf further increases the expected returns yet maintains the stability of the new system. Further research is required to bring the farmer's yields up to match experiment station results and to facilitate effective transfer policies.

  5. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    LaMondia, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in soybean-based crop rotations under conventional and zero tillage in Brazil

    Approximately 70% of Brazilian agriculture is based on the cultivation of highly weathered soils located in tropical and subtropical savannah areas, where the zero or no tillage (ZT) system is now considered as the best alternative to the traditional conventional tillage (CT). During the period 1999-2004 the Agrobiology Centre of Embrapa implemented a research program using nuclear and related techniques to study the main processes involved in the dynamics and cycling of N for predominant crop rotations grown at five locations under ZT in comparison to CT, on acidic savannah soils of both southern and Cerrado regions of Brazil. The most relevant results of these studies were: (1) The soybean crop derived a high proportion of its N (over 80%) from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The BNF system is so efficient that attempts to increase grain yields by addition of N fertilizer are hardly ever successful as long as the plants have been effectively inoculated with the recommended Bradyrhizobium strains. (2) The N fertilizer use efficiency by the maize crop fertilized with 80 to 90 kg N ha-1 varied from 40 to 60%. (3). A maximum 10% of N-urea applied broadcast over the soil surface (40 kg N ha-1) in a maize crop was lost via NH3 volatilization, with the highest values under ZT. (4). The inclusion of green manure legumes (GMLs) such as lupin and vetch, which are highly efficient in BNF was essential to promote a positive soil N balance in crop rotations and to increase the stock of soil organic C. (5) Less than 900 g N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 were lost from the soil surface, and the highest values were found under CT. (6) Even thought the contribution of BNF to the Brazilian soybean crop is high (over 80%), the accurate assessment of this input to the soil N balance still remain unclear due to methodological problems using the leaf labeling technique to estimate residual below-ground N. Results obtained so far suggest that these methodological issues need to be overcome before

  7. Influence of Cover Crops in Rotation on Populations of Soil Nematodes

    A pot experiment was carried out in south Florida to elucidate suppressive or antagonistic effects of several cover crops grown in rotation on soil nematode populations. The crops were two marigolds, Tagetes patula L. 'Dwarf Double French Mix' (MI), and Tagetes patula L. 'Lemon Drop' (MII), Indian m...

  8. Tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice effects on dryland soil carbon fractions

    Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at ...

  9. Integrated Biological and Cultural Practices Can Reduce Crop Rotation Period of Organic Strawberries

    Muramoto, J; Gliessman, SR; Koike, ST; Shennan, C; Bull, CT; Klonsky, K; Swezey, S

    2014-01-01

    A team of researchers conducted a replicated on-farm experiment with the break period between strawberry crops (continuous strawberries with broccoli residue incorporation, one-year break, two-year break, three-year break, and seven-year break) as the main plot and cultivar as the split plot in Moss Landing, Central Coastal California. We hypothesized that the use of non-host rotation crops for Verticillium wilt plus bio-fumigation with broccoli, incorporation of mustard cover crop residues, ...

  10. May cover crops affect GHG emissions in irrigated cropping systems?

    Sanz Cobeña, Alberto; Garcia Marco, S.; Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel; Gabriel Pérez, José Luis; Ábalos Rodríguez, Diego; Sánchez Martín, Laura; Almendros García, Patricia; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of cover crops (CC) both as catch crops and green manures has been proposed as a suitable strategy to increase the N use efficiency of the system through decreasing the N losses, mainly in the form of NO3-, (Thorup-Kristensen et al., 2003). Although improving crop yields, both the presence of CC and their use once harvested, as green manures, may change the C N balance of agricultural soils thus consequently affecting emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This study evaluates the effec...

  11. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  12. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  13. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-Rotate{sub N} simulation model

    Guo Ruiying [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshui Nanlu, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province (China); Nendel, Claas, E-mail: nendel@zalf.d [Institute for Landscape Systems Analysis, Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Strasse 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rahn, Clive [Warwick HRI, Wellesbourne CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Jiang Chunguang; Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-Rotate{sub N} simulation model. EU-Rotate{sub N} was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. - The EU-Rotate{sub N} model can satisfactorily simulate crop N uptake and N{sub min} dynamics in a typical greenhouse cucumber production system of North China

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  15. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.;

    2014-01-01

    , crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.......In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...

  16. INFLUÊNCIA DO PREPARO DE SOLO E DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS NA SEVERIDADE DE PODRIDÕES RADICULARES NO FEIJOEIRO COMUM EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION ON DRY BEAN ROOT ROT SEVERITY

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.

    Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn

  17. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni;

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... and cash-crop yields in an organic arable crop rotation on a sandy loam soil in a cool temperate climate. The four-course crop rotation included spring barley (with undersown grass-clover), grass-clover, potato and winter wheat (with undersown cover crop). Two fertilization treatments were compared: “−M......” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was left in the field to decompose and no fertilizer or manure was applied to any crop in the rotation; and “+M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was harvested and equivalent amounts of N in digested manure used for fertilization of cash crops...

  18. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  19. Effects of crop rotation on the incidence of soil-borne pathogens and the consequences for potato production.

    Scholte, K.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of various rotations on the growth pattern, yield and quality of potato and on the incidence of soil-borne pathogens, other than potato cyst nematodes ( Globodera spp.), associated with potato. These rotations differed in the frequency of potato and in the crops with which the potato crop was rotated.The effects of the rotations depended greatly on the soil type. Lower yields of potato in short rotations were mainly caused by Streptomyces spp. (causing netted...

  20. A Cropping Systems Approach to Improving Water Use Efficiency in Semi-Arid Irrigated Production Areas

    Shennan, Carol

    1994-01-01

    This recently-completed 3-year field study evaluated the effectiveness of winter cover crop incorporation and surface gypsum applications relative to conventional fallows for maintaining/improving soil physical properties, stand establishment and crop productivity in a cropping system relying on saline drainage water for irrigation. Six amendment/soil cover treatments were imposed on a rotation of tomato-tomato-cotton as summer crops. Drainage water accounted for about 70% of the total water ...

  1. Comparison of Crop Rotation for Verticillium Wilt Management and Effect on Pythium Species in Conventional and Organic Strawberry Production

    Krishna V Subbarao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on population densities of Verticillium dahliae and Pythium spp. in soil and on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) growth, yield, and Verticillium wilt were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems in California for 2 years. Under both management systems, strawberry was planted after two successive crops of broccoli or lettuce. The control treatment in the conventional field was strawberry planted in soils fumigated with methyl bromi...

  2. Chiral symmetry in rotating systems

    Malik, Sham S.

    2015-08-01

    The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.

  3. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    Zhao, Duli; Wright, David L.; Marois, James J.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L; Brennan, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    International audience Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) (i.e. sod-based rotation) can greatly improve soil health and increase crop yields and profitability. In the sod-ba...

  4. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  5. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  6. Dinâmica e contribuição da micorriza arbuscular em sistemas de produção com rotação de culturas Dynamics and contribution of arbuscular mycorrhiza in culture systems with crop rotation

    Jeanne Christine Claessen de Miranda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotação de culturas e variações sazonais podem promover alterações quantitativas e qualitativas na comunidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos e na formação da micorriza arbuscular. Essa dinâmica foi avaliada, em campo, num Latossolo Vermelho, em relação ao tempo de cultivo e variação sazonal, em sistemas de rotação de culturas. Em casa de vegetação, avaliou-se, em solo proveniente da área experimental, a contribuição da micorriza arbuscular no crescimento de soja e capim-andropógon utilizados na rotação. O número de esporos dos fungos aumentou no solo cultivado. O número de esporos e o porcentual de colonização radicular, inicialmente maiores sob pastagem, variaram de acordo com o tempo de cultivo, as estações seca e chuvosa, a cultura e o sistema de rotação utilizados. O número de gêneros e espécies aumentou com o tempo de cultivo e manejo de culturas e foi maior sob culturas anuais em rotação. A presença dos fungos no solo contribuiu no crescimento da soja e do capim-andropógon em 53% e 95%, respectivamente. A cultura e o sistema de cultivo são fatores determinantes para o enriquecimento do sistema com micorriza arbuscular.Crop rotation and seasonal variations can promote quantitative and qualitative changes in the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi population in the soil and arbuscular mycorrhiza establishment. These fungi dynamics were evaluated in the field, in a Red Latosol, in relation to cropping time, seasonal variation and rotation systems. The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhiza to the growth of andropogon grass and soybean, which were used in the systems, was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using soil from the experimental area. The number of spores of the fungi increased in the cultivated soil. The spores number and percent root colonization varied according to cropping time, soil moisture, crops and rotation system and were, initially, higher under pasture. The number

  7. Management of Lesion Nematodes and Potato Early Dying with Rotation Crops

    LaMondia, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after ‘Saia’ oat/‘Polynema’ marigold, ‘Triple S’ sorghum-sudangrass, or ‘Garry’ oat than ‘Superior’ potato or ‘Humus’ rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tube...

  8. Power efficiency of mineral and organic fertilizers application in crop rotations

    BOSAK V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In researches on sod podzolic light loamy soil the application of mineral and organic fertilizers has provided high indicators of agronomic and power efficiency. Entering of mineral fertilizers has raised efficiency of field crop rotations on 19,9-30,3 tha -1 of f.u., as well as entering of organic fertilizers on 5,2-10,8 tha -1 of f.u. at a recoupment of 1 ton of manure of 65,0-131,3 f.u. and 1 kg of NPK of 8,1-9,7 f.u. Power return of application of mineral fertilizers in crop rotations has...

  9. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.)

    Tao; Ren; Hui; Li; Jianwei; Lu; Rongyan; Bu; Xiaokun; Li; Rihuan; Cong; Mingxing; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed(RR) and cotton–rapeseed(CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization,seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen(N)fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg- 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha- 1was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate(EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha- 1lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  10. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Tao Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg− 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha− 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha− 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  11. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Tao Ren; Hui Li; Jianwei Lu; Rongyan Bu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Mingxing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR) and cotton–rapeseed (CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg−1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha−1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha−1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  12. Long term effects of cover crops on weeds in Mediterranean low input arable management systems

    Carlesi, Stefano; Antichi, Daniele; Bigongiali, Federica; Mazzoncini, Marco; Barberi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of cover crops (CC) in crop rotations is a key tool to control weed and ameliorate soil conditions in low input arable systems. In 1992 a long term experiment (LTE) was set up at Centre for Agri-environmental Research “E. Avanzi (CIRAA), University of Pisa to determine the combined effect of tillage intensity, nitrogen fertilization levels and CC types on soil quality, crop yield and weed communities. The LTE is based on 4-year crop rotation (maize, durum wheat, sunflowe...

  13. Impact of Organic Crop and Livestock Systems on Earthworm Population Dynamics

    Kotcon, Dr. James

    2008-01-01

    Earthworm population dynamics and diversity were evaluated in long-term farming systems experiments at the West Virginia University Organic Research Farm from 2000-2007. Farming systems included vegetable and field crop rotations, with versus without annual compost amendments. Field crop rotations with livestock included three years of clover-grassland. Earthworms were monitored by hand-sorting soil samples. Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus were the most common species obser...

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    M. H. Jeuffroy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20–25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions

  15. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy;

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...... loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type...

  16. Multiple cropping systems as drivers for providing multiple ecosystem services: from concepts to design

    Gaba, Sabrina; Lescourret, Francoise; Boudsocq, Simon; Enjalbert, Jerome; Hinsinger, Philippe; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Navas, Marie-Laure; Wéry, Jacques; Louarn, Gaëtan; Malézieux, Eric; Pelzer, Elise; Prudent, Marion; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Provisioning services, such as the production of food, feed, and fiber, have always been the main focus of agriculture. Since the 1950s, intensive cropping systems based on the cultivation of a single crop or a single cultivar, in simplified rotations or monocultures, and relying on extensive use of agrochemical inputs have been preferred to more diverse, self-sustaining cropping systems, regardless of the environmental consequences. However, there is increasing evidence that such intensive a...

  17. Conservation agriculture cropping systems in temperate and tropical conditions, performances and impacts . A review

    Triomphe, Bernard; Affholder, François; Da Silva, Fernando Antonio Macena; Corbeels, Marc; Xavier, José Humberto Valadares; Lahmar, Rabah; Recous, Sylvie; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Blanchart, Eric; Mendes, Ieda de Carvalho; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in a context of climate change, economical uncertainties and social pressure to mitigate agriculture externalities, farmers have to adopt new cropping systems to achieve a sustainable and cost-effective grain production. Conservation agriculture consists of a range of cropping systems based on a combination of three main principles: (1) soil tillage reduction, (2) soil protection by organic residues and (3) diversification in crop rotation. Conservation agriculture has been promoted...

  18. The rotating tubing hanger system

    Beam pump systems are among the most cost efficient artificial lift systems in the industry, assuming a long run time between pulling jobs to repair tubing failures caused by rod wear. The tubing string represents the second largest investment in the well. The longer the period of time the well can be kept on-line and producing between pulling jobs, the more efficient and cost effective is the beam pump system. This paper describes in detail the conception, development and implementation of a new system that extends tubing life on rod pumped wells. The system uses a very simple concept; rotate the tubing string to extend the length of time between tubing failures and the resultant pulling jobs. The system is powered directly from the walking beam and requires no additional power source; nor does the system use any additional energy

  19. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction......N concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop...

  20. Changes of Labile Organic Carbon Fractions in Soils Under Different Rotation Systems

    NI Jin-Zhi; XU Jian-Ming; XIE Zheng-Miao; WANG De-Jian

    2004-01-01

    Soil labile (biologically active) organic carbon fractions under different crop rotation systems in Jiangsu Province, China, were investigated after 10 years of rotation. The rotation systems, including green manurerice-rice (GmRR), wheat-rice-rice (WRR), wheat-rice (WR) and wheat/corn intercrop-rice (WCR) rotations,were established on paddy soils using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the soils under different systems were greater in the GmRR and WRR than in the WR and WCR rotation systems because the soils under triple cropping often received more crop residues than the soils under double cropping. Both the WSOC and the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents in the soils of the GmRR rotation system were significantly greater than those in the other crop rotation systems, which was due to the return of green manure to the fields of the GmRR rotation system. The results of a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) analysis indicated that the structural characteristics of soil WSOC were similar under the four crop rotation systems with carbohydrates and long-chain aliphatics being the major components. Correlation analysis showed that the content of the WSOC was positively correlated with that of the MBC (P <0.01),and all had significantly positive correlations with TOC and TN. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for WSOC and WSOC/TOC were greater than the other indices (e.g, MBC, TOC and TN), suggesting that WSOC in the soils was more sensitive to these rotation systems. The results above indicated that the soil amended with green manure could not only increase the usable C source for soil microorganisms, but could also enhance soil organic matter content; hence, rotation with green manure would be a good strategy for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Cultivation-based and molecular assessment of bacterial diversity in the rhizosheath of wheat under different crop rotations

    Muhammad Tahir; M Sajjad Mirza; Sohail Hameed; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Hauke Smidt

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root lengt...

  2. Effects of different 3-year cropping systems on soil microbial communities and rhizoctonia diseases of potato.

    Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eight different 3-year cropping systems, consisting of soybean-canola, soybean-barley, sweet corn-canola, sweet corn-soybean, green bean-sweet corn, canola-sweet corn, barley-clover, and continuous potato (non-rotation control) followed by potato as the third crop in all systems, were established in replicated field plots with two rotation entry points in Presque Isle, ME, in 1998. Cropping system effects on soil microbial community characteristics based on culturable soil microbial populations, single carbon source substrate utilization (SU) profiles, and whole-soil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were evaluated in association with the development of soilborne diseases of potato in the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. Soil populations of culturable bacteria and overall microbial activity were highest following barley, canola, and sweet corn crops, and lowest following continuous potato. The SU profiles derived from BIOLOG ECO plates indicated higher substrate richness and diversity and greater utilization of certain carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids associated with barley, canola, and some sweet corn rotations, indicating distinct differences in functional attributes of microbial communities among cropping systems. Soil FAME profiles also demonstrated distinct differences among cropping systems in their relative composition of fatty acid types and classes, representing structural attributes of microbial communities. Fatty acids most responsible for differentiation among cropping systems included 12:0, 16:1 omega5c, 16:1 omega7c, 18:1 omega9c, and 18:2omega6c. Based on FAME biomarkers, barley rotations resulted in higher fungi-to-bacteria ratios, sweet corn resulted in greater mycorrhizae populations, and continuous potato produced the lowest amounts of these and other biomarker traits. Incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, were reduced for most rotations relative to the

  3. Universal Entropy Bound for Rotating Systems

    Hod, Shahar

    1999-01-01

    We conjecture a universal upper bound to the entropy of a rotating system. The entropy bound follows from application of the generalized second law of thermodynamics to an idealized gedanken experiment in which an entropy-bearing rotating system falls into a black hole. This bound is stronger than the Bekenstein entropy bound for non-rotating systems.

  4. Self-seeding small grain cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation

    Cover crops provide environmental benefits, yet adoption in agronomic farming systems is low. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn (Zea m...

  5. Transition to Organic Cropping Systems under Risk

    David W Archer; Kludze, Hillarius

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the risks, returns and optimal adoption strategies for a representative Minnesota farm switching from conventional to organic cropping systems. The EPIC simulation model was calibrated based on the yields observed in a farming systems field study. A farm-level simulation model was constructed using the EPIC simulated crop yields and historical prices. Results were compared for an expected utility maximizing farm under a range of risk aversion levels, with and without management lea...

  6. Crop Rotation and Races of Meloidogyne incognita in Cotton Root-knot Management

    Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Sasser, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    The influence o f various crop rotations and nematode inoculum levels on subsequent population densities of Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3 were studied in microplots. Ten different 3-year sequences o f cotton, corn, peanut, or soybean, all with cotton as the 3rd-year crop, were grown in microplots infested with each race. Cotton monoculture, two seasons o f corn, or cotton followed by corn resulted in high race 3 population densities and severe root galling on cotton the 3rd year. Peanut...

  7. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  8. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Yinli Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L. fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK, kidney bean (KB, cowpea (CP, maize for green manure (MGM, black bean for green manure (BGM, tomato (TM, bok choy (BC. As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  9. Short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and biofuels applications.

    Hinchee, Maud; Rottmann, William; Mullinax, Lauren; Zhang, Chunsheng; Chang, Shujun; Cunningham, Michael; Pearson, Leslie; Nehra, Narender

    2009-12-01

    Purpose-grown trees will be part of the bioenergy solution in the United States, especially in the Southeast where plantation forestry is prevalent and economically important. Trees provide a "living biomass inventory" with existing end-use markets and associated infrastructure, unlike other biomass species such as perennial grasses. The economic feasibility of utilizing tree biomass is improved by increasing productivity through alternative silvicultural systems, improved breeding and biotechnology. Traditional breeding and selection, as well as the introduction of genes for improved growth and stress tolerance, have enabled high growth rates and improved site adaptability in trees grown for industrial applications. An example is the biotechnology-aided improvement of a highly productive tropical Eucalyptus hybrid, Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. This tree has acquired freeze tolerance by the introduction of a plant transcription factor that up-regulates the cold-response pathways and makes possible commercial plantings in the Southeastern United States. Transgenic trees with reduced lignin, modified lignin, or increased cellulose and hemicellulose will improve the efficiency of feedstock conversion into biofuels. Reduced lignin trees have been shown to improve efficiency in the pre-treatment step utilized in fermentation systems for biofuels production from lignocellulosics. For systems in which thermochemical or gasification approaches are utilized, increased density will be an important trait, while increased lignin might be a desired trait for direct firing or co-firing of wood for energy. Trees developed through biotechnology, like all transgenic plants, need to go through the regulatory process, which involves biosafety and risk assessment analyses prior to commercialization. PMID:19936031

  10. Long-term effects of cropping system on N2O emission potential

    Petersen, Søren O; Ambus, Per; Elsgaard, Lars; Schjønning, P.; Jørgen E. Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0-4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha-1. A simulated freeze-thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, wh...

  11. Climate change impact on crop rotations of winter durum wheat and tomato in southern Italy: yield analysis and soil fertility

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems are affected by climate change because of the strong relationship between crop development, growth, yield, CO2 atmospheric concentration and climate conditions. The increasing temperatures and the reduction of available water resources may result in negative impacts on the agricultural activity in Mediterranean environments than other areas. In this study the CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO-Tomato models were used to assess the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum durum L. and processing tomato (Lycopersicon aesculentum Mill. in one of most productive areas of Italy, located in the northern part of the Puglia region. In particular we have compared three different General Circulation Models (HadCM3, CCSM3, ECHAM5 subjected to a statistical downscaling under two future IPCC scenarios (B1 and A2. The analysis was carried out at regional scale repeating the simulations for seven homogeneous area characterizing the spatial variability of the region. In the second part of the study, considering only HadCM3 data set, climate change impact on long-term sequences of the two crops combined in three crop rotations were evaluated in terms of yield performances and soil fertility as indicated by the soil organic content of carbon and nitrogen. The comparison between GCMs showed no significant differences for winter durum wheat yield, while noticeable differences were found for yield and irrigation requirements of tomato. Under future scenarios, the production levels were reduced for tomato, whereas positive yield effects were observed for winter durum wheat. For winter durum wheat the simulation indicated that two- and three-year rotations, including one year of tomato cultivation, improved the cereal yield and this positive effect maintained its validity also in future scenarios. For both crops higher requirements of water and nitrogen were predicted under future scenarios. This result coupled with the decrease of yield caused

  12. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may act as an important source of nitrogen (N) in organic crop rotations because of biological N fixation. However, the potential risk of high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions needs to be taken into account when including LBCCs in crop rotations. Here, we report the...

