WorldWideScience

Sample records for crop rotation systems

  1. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  2. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O'Donovan, John T; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P; Campbell, Con A; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on 'mining' soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  3. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zden?k

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  4. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yantai Gan; Chantal Hamel; John T. O’Donovan; Herb Cutforth; Zentner, Robert P.; Con A. Campbell; Yining Niu; Lee Poppy

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to ...

  5. Recycling of crop residues for sustainable crop production in a wheat-peanut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil at west Samalout, Minia, Egypt, from December 1996 to October 1999. The main objectives were (i) to examine long-term effects of applications of crop residues on crop nutrition, yields and soil fertility; (ii) to improve process-level understanding of nutrient flows through the use of isotopic techniques, and (iii) to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by a wheat-peanut rotation system. There were four treatments: (i) T1, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N with unlabelled residues; (ii) T2, 15N-labelled wheat residues, 26 kg N/ha at 1.94% 15N a.e, applied at the end of the first season; (iii) T3, to generate unlabelled residues and yield; and (iv) T4, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N atom excess, applied at the beginning of the first season, without residues. The Ndff recoveries during the first season in treatments T1 and T4 were 27% and 26% respectively, while 25% of the 15N remained in the soil for T1 and T4. Thus, the total amounts of 15N accounted for (in plant and soil) were 51% for T1 and 50% for T4. After the second crop, the total 15N recovery was 25% and 13% for T1 and T4, respectively. Application of the crop residues seemed to decrease N losses from the soil. Values for %N derived from labelled residues (%Ndfr) by wheat (T2) were 1.0% and 0.4% during seasons 3 and 5, respectively, while recoveries of %Ndfr by peanut from T2 treatments were 3.7, 4.1 and 0.3 during seasons 2, 4 and 6, respectively. In the following five seasons (peanut-wheat-peanut-wheat-peanut), total 15N recoveries by plant and soil were 67, 54, 34, 25 and 16%, respectively. (author)

  6. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on the basis of weed biomass was higher in the system with potato. The similarity indices, which express the convergence of floristic composition as well as of the density and biomass of weeds growing in pea fields in the two crop rotation systems compared, were within a broad range (42–86%. The biodiversity of weed communities was more closely correlated to total precipitation than to air temperature.

  7. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  8. The Possibilities at Entering Crop Rotation System of Certain Annual Legume Plants in Antalya

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Sadık; ÇEÇEN, Semiha

    1999-01-01

    The research was done during 1994-95 and 1995-96 planting season with 3 replications in randomized complete block design, in Antalya to find the possibility of entering crop rotation system for the forage yield of 9 annual legume plant species. In this work, common vetch, hungarian vetch, hairy vetch, bitter vetch, field pea, chickling vetch, fenugreek, persian clover and berseem plant species were used. For every plant species plant dry matters obtained during harvesting season and days t...

  9. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in the rotation; furthermore, a considerable number of lesser-known energy crops such as biomass sorghum (Sorghum spp.), hemp (Cannabis sativa), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) could be expected to lead to even greater benefits according to literature. Therefore, this review aimed at systematizing and reorganizing the existing and fragmentary information on these crops while stressing major knowledge gaps to be urgently investigated. (author)

  10. TOTAL CARBON STOCK IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM HAVING CROP ROTATION IN TARAI REGION OF NORTHERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon pools are important in maintaining soil productivity and influencing the CO2 loading into the atmosphere. Agricultural soils can mitigate the problem of carbon concentration increase in atmosphere if proper management practices are involved. In the present study, total carbon stock in crops and soil was analyzed for two years along with crop rotation practice to observe its impact on the carbon pool. For that two agricultural fields C12 and D7 were incorporated with differ...

  11. Maize response to different straw management and tillage systems under cereal crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biskupski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various straw management and tillage systems on the emergence, grain yield and cob characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. under different cereal rotations on two soils (Orthic Luvisols of loamy sand and sandy loam textures. The study was conducted in 1999, 2002 and 2003 in a micro-plot (1x1 m experiment. Concrete walls, 120 cm deep, separated each plot of 1x1 m (five replicates. Straw management systems included: removed straw (RS and left straw (LS in the amount of annual straw yield. The retained straw was chopped and spread by hand. Under each straw management system the three following tillage systems were applied: conventional tillage (CT, reduced tillage (RT, no-tillage (NT with sowing to the uncultivated soil and chemical weed control. Each treatment had five replicates giving a total of sixty micro-plots. The preceding crops of maize were rye, winter wheat or maize, depending on the soil and year. The same maize varieties were used in both soils (Antares in 1999-2000 and Matilda in 2003. There was a tendency towards poorer maize emergence in plots with retained straw compared to removed straw under no-tillage system compared to conventionally tilled system in both soils. The results indicated that the reduced tillage systems in combination with chopped straw can be applied on the studied soils without any significant decrease in maize grain yield.