  13. Biogas from ley crops

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  14. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  15. Dynamics of lettuce drop incidence and Sclerotinia minor inoculum under varied crop rotations

    Hao, J J; Subbarao, K.V.

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the population dynamics of Sclerotinia minor and incidence of lettuce drop at two sites during 1995 to 1998. Rotation treatments at the Spence site, which had a low density of inoculum ( 7 sclerotia per 100 cm(3) of soil) that was distributed uniformly, included: continuous lettuce (LLLL), alternate crops of broccoli and lettuce (BLBL), continuous broccoli or lettuce (BBLL), and fallow-lettuce-fallow-lettuce (FLFL). Under continuous lettuce croppi...

  16. ESTIMATION OF RESOURCE-HEALING ROLE LUPINE AND STRAW IN THE GRAIN-ROW CROP ROTATION

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In field experiences on soddy-podzolic sandy soil of Meshchersky lowland high agroeconomic efficiency of an adaptive link of a crop rotation with, grown up on grain, a potato and barley is established, at entering winter wheat straw under lupine . Straw in a combination with lupine has proved to be a perspective reserve of reproduction of fertility of soils without participation of nitrogen of mineral fertilizers.

  17. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  18. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on Potato and Crops Grown in Rotation with Potato

    Florini, Diane A.; Loria, Rosemary

    1990-01-01

    The relative suitability of potato and crops frequently grown in rotation with potato as hosts for Pratylenchus penetrans was evaluated. Suitability of rye, wheat, corn, oat, sorgho-sudangrass, and potato were compared in pot studies based on ratios of final population : initial population density and densities of nematodes in roots at harvest. Population densities increased more on potato, oat, and corn than on rye, wheat, and sorgho-sudangrass. There were no differences among the four rye c...

  19. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, June 1-August 31, 1985

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Layton, P.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Trimble, J.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report briefly summarizes activities of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) field-management office at ORNL, research accomplishments of the program, and technology-transfer activities in the program. The section entitled ''Quarterly Highlight'' discusses in depth one research or analysis activity conducted by the SRWCP. The Appendix presents reports on research progress at all institutions under subcontract to the SRWCP. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Role of genetic improvement in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program

    Layton, P.A.; Wright, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    A major effort in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) is species screening and genetic improvement of selected species. Of the 125 species initially evaluated for SRIC, 20 are being seriously considered with most of emphasis on 16 hardwood species. Range-wide seed collections of 12 species were provenance tested; these include Platanus occidentalis (sycamore), Alnus glutinosa (European black alder), and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). Based on the results of these tests, highly productive, site-specific seed sources are being chosen for several geographic regions. Three of these species re currently being bred for increased productivity in SRIC systems. Genetic improvement is viewed as a tool for increasing productivity, having anticipated gains of 40 to 50%. The techniques of somaclonal screening and genetic engineering are being evaluated for their usefulness in the SRIC improvement program. Currently, salt-tolerant Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush) and herbicide-resistant Populus spp. are being sought via somaclonal screening. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Relative Effects of Biological Amendments and Crop Rotations on Soil Microbial Communities and Soilborne Diseases of Potato

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (ACT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial co...

  2. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  3. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior

    2009-09-01

    performed, and its sustainability inferred. Analyses of contrasts between the crop successions were accomplished too. The results provided the following conclusions: (a All crop succession which had maize participation had a higher index sustainability; (b the crops successions S1 [Cereals x soybean x rice(NT] and S4 [Turnip x soybean x rice(NT] had, respectively, the highest and the lowest sustainability among the ones with the soybean crop participation; (c S5 [Native grass x soybean x rice(CT] showed the lowest sustainability level, (d S8 [Species mixtures x corn x rice(NT] presented the best distribution and balance between the different classes of sustainability considered; (e S10 [Native grass x corn x rice(CT] has the worst performance, regarding the sustainability of the one's which included maize; (f the NT system gives greater sustainability to the crop succession.

  4. Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models

    Doltra, Jordi; Nuñoz, P

    2010-01-01

    . Accuracy of the predicted nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) contents in the 0-90 cm soil profile was acceptable with both models, with values of the mean absolute error (MAE) below the average standard deviation of the observations. The uptake of nitrate was better simulated with EU-Rotate_N where specific crop N......Two different modeling approaches were used to simulate the N leached during an intensively fertigated crop rotation: a recently developed crop-based simulation model (EU-Rotate_N) and a widely recognized solute transport model (Hydrus-2D). Model performance was evaluated using data from...... to a higher nitrate concentration in percolated water. Comparison of the observed and predicted yield response to N applications with EU-Rotate_N demonstrated that the best fertigation strategy could be identified and the risk of nitrate leaching quantified with this model. The results showed...

  5. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  6. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  7. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  8. Economic Analysis of No Tillage and Minimum Tillage Cotton-Corn Rotations in the Mississippi Delta

    Crop rotations have been shown to have agronomic benefits. An increasingly common crop rotation in the Mid–South is cotton rotated with corn. Many previous studies have focused on tillage systems or crop rotations. Few have evaluated a combination of the two (crop rotations and tillage) especially f...

  9. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control wi...

  10. Crop rotation in the Valle Calido del Alto Magdalena a sustainable focus of high yield

    Experiments were carried out during five years at the Nataima Research Center, located at 431 m.a.s.l, with average temperature of 28 Celsius degrades and annual rainfall of 1274 Boyaca mm, on a soil classified as Arenic Haplustalf, to evaluate different crops rotation based on rice and sorghum; the combinations used were as follows; rice-rice (R-R), rice-- soybean (R-SY), rice-crotalaria-sorghum (R-C-S), sorghum-sorghum (S-S), sorghum-soybean (S-SY) and cotton-sorghum (Al-S). Simultaneously it was evaluated the response to four nitrogen levels, which allowed to find out yield functions and optimum economical. The rotations S-SY, R-SY and AI-S have been the best qualified from an environmental perspective. Sorghum-soybean rotation presents increases in yield compared with expected values, which allows thinking that it is a truly sustainable rotation. This rotation also had an excellent profitability and for that reason is considered the best option within the goals of this work

  11. 基于模型的冬小麦-夏玉米两熟数字化种植设计系统构建%Construction of model-based cropping design system for wheat-maize rotation

    郑国清; 李国强; 冯晓; 胡峰; 马中杰; 赵巧丽

    2012-01-01

    构建基于模型的定量化和数字化种植设计系统.以农业系统学理论和模拟模型为基础,运用知识工程和信息技术原理,总结并提炼黄淮海粮食生产区冬小麦-夏玉米一年两熟制种植模式关键技术,形成了冬小麦和夏玉米生长模拟模型、水分与养分动态平衡模型以及生产管理技术设计动态知识模型,构建了冬小麦-夏玉米两熟数字化种植设计系统.该系统采用面向对象的程序设计方法,在.NET平台上运用C#语言进行开发.该系统具有7大功能模块:文件管理模块、参数管理模块、生长模拟模块、实时管理模块、方案设计模块、专家咨询模块和系统帮助模块.该系统界面友好,易于使用,具有较强的机理性,同时兼顾应用性需求,基本实现了作物生产力与效益品质的相互平衡.%This experiment aims to build a digital and quantitative model-based system for trapping design. The wheat and maize growth simulation model, water and nutrient dynamic balance model, and dynamic knowledge model for production management, based on knowledge engineering and information technology, were firstly developed by summarizing and extracting the key technique for wheat-maize cropping system in Huang-Huai-Hai region. The cropping design system for wheat and maize was secondly built by coupling the growth simulation model with the knowledge model. According to object-oriented programming method, this system was programmed in the . NET framework with C sharp language. This system consisted of seven function modules, including file management module, parameter management module, growth simulation module, real time management module, plan design module, expert consultation module, and help module. It was user-friendly and operating-conveniently, and has good mechanism and better application. The balance between crop production and cost performance has been primarily realized.

  12. Replacing bare fallow with cover crops in an irrigated cropping system: soil salinity and salt leaching

    Almendros García, Patricia; Gabriel Pérez, José Luis; Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In irrigated areas where cover crop establishment can be assured, consequent soil or nutrient conservation could increase sustainability of cropping systems. Replacing bare fallow with cover crops may increase sustainability by enhancing soil aggregate stability, water retention capacity or controlling nitrate leaching. Nevertheless, adoption of cover crops increase evapotranspiration and reduce water percolation beyond the root systems; therefore, it could lead to salt accumulation in the up...

  13. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  14. Coastal Bermudagrass Rotation and Fallow for Management of Nematodes and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G W; Sumner, D. R.; Handoo, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. Application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not supp...

  15. Effects of Cropping System Change for Paddy Field with Double Harvest Rice on the Crops Growth and Soil Nutrient

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the cropping system change for paddy field with double harvest rice on crops growth and soil nutrient in red soil were studied. The results indicated that the economic benefit and the ratio of the output to input were all increased in terms of the market price for the crops under various treatments. The greatest economic benefit was obtained in the treatment of paddy-upland rotation, and the corresponding economic benefit was increased by 34.7, 21.4, and 2.2% in comparison with that of control (rice-rice-astragali), pasture, and upland cropping treatments. The economic benefits in pasture and upland cultivation treatments were increased by 11.0 and 31.8%, respectively, when compared with that of the control treatment (CK). The ratio of output to input in pasture, paddy-upland rotation, and upland cropping treatments was enhanced by 0.9, 0.6, and 0.3, respectively, in comparison with that of control. To grow pasture is beneficial for improving soil fertility since the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus are all enhanced significantly. However, the concentrations of the soil available nitrogen, the total potassium, the available potassium were somewhat reduced in all the treatments, suggesting that increasing the input of nitrogen,particularly potassium, was necessary under the present fertilization level. Based on the conditions of fertility, climate,cultivation, and management of paddy field with double harvest rice in red soil regions, it is feasible to alter the cultivation system of paddy field with bad irrigation condition. In particular, cultivation systems such as pasture and paddy-upland rotation can be selected to extend because better economic benefit and improvement of soil fertility in the purpose region were obtained.

  16. Energy partitioning and GPP values in a rotating crop in the Spanish Plateau

    Sánchez, María Luisa; Pardo, Nuria; Perez, Isidro A.; Garcia, M. Angeles

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess crop ability to act as a CO2 sink and to describe GPP dynamic evolution, in 2008 we installed an eddy correlation station located in an agricultural plot of the Spanish plateau. Continuous measurements of 30-min NEE fluxes and other common variables have been measured over four years. Agricultural practices at the selected plot consisted of annual rotation of non-irrigated rapeseed, wheat, peas, rye. The maximum canopy height of rapeseed, wheat and rye was 1.3, 0.6 and 1.6 m respectively, the values being reached at the end of May. Although no measurements were performed in the pea crop, according to the farmer's information the maximum height was approximately 0.45-0.5 m. The quality of long-term eddy covariance data was evaluated by calculating the energy balance closure. This paper presents and compares the seasonal variation of major components involved in the energy balance as well as GPP for each type of crop. An energy balance closure of 92% was found when using the global dataset. On a four-year basis, the sensible heat flux, H, played the main role in the energy balance with a ratio of 52%. Latent heat flux, LE, accounted for 40% of the energy, with soil heat flux contributing around 8% to the energy balance. These values changed during the period of maximum interest. For this period LE played the main role, using over half of the available energy, 51%, related to evapotranspiration processes. Over the four years of study annual accumulated GPP exhibited a great variability, 1680, 710, 730 and 1410 g C m-2 for rapeseed, wheat, peas and rye, respectively. The influence of crop architecture, phenology and climatic conditions dominated crop-to-crop seasonal evolution. The highest LE contributions to the energy balance were found for rapeseed and rye. Higher GPP were also obtained for denser and higher canopy height crops, rapeseed and rye, yielding annuals almost comparable to C4 plants. Both crops exhibited a marked seasonal variation of

  17. INFLUENCE OF GREEN MANURE AND INTERCROPPING CULTURES IN THE CHAIN OF IRRIGATED CROP ROTATION ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Babichev A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results for the study of productivity and quality of vegetable crops in irrigated chains of crop rotation by using intermediate and green manure crops. The greatest number of units of grain produced in the first variant of the experiment, where in a part of crop rotation cultivated sweet corn, mustard as a green manure for potato and onion planting summer planting seeds in the ground and reached 37.4 tons of grain units. The infection of potato tubers with complex disease was lowest at the control variant and compose 11 %. The highest infection with diseases of potatoes fixed at the intermediate and without the use of Side-General culture and was 18 %, which is 63.6 % more than the control options. When we are using intermediate crops diseases of onion increased by 7,7–15,4 % in case of green manure using. When you include treatment of the soil under the previous culture it was the largest infest with diseases and was 16–17 %, which is by 23.1 and 30.8 % higher than in the control variant. Based on these results, we can conclude that the use of green manure crops and intermediates more favorable effect both on the productivity of the subsequent crops or the quality and marketability

  18. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  19. Cropping Systems Dynamics in the Lower Gangetic Plains of India using Geospatial Technologies

    K. R. Manjunath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cropping system study is useful to understand the overall sustainability of agricultural system. Capturing the change dynamics of cropping systems, especially spatial and temporal aspects, is of utmost importance in overall planning and management of natural resources. This paper highlights the remote sensing based cropping systems change-dynamics assessment. Current study is aimed at use of multidate-multisensor data for deriving the seasonal cropping pattern maps and deriving the remote sensing based cropping system performance indicators during 1998–99 and 2004–05 in West- Bengal state of India. The temporal assessment of the changes of cropping systems components such as cropping pattern and indices for the study years 1998–99 and 2004–05 have been brought out. The results indicate that during the six years of time the kharif cropping pattern has almost remained the same, being a rice dominant system. A notable point is the decrease in the aus rice due to readjusting the cropping system practice to suit the two crop systems in many places was observed. Marginal variations in mustard and wheat areas during rabi season was observed. The boro (summer rice area has almost remained constant. The rice-fallow-fallow (R-F-F rotation reduced by about 4 percent while the rice-fallow-rice (R-F-R increased by about 7 percent percent. The Area Diversity Index reduced by about 38 percent in 2004 which may be attributed to decrease in kharif pulses and minor crops during kharif and summer. However, diversity during rabi season continued to remain high. The increase in Multiple Cropping Index was observed predominantly in the southern part of the state. Cultivated Land Utilization Index shows an increase by about 0.05.

  20. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems

    Wilkins, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorp...

  1. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. ...

  2. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  3. AGRONOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF TROPICAL COVER CROPS

    Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...

  4. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  5. Coastal bermudagrass rotation and fallow for management of nematodes and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops.

    Johnson, A W; Burton, G W; Sumner, D R; Handoo, Z

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. Application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not suppress numbers of nematodes on any sampling date when compared with untreated plots. The lack of efficacy could be the result of microbial degradation of the nematicide. Application of fenamiphos suppressed root-gall development on okra following fallow and 1-year sod in 1993, but not thereafter. A few galls were observed on roots of snapbean following 2- and 3-year fallow but none following 1-, 2-, and 3-year bermudagrass sod. Population densities of Pythium aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, and Rhizoctonia solani in soil after planting vegetables were suppressed by 2- or 3-year sod compared with fallow but were not affected by fenamiphos. Yields of snapbean, pepper, and okra did not differ between fallow and 1-year sod. In the final year of the study, yields of all crops were greater following 3-year sod than following fallow. Application of fenamiphos prior to planting each crop following fallow or sod did not affect yields. PMID:19274273

  6. Assessing the Influence of Summer Organic Fertilization Combined with Nitrogen Inhibitor on a Short Rotation Woody Crop in Mediterranean Environment

    Anita Maienza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Directive 91/676/EEC, known as Nitrates Directive, has dictated basic agronomic principles regarding the use of animal manure source as well as livestock and waste waters from small food companies. The use of nitrification inhibitors together with animal effluents as organic fertilizers could be beneficial for nutrient recycling, plant productivity, and greenhouse gas emission and could offer economic advantages as alternative to conventional fertilizers especially in the Mediterranean region. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in plant productivity between bovine effluent treatments with (or without addition of a nitrification inhibitor (3,4 DMPP in a short rotation woody crop system. Results of the field experiment carried out in a Mediterranean dry environment indicated that the proposed strategy could improve tree growth with indirect, beneficial effects for agroforestry systems.

  7. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how...... was shown to affect the leaching after the following oilseed rape crop with up to 50 kg N ha-1 taken up before it was lost to the environment when pre-crop fertilization as well as root depth penetration rate was high. All in all, the simulations illustrate the concept of NUE as the result of...

  8. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency. PMID:27012675

  9. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration (Presentation)

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  10. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Zander, Peter M.; Walker, Robin L.; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  11. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  12. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    rotations, designed to reduce the reliance on import of external resources significantly. We compared a conventional system (C) and an organic system relying on manure import for soil fertility (O1) to two novel systems (O2 and O3) all based on the same crop rotation. The O2 and O3 systems represented new...... versions of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the main crop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for...... biodiversity and natural pest regulation in the crops. Reliance on resource import to the systems differed, with average annual import of nitrogen fertilizers of 149, 85, 25 and 25 kg N ha-1 in the C, O1, O2 and O3 systems, respectively. As expected, the crop yields were lower in the organic system. It...

  13. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow t

  14. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  15. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on Potato and Crops Grown in Rotation with Potato.

    Florini, D A; Loria, R

    1990-01-01

    The relative suitability of potato and crops frequently grown in rotation with potato as hosts for Pratylenchus penetrans was evaluated. Suitability of rye, wheat, corn, oat, sorgho-sudangrass, and potato were compared in pot studies based on ratios of final population : initial population density and densities of nematodes in roots at harvest. Population densities increased more on potato, oat, and corn than on rye, wheat, and sorgho-sudangrass. There were no differences among the four rye cultivars or between the two oat cultivars in host suitability. Population increases were not related to root weight or consistently to nematode densities in roots. Although rye and wheat were equally suitable hosts in pot studies, P. penetrans increased more on wheat than on rye in a field study, indicating that reproduction was reduced or mortality was increased on rye under field conditions. PMID:19287696

  16. Effects of cropping system and rates of nitrogen in animal slurry and mineral fertilizer on nitrate leaching from a sandy loam

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Hansen, Jørgen Frederik; Kjellerup, Viggo K.;

    1993-01-01

    Leaching of nitrate from a sandy loam cropped with spring barley, winter wheat and grass was compared in a 4-year lysimeter study. Crops were grown continuously or in a sequence including sugarbeet. Lysimeters were unfertilized or supplied with equivalent amounts of inorganic nitrogen in calcium...... ammonium nitrate (CAN) or animal slurry according to recommended rates (1N) or 50% above recommended rates (1.5N). Compared with unfertilized crops, leaching of nitrate increased only slightly when 1N (CAN) was added. Successive annual additions of 1.5N (CAN) or IN and 1.5N (animal slurry) caused...... the four years were similar for the crops when grown in rotation or continuously. When crops received 1:5N (CAN) or animal slurry, nitrate losses from the crops grown continuously exceeded those from crops in rotation. Including a catch crop in the continuous cropping system eliminated the differences...

  17. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  18. The impact of new energy crops on weed flora diversification in energy cropping systems

    Glemnitz, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite various options in energy cropping for the diversification of agricultural land use, such as the introduction of new crops, in practice, there is a one-sided orientation toward the use of maize as biogas feedstock in Germany. One reason, why they are not yet introduced in practice, is that for most of them neither the agricultural feasibility nor their ecological and economic benefit could be clearly shown to the farmers up to now. As part of the research projects “Site-adapted Cropping Systems for Energy Crops” (EVA, and “Optimized energy cropping systems for the sustainable biogas production (Upscaling” the effects of three new energy crops have been tested under real farm conditions in two different regions in the northern part of Germany. The large scale field trial consisted of the comparison of the following energy crops: 0- maize as reference crop, 1- perennial Silphie (Silphium perfoliatum, 2- Szarvasi grass (Agropyron elongatum, and 3-perennial wild flower mixture. The trail has been investigated regarding the following effects: α-diversity at the plot scale, contribution to the β-diversity among the crops and species composition. The results suggest that the integration of the new perennial energy crop might contribute to an essential weed diversity enhancement. Weed flora diversity was between 2-4 times higher in most of the cases in the new energy crops compared to maize.

  19. Net carbon balance of three full crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany

    Hurkuck, M.; Brümmer, C.; Kolle, O.; Kutsch, W. L.; Moffat, A. M.; Mukwashi, K.; Truckenbrodt, S. C.; Herbst, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 and H2O exchange have been conducted since 2001 at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany, thus providing one of the longest EC time series of European croplands. During the experimental period, winter wheat and winter barley were alternately planted with potatoes, sugar beet, rape, and peppermint covering three full crop rotations (2001-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). In this study, data of 14 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (E) were re-calculated. Based on these data, we present the net carbon (C) balance (net biome production, NBP) accounting for any additional C input by fertilization and C output by harvest. Further emphasis was placed on the sensitivity of water use efficiency (WUE) and E to climate and crop type. The main aim was to investigate the interannual variability in both NBP and WUE, thus disentangling the impacts of climatic conditions and land management on the net C balance as well as on WUE and E.

  20. Modeling poplar growth as a short rotation woody crop for biofuels in the Pacific Northwest

    Predicting the economic viability and environmental sustainability of a biofuels industry based on intensively cultivated short rotation woody crops (SRWC) requires spatial predictions of growth and yield under various environmental conditions and across large regions. The Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth (3PG) model was modified to evaluate the growth and yield of coppiced poplar (Populus spp). This included an additional biomass partitioning method and developing a sub-model which takes into account the impact of coppicing on post harvest regeneration, extending the applicability of the 3PG model to coppice management regimes. The parameterized model was applied to the entire Pacific Northwest of the United States, using appropriate climate and soil input data. Results predict the yield of poplar cultivation at a spatial resolution of ≈64 km2 throughout the ≈8,000,000 km2 of the study region. Existing agricultural cultivation patterns were used to estimate regional water availability for irrigation, and for non-irrigated regions, land cover features including ownership, slope, soil salinity and water table depth where used to select areas with a real potential to support a SRWC plantation. Results can be integrated with other models that allow for optimizing crop selection and biorefinery site selection. Important results include; an updated 3PG model for coppiced SRWC plantings, estimates of biomass feedstock yields under different irrigation patterns and weather conditions, and estimates for feedstock availability when combined with crop adoption scenarios. - Highlights: • A poplar growth model was applied to the Pacific Northwest of the US. • We included a coppicing module to the exsiting 3PG growth model. • We investigated growth under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. • We developed Geospatial yield estimates. • We discuss changes in yield from climate change

  1. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  2. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  3. Nitrogen turnover and leaching in cropping systems with ryegrass catch crops

    Aronsson, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) catch crops and their short- and long-term effects on nitrogen leaching and nitrogen turnover in soils. Results are presented from three field experiments on a sandy soil in south-west Sweden, where undersown catch crops were used in cropping systems with and without applications of liquid manure. The effects of different tillage practices on soil mineral nitrogen and leaching were also studied. Two coupled simulation models, which...

  4. Scientific Basis for Sustainable Management of Eucalyptus and Populus as Short-Rotation Woody Crops in the U.S.

    Eric D. Vance

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Short rotation woody crops (SRWC, fast growing tree species that are harvested on short, repeated intervals, can augment traditional fiber sources. These crops have economic and environmental benefits stemming from their capability of supplying fiber on a reduced land base in close proximity to users and when sensitive sites cannot be accessed. Eucalyptus and Populus appear to be genera with the greatest potential to provide supplemental fiber in the U.S. Optimal productivity can be achieved through practices that overcome site limitations and by choosing the most appropriate sites, species, and clones. Some Eucalyptus species are potentially invasive, yet field studies across multiple continents suggest they are slower to disperse than predicted by risk assessments. Some studies have found lower plant and animal diversity in SRWC systems compared to mature, native forests, but greater than some alterative land uses and strongly influenced by stand management, land use history, and landscape context. Eucalyptus established in place of grasslands, arable lands, and, in some cases, native forests can reduce streamflow and lower water tables due to higher interception and transpiration rates but results vary widely, are scale dependent, and are most evident in drier regions.

  5. Efect of organic barley-based crop rotations on soil nutrient balance in a semiarid environment for a 16-year experiment

    Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta; Lacasta, Carlos; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In natural ecosystems with no percolating moisture regime, the biogeochemical cycle can be considered a closed system because the nutrients extracted by the roots will be returned to the soil after a certain time. In organic farming, a cycle model as close as possible is taken as a guideline, but we have to consider that unlike natural ecosystems, where most of the nutrients remain in the cycle, the agrosystems are open cycles. To achieve a sustainable fertility of the soil, the soil nutrient levels, the extractions according to the expected crop yields and the export refunds in the form of crop residues, biological nitrogen fixation, green manure or compost will have to be determined. Nutrient balance should be closed with external inputs, always avoiding to be a source of negative impacts on the environment. In organic farming without exogenous inputs, the effect of the crop rotations is much more noticeable in the nutrient balance than in the conventional farming fields which every year receive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the form of chemical fertilizers. The most extractive crop rotations are those that produce a greater decrease in soil reserves, and in these cases exogenous inputs to maintain sustainability should be considered; however, in less extractive crop rotations, extractions can be restored by the edaphogenesis processes. In this work, soil organic matter, phosphorus and potassium balances were analyzed in different organic barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture [b-b] and in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-Vh], vetch as green manure [B-Vm], sunflower [B-S], chickpea [B-C] and fallow [B-F]) in clay soils under a semiarid environment ("La Higueruela" Experimental Farm, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain) over a 16 year period. Additionally, barley monoculture in conventional farming [B-B] was included. In the organic system, the fertilization involved the barley straw in all rotations, the sunflower

  6. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  7. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  8. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L. e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.. A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa: 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca.This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops irrigated in

  9. The influence of reduced spring tillage on soil properties, crop yield and profitability in a rotation

    FEIZA, VIRGINIJUS; Feizienė, Dalia; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate different reduced spring tillage methods on yielding capacity of spring sown crops, soil physical and chemical properties and to evaluate the profitability of reduced tillage methods investigated. The field experiment was set up at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003-2005. Spring barley, spring oil-seed rape and spring wheat were grown. Five soil tillage systems were investigated in the field trial: 1. Shallow spring-time ploughing (15-17 ...

  10. On weed competition and population dynamics. Considerations for crop rotations and organic farming

    Mertens, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: organic farming, weeds, weed management, weed ecology, weed diversity, matrix population model, elasticity analysis, neighbourhood model, survey, crop row spacing, mechanical hoe, harrow, Polygonum convolvulus , Polygonum persicaria , Stellaria mediaExperiments, monitoring studies and modelling of weed population dynamics were carried out to investigate potential methods for reducing weed populations in farming systems where herbicides are not applied (organic farming). Six years o...

  11. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  12. Much Improved Irrigation Use Efficiency in an Intensive Wheat-Maize Double Cropping System in the North China Plain

    2007-01-01

    Crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in a wheat-maize double cropping system are influenced by short and uneven rainfalls in the North China Plain (NCP). A 2-year experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation on soil water balance, crop yield and WUE to improve irrigation use efficiency in the cropping system. Soil water depletion (△SWS)by crop generally decreased with the increase of irrigation and rainfall, while △SWS for the whole rotation was relatively stable among these irrigation treatments. High irrigations in wheat season increased initial soil moisture and △SWS for subsequent maize especially in the drought season. Initial soil water influenced mainly by the irrigation and rainfall in the previous crop season, is essential to high yield in such cropping systems. Grain yield decreased prior to evapotranspiration(ET) when ET reached about 300 mm for wheat, while maize showed various WUEs with similar seasonal ET. For whole rotation, WUE declined when ET exceeded about 650 mm. These results indicate great potential for improving irrigation use efficiency in such wheat-maize cropping system in the NCP. Based on the present results, reasonable irrigation schedules according to different annual rainfall conditions are presented for such a cropping system.

  13. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  14. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  15. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (conservation practices, including cover crops, improve the resilience of Midwest agriculture to future change. Such collaborations can help better quantify long term impacts of conservation practices on the landscape that ultimately lead to more climate-smart management of such agricultural systems.

  16. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  17. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  18. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation was at least 25 cm from the soil surface. We suggest these values as indicative for optimal physical soil quality when growing rice in fine

  19. 免耕施肥对两个轮作系统生产力及水分利用效率的影响%Effect of No-Tillage Fertilization on Productivity and Water Use Efficiency of Two Cropping Rotation System

    黄茂林; 梁银丽; 韦泽秀; 尚金霞

    2013-01-01

    依托陕西安塞旱作农区田间小区试验,通过2 a定位观测,分析了传统翻耕施化肥(CF)、翻耕施有机肥(CM)、翻耕不施肥(CN)、免耕施化肥(NF)、免耕施有机肥(NM)、免耕不施肥(NN)6个处理对大豆-玉米、红小豆-马铃薯两个轮作系统生产力及水分利用效率的影响。结果表明,免耕保墒蓄水的生态经济效用存在一定的降水量范围,在这个范围内,免耕比翻耕保墒效果好,免耕下4种作物均表现出较好的生态经济效益,马铃薯、红小豆、玉米以NF较优,而大豆以NM较优。在低于免耕效用降水量最低临界值下,4种作物经济效益都以施肥较优,施肥下以免耕略优,但与翻耕一般无显著差异。在水分利用效率方面,免耕施肥略优。在6种处理和两个轮作系统下,4种常见作物的经济产量从大到小依次为马铃薯、玉米、大豆、红小豆,玉米、马铃薯、红小豆3种作物在陕北黄土丘陵沟壑旱作农区的较优耕作管理方式为NF,其次是大豆NM。%According to the experiments in dry farming region of plot in Shaanxi Ansai,analysis the effect of six treatments with conventional tillage fertilizer (CF),tillage organic manure (CM),tillage no fertilizer (CN); no-tillage fertilizer (NF),no-tillage organic fertilizer(NM),no-tillage no fertilizer(NN)on productivity and water use efficiency of two cropping rotation system with soybean - corn,Red Bean - potato by two years positioning observation. The results showed that the utility of ecological economic of no-tillage soil moisture water being rainfall range,within this range,the effect of soil moisture of no-tillage is better than tillage,can improve yield; four kinds of crops all showed less good ecological and economic benefits under no-tillage,the ecological and economic benefits of potato,red bean and corn all showed optimum under NF,and soybean showed optimum under NM. Under the

  20. Enhancing productivity of salt affected soils through crops and cropping system

    The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)

  1. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  2. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  3. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  4. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  5. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  6. Identification of greenhouse gas hot-spots and predicting district-wise GHG Intensities in rice based crop rotations in India using DNDC model

    Yeluripati, J. B.; Frolking, S. E.; Li, C.; Nayak, D. R.; Adhya, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    Indian scientific research on rice cultivation has been targeted primarily at enhancing crop productivity for the wide range of soil and climate conditions across India. With the understanding that rice paddies are major source of atmospheric CH4 and N2O, there is a need for careful evaluation of the source strength of this ecosystem, and the influence of soil, water and crop management practices on both CH4 and N2O fluxes. A major challenge in meeting this objective lies in reducing the large uncertainties associated with regional and global level estimates of GHG emissions. Process-based biogeochemical models like DNDC (Denitrification and Decomposition model) can provide important insights into how agricultural management of rice paddies influences water resources, yields and greenhouse gas emissions. To quantify the CH4 and N2­O emissions from rice based crop rotations of India, DNDC model was modified, calibrated and evaluated at different sites across India. The observed N uptake, yields, CH4 and N2O emissions were in agreement with the values predicted by the model. To drive the model across India, a unique database was prepared combining soil/climate/landuse and management information. By linking the spatial database to DNDC, CH4 and N2O emissions from Indian rice based crop rotations for the rice growing season in the year 2000 were simulated on day-by-day basis. CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies in India from rice based-growing season were estimated to be 3.8 and 0.1 - 0.08 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 gm). Of the total CH4 emissions 30.6% (1.2 Tg) is emitted from single irrigated rice. 30.0% (1.1 Tg) and 14.46%(0.56 Tg) of total CH4 is emitted from double rice and single rainfed rice cropping system. 32.9% (33.16 Gg) of the total N2O emissions is emitted by upland rice followed by Single rainfed rice cropping system which emits about 19.9%(20.06 Gg) of total N2O . This paper presents a framework on GIS databases and a process-based biogeochemical model for

  7. Cropping System to Limit Blast Disease in Upland Rice

    Sester, M.; Raveloson, H.; Michellon, R.; Dusserre, J.; Tharreau, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cropping system is an essential aspect to take into account to manage blast disease (caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae). In addition to the selection of resistant cultivars, studies report opportunities to limit blast incidence by managing mineral amendment (N, Si, P, etc.), cultivar mixtures or other cropping system adaptations. In Madagascar, rice is the staple crop and food. Farmers traditionally grow irrigated or rainfed lowland rice wherever possible. In the mid-1980s, CIRAD and FO...

  8. Arylsulphatase activity and sulphate content in relation to crop rotation and fertilization of soil

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of varying rates of FYM (0, 20, 40, 60 Mg ha-1) and nitrogen N0, N1, N2, and N3 on the content of sulphate sulphur (VI) and the activity of arylsulphatase, which participates in the transformations of this element in Haplic Luvisol. The study report is based on a long-term field experiment with two different crop rotations: A - recognized as exhausting the humus from soil and B - recognized as enriching the soil with humus. During the cultivation of the plants, the soil was sampled four times from corn and a red clover cultivar and grass. The FYM fertilization rate for which the highest arylsulphatase activity and the content of sulphates were identified was 60 Mg ha-1. An inhibitory effect of high rates (90 and 135 kg N ha-1) of ammonium nitrate on the arylsulphatase activity was also observed. A significant correlation between the content of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphates and the arylsulphatase activity was recorded. The investigation on the effect of combined application of farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilization on the activity of arylsulphatase participating in the sulphur cycling was launched to examine the problem in detail.

  9. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    grassland and a pea field as reference. Aboveground and root biomass were determined and soils were incubated to study CO2 emissions after soil disturbance. Aboveground biomass was highest in 1-year-old grassland with slurry application and lowest in 4-year-old grassland without slurry application. Root...... biomass was highest in 4-year-old grassland, but all 1–4-year-old grasslands were in between the pea field (0.81 ± 0.094 g kg−1 soil) and the 17-year-old grassland (3.17 ± 0.22 g kg−1 soil). Grazed grasslands had significantly higher root biomass than cut grasslands. There was no significant difference in......Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year-old...

  10. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J.P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  11. Environmental evaluation and benchmarking of the traditional dryland Mediterranean crop farming system in the Alentejo region of Portugal.

    Rosado, Maria; Marques, Carlos; Fragoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the effects of traditional Mediterranean crop farming system of the Alentejo region of Portugal on environment are evaluated and benchmarked. With this objective a typical farm of the region using a traditional system based on a crop-rotation of durum wheat with sunflower and peas was selected. Environmental indicators were used to evaluate production activities environmental effects. These include nitrogen balance and energy input determined using input and output processes ana...

  12. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  13. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  14. Linking N Cycling to Microbial Function Within Soil Microenvironments in Cover Crop Systems

    Kong, A. Y.; Scow, K. M.; Hristova, K.; Six, J.

    2007-12-01

    Cover crops have emerged as a crop management strategy to achieve agricultural sustainability and maintain environmental quality. Thus, fundamental knowledge of microbial-mediated C and N cycling is vital to understanding soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in cover cropped agroecosystems. We investigated the effects of short-term cover crop-C input on N processing by microbial communities within SOM microenvironments and in bulk soil, across a gradient of organic to conventional crop management. We hypothesized that cover crop C and N inputs promote soil aggregation, which increases the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and stimulates greater microbial cycling of N within soil microenvironments, thereby leading to potential increases in N stabilization coupled with decreases in N loss. Our hypothesis was tested on the long-term organic, low-input, and conventional maize-tomato rotations at the Center for Integrated Farming Systems experiment (Davis, CA). We collected soil samples (0-15cm) across the cover crop and subsequent maize growing seasons and then isolated three SOM fractions soil: coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM; >250um), microaggregates (53-250um), and silt-and-clay (genes, amoA and nosZ, were employed to quantify AOB and denitrifier population sizes, respectively. We also measured gross ammonification and nitrification rates in short-term 15N-incubations of the bulk soil to link cover crop induced N cycling to N-transforming bacteria. Total soil C and N concentrations and soil aggregation were higher in the organic than conventional and low-input systems. The amoA and no Z copy numbers g-1 dry soil were highest in the microaggregate fraction and similar between the cPOM and silt-and-clay fractions, among all cropping treatments. Abundances of AOB and denitrifiers were lower in bulk soil from the conventional and low- input than organic system. Our study indicates that long-term, annual cover crop inputs to the organic system lead to

  15. Password Based Rotational Multistory Car Parking System

    Nayab Suhail Hamirani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to verify the object and detects number of free spaces available in the parking lot. The world has become a global market and numbers of vehicles are also increased to an uncontrollable situation. Keeping this problem the intended model is designed. Password locking system embedded in the work has made the parking of vehicles very much secure.

  16. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  17. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  18. EQUITABLE CROPSHARE ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTENSIVE DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Burgener, Paul A.; Feuz, Dillon M.

    1999-01-01

    As producers move toward intensive dryland cropping systems, the potential for inequities in cropshare lease arrangements exists. A whole farm budget was developed to evaluate returns for landowner and tenant from different cropshare lease arrangements. Results suggest that cropshare lease adjustments are necessary as cropping systems become more intensive.

  19. No-till bioenergy cropping systems effect on soil aeration

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on soil quality, such as the effects of maize stover harvesting on soil aeration and the relationships to soil structure and water, associated with bioenergy cropping systems has been l...

  20. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  1. Crop rotation and seasonal effects on fatty acid profiles of neutral and phospholipids extracted from no-till agricultural soils

    Ferrari, Alejandro E.; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John;

    2015-01-01

    winter differentially according to soil treatment being the smallest decrease inHR management 35%. Both PLFA and NLFA profiles showed strong potential to discriminatebetween different land uses. In winter samples, some rare or unknown fatty acids were relevant forthe discrimination of agricultural...... of NLFA in winter samples as ifhigh crop rotation improves lipids reserves in soil during winter more than in monocropping soilmanagement. In conclusion, PLFA and particularly NLFA profiles appear to provide useful andcomplementary information to obtain a footprint of different soil use and......Analysis of phospholipids (PLFA) and neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFA) was used to characterizeno-till productive agricultural soils associated with different crop rotation levels, replicated across a400 km transect in the Argentinean pampas, during two sampling seasons, summer and winter...

  2. Root pruning reduces root competition in living mulch cropping systems

    Båth, B.; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    In intercropping systems with a cash crop and a living mulch intercrop, competition between the cash crop and the intercrop (the living mulch) often reduces the yield of the cash crop. This project investigated (1) the influence of root pruning of living mulches on aboveground biomass of white cabbage. Below-ground growth and competition were examined by measuring (2) root distribution in minirhizotrons and (3) uptake of 15N placed at different soil depths. Two field experiments were carried ...

  3. Database Structure for the Indonesian Food Crop Monitoring System

    Gary Stampley

    1992-01-01

    The development of the Indonesian Food Crop Monitoring System (FCMS) database required the compilation of general information on the principal food crops, as well as supportive data on climate, land use, prices, trade, and various macroeconomic conditions. The purpose for the collection and management of these data was twofold: (1) to support several specific food-crop policy analyses to be conducted by the FCMS project team, and (2) to provide a simple capability for monitoring and describin...

  4. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Marais, A; Hardy, M; M. Booyse; A Botha

    2012-01-01

    Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN), community level physiological profiling (CLPP), and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine chan...

  5. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  6. The effect of different crop rotation on the fungi compound of pea roots (Pisum sative L. cv. "Fidelia" and their healthiness

    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years 1991-1993 research was conducted on the effect of three different types of crop rotation (monoculture, 3-year rotation and 5-year rotation on the fungi compound of pea roots and their healthiness. It was found that I~isarium oxysporum. occured more frequentl~'. F. solani and Rhizoctonia, solani were frequently isolated from plant cultivated in monoculture. On thy contrary in a 5-year rotation fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma and Gliocladum occerd more frequently. Infestation of roots in monoculture was nearly twice as high as that in crop rotation and the yield was six time lower. In 3-year and 5-year crop rotation difference was not found in the micoflora compound, root rot degree, and seed yield.

  7. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Babulicová Mária

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  8. BIRKHOFF'S EQUATIONS AND GEOMETRICAL THEORY OF ROTATIONAL RELATIVISTIC SYSTEM

    LUO SHAO-KAI; CHEN XIANG-WEI; FU JING-LI

    2001-01-01

    The Birkhoffian and Birkhoff's functions of a rotational relativistic system are constructed, the Pfaff action of rotational relativistic system is defined, the Pfaff-Birkhoff principle of a rotational relativistic system is given, and the Pfaff-Birkhoff-D'Alembert principles and Birkhoff's equations of rotational relativistic system are constructed. The geometrical description of a rotational relativistic system is studied, and the exact properties of Birkhoff's equations and their forms onR × T*M for a rotational relativistic system are obtained. The global analysis of Birkhoff's equations for a rotational relativistic system is studied, the global properties of autonomous, semi-autonomous and non-autonomous rotational relativistic Birkhoff's equations, and the geometrical properties of energy change for rotational relativistic Birkhoff's equations are given.

  9. Spontaneous rotation in a driven mechanical system

    Alexander, T. J.

    2016-06-01

    We show that a mass free to circulate around a shaken pivot point exhibits resonance-like effects and large amplitude dynamics even though there is no natural frequency in the system, simply through driving under geometrical constraint. We find that synchronization between force and mass occurs over a wide range of forcing amplitudes and frequencies, even when the forcing axis is dynamically, and randomly, changed. Above a critical driving amplitude the mass will spontaneously rotate, with a fractal boundary dividing clockwise and anti-clockwise rotations. We show that this has significant implications for energy harvesting, with large output power over a wide frequency range. We examine also the effect of driving symmetry on the resultant dynamics, and show that if the shaking is circular the motion becomes constrained, whereas for anharmonic rectilinear shaking the dynamics may become chaotic, with the system mimicking that of the kicked rotor.

  10. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades. PMID:21769884

  11. The effect of different crop rotation on the fungi compound of pea roots (Pisum sative L. )cv. "Fidelia" and their healthiness

    Stanisław Sadowski; Stanisław Urbanowski; Róża Maniewska; A. Sowa

    2013-01-01

    Over the years 1991-1993 research was conducted on the effect of three different types of crop rotation (monoculture, 3-year rotation and 5-year rotation) on the fungi compound of pea roots and their healthiness. It was found that I~isarium oxysporum. occured more frequentl~'. F. solani and Rhizoctonia, solani were frequently isolated from plant cultivated in monoculture. On thy contrary in a 5-year rotation fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma and Gliocladum occerd more frequently. Infes...