  12. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C stock qualitatively in relation to CT R0. The results highlighted the diversification of crop rotation with cover crops as a crucial strategy for atmospheric C-CO2 sequestration and SOM quality improvement in highly weathered subtropical Oxisols.

  13. TOTAL CARBON STOCK IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM HAVING CROP ROTATION IN TARAI REGION OF NORTHERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon pools are important in maintaining soil productivity and influencing the CO2 loading into the atmosphere. Agricultural soils can mitigate the problem of carbon concentration increase in atmosphere if proper management practices are involved. In the present study, total carbon stock in crops and soil was analyzed for two years along with crop rotation practice to observe its impact on the carbon pool. For that two agricultural fields C12 and D7 were incorporated with different crop rotations for two years and on the basis of this SOC, Total Carbon, soil respiration and carbon stock were measured. In the end of the study C12 showed higher biomass carbon stock (2.61 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (1.98 t ha-1 and also higher total carbon stock (plant+soil (40.09 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (38.30 t ha-1. Results prove that agriculture can not only be the source but also an effective sink if it is properly managed with different crop rotation practices and also with no-till practice.

  14. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON LUPIN IN DOUBLE-CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful introduction of a new crop into a region requires that basic crop management parameters be determined and provided to producers through an information extension system. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was cultivated in the southeastern USA from 1930-1950 on up to 1 million ha, primarily a...

  15. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas; Manevski, Kiril; Müller, Christoph; Palosuo, Taru; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Bindi, Marco; Charfeddine, Monica; Conradt, Tobias; Constantin, Julie; Eitzinger, Josef; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; Gaiser, Thomas; de Cortazar-Atauri, Iñaki Garcia; Giglio, Luisa; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, Holger; Hoffmann, Munir P; Launay, Marie; Manderscheid, Remy; Mary, Bruno; Mirschel, Wilfried; Moriondo, Marco; Olesen, Jørgen E; Öztürk, Isik; Pacholski, Andras; Ripoche-Wachter, Dominique; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Roncossek, Svenja; Rötter, Reimund P; Ruget, François; Sharif, Behzad; Trnka, Mirek; Ventrella, Domenico; Waha, Katharina; Wegehenkel, Martin; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen...... crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types......, tillage, residues, intermediate or catch crops). We found that the continuous simulation of multi-year crop rotations yielded results of slightly higher quality compared to the simulation of single years and single crops. Intermediate crops (oilseed radish and grass vegetation) were simulated less...

  16. Recycling of crop-residue N for sustainable production in a maize-groundnut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the contribution of crop residues to the N-economy of a maize-groundnut rotation, a long-term field experiment was established in February 1997. It consisted of the following treatments: (i) T1 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer plus residues, (ii) T2 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer without residues, and (iii) T3 - a combination of organic fertilizer (chicken dung), chemical fertilizer, and residues. In order to investigate the possible contribution of residue N to subsequent crops, the first maize crop was labelled with 15N. The first crop was sown in March 1997 and 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied at 60 kg N ha-1 to the T1 and T2 treatments, in microplots within yield plots, to generate labelled maize residues. At the same time, 90 kg N ha-1 unlabelled N fertilizer was applied to provide the locally recommended rate for maize of 150 kg N ha-1. Treatment T3 was included for comparison of yields and appraisal of effects on soil properties. After the first crop was harvested, the labelled aboveground residues in T1 were applied to a different microplot so that the fate of the labelled residue-N could be followed. Groundnut was grown in rotation with maize, and, after each harvest, the labelled aboveground residues in the microplots of T1 and T2 were removed and unlabelled residues were added to T1. Because variability between replicates was high in the treatment T2, the average yields in plots with residues, T1 and T3, in the second and third crop cycles were not significantly different from those without residues. Maize yields were similar in the first and second years