  12. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Muhammad Tahir

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1 and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1 and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1 and 3.01± μg g(-1 being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include

  13. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1) dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1) and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1)) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1) and 3.01± μg g(-1)) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates

  14. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g-1and 7.36±1.0 μg g-1) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g-1 and 3.01± μg g-1) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates with plant

  15. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  16. Perun: The System For Seasonal Crop Yield Forecasting Based On The Crop Model and Weather Generator

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Trnka, M.; Haberle, J.; Pesice, P.

    The main purpose of the computer system PERUN, which is now being developed, is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting. The crop yields (winter wheat and spring barley in the first step) are simulated by crop model WOFOST. The input daily weather series consist of observed data, which are available in the date of forecast issuance, and synthetic data, which follow up with the observed data till the end of the crop model simulation. The synthetic weather series are generated by stochastic generator Met&Roll conditionally on the seasonal weather forecast. The probabilis- tic forecast is based on multiple crop model runs. To provide the six daily weather characteristics required for crop model simulation (precipitation, solar radiation, max- imum and minimum temperatures, air humidity, wind speed), the previous WGEN- like four-variate version of Met&Roll generator was supplemented by a new module. This module adds wind speed and air humidity (necessary to calculate evapotranspi- ration) using the nearest neighbours resampling from the observed data. Because of the problems with availability and/or accuracy of wind and humidity data, the source code of the WOFOST model was modified and allows now to switch between Penman and Makkink methods of calculating the evapotranspiration (the daily values of wind speed and humidity are not required in the Makkink method). The contribution will address following items: 1) Structure of the PERUN system: components and their inputs and outputs. Modifications to WOFOST crop model and Met&Roll generator will be discussed. 2) Validation of the WOFOST crop model. The accuracy obtained using the Penman and Makkink methods will be compared. 3) Demonstration of the forecast accuracy in dependence on the date of issuance. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN is being developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for Agricultural Research (NAZV).

  17. Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in integrated crop-livestock systems in subtropics

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system is an agricultural practice in which crop-pasture rotation is carried out in the same field over time. In Brasil, ICL associated with no-tillage farming is increasingly gaining importance as a soil use strategy that improves food production (grain, milk and beef) and economic returns to farmers. Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) is a recent modification of ICL in Brazil, with the inclusion of trees cultivation aiming at additional wood production and offering thermal comfort to livestock (Porfírio-da-Silva & Moraes, 2010). However, despite the increasing importance of ICL, little information is available on how this system may affect soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)

  18. Effect of three farming systems (bio-dynamic, bio-organic, conventional) on yield and quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta L.) in a seven year crop rotation

    Mäder, P.; Pfiffner, L.; Niggli, U.; Balzer, U.; Balzer, F; Plochberger, A.; Velimirov, A.; Besson, J.-M.

    1993-01-01

    In a long-term field trial in Therwil, Switzerland, the bio-dynamic, bio-organic and conventional farming systems were compared (DOC trial). The present paper focuses on long-term yield development and on product quality of beetroot. Due to the favourable climate and soil, beetroot yields were generally high. The yield of beetroot in both biological systems was about 75 % that of the conventional system, but the input of nitrogen and potassium was about 60 % lower.

  19. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  20. Nitrate leaching and residual effect in dairy crop rotations with grass-clover leys as influenced by sward age, grazing, cutting and fertilizer regimes

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Jim;

    2015-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming, with grass-arable crop rotations is challenged by low N use efficiency that may have adverse environmental consequences. We investigated nitrate leaching and N fertility effects of grass–clover leys for five years in two organic crop rotations with different grassland...... and fertilization and lowest without fertilization or cutting-only management and was not influenced by grassland age. The arable part of the mixed crop rotation was nitrate leaky where crop coverage in autumn was insufficient. Nitrate leaching following the crops may roughly be divided into four groups: (1) low...... reduced leaching losses to on average 23 kg N ha−1. There was no linear relationship between sward age and nitrate leaching. The annual N surplus of the grasslands was only weakly related to nitrate leaching (R2 = 0.05, P

  1. The Potato Systems Planner: Cropping System Impacts on Soilborne Diseases and Soil Microorganisms

    Different 2-yr and 3-yr crop rotations, consisting of barley/clover, canola, green bean, millet, soybean, and sweet corn in various combinations followed by potato, were evaluated for their effects on the development of soilborne potato diseases and soil microbial communities over several cropping s...

  2. Lentil production in Germany : testing different mixed cropping systems, sowing dates and weed controls

    Wang, Lina

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of legume crop, lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) with their high nutritional value are grown mainly for human consumption in many regions of the world. The crop has benefits in crop rotation due to its symbiotic N-fixation, which is important especially in organic farming, and it can also increase crop biodiversity in arable land. In Europe, lentils are considered one of the popular leguminous food crops. However, the cultivation and scientific research on lentils were neglected in G...

  3. Economics of short-rotation woody crops plantation at Amana, Iowa

    This paper reports on a 21 ha energy plantation of silver maple (Acer saccharinum) established on an old-field bottomland site near Amana, IA. The project started in 1988 and sponsored by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (US Dept. of Energy), is a 6 year cooperative effort of the Amana Society, Department of Forestry, ISU, and the Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources. The objective is to accurately estimate biomass yields and costs of growing wood for energy in a short-rotation, close spacing system under operational conditions. Research is being conducted on spacing rotation, fertilization, groundwater quality, and improved seedlings. A detailed cost accounting system was established to accurately record time and cost data by activity. Establishment costs (rent, site preparation, tree planting) and initial (2 year) cultural management costs (herbicide and mowing) total $1,304/ha. Cost proportions for rent, site preparation, and planting are 11%, 18.2%, and 59.4%, respectively. Cultural management costs incurred through 1990 total $148/ha

  4. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Sangchul Lee

    Full Text Available The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC. The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean, with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  5. Quantum Rotational Effects in Nanomagnetic Systems

    O'Keeffe, Michael F.

    Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions

  6. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  7. Models of cuspy triaxial stellar systems - IV. Rotating systems

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We built two self-consistent models of triaxial, cuspy, rotating stellar systems adding rotation to non-rotating models presented in previous papers of this series. The final angular velocity of the material is not constant and varies with the distance to the centre and with the height over the equator of the systems, but the figure rotation is very uniform in both cases. Even though the addition of rotation to the models modifies their original semi-axes ratios, the final rotating models are considerably flattened and triaxial. An analysis of the orbital content of the models shows that about two-thirds of their orbits are chaotic yet the models are very stable over intervals of the order of one Hubble time. The bulk of regular orbits are short-axis tubes, while long-axis tubes are replaced by tubes whose axes lie on the short-long axes plane, but do not coincide with the major axis. Other types of regular orbits that do not appear in non-rotating systems, like horseshoes and orbits that cross themselves, are also found in the present models. Finally, our frequency maps show empty regions where studies of orbits on fixed potentials found orbits, a likely consequence of the self-consistency of our models that excludes them.

  8. Models of cuspy triaxial stellar systems. IV: Rotating systems

    Carpintero, D D

    2016-01-01

    We built two self-consistent models of triaxial, cuspy, rotating stellar systems adding rotation to non-rotating models presented in previous papers of this series. The final angular velocity of the material is not constant and varies with the distance to the center and with the height over the equator of the systems, but the figure rotation is very uniform in both cases. Even though the addition of rotation to the models modifies their original semiaxes ratios, the final rotating models are considerably flattened and triaxial. An analysis of the orbital content of the models shows that about two thirds of their orbits are chaotic yet the models are very stable over intervals of the order of one Hubble time. The bulk of regular orbits are short axis tubes, while long axis tubes are replaced by tubes whose axes lie on the short-long axes plane, but do not coincide with the major axis. Other types of regular orbits that do not appear in non-rotating systems, like horseshoes and orbits that cross themselves, are...

  9. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg-1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg-1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg-1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  10. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Hiel, MP.; Chélin, M.; Parvin, N.; Barbieux, S.; Degrune, F.; Lemtiri, A.; Colinet, G.; Degré, A.; Bodson, B.; Garré, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop produ...

  11. Characteristics of C and N Accumulation in Infertile Red Soil Under Different Rotation Systems

    LI Zhong-pei; TANG Yong-liang; SHI Hua; ZHANG Tao-lin

    2002-01-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted at the Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil, Chinese Academy of Sciences to investigate the characteristics of material cycling and C, N accumulation in infertile red soil under different treatments of rotation systems for 11 years. Plant biomass, amount of organic materials returned to the soil, and budget of nitrogen in soil were obviously different under conventional cultivation, coverage by shrubs ( Lespedeza formosa ), rotation of shrubs ( Lespedeza formosa ) and crops (PeanutBuckwheat). Rotation of shrubs and crops with a combination of rational fertilization would be 75 - 100% of biomass and a similar amount of organic materials returned to the soil compared with that under coverage shrubs, more input than output of nitrogen, high system stability, and increasing crop productivity. With distinct cycling, different treatments of rotation systems influenced discriminatorily soil fertility. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen were respectively less than 7 and 0.6 g kg-1 for conventional cultivation, 9- 11 and 0.6-0.9 g kg-1 for rotation of shrubs and crops, 14 - 16 g kg-1 and more than 1 g kg-1 for coverage by shrubs after 11 years, which represent low, middle and high levels of upland red soil fertility at the current situation. It implied that with cultivation system and fertilization measures, the infertile red soil could have middle to high fertility after about 10 years rational utilization. Comparison of results from different treatments showed that a large loss of organic carbon and nitrogen was caused by soil erosion which resulted in a low level of C and N in upland red soil. It could be suggested that increasing carbon storage in infertile red soil would sequester a great amount of atmospheric CO2 and mitigate the global warming potentially.

  12. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems.

    Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Jörg, Lena; Kraus, David; Racela, Heathcliff S U; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Global rice agriculture will be increasingly challenged by water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from double-rice cropping to the introduction of upland crops in the dry season. For a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, we measured methane (CH4 )/nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and agronomic parameters over 2.5 years in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2 O emissions increased two- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction in CH4 led to a significantly lower (P < 0.05) annual GWP (CH4  + N2 O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) contents before and 3 years after the introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other systems SOC stocks were unaffected. This trend for R-M systems needs to be followed as it has significant consequences not only for the GWP balance but also with regard to soil fertility. Economic assessment showed a similar gross profit span for R-M and R-R, while gross profits for R-A were reduced as a consequence of lower productivity. Nevertheless, regarding a future increase in water scarcity, it can be expected that mixed lowland-upland systems will expand in SE Asia as water requirements were cut by more than half in both rotation systems with upland crops. PMID:26386203

  14. Integrated rotation systems for soilborne disease, weed and fertility management in strawberry/vegetable production

    Zavatta, M; Shennan, C; Muramoto, J; Baird, G.; Bolda, MP; Koike, ST; Klonsky, K

    2014-01-01

    Organic strawberry/vegetable producers in coastal California face soilborne disease, nutrient, and weed management challenges. In conventional systems, stringent regulations and air quality concerns make the sustainability of fumigantdependent systems uncertain. To evaluate efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), mustard cake (MC) application and broccoli residue incorporation, we initiated trials at an organic farm (Org) and a conventional farm (Conv) with crop rotation (broccoli (B...

  15. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  16. Form Invariance and Noether Symmetries of Rotational Relativistic Birkhoff Systems

    LUOShao-Kai

    2002-01-01

    Under the infinitesimal transformations of groups,a form invariance of rotational relativistic Birkhoff systems is studied and the definition and criteria are given,In view of the invariance of rotational relativistic Pfaff-Birkhoff-D' Alembert principle under the infinitesimal transformations of groups,the theory of Noether symmetries of rotational relativistic Birkhoff systems are constructed.The relation between the form invariance and the Noether symmetries is studied ,and the conserved quantities of rotational relativistic Birkhoff systems are obtained.

  17. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  18. A rotating inertial navigation system with the rotating axis error compensation consisting of fiber optic gyros

    ZHA Feng; HU Bai-qing; QIN Fang-jun; LUO Yin-bo

    2012-01-01

    An effective and flexible rotation and compensation scheme is designed to improve the accuracy of rotating inertial navigation system (RINS).The accuracy of single-axial RINS is limited by the errors on the rotating axis.A novel inertial measurement unit (IMU) scheme with error compensation for the rotating axis of fiber optic gyros (FOG) RINS is presented.In the scheme,two couples of inertial sensors with similar error characteristics are mounted oppositely on the rotating axes to compensate the sensors error.Without any change for the rotation cycle,this scheme improves the system's precision and reliability,and also offers the redundancy for the system.The results of 36 h navigation simulation prove that the accuracy of the system is improved notably compared with normal strapdown INS,besides the heading accuracy is increased by 3 times compared with single-axial RINS,and the position accuracy is improved by 1 order of magnitude.

  19. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  20. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  1. Using the DNDC model to compare soil organic carbon dynamics under different crop rotation and fertilizer strategies

    Lan Mu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ⅱ in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security.

  2. Using the DNDC model to compare soil organic carbon dynamics under different crop rotation and fertilizer strategies

    Mu, L.; Liang, Y.; Xue, Q.; Chen, C.; Lin, X.

    2014-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC) to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i) single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ii) in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security. (Author)

  3. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Claudivan F. Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água de baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa

  4. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  5. Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), disease suppression (DS), and a status quo standard rotation control (SQ), were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial commu...

  6. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  7. Experiences and Research Perspectives on Sustainable Development of Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Chengdu Plain,China

    ZHENG Jia-guo; CHI Zhong-zhi; JIANG Xin-lu; TANG Yong-lu; ZHANG Hong

    2010-01-01

    The rice and wheat cropping pattern is one of the main cropping systems in the world.A large number of research results showed that successive cropping of rice and wheat resulted in a series of problems such as hindering nutrition absorption,gradual degeneration of soil fertility,decline of soil organic matter,and increased incidence of diseases and pests.In China,especially in the Chengdu plain where rice-wheat cropping system is practiced,productivity and soil fertility was enhanced and sustained.This paper reviews the relevant data and experiences on rice-wheat cropping in the Chengdu Plain from 1977 to 2006.The principal sustainable strategies used for rice-wheat cropping systems in Chengdu Plain included: 1)creating a favorable environment and viable rotations; 2)balanced fertilization for maintenance of sustainable soil productivity; 3)improvement of crop management for higher efficiency; and 4)use the newest cultivars and cultivation techniques to upgrade the production level.Future research is also discussed in the paper as: 1)the constant topic: a highly productive and efficient rice-wheat cropping system for sustainable growth; 2)the future trend: simplified cultivation techniques for the rice-wheat cropping system; 3)the foundation: basic research for continuous innovation needed for intensive cropping.It is concluded that in the rice-wheat cropping system,a scientific and reasonable tillage/cultivation method can not only avoid the degradation of soil productivity,but also maintain sustainable growth in the long run.

  8. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    Doltra, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Báez, D;

    2015-01-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture should be assessed across cropping systems and agroclimatic regions. In this study, we investigate the ability of the FASSET model to analyze differences in the magnitude of N2O emissions due to soil, climate and management factors in cereal......-based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two European sites represent agricultural areas with high and low to moderate emission levels, respectively. Field...... static chamber method with more frequent measurements post-fertilization and biweekly measurements when high fluxes were not expected. All cropping systems were simulated with the FASSET version 2.5 simulation model. Cumulative soil seasonal N2O emissions were about ten-fold higher at Mabegondo than at...

  9. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO INCORPORATE BIOFUEL CROPS INTO CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MALAWI

    Beston Bille Maonga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.

  10. Crop rotation as a factor differentiating the intensity of the diseases of field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski; Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak; Tadeusz Sadowski

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1998-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health of the field pea cv. Kormoran grown in four various crop rotations and to determine the patogens causing the root-rot. On the pea plants the following diseases were found: root rot (complex of fungi), ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi, Phoma pinodella, Mycospaerella pinodes) and fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.). All the diseases occurred in the highest intensity on the pea cultivated in thre...

  11. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C...

  12. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    Y. Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM. In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4-soybean (C3 rotation system over the period 2001–2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12–27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in

  13. Assessment of factors influencing groundwater-level change using groundwater flow simulation, considering vertical infiltration from rice-planted and crop-rotated paddy fields in Japan

    Iwasaki, Yumi; Nakamura, Kimihito; Horino, Haruhiko; Kawashima, Shigeto

    2014-12-01

    Assessing factors that influence groundwater levels such as land use and pumping strategy, is essential to adequately manage groundwater resources. A transient numerical model for groundwater flow with infiltration was developed for the Tedori River alluvial fan (140 km2), Japan. The main water input into the groundwater body in this area is irrigation water, which is significantly influenced by land use, namely paddy and upland fields. The proposed model consists of two models, a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated-zone water flow model (HYDRUS-1D) for estimating groundwater recharge and a 3-D groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Numerical simulation of groundwater flow from October 1975 to November 2009 was performed to validate the model. Simulation revealed seasonal groundwater level fluctuations, affected by paddy irrigation management. However, computational accuracy was limited by the spatiotemporal data resolution of the groundwater use. Both annual groundwater levels and recharge during the irrigation periods from 1975 to 2009 showed long-term decreasing trends. With the decline in rice-planted paddy field area, groundwater recharge cumulatively decreased to 61 % of the peak in 1977. A paddy-upland crop-rotation system could decrease groundwater recharge to 73-98 % relative to no crop rotation.

  14. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the

  15. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  16. Fate of nitrogen from mineral fertilizer and liquid manure over a two-year crop rotation

    Nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizer was used to gain a better understanding of fertilizer-N uptake by crops in the year of application, the immobilization of applied N in the soil, fertilizer N uptake by a subsequent crop, and fertilizer-N leaching to groundwater. Fertilizer-N-utilization values for winter wheat (planted in the first year) were 15 to 36%, and 27 to 63% of the applied N was immobilized in the soil. Losses of fertilizer N by leaching to groundwater were not significant. At harvest of the winter wheat, between 50% and 82% of applied fertilizer N was accounted for in total. Unaccounted-for N was probably lost by volatilization. Only a few kilograms of applied N were taken up by the succeeding cover crop and corn. (author)

  17. Crop rotation as a factor differentiating the intensity of the diseases of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1998-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health of the field pea cv. Kormoran grown in four various crop rotations and to determine the patogens causing the root-rot. On the pea plants the following diseases were found: root rot (complex of fungi, ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi, Phoma pinodella, Mycospaerella pinodes and fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. All the diseases occurred in the highest intensity on the pea cultivated in three-field crop rotation without manure. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases. From the roots of seedlings with the symptoms of root rot 44,7% of fungi with pathogenic potential in relation to pea were obtained. The most commonly isolated were Fusarium oxysporum (26,7% of all isolates, Rhizoctonia solani (10,7%, F.solani (3,3%, F.avenaceum (2,7% and F.equiseti (1,3%. From the infected root necks, 55,3% of potential pathogens of field pea were obtained. Among the isolates the most commonly found was F.oxysporum (31,1% of all isolates. Other fungi of the Fusarium genus constituted 15,4% of isolates, R.solani 7,0%, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 1,8%.

  18. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  19. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  20. Development and application of a heuristic for flexible decisions about herbicide use in crop rotation field experiments

    Kunze, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in agriculture are controlled indirectly by strategic management tools (crop rotation, fertilization, tillage. Herbicide use is a direct tactical management tool for weed control. However, strategic and tactical measures interact together regarding weed management and thereby influence weed infestations and herbicide use. This study investigated the impact of strategic and tactical decisions in combination. It describes the development of a heuristic, which can be applied for different weed situations. By considering weed densities and species specific loss factors flexible herbicide decisions are derived for specific weed infestations and a given herbicide intensity. The implementation of decisions based on the heuristic is shown as an example for winter wheat crops in a rotation experiment at the study sites Rostock and Göttingen (Germany. The intensity of herbicide use serves for contrasts with three degrees (high, medium and low representing three levels of target efficacy (100%, 85% and 60%. The introduced heuristic enables reproducible decisions for various weed infestations. First results show reduced herbicide use from high to the low level of herbicide intensity in terms of reduced numbers of active ingredients use.

  1. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe;

    2014-01-01

    , and spring cereals (barley and wheat) caused the highest population increases (up to eightfold), especially when preceded by grass-clover. Winter rye and potatoes with ridging cultivations were neutral to the E. repens population. Cultivations between crops were necessary to diminish the infestation......-year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without......’ not in the last course) and with and without catch crops. E. repens was controlled by different tillage tactics and mowing strategies between and within crops and were conducted whenever the population had exceeded certain thresholds. Pulses, either in pure stands or in mixtures with spring barley...

  2. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2013-01-01

    In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...... aestivum L.) in four experimental cropping systems established in 1997 on three soil types. Three of the four systems were under organic management. Topsoil N, depth of the A horizon, and cumulated inputs of N since 1997 were determined at plot level. Labile soil N pools [mineral N, potentially...... mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...

  3. Cyclic integrals and reduction of rotational relativistic Birkhoffian system

    罗绍凯

    2003-01-01

    The order reduction method of the rotational relativistic Birkhoffian equations is studied. For a rotational relativistic Birkhoffian system, the cyclic integrals can be found by using the perfect differential method. Through these cyclic integrals, the order of the system can be reduced. If the rotational relativistic Birkhoffian system has a cyclic integral, then the Birkhoffian equations can be reduced at least two degrees and the Birkhoffian form can be kept. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  4. SELF BALANCING SYSTEM FOR ROTATING MECHANISMS

    Marco Antonio Meraz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A self balancing system analysis is presented which utilizes freely moving balancing bodies (balls rotating in unison with a rotor to be balanced. Using Lagrange´s Equation, we derive the non-linear equations of motion for an autonomous system with respect to the polar coordinate system. From the equations of motion for the autonomous system, the equilibrium positions and the linear variational equations are obtained by the perturbation method. Because of resistance to motion, eccentricity of race over which the balancing bodies are moving and the influence of external vibrations, it is impossible to attain a complete balance. Based on the variational equations, the dynamic stability of the system in the neighborhood of the equilibrium positions is investigated. The results of the stability analysis provide the design requirements for the self balancing system.Se presenta el análisis de un sistema de autobalance el cual utiliza bolas libres de movimiento rotando con el rotor que será balanceado. Se usa la ecuación de Lagrange para derivar un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales para un sistema autónomo con respecto a un sistema de coordenadas polares. De las ecuaciones de movimiento, se obtienen ecuaciones linealizadas variacionalmente y posiciones de equilibrio por el método de perturbación. A causa de la resistencia al movimiento, la excentricidad y el movimiento de los cuerpos libres que son provocados por la influencia de vibraciones externas, hace imposible obtener un balanceo completo. Basado en el método variacional, se investiga el comportamiento dinámico del sistema en la frontera de la posición de equilibrio. Los resultados del análisis de estabilidad proveen los requerimientos de diseño para el sistema de autobalance.

  5. Diagnostic system based on vibration measurement for rotating machines

    Large-scale electric power plants have a number of rotating machines which occupy important positions in the plant system. Therefore, respective users assign several countermeasures to improve their reliability and availability. Especially, the maintenance of rotating machines for efficient operation as well as the promotion and strengthening of precautions for safety have now become system requirements. In the above context, we have developed a machinery diagnostic system for rotating machinery, fully utilizing the experience and technology that we have so for developed. This paper introduces the various diagnostic systems for rotating machines. (author)

  6. 缓释氮肥运筹对稻麦轮作周年作物产量和氮肥利用率的影响%Effects of slow-released nitrogen fertilizers with different application patterns on crop yields and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in rice-wheat rotation system

    许仙菊; 马洪波; 宁运旺; 汪吉东; 张永春

    2016-01-01

    量具有较好的稳定效果,但是个别缓释氮肥减施对水稻有减产风险,有必要依据稻田土壤氮素转化特点,研制水稻专用缓释氮肥,适当降低水稻季缓释氮肥的施用量。%[Objectives]Rice-wheat rotation is one of the most important agricultural cultivation systems in China where large amounts of fertilizer are applied.Yield increases of rice and wheat, decrease of fertilizer application amount, and increase of fertilizer use efficiency can benefit from research on application patterns and methods of various fertilizers in such rice-wheat rotation regions.Slow-released fertilizers as nutrient-efficient and environment-friendly fertilizers have been extensively reported to function in increasing yields and fertilizer use efficiencies in various crop species.However, less attention is paid to effects of slow-released fertilizers in crop rotation system, especially rice-wheat rotation system which is the most important rotation system in southern China.[Methods]Here, the effects of different slow-released fertilizers on the yields of rice and wheat, the use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer, the contents of soil nutrients, and the soil nitrogen balance were studied through a two-year field plot experiment of the rice-wheat rotation.There were six experimental treatments including no nitrogen, custom fertilizer, slow-release fertilizer Ⅰ ( 20% common urea +80% sulfur coated urea ) , slow-release fertilizer Ⅱ(20%common urea +80%polymer coated urea) , slow-release fertilizerⅢ( common urea +0.8%NAM) and slow-release fertilizerⅣ (common urea +0.8% NAM).Among them, the nitrogen application amounts of the slow-release fertilizerⅠ, slow-release fertilizerⅡand slow-release fertilizerⅢwere reduced by 24.3%, and the nitrogen application amount of slow-release fertilizer Ⅳwas reduced by 10.8%.[Results]Compared with the no nitrogen application, all treatments with the nitrogen application increase the yields of wheat

  7. Nitrogen abatement cost comparison for cropping systems under alternative management choices

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for cost-effective methods to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for nitrate-nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed are evaluated using estimated crop yield and nitrate pollution production functions for alternative cropping systems. The cropping systems considered in this study included i) two grain corn-based cropping systems; ii) two potato-based cropping systems; and iii) a vegetable-horticulture system, managed under ...

  8. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

    Volker KLEINHENZ; Sophon CHEA; Ngin HUN

    2013-01-01

    Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production,its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity,low farmer income and rural poverty.The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June,2011.It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement.Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies.At distances greater than 10 km,transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails.This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH (< 4.0),use of ‘late' cultivars,and exclusive use of self-propagated seeds.To improve this cropping system,commercial ‘medium' cultivars help prevent crop failure by shortening the cultivation period by one month and complementation of wet-season rice with non-rice crops should be expanded.Areas adjacent (≤ 1 km) to the water bodies become inundated for up to seven months between July until January of each year.In this area,soils contain more fine sand,silt and clay,and their pH is higher (> 4.0).Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April.Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines.Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59%and yields average 3.2 t/hm2.Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system.Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies,using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality.Along with rice,farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Global Cropping Systems Models and Maps

    Anderson, W. B.; You, L.; Wood, S.; Wood-Sichra, U.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the land cover of the Earth, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million km2 of the Earth's land cover - amounting to 12% of the Earth's ice-free land surface - yet information on the distribution and performance of specific crops is often available only through national or sub-national statistics. While remote sensing products offer spatially disaggregated information, those currently available on a global scale are ill-suited for many applications due to the limited separation of crop types within the area classified as cropland. Recently, however, there have been multiple independent efforts to incorporate the detailed information available from statistical surveys with supplemental spatial information to produce a spatially explicit global dataset specific to individual cropss for the year 2000. While these datasets provide analysts and decision makers with improved information on global cropping systems, the final global cropping maps differ from one another substantially. This study aims to explore and quantify systematic similarities and differences between four major global cropping systems products: the monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRAC2000) dataset, the spatial production allocation model (SPAM), the global agro-ecological zone (GAEZ) dataset, and the dataset developed by Monfreda et al., 2008. The analysis explores not only the final cropping systems maps but also the interdependencies of each product, methodological differences and modeling assumptions, which will provide users with information vital for discerning between datasets in selecting a product appropriate for each intended application.

  10. Cultivation of energy crops with low-input factors short rotation forestry

    This paper concentrates on the cultivation of wood solely for energy purposes in the form of Short Rotation Forestry including the possibility of cultivating with the use of less fertiliser, irrigation and pesticides. Short rotation forestry is a type of forest cultivation which depends on the fast juvenile growth of a few broad-leaved tree species and their ability to cut reproduction and formation of stump shoots. Through intensive cultivation, these characteristics are exploited with the aim of producing biomass which is used for production of energy. (author)

  11. Alternative cropping systems can have contrasting effects on various soil-borne diseases : relevance of a systemic analysis in vegetable cropping systems

    Collange, B.; M Navarrete; Montfort, F.; Mateille, Thierry; Tavoillot, Johannes; Martiny, Bernard; Tchamitchian, M.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable production makes an intensive use of pesticides, and a major challenge is to build alternative cropping systems that can control pests and diseases with fewer uses of chemical products. An on-farm analysis was conducted in Southeast France to assess the efficacy of several cropping systems in simultaneously controlling two major pests: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and lettuce drop due to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ten cropping systems resulting from the combinations of thre...

  12. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting the earth's climate by altering carbon, water, and energy fluxes, but the climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water, and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implemented crop-specific phenology schemes and dynamic carbon allocation schemes. These schemes account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem, and grain pools. The dynamic vegetation structure simulation better captured the seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI), canopy height, and root depth. We further implemented dynamic root distribution processes in soil layers, which better simulated the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration. Observational data for LAI, above- and belowground biomass, and carbon, water, and energy fluxes were compiled from two AmeriFlux sites, Mead, NE, and Bondville, IL, USA, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance. For the purposes of calibration and evaluation, we use a corn-soybean (C4-C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation and water and energy fluxes for the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated gross primary production (GPP), net radiation fluxes at the top of the canopy, and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results was in sensible heat flux (SH) for corn and soybean at both sites. The dynamic crop growth simulation better captured the seasonal variability in carbon and energy fluxes relative to the static simulation implemented in the original version of ISAM. Especially, with dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, the model

  13. Form Invariance and Noether Symmetries of Rotational Relativistic Birkhoff Systems

    LUO Shao-Kai

    2002-01-01

    Under the infinitesimal transformations of groups, a form invariance of rotational relativistic Birkhoffsystems is studied and the definition and criteria are given. In view of the invariance of rotational relativistic PfaffBirkhoff D'Alcmbert principle under the infinitesimal transformations of groups, the theory of Noether symmetries ofrotational relativistic Birkhoff systems are constructed. The relation between the form invariance and the Noethersymmetries is studied, and the conserved quantities of rotational relativistic Birkhoff systems are obtained.

  14. Rotating Camera System for Propeller and Rotor Blade Deformation Measurements

    Boden, Fritz; Stasicki, Boleslaw; Szypula, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU project AIM² project a rotating stereoscopic camera system was designed, build and successfully flight tested in order to apply the non-intrusive Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) to 360° propeller deformation measurements. The complete system was affixed to the axis of the aircraft engine rotating together with the propeller at its full rotational speed. It enabled the direct measurement of the propeller blades shape as well as its local pitch angle under real operatin...

  15. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    Belo, A.F.; Dias, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  16. The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas.

    Chiatante, Gianpasquale; Meriggi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays we are seeing the largest biodiversity loss since the extinction of the dinosaurs. To conserve biodiversity it is essential to plan protected areas using a prioritization approach, which takes into account the current biodiversity value of the sites. Considering that in the Mediterranean Basin the agro-ecosystems are one of the most important parts of the landscape, the conservation of crops is essential to biodiversity conservation. In the framework of agro-ecosystem conservation, farmland birds play an important role because of their representativeness, and because of their steady decline in the last Century in Western Europe. The main aim of this research was to define if crop dominated landscapes could be useful for biodiversity conservation in a Mediterranean area in which the landscape was modified by humans in the last thousand years and was affected by the important biogeographical phenomenon of peninsula effect. To assess this, we identify the hotspots and the coldspots of bird diversity in southern Italy both during the winter and in the breeding season. In particular we used a scoring method, defining a biodiversity value for each cell of a 1-km grid superimposed on the study area, using data collected by fieldwork following a stratified random sampling design. This value was analysed by a multiple linear regression analysis and was predicted in the whole study area. Then we defined the hotspots and the coldspots of the study area as 15% of the cells with higher and lower value of biodiversity, respectively. Finally, we used GAP analysis to compare hotspot distribution with the current network of protected areas. This study showed that the winter hotspots of bird diversity were associated with marshes and water bodies, shrublands, and irrigated crops, whilst the breeding hotspots were associated with more natural areas (e.g. transitional wood/shrubs), such as open areas (natural grasslands, pastures and not irrigated crops). Moreover, the

  17. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops

    Firbank, L. G.; Rothery, P; May, M. J.; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R.C.; Boffey, C.W.H.; Brooks, D.R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J.N; Squire, G R

    2005-01-01

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on we...

  18. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of multiple cropping systems on upland red soil

    Guoqin HUANG; Xiuying LIU; Longwang LIU; Fang YE; Mingling ZHANG; Yanhong SHU

    2008-01-01

    According to the principles and methods of ecology and system engineering,we set up an evaluation indicator system for multi-component and multiple crop-ping systems,evaluated the comprehensive benefits of multi-component and multiple cropping systems using grey relation clustering analysis and screened out the opti-mized model based on research done in the upland red soil in Jiangxi Agricultural University from 1984 to 2004.The results show that the grey relation degree of "cabbage/ potato/maize-sesame" was the highest among 23 multi-component and multiple cropping systems and was clustered into the optimized system.This indicates that "cabbage/potato/maize - sesame" can bring the best social,economic and ecological benefits,increase product yield and farmers' income and promote sustainable development of agricultural production.Therefore,it is suitable for promotion on upland red soil.The grey rela-tion degree of "canola/Chinese milk vetch/maize/mung bean/maize" was second,which is suitable for imple-mentation at the city outskirts.In conclusion,these two planting patterns are expected to play important roles in the reconstruction of the planting structure and optimiza-tion of the planting patterns on upland red soil.

  20. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1985. [Sycamore, alders, black locust, larch, poplars, saltbush

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.; Trimble, J.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report covers the progress of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) during the third quarter of fiscal year 1985. This report summarizes ORNL management activities, technical activities at ORNL and subcontract institutions, and the technology transfer that is occurring as a result of subcontractor and ORNL activities. Third-year results of a nutrient utilization study confirmed that there were no benefits to quarterly fertilization with urea nitrogen. Testing of one prototype short-rotation intensive culture harvester was conducted on a sycamore plantation on Scott Paper Company land in southern Alabama. Coppice yields of European black alder reported by Iowa State University indicate potential productivity of about 7.2 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ if the best trees are selected. Coppice yields were more than double first-rotation yields. About 31,000 black locust and larch trees were established in 12 genetic tests at 4 sites in Michigan. Seedling rotation productivity rates of 4-year-old hybrid poplar, based on harvest data, were reported by Pennsylvania State University. Rates varied from 4.8 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ to 10.7 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/, depending on site, management strategy, and planting year. An efficient method for in vitro micropropagation of elite genotypes of fourwing saltbush was developed by Plant Resources Institute. A new study to evaluate yield/density relationships was established by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Dissertation research on the crown geometry of plantation-grown American sycamore was completed.

  1. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  2. Changes of crop rotation in Iowa determined from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layer product

    Stern, Alan J.; Doraiswamy, Paul C.; Raymond Hunt, E.

    2012-01-01

    Crop rotation is one of the important decisions made independently by numerous farm managers, and is a critical variable in models of crop growth and soil carbon. In Iowa and much of the Midwestern United States (US), the typical management decision is to rotate corn and soybean crops for a single field; therefore, the land-cover changes each year even though the total area of agricultural land-use remains the same. The price for corn increased from 2001 to 2010, which increased corn production in Iowa. We tested the hypothesis that the production increase was the result of changes in crop rotation in Iowa using the annual remote sensing classification (the cropland data layer) produced by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. It was found that the area planted in corn increased from 4.7 million hectares in 2001 to 5.7 million hectares in 2007, which was correlated with the market price for corn. At the county level, there were differences in how the increase in corn production was accomplished. Northern and central counties had little land to expand cultivation and generally increased corn production by converting to a corn-corn rotation from the standard corn-soybean rotation. Southern counties in Iowa increased corn production by expanding into land that was not under recent cultivation. These changes affect the amount of soil carbon sequestration.

  3. Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Bettiol Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum and corn (Zea mays crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.

  4. Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Giraud, D.; Etter, S.; Riddle, L. J.; Anderson, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation...

  5. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  6. Changes in bird community composition in response to growth changes in short-rotation woody crop planting

    Hybrid poplar established as intensively managed short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) on former agricultural lands can provide habitat for wildlife. Studies of bird use of SRWC for nesting and during fall migration have shown that the numbers and kinds of breeding birds using mature plantings of hybrid poplar are similar to natural forested lands. In Minnesota, the number of species of breeding birds using habitat provided by clonal-trial plantings and young larger-scale plantings (12-64 ha) of hybrid poplar were initially most similar to those using grasslands and row-crops. As the plantings approached canopy closure, successional species became predominant. In the Pacific Northwest, breeding bird composition and density were very similar for mature plantings and forested areas; however, fall migrants were found primarily in forested areas. In the Southeast, preliminary comparisons of breeding bird use of plantings of sweetgum and sycamore with naturally regenerating forests of different ages and sizes and vegetation structure are showing no size effect on use. As with hybrid poplar, species use of the more mature plantings of sweetgum and sycamore was most similar to that of natural forests. (author)

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in integrated crop-livestock systems

    Agriculture has been utterly transformed by the availability of manufactured fertilizers that are inexpensive and easy to transport and handle. Fertilizers severed the need for livestock and poultry manure in crop production. Improved transport systems have allowed farmers to utilize distant markets...

  8. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  9. Fibre Optic System for Monitoring Rotational Seismic Phenomena

    Anna Kurzych; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Zbigniew Krajewski; Teisseyre, Krzysztof P.; Kowalski, Jerzy K.

    2014-01-01

    We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS), which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operatio...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and species dominance in a temperate soil with long-term conventional and low-input cropping systems.

    Vestberg, Mauritz; Kahiluoto, Helena; Wallius, Esa

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of long-term contrasting cropping systems on the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spore populations in the soil of a field experiment located in western Finland. Conventional and low-input cropping systems were compared, each with two nutrient management regimes. The conventional cropping system with a non-leguminous 6-year crop rotation (barley-barley-rye-oat-potato-oat) was fertilized at either full (rotation A) or half (rotation B) the recommended rate. In the low-input cropping system, plant residues were returned to the plots either as such (rotation C) or composted (rotation D). In the rotation of this system, 1 year with barley was replaced by clover, and oat was cultivated mixed with pea. Thus, the 6-year rotation was barley-red clover-rye-oat + pea-potato-oat + pea. Each rotation was replicated three times, starting the 6-year rotation in three different years, these being designated point 1, point 2, and point 3, respectively. In the low-input system, biotite and rock phosphate were used to compensate for K and P in the harvested yield, while animal manure was applied at the start only. After 13 years, rotation points 1 and 3 were studied. Barley was the standing crop in all plots of rotation point 1, while oat and oat + pea were grown in rotations C and D, respectively. AMF spores were studied by direct extraction and by trapping, sampled on 15 June and 15 August. In addition, a special assay was designed for isolation of fast colonizing, dominating AMF. The cropping system did not significantly affect AMF spore densities, although the low-input cropping system with composted plant residues had the highest density with 44 spores on average and the conventional system with full fertilization 24 spores per 100 cm(3) soil in the autumn samples. Species richness was low in the experimental area. Five Glomus spp., one Acaulospora, and one Scutellospora were identified at the species level. In

  11. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  12. Rotating pressure measuring system for turbine cooling investigations

    Pollack, F. G.; Liebert, C. H.; Peterson, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a 10-channel rotating pressure measuring system capable of operation to speeds of 9000 rpm at transducer temperatures of about 320 K (120 F) is described. Variable-reluctance pressure transducers were mounted in the rotating system for sensing pressure. Rotating performance tests on a spin rig showed that the output data from 7 of the 10 transducers tested were within a desired system error of 3 percent. However, the error of the output data from three other transducers was as large as 8 percent of 9000 rpm. It was concluded from these test results that a rotating screening method was necessary to evaluate each pressure transducer channel within a system that will be used under rotating conditions.

  13. Slip systems, lattice rotations and dislocation boundaries

    Winther, Grethe

    of dislocation structure formed, in particular the crystallographic alignment of dislocation boundaries, and the slip pattern are demonstrated. These relations are applied to polycrystals deformed in tension and rolling, producing good agreement with experiment for rolling but less good agreement for......Plastic deformation by slip induces rotations of the crystallographic lattice and evolution of dislocation structures. Both lattice rotations and dislocation structures exhibit a dependence on the grain orientation, which reflects underlying relations to the slip pattern. Relations between the type...... these discrepancies is discussed. Finally, the implications of the relations between slip and dislocation structures for the modelling of mechanical properties are discussed....

  14. Multiple-cylindrical Electrode System for Rotational Electric Field Generation in Particle Rotation Applications

    Prateek Benhal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip micro-devices utilizing electric field-mediated particle movement provide advantages over current cell rotation techniques due to the flexibility in configuring micro-electrodes. Recent technological advances in micro-milling, three-dimensional (3D printing and photolithography have facilitated fabrication of complex micro-electrode shapes. Using the finite-element method to simulate and optimize electric field induced particle movement systems can save time and cost by simplifying the analysis of electric fields within complex 3D structures. Here we investigated different 3D electrode structures to obtain and analyse rotational electric field vectors. Finite-element analysis was conducted by an electric current stationary solver based on charge relaxation theory. High-resolution data were obtained for three-, four-, six- and eight-cylindrical electrode arrangements to characterize the rotational fields. The results show that increasing the number of electrodes within a fixed circular boundary provides larger regions of constant amplitude rotational electric field. This is a very important finding in practice, as larger rotational regions with constant electric field amplitude make placement of cells into these regions, where cell rotation occurs, a simple task – enhancing flexibility in cell manipulation. Rotation of biological particles over the extended region would be useful for biotechnology applications which require guiding cells to a desired location, such as automation of nuclear transfer cloning.

  15. Role of Wheat in Diversified Cropping Systems in Dryland Agriculture of Central Asia

    SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym

    2005-01-01

    Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing analysis of short rotation woody crops grown with controlled nutrient and irrigation treatments

    Im, Jungho; Jensen, John R.; Coleman, Mark; Nelson, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Abstract - Hyperspectral remote sensing research was conducted to document the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of controlled forest plots subjected to various nutrient and irrigation treatments. The experimental plots were located on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. AISA hyperspectral imagery were analysed using three approaches, including: (1) normalized difference vegetation index based simple linear regression (NSLR), (2) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (3) machine-learning regression trees (MLRT) to predict the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the crops (leaf area index, stem biomass and five leaf nutrients concentrations). The calibration and cross-validation results were compared between the three techniques. The PLSR approach generally resulted in good predictive performance. The MLRT approach appeared to be a useful method to predict characteristics in a complex environment (i.e. many tree species and numerous fertilization and/or irrigation treatments) due to its powerful adaptability.

  17. Energy and climate benefits of bioelectricity from low-input short rotation woody crops on agricultural land over a two-year rotation

    Highlights: • A full energy and GHG balance of bioelectricity from SRWC was performed. • Bioelectricity was efficient; it reduced GHG by 52–54% relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix. • Bioelectricity required 1.1 m2 of land kWh−1; land conversion released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha−1. • SRWC reduced GHG emission when producing electricity during the 1st rotation period. - Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are a promising means to enhance the EU renewable energy sources while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are concerns that the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity may be nullified due to GHG emissions from direct land use changes (dLUCs). In order to evaluate quantitatively the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity from SRWC we managed an operational SRWC plantation (18.4 ha) for bioelectricity production on a former agricultural land without supplemental irrigation or fertilization. We traced back to the primary energy level all farm labor, materials, and fossil fuel inputs to the bioelectricity production. We also sampled soil carbon and monitored fluxes of GHGs between the SRWC plantation and the atmosphere. We found that bioelectricity from SRWCs was energy efficient and yielded 200–227% more energy than required to produce it over a two-year rotation. The associated land requirement was 0.9 m2kWhe-1 for the gasification and 1.1 m2kWhe-1 for the combustion technology. Converting agricultural land into the SRWC plantation released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha−1, which represented ∼89% of the total GHG emissions (256–272 g CO2e kWhe-1) of bioelectricity production. Despite its high share of the total GHG emissions, dLUC did not negate the GHG benefits of bioelectricity. Indeed, the GHG savings of bioelectricity relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix power ranged between 52% and 54%. SRWC on agricultural lands with low soil organic carbon stocks are encouraging prospects for sustainable production of

  18. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  19. Thermodynamics in rotating systems -- analysis of selected examples

    Güémez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with the Newton's second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an `angular' impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a `rotational' pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.

  20. Soil/plant nutrition in lowland cropping systems

    Farming system approaches have led to rapid changes in agricultural systems in Asia and the Pacific. They have increased food and other agricultural commodities as well as developing awareness of scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation and dissemination of new agricultural technology. This paper reviews and summarizes recent research and technology on soil/plant nutrition with emphasis on nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur in rice-based lowland cropping systems in Asia and the Pacific region. It mainly focuses on the application of isotopes 15N, 32P and 35S in such studies, but some current research using conventional methods is also covered. A search of the literature shows that technology studies have mostly concentrated on identifying improved varieties for short duration rice, improving tillage practices, pest and weed management. Research in soil/plant nutrition in rice-based cropping systems particularly using isotopes, is limited. (author). 51 refs, 2 tabs

  1. The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance

    Harris, Z. M.; Taylor, G.; Alberti, G.; Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimised. Initial analyses included an extensive literature review and meta-analysis with a focus on the effects of land-use change to bioenergy on soil carbon and GHGs. This data mining exercise allowed us to understand the current state of the literature and identify key areas of research which needed to be addressed. Significant knowledge gaps were identified, with particular uncertainty around transitions from grasslands and transitions to short rotation forestry. A paired site experiment was established on a commercial SRC willow plantation and grassland to measure soil and ecosystem respiration. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transition to SRC bioenergy willow will potentially result in increased soil carbon, in the long-term. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas, and for considering future climate scenarios. The spatial modelling outputs will be used to build a modelling tool for non-specialist users which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI).

  2. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    Shevchuk, Igor V. [MBtech Powertrain GmbH, Fellbach-Schmiden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat-and-mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid-body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than one. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industrial R and D engineers, university lecturers and graduate/postgraduate students working in the area of rotating-disk systems. (orig.)

  3. Adaptation strategies of Mediterranean cropping systems to climate change

    Mula, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The EPIC simulation model was used to assess the impact of climate change (CC) on intensive and extensive Mediterranean forage systems to study the effects of CC and adaptation strategies. The intensive cropping system (corn silage – Italian ryegrass) is linked to dairy cattle farms. As first step the EPIC model was calibrated based on experimental data. After calibration the EPIC model was used to perform simulations with different climate scenarios (present and future climate) with diffe...

  4. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  5. Effects of organic matter input on soil microbial properties and crop yields in conventional and organic cropping systems

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Professor Jørgen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Unlike conventional cropping systems, which are characterised by targeted short-term fertility management, organic farming systems depend on long-term increase in soil fertility and promotion of soil biodiversity. This study sought to investigate long-term effects of organic matter inputs on various cropping systems in a 10-year-old experiment. Results show that in the long-term high C and N inputs enhance microbial activity. Microbial biomass N and the potential nitrification rate were highe...

  6. Mixed cropping systems for biological control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    Paulsen, Hans Marten; Schochow, Martin; Ulber, B; Kühne, Stefan; Rahmann, Gerold

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained by biological effects like light competition, offering weed-suppressing capacities or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. In a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops these effects were measured. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) in crop combinations with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). But linse...

  7. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  8. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN

  9. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    Thiry, I.

    1996-09-18

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN.

  10. Sub-soil microbial activity under rotational cotton crops in Australia

    Polain, Katherine; Knox, Oliver; Wilson, Brian; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial communities contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation, stabilisation and destabilisation, through nutrient cycling and biodegradation. The majority of soil microbial research examines the processes occurring in the top 0 cm to 30 cm of the soil, where organic nutrients are easily accessible. In soils such as Vertosols, the high clay content causes swelling and cracking. When soil cracking is coupled with rain or an irrigation event, a flush of organic nutrients can move down the soil profile, becoming available for subsoil microbial community use and potentially making a significant contribution to nutrient cycling and biodegradation in soils. At present, the mechanisms and rates of soil nutrient turnover (such as carbon and nitrogen) at depth under cotton rotations are mostly speculative and the process-response relationships remain unclear, although they are undoubtedly underpinned by microbial activity. Our research aims to determine the contribution and role of soil microbiota to the accumulation, cycling and mineralisation of carbon and nitrogen through the whole root profile under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and cotton-maize rotations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Through seasonal work, we have established both baseline and potential microbial activity rates from 0 cm to 100 cm down the Vertosol profile, using respiration and colourimetric methods. Further whole soil profile analyses will include determination of microbial biomass and isotopic carbon signatures using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methodology, identification of microbial communities (sequencing) and novel experiments to investigate potential rates of nitrogen mineralisation and quantification of associated genes. Our preliminary observations and the hypotheses tested in this three-year study will be presented.

  11. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  12. Generalized energy integral and reduction of rotational relativistic Birkhoffian system

    罗绍凯

    2002-01-01

    We study the order reduction method of the rotational relativistic Birkhoffian equations. For a rotational relativis-tic autonomous Birkhoffian system, if the conservative law of the Birkhoffian holds, the conservative quantity can becalled the generalized energy integral. Through the generalized energy integral, the order of the system can be reduced.If the rotational relativistic Birkhoffian system has a generalized energy integral, then the Birkhoffian equations can bereduced by at least two degrees and the Birkhoffian form can be kept. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  13. ROMADIS - A rotating machinery diagnosis system

    This paper describes the PC-based software package ROMADIS developed for the rotating machinery diagnosis. It contains advanced signal processing techniques for extracting multi-features from the time records and uses a modified decision tree technique for the knowledge acquisition, the knowledge representation and the failure diagnosis process. It is user-friendly programmed and the diagnostic results are very easy to be verified. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  14. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  15. Neutral hydrolysable sugars, OC and N content across soil aggregate size fractions, as an effect of two different crop rotations

    Angeletti, Carlo; Giannetta, Beatrice; Kölbl, Angelika; Monaci, Elga; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Vischetti, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results regarding the effects of two 13 years long crop rotations, on the composition of mineral associated neutral sugars, organic carbon (OC) and N concentration, across different aggregate size fractions. The two cropping sequences were characterized by different levels of N input from plant residues and tillage frequency. We also analysed the changes that occurred in soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition following the cultivation in the two soils of winter wheat and chickpea on the same soils. The analysis of OC and N content across soil aggregate fractions allowed getting an insight into the role played by SOM chemical composition in the formation of organo-mineral associations, while neutral sugars composition provided information on mineral associated SOM origin and decomposition processes, as pentoses derive mostly from plant tissues and hexoses are prevalently of microbial origin. Soil samples were collected from two adjacent fields, from the 0-10 cm layer, in November 2011 (T0). For 13 years before the beginning of the experiment, one soil was cultivated mostly with alfalfa (ALF), while a conventional cereal-sunflower-legume rotation (CON) was carried out on the other. Winter wheat and chickpea were sown on the two soils during the following 2 growing seasons and the sampling was repeated after 18 months (T1). A combination of aggregates size and density fractionation was used to isolate OM associated with mineral particles in: macro-aggregates (>212 μm), micro-aggregates ( 63 μm) and silt and clay size particles (fucose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, glucose. OC and N contents were higher in ALF as compared to CON for every aggregate fraction, both at T0 and T1. During the 18-months cultivation experiment macro aggregates OC concentration increased in ALF while decreasing in CON. During the same period silt and clay size particles OC concentration decreased in ALF while increasing in CON. N content

  16. Use of spot/vegetation in different versions of the European crop growth monitoring system.

    Piccard, I.; Eerens, H.; Oger, Robert; Curnel, Y.; Tychon, Bernard; Ozer; van Diepen, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) is a GIS-application, developed and operated since 1989 by the MARS-unit of the EU Joint Research Centre. The primary objective is the timely forecasting of the yields of the main crops on the Pan-European continent.To reach this goal, CGMS combines all available (historical and actual) resources: official crop statistics, daily meteorological data, specific crop and soil parameters, the predictions of the (spatialized) crop growth model WOFOST, and th...

  17. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  18. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    , penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K, and......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and...... moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test...

  19. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi, E-mail: hzjia@usst.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Optical Instruments and Systems, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Systems, School of Optical-electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, No. 516 JunGong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2015-11-15

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  20. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method

  1. Cylindrical Cardboard Model for a Rotating System in Special Relativity.

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a cylindrical cardboard model that helps students at the graduate or undergraduate level to visualize the nature of simultaneity and the propagation of light in a rotating coordinate system. (HM)

  2. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    H. Lei; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the most important crop production regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To better describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth, the crop phenology and physiology scheme of the SiBcrop model was coupled with the Simple Biosphere model version 2 (SiB2) for simulating crop phenology,...

  3. Finite Element Computational Dynamics of Rotating Systems

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element analysis of rotor dynamics problems that were published in 1994–1998. It contains 319 citations. Also included, as separate subsections, are finite element analyses of rotor elements – discs, shafts, spindles, and blades. Topics dealing with fracture mechanics, contact and stability problems of rotating machinery are also considered in specific sections. The last part of the bibliography presents papers dealing with specific industrial applications.

  4. METRIC OF ACCELERATING AND ROTATING REFERENCE SYSTEMS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame...

  5. An expert system for vibration based diagnostics of rotating machines

    Very often changes in the mechanical condition of the rotating machinery can be observed as changes in its vibration. This paper presents an expert system for vibration-based diagnosis of rotating machines by describing the architecture of the developed prototype system. The importance of modelling the problem solving knowledge as well as the domain knowledge is emphasized by presenting the knowledge in several levels

  6. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  7. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Carlos Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  8. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  9. Nematode Numbers and Crop Yield in a Fenamiphos-Treated Sweet Corn-Sweet Potato-Vetch Cropping System

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Chalfant, R.B.; Golden, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet corn and sweet potato as affected by the nematicide fenamiphos, in a sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system, were determined in a 5-year test (1981-85). Sweet potato was the best host of Meloidogyne incognita of these three crops. Fenamiphos 15G (6.7 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15 cm of the soil layer before planting of each crop increased (P ≤ 0.05) yields of sweet corn in 1981 and 1982 and sweet potato number 1 grade ...

  10. DO LIVING MULCH BASED VEGETABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS YIELD SIMILARLY TO THE SOLE ONES?

    Canali, S.; Campanelli, G.; Bavec, F.; von Fragstein, P.; Leteo, F.; Jocop, M.; Kristensen, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological services may be exploited by use of living mulches in intercropping systems for production of vegetable crops. But may high yields be attained in intercropping systems for production of resource demanding crops such as cauliflower? In the frame of the InterVeg (Core Organic II) project, four field experiments were carried out in IT, SLO, DE and DK in order to study the effect of the living mulch introduction in cauliflower based cropping systems on crop yield and yield quality. The...

  11. Using multi-agent modeling technique to regionalize key processes and patterns of sustainable agricultural cropping systems in the North China Plain

    Roth, Andreas; Pan, Ying; Yu, Zhenrong; Doluschitz, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) covers an area of around 328,000 km2 and is one of the most important regions of cereal crop production in China. Wheat and maize rotations and one season cotton are the most common cropping systems. The region contributes at an amount of about 50% to the countries wheat production and about one third of maize yields. Crop production in the NCP was focused in the last decades on increasing yields to meet the growing food demand accompanied by the limitation of arab...

  12. Designing Cropping Systems for Metal-Contaminated Sites: A Review

    TANG Ye-Tao; CHEN Tong-Bin; G. ECHEVARRIA; T. STERCKEMAN; M. O. SIMONNOT; J. L. MOREL; DENG Teng-Hao-Bo; WU Qi-Hang; WANG Shi-Zhong; QIU Rong-Liang; WEI Ze-Bin; GUO Xiao-Fang; WU Qi-Tang; LEI Mei

    2012-01-01

    Considering that even contaminated soils are a potential resource for agricultural production,it is essential to develop a set of cropping systems to allow a safe and sustainable agriculture on contaminated lands while avoiding any transfer of toxic trace elements to the food chain.In this review,three main strategies,i.e.,phytoexclusion,phytostabilization,and phytoextraction,are proposed to establish cropping systems for production of edible and non-edible plants,and for extraction of elements for industrial use.For safe production of food crops,the selection of low-accumulating plants/cultivars and the application of soil amendments are of vital importance.Phytostabilization using non-food energy and fiber plants can provide additional renewable energy sources and economic benefit with minimum cost of agriculturai measures.Phytoextracting trace elements (e.g.,As,Cd,Ni,and Zn) using hyperaccumulator species is more suitable for slightly and moderately polluted sites,and phytomining of Ni from serpentine soils has shown a great potential to extract Ni-containing bio-ores of economic interests.We conclude that appropriate combinations of soil types,plant species/cultivars,and agronomic practices can restrict trace metal transfer to the food chain and/or extract energy and metals of industrial use and allow safe agricultural activities.

  13. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  14. Interacting galaxies: co-rotating and counter-rotating systems with tidal tails

    Mesa, Valeria; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego G

    2013-01-01

    We analyse interacting galaxy pairs with evidence of tidal features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). The pairs were selected within $z<0.1$ by requiring a projected separation $r_p < 50 \\kpc$ and relative radial velocity $\\Delta V < 500 \\kms$. We complete spectroscopic pairs using galaxies with photometric redshifts considering $\\Delta V_{phot} < 6800 \\kms$, taking into account the mean photometric redshift uncertainty. We classify by visual inspection pairs of spirals into co-rotating and counter-rotating systems. For a subsample of non-AGN galaxies, counter-rotating pairs have larger star formation rates, and a higher fraction of young, star-forming galaxies. These effects are enhanced by restricting to $r_p < 12 \\kpc$. The distributions of $C$, $D_n(4000)$ and $(M_u-M_r)$ for AGN galaxies show that counter-rotating hosts have bluer colours and younger stellar population than the co-rotating galaxies although the relative fractions of Seyfert, Liner, Composite and Am...

  15. Leguminous cover crops: an important tool for improving resource use efficiency in organic arable cropping systems

    ANTICHI, DR. D.; MAZZONCINI, PROF. M.; BARBERI, PROF. P.; BIGONGIALI, DR. F.; CARPI, DR. G.

    2008-01-01

    Cover crops are one of the most effective tools for organic farmers to improve the efficiency of their agro-ecosystems, while also reducing economic costs and environmental problems. The choice and usefulness of a cover crop species strictly depend on its adaptability to specific climate and soil conditions, but also on its relationships with other species (crops and weeds) and on the quality of farm management. Nine different pure species and three species mixtures were cultivated for two ye...

  16. Mixed cropping systems for control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    Paulsen, H. M.; Schochow, M; Ulber, B; Kuhne, S; Rahmann, G

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained from biological effects like light competition offering weed-suppressing capacities, or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. These effects were measured in a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) grown in combination with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). Linseed...

  17. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  18. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: A strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation

    Fumagalli, P.; Comolli, R.; Ferrè, C; Ghiani, A; GENTILI, R.; S. Citterio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to- seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as in...

  19. Investigation of Rotor Radial Rotating Error upon AMB System

    WANG Kai; LI Yan

    2006-01-01

    This paper first suggests the use of the Fourier frequency transmission method of two dimensions function (2D FFT) to analyze radial rotating errors that occurred in a rotor. Based on this method a magnetic rotor is measured. The authors point out that the main cause to affect radial rotating accuracy of the rotating shaft at a high speed is the dynamic imbalance of the shaft itself. Finally the feed-forward control scheme is suggested to improve the accuracy of the shaft in an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system.

  20. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    Sources of soil organic matter (SOM) input to the soil in agro-ecosystems are typically crop residues. The question arises how removing crop residues from a field influences soil carbon sequestration. We investigated four long-term maize and grass dominant cropping systems each with a different residue management. Under silage maize (SM) all stover is removed from the field and only a stubble remains, whereas under grain maize (GM) only the grains are harvested and all stover is returned to the soil. Fields with a history of at least 15 consecutive years of either SM (with or without a second annual crop of Italian ryegrass) or GM, and fields under permanent grass were selected from a geodatabase that covers 15 years of crop rotation for all of the ca. 500,000 agricultural fields in Flanders. For each cropping system 10 fields were sampled (40 in total) following the area-frame randomized soil sampling (AFRSS) protocol (Stolbovoy et al., 2007). For 6 out of 10 fields only the topsoil was sampled (0-30 cm), whereas for the 4 other fields both topsoil and subsoil (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) were sampled. The total soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content and the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) were determined for each soil sample. From each field 1 topsoil sample was fractionated by the Zimmermann fractionation procedure (Zimmermann et al., 2007) which distinguishes between 5 different SOC fractions (POM, DOC, silt and clay associated SOC, chemically resistant SOC, SOC associated with sand fraction). Besides analysis of the SOC and nitrogen content of each fraction, the origin of the carbon was determined through isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Although there was no significant difference between SM and GM regarding the total SOC stock for the upper 30 cm (ca. 75 à 80 Mg C.ha-1), fields under continuous GM contained in the 0-30 cm layer 60% more maize-derived C4-SOC as compared to fields under continuous SM (ca. 14 and 9 Mg C.ha-1 respectively). Significant

  1. The Crop Disease and Pest Warning and Prediction System

    Luo, Juhua; Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Chaoling

    The aim of this study was to establish the warning and prediction system for crop diseases and pests based on SuperMap IS. NET geographic information system (GIS), which was developed by Supermap company. In this system, the author used GIS and remote sensing (RS) technology. The system could transform data information into a geographical information map to show the occurrence degree and distribution on various diseases and pests. This paper described mainly warning flow, database design and the main functions of the system. Finally, the system realized successfully the warning of the wheat stripe rust in Xifeng region of Qingyang city in Gansu province in 2002, and the prediction result was satisfactory. It indicated that we could classify and predict diseases and pests, and select right time and technology to control the diseases and pests by this GIS system.

  2. Combinable protein crop production

    Wright, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.

  3. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  4. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  5. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    Lei, H.; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simula...

  6. Slip systems, dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations in deformed metals

    Winther, Grethe

    2009-01-01

    of the mechanical anisotropy of rolled sheets. The rotation of the crystallographic lattice in each grain during deformation also exhibits grain orientation dependence, originating from the slip systems. A combined analysis of dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations concludes that the two...... slip systems. Actual prediction of the dislocation boundary alignment has become possible through establishment of general relations between slip systems and dislocation boundary planes. The practical relevance of these relations has been exemplified by applying them as a basis for further prediction...... phenomena are coupled through their common dependence on the slip systems....

  7. Diagnostic system based on vibration measurement for rotating machines

    Large scale electric power plants are equipped with a number of the rotating machines which occupy important positions in the plant system. Therefore, respective users assign several countermeasure to improve their reliability and availability as well, among which the maintenance of such equipment for efficient operation as well as the promotion and strengthening of precautions for safety have now become system requirements. In the above context, we have developed a machinery diagnostic system for rotating machinery, fully utilizing the experience and technology that we have so far developed. This paper indroduces this machinery diagnostic system which was installed at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant of Japan Atomic Power Company. (author)

  8. Analysis of rotation-driven electrokinetic flow in microscale gap regions of rotating disk systems.

    Soong, C Y; Wang, S H

    2004-01-15

    In the present study, a novel theoretical model is developed for the analysis of rotating thermal-fluid flow characteristics in the presence of electrokinetic effects in the microscale gap region between two parallel disks under specified electrostatic, rotational, and thermal boundary conditions. The major flow configuration considered is a rotor-stator disk system. Axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with consideration of electric body force stemming from streaming potential are employed in the momentum balance. Variations of the fluid viscosity and permittivity with the local fluid temperature are considered. Between two disks, the axial distribution of the electric potential is determined by the Poisson equation with the concentration distributions of positive and negative ions obtained from Nernst-Planck equations for convection-diffusion of the ions in the flow field. Effects of disk rotation and electrostatic and thermal conditions on the electrokinetic flow and thermal characteristics are investigated. The electrohydrodynamic mechanisms are addressed with an interpretation of the coupling nature of the electric and flow fields. Finally, solutions with electric potential determined by employing nonlinear or linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and/or invoking assumptions of constant properties are compared with the predictions of the present model for justification of various levels of approximation in solution of the electrothermal flow behaviors in rotating microfluidic systems. PMID:14654411

  9. Content of nitrates in drainage and groundwater from permanent pasture, grassland and arable crop rotation soil

    Mašauskas, Vytas; Antanaitis, Šarūnas; LAZAUSKAS, SIGITAS; Mašauskienė, Audronė

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable land and nitrogen fertilisation management practices must be developed to secure viable agricultural production and reduce nitrate pollution of surface and groundwater. The study designed to explore nitrate concentration levels in drainage and groundwater as affected by land use type and N fertiliser levels was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2001–2005 in an experimental site with 11 separate drainage systems. Permanent pasture, managed without nitrogen fer...

  10. Visual Servoed Three-Dimensional Cell Rotation System.

    Wang, Zenan; Latt, Win Tun; Tan, Steven Yih Min; Ang, Wei Tech

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) positioning and orientation of embryos/oocytes is necessary to facilitate micromanipulation tasks such as cell injection and cellular structural biopsy commonly performed under a microscope. Conventional cell orientation is performed manually by using a vacuum equipped micropipette to aspirate and release the cell, which is a trial-and-error approach. The conventional method relies heavily on the skill of the operator; it also suffers from low precision, low success rate and low controllability. These drawbacks illustrate the need for a systematic 3-D cell rotational system to automate the cell orientation process. In this paper, we present a noninvasive single cell rotation system that can automatically orientate a zebrafish embryo to a desired position when both the cytoplasm and the yolk are in the focal plane. A three-point-contact model for cell rotation that involves a custom-designed rotational stage is introduced to provide precise rotational position control. A vision recognition algorithm is also proposed to enable the visual servoing function of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve high success rates of 92.5% (x-axis rotation with 40 trails) and 97.5% (about the z-axis with 80 trails). The system can also successfully complete 3-D cell orientation at an average speed of 31 s/cell with a high in-plane rotation accuracy of 0.3 (°) . As a high precise, high controllable and deterministic cell manipulating system, it provides a starting point for automated cell manipulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:25993702

  11. Classification of the field drainage and wetness by using aerial photographs in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field

    Ritsuko, Fuchiyama; Takeshi, Ota; Michikazu, Fukuhara

    2013-04-01

    Information about field drainage/wetness is useful for farmers to plan field management in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field. Wet injury is a loss to farmers in upland crop farming, experience is the most common way of approaching this risk. In this study, we propose to provide efficient and objective classify and mapping method of such field drainage information using aerial photography. Study area (500 ha) is located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. In this area, we acquired multitemporalaerial photographs (ADS40) three times after the rain on winter. Digital Number (DN) of Blue, Green, Red and Near Infrared band were used to analyze. To analyze the relationship between each band DN and soil moisture, mass soil water content of 0-5cm depth was determined using the 100ml core sample at 22 sites on shooting date. And to verify our classification of the drainage and wetness, volumetric soil water content was monitored using TDR sensor (Decagon, ECH2O) at 5cm, 10cm and 20 cm depth at 16 sites. First, optimum band was selected from correlation analysis of mass soil water content and DN. Next, optimum band DN of three aerial photographs at field area was grouped by cluster analysis (ISODATA method). We found a good positive correlation between mass soil water content and red band DN, by selecting optimum bands. 17 groups were found from cluster analysis using three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions. After that, we classified them into five levels of field drainage based on red band DN values. We generated maps of drainage/wetness based on these results. We compared volumetric soil water content at the monitoring site for the "Dry" and "Wet" points, water was drained quickly at the "Dry" site but it needed more than 1 week the volume soil water content back to revert before rain at the "Wet" site. By the result, we positively verified our classification. We used three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions as

  12. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil

  13. Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil organic carbon under Miscanthus and short rotation coppice-willow crops in Britain

    Dondini, Marta; Richards, Mark; Pogson, Mark; Jones, Edwards O.; Rowe, Rebecca L.; Keith, Aidan M.; Niall P McNamara; Smith, Joanne U.; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) of two dedicated energy crops: perennial grass Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) and short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow. The amount of SOC sequestered in the soil is a function of site-specific factors including soil texture, management practices, initial SOC levels and climate; for these reasons, both losses and gains in SOC were observed in previous Miscanthus and SRC-willow studies. The ECOSSE model was developed to simu...

  14. Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) to Residual Phosphate in Soybean-Sorghum and Maize-Sorghum Crop Rotation Schemes on Two Contrasting Nigerian Alfisols

    Abdulmajeed Hamza; Ezekiel Akinkunmi Akinrinde

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of finely ground Sokoto Rock Phosphate and Morocco Rock Phosphate to enhance productivity of maize- (Zea mays L.) Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and soybean- (Glycine max L.) Sorghum crop rotation schemes was evaluated using Single Super Phosphate as reference fertilizer. The experiments were carried out in the screen house of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, in February and June 2013. The experiments involved 2 × 2 × 4 × 3 factorial in a Completely Randomized De...

  15. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    H. Lei; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simulate crop phenology,...

  16. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems.

    Wilkins, R J

    2008-02-12

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorporate biological nitrogen fixation and manure recycling. There is, however, little evidence that the trend in developed countries to farm-level specialization is being reduced. In some circumstances legislation to restrict diffuse pollution may provide incentives for more diverse eco-efficient farming and in other circumstances price premia for produce from eco-efficient systems, such as organic farming, and subsidies for the provision of environmental services may provide economic incentives for the adoption of such systems. However, change is likely to be most rapid where the present systems lead to obvious reductions in the productive potential of the land, such as in areas experiencing salinization. In other situations, there is promise that eco-efficiency could be increased on an area-wide basis by the establishment of linkages between farms of contrasting type, particularly between specialist crop and livestock farms, with contracts for the transfer of manures and, to a lesser extent, feeds. PMID:17652073

  17. Sustainability and integrated weed management in Australian winter cropping systems: a bioeconomic analysis

    Jones, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    Economic evaluations of the benefits of integrated weed management often only consider the benefits of management in the crop phase, and ignore the impact of rotational options. In particular, non-crop phases such as annual and perennial pasture phases can have a substantial impact upon weed population dynamics and economic returns. Moreover, extended perennial pasture phases are being promoted to address a range of onfarm sustainability issues such as excessive deep drainage (i.e. salinity),...

  18. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    Betty Mulianga; Agnès Bégué; Pascal Clouvel; Pierre Todoroff

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014) to characterize c...

  19. Patient QA systems for rotational radiation therapy

    Fredh, Anna; Scherman, J.B.; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of commercial patient quality assurance (QA) systems to detect linear accelerator-related errors.......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of commercial patient quality assurance (QA) systems to detect linear accelerator-related errors....

  20. Multiple-cylindrical Electrode System for Rotational Electric Field Generation in Particle Rotation Applications

    Prateek Benhal; Geoffrey Chase, J.; Paul Gaynor; Björn Oback; Wenhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip micro-devices utilizing electric field-mediated particle movement provide advantages over current cell rotation techniques due to the flexibility in configuring micro-electrodes. Recent technological advances in micro-milling, three-dimensional (3D) printing and photolithography have facilitated fabrication of complex micro-electrode shapes. Using the finite-element method to simulate and optimize electric field induced particle movement systems can save time and cost by simplif...

  1. Combined Solar System and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    Hees, A; Angus, G W; Gentile, G

    2015-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this External Field Effect can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this External Field Effect also appears in the Solar System and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar System constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that LISA Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  2. Combined Solar system and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    Hees, Aurélien; Famaey, Benoit; Angus, Garry W.; Gentile, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this external field effect (EFE) can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this EFE also appears in the Solar system and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar system constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  3. Water use in a winter camelina – soybean double crop system

    Double-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa) followed by soybean (Glycine max) may increase land-use efficiency by producing food and biofuel in a single season and is a viable cropping system for the northern Corn Belt. However, regional success of double-cropping, especially under dryland con...

  4. Oscillating and rotating sine-Gordon system

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a 2π kink and the background or vacuum is investigated in the pure sine-Gordon system. For an oscillating background (i.e., the k=0 part of the phonon spectrum) the 2π kink oscillates, while for increasing or decreasing vacuum two phenomena have been observed, depending on...... the rate of change of the vacuum. For small rates a parametric excitation of standing waves is found, and for larger rates the system linearizes. In the case of oscillating vacuum a perturbation approach explains the behavior perfectly, while for small rates of increasing vacuum the system reduces to...

  5. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    H. Lei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain is one of the most important crop production regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To better describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth, the crop phenology and physiology scheme of the SiBcrop model was coupled with the Simple Biosphere model version 2 (SiB2 for simulating crop phenology, as well as the crop production and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and summer maize, two of the main crops in the region. In the coupled model, the Leaf Area Index (LAI produced by the crop phenology and physiology scheme was used in estimating the sub-hourly energy and carbon fluxes. Observations obtained from two typical eddy covariance sites located in this region were used to validate the model. The coupled model was able to simulate carbon and energy fluxes, soil water content, biomass carbon, and crop yield with high accuracy, especially for the latent heat flux and carbon flux. The LAI was also well-simulated by the model. Therefore, the coupled model is capable of assessing the responses of water resources and crop production to the changes of future climate and irrigation schedules.

  6. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    H. Lei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2 to simulate crop phenology, crop production, and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and summer maize, which are two of the main crops in the region. In the coupled model, the leaf area index (LAI produced by the crop phenology and physiology scheme was used in estimating sub-hourly energy and carbon fluxes. Observations obtained from two typical eddy covariance sites located in this region were used to validate the model. The coupled model was able to accurately simulate carbon and energy fluxes, soil water content, biomass carbon, and crop yield, especially for latent heat flux and carbon flux. The LAI was also well simulated by the model. Therefore, the coupled model is capable of assessing the responses of water resources and crop production to the changes of future climate and irrigation schedules of this region.

  7. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  8. A greenhouse crop production system for tropical lowland conditions

    Impron, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: tropical lowland climate, tropical lowland greenhouse, plastic greenhouse, near infrared radiation (NIR) reflecting plastic, greenhouse climate model, determinate tomato, crop growth, development, truss appearance rate, crop simulation model, INTKAM.   The goal of this research w

  9. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; DICKSON, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased r...

  10. New portable sensor system for rotational seismic motion measurements

    A new mechanical sensor system for recording the rotation of ground velocity has been constructed. It is based on measurements of differential motions between paired sensors mounted along the perimeter of a rigid (undeformable) disk. The elementary sensors creating the pairs are sensitive low-frequency geophones currently used in seismic exploration to record translational motions. The main features of the new rotational seismic sensor system are flat characteristics in the wide frequency range from 1 to 200 Hz and sensitivity limit of the order of 10-8 rad/s. Notable advantages are small dimensions, portability, easy installation and operation in the field, and the possibility of calibrating the geophones in situ simultaneously with the measurement. An important feature of the instrument is that it provides records of translational seismic motions together with rotations, which allows many important seismological applications. We have used the new sensor system to record the vertical rotation velocity due to a small earthquake of ML=2.2, which occurred within the earthquake swarm in Western Bohemia in autumn 2008. We found good agreement of the rotation record with the transverse acceleration as predicted by theory. This measurement demonstrates that this device has a much wider application than just to prospecting measurements, for which it was originally designed.

  11. Balanced-Rotating-Spray Tank-And-Pipe-Cleaning System

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Spray head translates and rotates to clean entire inner surface of tank or pipe. Cleansing effected by three laterally balanced gas/liquid jets from spray head that rotates about longitudinal axis. Uses much less liquid. Cleaning process in system relies on mechanical action of jets instead of contaminant dissolution. Eliminates very difficult machining needed to make multiple converging/diverging nozzles within one spray head. Makes nozzle much smaller. Basic two-phase-flow, supersonic-nozzle design applied to other spray systems for interior or exterior cleaning.

  12. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  13. Integrated Crop/Livestock Systems Research: Practical research considerations

    There are many reasons for the paucity of integrated crop/livestock research and associated publications. Integrated/crop livestock experiments that involve adequate treatments and replications, as perceived by both crop and animal scientists, require large acreages, many animals, considerable labor...

  14. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  15. Development of a Vehicle-Mounted Crop Detection System

    ZHONG Zhen-jiang; SUN Hong; LI Min-zan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiu-hua

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor plant chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detection system was developed to measure crop canopy spectral characteristics. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with one control unit and one measuring unit. The control unit included a personal digital assistant (PDA) device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator. As the coordinator of the whole wireless network, the control unit was used to receive, display and store all the data sent from sensor nodes. The measuring unit consisted of several optical sensor nodes. All the sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that the measuring unit could collect the canopy spectral data while moving. Each sensor node contained four optical channels to measure the light radiation at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766, and 850 nm. The calibration tests veriifed a good performance in terms of the wireless transmission ability and the sensor measurement precision. Both stationary and moving ifeld experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental ifeld. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index, and several estimation models of the chlorophyll content were established. The highest R2 of the estimation models was 0.718. The results showed that the vehicle-mounted crop detection system has potential for ifeld application.

  16. Rotation and momentum transport in tokamaks and helical systems

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation has been recognized to play an important role in heat transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in tokamaks and helical systems. It is well known that the E × B shear due to poloidal and toroidal flow suppresses turbulence in the plasma and contributes to the improvement of heat and particle transport, while toroidal rotation helps one to stabilize MHD instabilities such as resistive wall modes and neoclassical tearing mode. Therefore, understanding the role of momentum transport in determining plasma rotation is crucial in toroidal discharges, both in tokamaks and helical systems. In this review paper, the driving and damping mechanisms of poloidal and toroidal rotation are outlined. Driving torque due to neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves, and damping due to parallel viscosity and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are described. Regarding momentum transport, the radial flux of momentum has diffusive and non-diffusive (ND) terms, and experimental investigations of these are discussed. The magnitude of the diffusive term of momentum transport is expressed as a coefficient of viscous diffusivity. The ratio of the viscous diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity (Prandtl number) is one of the interesting parameters in plasma physics. It is typically close to unity, but sometimes can deviate significantly depending on the turbulent state. The ND terms have two categories: one is the so-called momentum pinch, whose magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the velocity itself, and the other is an off-diagonal term in which the magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the temperature or/and pressure gradient, independent of the velocity or its gradient. The former has no sign dependence; rotation due to the momentum pinch does not depend on the sign of the rotation itself, whether it is parallel to the plasma current (co-direction) or anti-parallel to the plasma current (counter

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Associations in Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Murray, K.

    2012-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play an important role in delivering nutrients to plant roots via mutualistic symbiotic relationships. AMF root colonization was compared between four different biofuel cropping systems in an effort to learn more about the factors that control colonization. The four biofuel systems sampled were corn, switchgrass, prairie, and fertilized prairie. We hypothesized that prairie systems would have the highest levels of AMF colonization and that fertilization would result in lower AMF colonization rates. Roots were sampled from each system in early June and mid-July. Soil P and pH were also measured. In contrast to our hypothesis, corn systems had 70-80% colonization and the unfertilized prairie system had ~35% (P=0.001) in June. In July, all systems saw an increase in colonization rate, but corn roots still had significantly more AMF colonization than unfertilized prairie (P=0.001). AMF colonization in the unfertilized prairie system increased ~55% from June to July. In contrast to previous work, AMF colonization rates were highest in systems with the greatest availability on P and N (corn systems). These results indicate that seasonal differences in root growth were more influential to AMF root colonization than soil nutrient availability.

  18. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production.

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. PMID:23994820

  19. Fibre Optic System for Monitoring Rotational Seismic Phenomena

    Anna Kurzych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS, which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10−9 to 5.5 × 10−8 rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland seismological observatory are also presented.

  20. Fibre optic system for monitoring rotational seismic phenomena.

    Kurzych, Anna; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Teisseyre, Krzysztof P; Kowalski, Jerzy K

    2014-01-01

    We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS), which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10(-9) to 5.5 × 10(-8) rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland) seismological observatory are also presented. PMID:24651723

  1. Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrnero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L, lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L. e soja (Glycine max L. e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L. girassol (Helianthus annuus L., milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek, milho (Zea mays L, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto.The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera. Curculionidae was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, oviposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L, grandull (Cajanus cajan L., dolichos (Dolichos lablab L. and soybean (Glycine max L. and

  2. Nitrogen dynamics and balance in a lowland rice cropping system

    Two field experiments were conducted during consecutive dry and wet seasons of 1997 in central Thailand to determine the effects of rice-residue management on the fate and use efficiency of urea-N broadcast to lowland rice (70 kg N ha-1). Ammonia (NH3) losses during the 11 days following urea application were 7, 12, and 8% of the applied N from no-residue, burned-residue, and residue-treated plots, respectively, whereas the cumulative percentage of N2+N2O emission from added urea corresponded to 10, 4.3, and nil, respectively. During the first crop, only about 9% of the fertilizer N applied was recovered in grain and straw. Appreciable N fertilizer was either lost from the soil-plant system (27-33%) or remained in the soil at the end of the growing season (50- 53%). Residual fertilizer-N recovery in the second crop was only about 5% of what was initially applied. (author)

  3. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  4. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  5. Energy crops for biogas plants. Baden-Wuerttemberg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others

    2013-05-01

    For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  6. Energy crops for biogas plants. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  7. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  8. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  9. Intensive crop rotation yield and economic performance in minimum tillage and no-tillage, in northeastern Oregon

    In the intermediate precipitation zone (15-18 in.) of northeastern Oregon, there is interest in increasing the intensity of cropping with spring crops. Mechanical tillage remains popular for seedbed preparation and weed control, but contributes to environmental problems and labor and fuel are costly...

  10. Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.

    Ellouze, Walid; Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D; Yang, Chao; Bazghaleh, Navid; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hanson, Keith; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  11. Can new organic cropping systems produce vegetables with lower use of resources and losses of nitrate?

    Kristensen, Hanne L.; Xie, Yue; Bavec, F.; von Fragstein, Peter; Campanelli, Gabriele; Ortolani, Livia; Canali, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    To secure a sustainable production of plant foods for the future, there is a need to develop new cropping systems. These systems should have reduced needs of external resources and reduced environmental impact, while product yields are maintained at high level. Therefore, field trials were performed in Italy, Slovenia, Germany and Denmark with the aim to study new organic cropping systems for production of vegetable crops; and the systems’ effect on labor and energy consumption and the risk o...

  12. Rotational motion of traveling spots in dissipative systems.

    Teramoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuya; Nishiura, Yasumasa

    2009-10-01

    What is the origin of rotational motion? An answer is presented through the study of the dynamics for spatially localized spots near codimension 2 singularity consisting of drift and peanut instabilities. The drift instability causes a head-tail asymmetry in spot shape, and the peanut one implies a deformation from circular to peanut shape. Rotational motion of spots can be produced by combining these instabilities in a class of three-component reaction-diffusion systems. Partial differential equations dynamics can be reduced to a finite-dimensional one by projecting it to slow modes. Such a reduction clarifies the bifurcational origin of rotational motion of traveling spots in two dimensions in close analogy to the normal form of 1:2 mode interactions. PMID:19905416

  13. Proposition of Unique Pumping System with Counter-Rotating Mechanism

    Toshiaki Kanemoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo-pumps have weak points, such as when the pumping operation becomes unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics and/or the cavitation occurs under the intolerably low suction head. To overcome both weak points simultaneously, this article proposes a unique pumping system with counter-rotating mechanism, which consists of two stage impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotors. The front and the rear impellers are driven by the inner and the outer rotors of the motor, respectively, keeping the relative rotational speed constant and counter-balancing the rotational torque. Such driving conditions not only smartly improve the unstable performance at lower discharge, but also suppress the cavitation at higher discharge, in the optimum cooperation with the impeller works and the rotor outputs.

  14. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  15. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures......, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha−1 and 4.1 t DM ha−1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha−1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe in the...

  16. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    . Finally, in field condition, on a larger time scale, we investigated the effect of crop alternations on the Lusignan ACBB SOERE site. That site presents on the same soil type different crop alternation treatments: an old, continuous grassland, a 8-year continuous cereal rotation and an alternation of cereal/grassland (3-years cereals and 3 to 6 years grassland). Measurements of AWC in these different crop systems setting, 8 years after implementation of the SOERE, show that AWC was different in the cereal/grassland alternation compared to the continuous cereal or grassland cropping systems (~15-20% increase). If such alteration of AWC may seem modest, modeling (in the case of ACBB SOERE) shows that this increase in AWC would increase the cereal yield but also decrease the water drainage out of the root zone, and the possible associated loss of nitrate and pesticides. As a conclusion, in line with some other literature data, roots can influence soil hydric properties and this opens a way to use plants as "soil engineers" to modulate the properties of the root zone, and thus the components of water balance, to mitigate effects of drought on crops… However, how and how much plants will modify the hydric properties, a question which mixes physics, biology, microbiology, crop system settings, is still in infancy and needs further research.

  17. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  18. Tile drain losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from fields under integrated and organic crop rotations. A four-year study on a clay soil in southwest Sweden.

    Stenberg, Maria; Ulén, Barbro; Söderström, Mats; Roland, Björn; Delin, Karl; Helander, Carl-Anders

    2012-09-15

    In order to explore the influence of site-specific soil properties on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses between individual fields and crop sequences, 16 drained fields with clay soils were investigated in a four-year study. Mean total N (TN) loss was 6.6-11.1 from a conventional, 14.3-21.5 from an organic and 13.1-23.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1) from an integrated cropping system across a 4 year period, with 75% in nitrate form (NO(3)-N). Mean total P (TP) loss was 0.96-3.03, 0.99-4.63 and 0.76-2.67 kg ha(-1) year(-1), from the three systems respectively during the same period, with 25% in dissolved reactive form (DRP). Median N efficiency was calculated to be 70% including gains from estimated N fixation. According to principal component factor (PCA) analysis, field characteristics and cropping system were generally more important for losses of N and P than year. Accumulation of soil mineral N in the autumn and (estimated) N fixation was important for N leaching. No P fertilisers were used at the site in either cropping system. Total P concentration in drainage water from each of the fields was marginally significantly (pcrop with efficient nutrient uptake and good soil structure was general preconditions for low nutrient leaching. Incorporation of ley by tillage operations in the summer before autumn crop establishment and repeated operations in autumn as well, increased N leaching. Crop management in sequences with leguminous crops needs to be considered carefully when designing cropping systems high efficiency in N utilisation and low environmental impact. PMID:22264921

  19. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  20. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  1. Translational and rotational dynamic analysis of a superconducting levitation system

    The rotational dynamics of a disc-shaped permanent magnet rotor levitated over a high temperature superconductor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The interaction between the rotor magnet and the superconductor was modelled by assuming the magnet to be a magnetic dipole and the superconductor a diamagnet. In the magnetomechanical analysis of the superconductor part, the frozen image concept was combined with the diamagnetic image, and the damping in the system was neglected. The interaction potential of the system is the combination of magnetic and gravitational potentials. From the dynamical analysis the equations of motion of the permanent magnet were stated as a function of lateral, vertical, tilt, precision and rotating angles. The vibration behaviour and correlation of the vibration of one direction with that of another were determined with a numerical calculation based on the Runge-Kutta method. The various vibrational frequencies identified were vertical, radial, tilt, precession and rotation. The tests performed for experimental verifications were translational and rotational. The permanent magnet was 'spun up' under vacuum conditions to analyse the dynamics of the free 'spin down' behaviour of the permanent magnet

  2. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  3. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Trnka, M; Kersebaum, K C;

    2011-01-01

    increased incidents of heat waves and droughts without possibilities for effectively shifting crop cultivation to other parts of the years. A wide range of adaptation options exists in most European regions to mitigate many of the negative impacts of climate change on crop production in Europe. However...... the: (1) main vulnerabilities of crops and cropping systems under present climate; (2) estimates of climate change impacts on the production of nine selected crops; (3) possible adaptation options as well as (4) adaptation observed so far. In addition we focused on the overall awareness and presence...... questionnaires show a surprisingly high proportion of negative expectations concerning the impacts of climate change on crops and crop production throughout Europe, even in the cool temperate northern European countries. The expected impacts, both positive and negative, are just as large in northern Europe as in...

  4. Spatiotemporal simulation of changes in rice cropping systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic development of agro-economics, population growth, and climate change, the rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) have been undergoing a major change. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to map rice cropping systems and predict future dynamics of rice cropping systems using MODIS time-series data from 2002 to 2012. A phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems. Then, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) model was used to simulate future changes in rice-cropping activities. To obtain precise prediction, a calibration of CA-Markov were implemented by using a series of rice crop maps. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies above 81%, and Kappa coefficients above 0.75, respectively. The simulated maps of rice cropping systems for 2010-2012 were extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002-2009. The comparison between the predicted scenarios and the classification maps for 2010-2012 presents a reasonably close agreement. In summary, the CA-Markov model with a long-term calibration confirmed the validity of the approach for dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems in the study region. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the approach produced satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast, and spatial pattern changes. Thus, projections of future changes would provide useful information for the agricultural policymakers in respect to formulating effective management strategies of rice cropping practices in VMD.

  5. Adaptation of the European crop growth monitoring system to the Belgian conditions.

    Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...

  6. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    Gao, Bing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ju, Xiaotang, E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Oenema, Oene [Wageningen University and Research, Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O emissions plus CH{sub 4} uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH{sub 4} by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N{sub 2}O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N{sub 2}O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N{sub 2}O + CH{sub 4} emission

  7. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  8. On line diagnostics of rotating machinery using expert system technology

    Over the last years it became apparent that on line diagnostics will become more and more important for increasing safety in nuclear power plants and the availability of machinery. Expert system technology in combination with conventional methods for pattern recongnition and data preparation turned out to be a favorite candidate for automatic on line diagnostics of rotating machinery and related diagnostical problems. The article describes the conceptual design of an on line diagnostic system for a liquid sodium pump in a nuclear power plant. An overview on the system design, the system parameters, the user interface, and an example for the construction of the knowledge base will be given. (orig.)

  9. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...

  10. Carbon balance and crop residue management in dynamic equilibrium under a no-till system in Campos Gerais

    Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of no-tillage systems (NT and the maintenance of crop residues on the soil surface result in the long-term increase of carbon (C in the system, promoting C sequestration and reducing C-CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the C sequestration rate and the minimum amount of crop residues required to maintain the dynamic C equilibrium (dC/dt = 0 of two soils (Typic Hapludox with different textural classes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 randomized block factorial design. The following factors were analyzed: (a two soil types: Typic Hapludox (Oxisol with medium texture (LVTM and Oxisol with clay texture (LVTA, (b two sampling layers (0-5 and 5-20 cm, and (c two sampling periods (P1 - October 2007; P2 - September 2008. Samples were collected from fields under a long-term (20 years NT system with the following crop rotations: wheat/soybean/black oat + vetch/maize (LVTM and wheat/maize/black oat + vetch/soybean (LVTA. The annual C sequestration rates were 0.83 and 0.76 Mg ha-1 for LVTM and LVTA, respectively. The estimates of the minimum amount of crop residues required to maintain a dynamic equilibrium (dC/dt = 0 were 7.13 and 6.53 Mg ha-1 year-1 for LVTM and LVTA, respectively. The C conversion rate in both studied soils was lower than that reported in other studies in the region, resulting in a greater amount of crop residues left on the soil surface.

  11. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  12. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  13. Crop residues as raw materials for biorefinery systems - A LCA case study

    have higher eutrophication potential than fossil reference systems. Based on these results, a residues-based biorefinery concept is able to solve two problems at the same time, namely find a use for the abundant lignocellulosic residues and ensure a mitigation effect for most of the environmental concerns related to the utilization of non-renewable energy resources. Therefore, when agricultural residues are used as feedstocks, best management practices and harvest rates need to be carefully established. In fact, rotation, tillage, fertilization management, soil properties and climate can play an important role in the determination of the amount of crop residue that can be removed minimizing soil carbon losses.

  14. Axisymmetric Predictions of Fluid Flow inside a Rotating Cavity System

    Mujeebuddin Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of fluid flow in the rotating cavity system is of practical interest as it is most commonly used in the gas turbine engines and compressors. This paper presents the numerical predictions of a rotating cavity flow system for Reynolds numbers of the range 1x105 < Re? < 4x105 and two different mass flow rates Cw=1092 and 2184. A finite-difference technique is employed for a Steady-state solution in the axisymmetric cylindrical polar coordinate frame of reference. The two low Reynolds number turbulence models, the low Reynolds number k-? model and the low Reynolds number second moment closure have been used to compute the basic characteristics of the flow inside the rotating cavity flow system. Different flow regions have been identified by computing flow structures and dimensions of those regions have also been studied under different flow rates. A comparison of the computed variation of moment coefficient of both the turbulence models are presented for the above mentioned parameters and the parametric effects on the moment coefficients have been discussed

  15. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  16. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin.

    Maliki, Raphiou; Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  17. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. PMID:27446635

  18. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  19. Management of the Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica. Treub and Sore Shin (Rhizoctonia Solani. Kuhn Using A Nematicide and Poor Host Crops in Rotations

    U. Mazarura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10, root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8, grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10, grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8, KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr, on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide used was ethylene dibromide (EDB and was applied to each tobacco crop, as is standard practice. Chloris gayana cv. ‘Rhodes Katambora’, presumably a poor host of nematodes, was the grass used in all the grass-grass-grass-Tobacco rotations. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. ContKM10, KM10-Cr, G-G-G-RK8, ContiRK8 and RK8-Cr reduced root knot galling while G-G-G-KM10 increased galling. Sore shin increased with every year of rotation regardless of rotation, except in the case of G-G-G-KM10 and G-G-G-RK8 which reduced infection relative to other rotations. With the exception of G-G-G-RK8, all rotations that included RK8 suppressed root knot infection but did not suppress sore shin infection. The rotations including KM10 suppressed nematodes only with EDB treatment yearly and did not suppress sore shin except the rotation G-G-G-KM10. The role of Crotolaria juncea was masked by either RK8 or EDB. Host plant resistance in the form of RK8 was effective in controlling nematodes but did not reduce sore shin except mildly when rotated with the grass. This work recommends the use of resistant cultivars with broad-spectrum resistances.

  20. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this thesis was to identify approp...

  1. A WEB BASED TOMATO CROP EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    Prasad Babu M.S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato Information System and the other is Tomato Crop Expert System where in Information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases,Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Tomato fruits and plants. In Advisory System, the user is having aninteraction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measure of disease. This Tomato Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Tomato Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to tomato crop based on the symptoms.This Rule based Expert System validates the symptoms of the tomato crop using the techniques of ID3 Algorithm and some optimization algorithms. This is a Web based Expert System with java as the front end and SQL as the backend.

  2. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    Schlueter, Ross D [Berkeley, CA; Budinger, Thomas F [Berkeley, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  3. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18......Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals in...

  4. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  5. Impacts of Federal Crop Insurance on Land Use and Environmental Quality

    Claassen, Roger; Langpap, Christian; Wu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    This paper integrates economic and physical models to assess how federal crop revenue insurance programs might affect land use, cropping systems, and environmental quality in the U.S. Corn Belt region. The empirical framework includes econometric models that predict land conversion, crop choices, and crop rotations at the parcel-level based on expectation and variance of crop revenues, land quality, climate conditions, and physical characteristics at each site. The predictions are then combin...

  6. Impacts of Changes in Federal Crop Insurance Programs on Land Use and Environmental Quality

    Langpap, Christian; Wu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    This paper integrates economic and physical models to assess how federal crop revenue insurance programs might affect land use, cropping systems, and environmental quality in the U.S. Corn Belt region. The empirical framework includes econometric models that predict land conversion, crop choices, and crop rotations at the parcel level based on expectation and variance of crop revenues, land quality, climate conditions, and physical characteristics at each site. The predictions are then combin...

  7. Systemic Risk in U.S. Crop Reinsurance Programs

    Mason, Chuck; Hayes, Dermot J.; Sergio H. Lence

    2003-01-01

    This study develops a method to estimate the probability density function of the Federal Risk Management Agency's (RMA's) net income from reinsuring crop insurance for corn, wheat, and soybeans. When calibrated using 1997 data, results from the advocated method show that in 1997 there was a 5% probability RMA would have had to reimburse at least $1 billion to insurance companies, and the fair value of RMA's insurance services to insurance firms in 1997 was $78.7 million. Key words: crop insur...

  8. A Greenhouse Tomato Crop Grey Mould Disease Early Warning System

    Neto, M; Baptista, F.J.; L..M. Navas; Ruiz, G.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is a very important crop in the Mediterranean region in general and in Portugal in particular being the production for fresh consumption made essentially in greenhouses. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. is the causal agent of grey mould disease and is one of the most important diseases affecting greenhouse tomato crops, high relative humidity and the presence of free water on the plant surfaces have been recognized as favourable to the development of this disease. The avai...

  9. Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines

    Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)

  10. Crop rotation and soil biochemical and microbiological characteristics and corn crop yield Rotação de culturas e relações com atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo e produtividade do milho

    Manoel Carlos Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices exert important influence on biological and biochemical properties of soil. This work aimed to valuate the impact of crop rotation on soil biochemical and microbiological attributes, as well and influence on corn crop yield. The experiment was carried out during 2005/06 crop season, in Dourados – MS, Brazil. Experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments established in sub-divided plots with tree replications, which seasons were plots and management systems were sub-plots. Studied seasons were winter and summer and no tillage systems were represented by five crop rotation schemes, which involved the cultures of hairy vetch, bean, oat, forage turnip, soybean, crotalaria, corn, sorghum, pearl millet, sunflower and, in conventional tillage, with corn in winter and with soybean in summer. Native vegetation constituted one treatment and, with conventional tillage, it was used as ecosystem of reference as control for comparison between possible alterations in chemical and microbiological attributes with the establishment of a system more conservationist for soil management. There was a positive correlation among Norg, Corg, Porg and C-BMS contents with chemical attributes of soil fertility, which shows interdependence between chemical and biology of soil. The elimination of native vegetation and the substitution for cultivation system after that reduce the C-BMS. In Cerrado conditions, studied cultivation systems increased phosphorus content in soil. Crop rotation influenced corn yield after the cultivation of determined species as crotalaria and vetch in crop rotation.As práticas de manejo do solo exercem importantes influências nas propriedades biológicas e bioquímicas do solo. Neste sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o impacto do manejo do solo nos atributos químicos e microbiológicos, bem como, a influência na produtividade da cultura do milho. O estudo foi realizado no ano agrícola de

  11. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  12. 耕作方式对华北冬小麦-夏玉米周年产量和水分利用的影响%Effects of tillage methods on crop yield and water use characteristics in winter-wheat/summer-maize rotation system in the North China Plain

    孔凡磊; 张海林; 翟云龙; 袁继超; 陈阜

    2014-01-01

    Four tillage methods - conventional tillage without straw (CT), conventional tillage with straw incorporation (CTS), rotary tillage with straw incorporation (RTS) and no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS)-were used to study the effects of tillage on annual yield and water use efficiency in winter-wheat/summer-maize cultivation system in the North China Plain. Results showed that different tillage methods significantly influenced winter wheat yield and water use efficiency. Different tillage methods did not significantly influence yield and water use of summer maize, tillage with straw incorporation increased yield of summer maize. Although differences in winter wheat yield under RTS, CTS and CT were not significant, fewer effective panicles of winter wheat yield under NTS led to significantly lower yield, compared with other treatments. Compared with CT, NTS decreased annual yield by 5.13%, while RTS, CTS increased annual yield by 2.69% and 2.33%. The tillage methods had significant effects on soil water content in winter-wheat season, but had no impact on soil water content in summer-maize season. Also NTS improved soil water content and water storage in winter-wheat season. Compared with CT, NTS increased soil water storage by 39.07 mm and 26.65 mm in two consecutive years. In terms of crop water use, soil water accounted for the largest proportion of winter-wheat water use, followed by irrigation and precipitation. While precipitation accounted for the largest proportion of summer-maize water use, some precipitation contributed to soil water storage. NTS improved soil water storage in winter-wheat and also limited soil water use, implying that water use was lowest under NTS during winter-wheat season. Compared with CT, NTS saved 22.40 mm of soil water in winter-wheat season and NTS also had the lowest annual crop water use. There was lower winter-wheat yield under NTS, the annual water use efficiency was also lower than the other treatments. In terms of annual yield

  13. 耕作方式对华北冬小麦-夏玉米周年产量和水分利用的影响%Effects of tillage methods on crop yield and water use characteristics in winter-wheat/summer-maize rotation system in the North China Plain

    孔凡磊; 张海林; 翟云龙; 袁继超; 陈阜

    2014-01-01

    在冬小麦季设置秸秆不还田翻耕(CT)、秸秆还田翻耕(CTS)、秸秆还田旋耕(RTS)和免耕秸秆覆盖(NTS)4种处理,研究耕作方式对华北小麦-玉米两熟区作物周年产量和水分利用的影响。结果表明:耕作方式对当季冬小麦产量和水分利用影响显著,对夏玉米产量和水分利用影响不大,但秸秆还田提高了夏玉米产量。RTS、CTS、CT 3个处理小麦季产量差异不显著,而NTS由于有效穗数不足,产量显著低于其他处理;与CT相比, NTS周年产量平均减产5.13%, RTS增产2.69%, CTS增产2.33%。耕作方式对当季小麦土壤水分含量影响大,而对后茬夏玉米土壤水分含量的影响较小。NTS 提高了小麦季土壤水分含量,增加了土壤储水量,与CT相比,0~60 cm土壤储水量2010年和2011年分别增加39.07 mm和26.65 mm。从耗水构成来看,土壤水在冬小麦耗水中所占比例最大,其次为灌水和降水;而夏玉米耗水以降水为主,且降水中有一部分转化为土壤水储存起来。NTS提高了冬小麦季土壤储水量,降低了土壤水分的消耗,冬小麦季耗水最少。与CT相比, NTS小麦季平均节水22.40 mm,周年耗水量也以NTS最少;但NTS冬小麦产量降低导致其小麦季和周年水分利用效率均最低。从作物周年产量和水分利用的角度来看,如何提高免耕秸秆覆盖小麦季产量,进而提高周年产量,发挥其节水优势,是该耕作模式在华北地区冬小麦-夏玉米两熟区推广应用亟需解决的关键问题。%Four tillage methods - conventional tillage without straw (CT), conventional tillage with straw incorporation (CTS), rotary tillage with straw incorporation (RTS) and no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS)-were used to study the effects of tillage on annual yield and water use efficiency in winter-wheat/summer-maize cultivation system in the North China Plain. Results showed that different tillage methods significantly influenced winter wheat

  14. Impact of sole cropping and multiple cropping on soil humified carbon fractions

    The present study was planned to improve our understanding how crop rotation can enhance humified C fractions. A long term experiment was conducted on Vanmeter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA from 2002 to 2007. Crop rotation treatments included were continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) rotations. Randomized complete block design with 6 replications was used under natural field conditions. The findings of this long-term study revealed that multiple cropping had significantly improved humified carbon fractions compared to mono-cropping system. Although total humified carbon (THOC), sugar free humified carbon (HOC) concentration were non-significant however, humin (NH) contents, humic (HA), fulvic acids (FA), humic and fulvic acid associated glucose (HA-NH and FA-NH) were significantly affected by various crop rotations within five years. The soil under CC had 22-52% significantly greater NH concentration than CSW and CS rotations respectively. Similarly all crop rotations had shown 5-16 increase in HA and 5-17% decreased in FA over time. Likewise soil under CC had 16 and 54% greater HA-NH concentration as compared to CSW and CS rotations. The FA-NH concentration increased significantly by 27- 51% in soil under all treatments over time. The soil under CSW had greater HA/FA (1.6) fallowed by CC (1.4) and CS (1.1). Soils under CSW had significantly greater HA/HOC (12-18%) as compare to CC and CS respectively. Conversely, the value of FA/HOC decreased (1-23%) in soil under all crop rotation treatments within five years. Degree of humification (DH) had shown a significant increase (7-12%) in soil under all treatments as compared to 2002. Irrespective of crop rotation THOC, HOC, NH, humin, HA, HR and FA/HOC concentration decreased significantly with increase in soil depth. While fulvic acid concentration HA/HOC in all crop rotation increased with increase in soil depth. The effect of crop rotation

  15. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  16. Impact of imazamox containing herbicides on the development of resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. within an oilseed rape / wheat crop rotation

    Rosenhauer, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of imazamox as an herbicide in oilseed-rape got possible due to the introduction of Clearfield oilseed-rape varieties which are tolerant to ALS inhibitors. The question of this investigation was, if the broader use of ALS-inhibitors increases the selection pressure on herbicide resistant weeds and increases their occurrence in the crop rotation. An outdoor container trial with 30 containers (350 l, 0,7 m² was performed, starting in autumn 2011. A winter wheat – oilseed-rape rotation was simulated for four years. Three different black-grass biotypes with different resistance pattern and 5 different herbicide programmes were analysed in this study in order to investigate the population dynamics of target-site resistance (TSR and the development of metabolic resistance. The trials showed interactions between the black-grass biotype and the herbicide strategy on the increase of the black-grass density. There was no interaction due to the use of propyzamide. The frequency of target-site resistance to ACCase inhibitors increased for the corresponding biotypes independently of the herbicide strategy during the trial period. The low frequency of ALS-TSR at trial start did not change during the trial period, independently of the use of imazamox in the oil-seed rape cultivation. The comparison of the resistance factors between the original biotypes and the seeds harvested after the four year container trial showed increasing resistances against pinoxaden for all biotypes. Within the different black-grass biotypes there was a slightly decrease as well as an increase in imazamox efficacy observed. There was no significant increase of meso- + iodosulfuron resistance compared to the original biotypes from 2011 caused by different herbicide treatments. The results indicated that the integration of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape in winter wheat crop rotations did not necessarily increase the development of herbicide resistant black-grass.

  17. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity under dryland cropping systems in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Sainju, U. M.; Usda-Ars-Gracenet

    2013-05-01

    Dryland cropping systems constitute a major farming system globally but little is known about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI). We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences {conventional-tilled malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.)-fallow [CTB-F], no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) rotation [NTB-P], and no-tilled continuous malt barley [NTCB]} and N fertilization rates (0 and 80 kg N ha-1) on dryland soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, GWP, and GHGI from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana, USA. The CO2 and N2O fluxes and CH4 uptake from spring to autumn were greater in NTB-P and NTCB with 80 kg N ha-1 than in other treatments. Net GWP and GHGI based on soil respiration and GHGI based on soil organic C (SOC) were greater in NTCB with 0 kg N ha-1 but GWP based on SOC was greater in CTB-F with 0 kg N ha-1 than in NTB-P with 0 and 80 kg N ha-1. Because of increased grain yield but reduced GWP and GHGI, NTB-P with 80 kg N ha-1 may be used as a management option to reduce dryland GWP and GHGI while sustaining crop yields in the northern Great Plains, USA.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  19. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  20. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…