  17. Recycling of crop-residue N for sustainable production in maize-groundnut rotation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the contribution of crop residues to the N-economy of a maize-groundnut rotation, a long-term field experiment was established in February 1997. It consisted of the following treatments: (i) T1 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer plus residues, (ii) T2 - the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer without residues, and (iii) T3 - a combination of organic fertilizer (chicken dung), chemical fertilizer, and residues. In order to investigate the possible contribution of residue N to subsequent crops, the first maize crop was labelled with 15N. The first crop was sown in March 1997 and 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied at 60 kg N ha-1 to the T1 and T2 treatments, in microplots within yield plots, to generate labelled maize residues. At the same time, 90 kg N ha-1 unlabelled N fertilizer was applied to provide the locally recommended rate for maize of 150 kg N ha-1. Treatment T3 was included for comparison of yields and appraisal of effects on soil properties. After the first crop was harvested, the labelled aboveground residues in T1 were applied to a different microplot so that the fate of the labelled residue-N could be followed. Groundnut was grown in rotation with maize, and, after each harvest, the labelled aboveground residues in the microplots of T1 and T2 were removed and unlabelled residues were added to T1. Because variability between replicates was high in the treatment T2, the average yields in plots with residues, T1 and T3, in the second and third crop cycles were not significantly different from those without residues. Maize yields were similar in the first and second years

  18. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas; Manevski, Kiril; Müller, Christoph; Palosuo, Taru; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Bindi, Marco; Charfeddine, Monica; Conradt, Tobias; Constantin, Julie; Eitzinger, Josef; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; Gaiser, Thomas; de Cortazar-Atauri, Iñaki Garcia; Giglio, Luisa; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, Holger; Hoffmann, Munir P; Launay, Marie; Manderscheid, Remy; Mary, Bruno; Mirschel, Wilfried; Moriondo, Marco; Olesen, Jørgen E; Öztürk, Isik; Pacholski, Andras; Ripoche-Wachter, Dominique; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Roncossek, Svenja; Rötter, Reimund P; Ruget, François; Sharif, Behzad; Trnka, Mirek; Ventrella, Domenico; Waha, Katharina; Wegehenkel, Martin; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-01-01

    sound representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects.......Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen...... crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types...

  19. A Crop Simulation Model for Prediction of Yield and Fate of Nitrogen in Irrigated Potato Rotation Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulation models are valuable tools to evaluate the soil processes, crop growth and production under varied agroclimatic and management conditions. In this study, an upgraded potato crop growth simulation model (CSPotato) was integrated with a multi-year, multi-crop simulation model (CropSystVB)....

  20. Crop rotation impact on soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)

  1. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area. The perennial legume rotation was identified as the most beneficial and eco-friendly energy crop rotation by showing an increase in Chum, lower GHG emissions per product and area and positive effects on nitrogen dynamics. However, the absolute magnitude of changes and effects differs between the sites indicating an influence of soil type and local climate on the final performance of the energy crop rotation. Generally, the results showed that the positive effect of a certain crop rotation on particular environmental indicators can have a less beneficial effect on another indicator, making an overall evaluation of the energy crop rotation complicated. The weighing of different environmental indicators finally depends on the environmental priorities, political targets and describes a further challenge.

  2. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Assessment of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) in different crop rotation systems in paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; haefele, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    New methods, based on soil microarthropods for soil quality evaluation have been proposed by some Authors. Soil microarthropods demonstrated to respond sensitively to land management practices and to be correlated with beneficial soil functions. QBS Index (QBS-ar) is calculated on the basis of microarthropod groups present in a soil sample. Each biological form found in the sample receives a score from 1 to 20 (eco-morphological index, EMI), according to its adaptation to soil environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various rotation systems and sampling periods on soil biological quality index, in paddy soils. For the purpose of this study surface soil samples (0-15 cm depth) were collected from different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) with three replications, and four sampling times in April (after field preparation), June (after seedling), August (after tillering stage) and October (after rice harvesting). The study area is located in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Soil microarthropods from a total of 48 samples were extracted and classified according to the Biological Quality of Soil Index (QBS-ar) method. In addition soil moisture, Cumulative Soil Respiration and pH were measured in each site. More diversity of microarthropod groups was found in June and August sampling times. T-test results between different rotations did not show significant differences while the mean difference between rotation and different sampling times is statistically different. The highest QBS-ar value was found in the fallow-rice rotation in the forth soil sampling time. Similar value was found in soya-rice-rice rotation. Result of linear regression analysis indicated that there is significant correlation between QBS-ar values and Cumulative Soil Respiration. Keywords: soil biological quality index (QBS-ar), Crop Rotation System, paddy soils, Italy

  4. The Feasibility of Growing A Rotation System of Certain Annual Forage Legume Crops For Seed and Straw Yield in Fall Season Plantings in Antalya

    OpenAIRE

    AYDINOĞLU, Sadık ÇAKMAKÇI Semiha ÇEÇEN Bilal

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of growing five annual forage legume crops in the rotation system with second crops in the province of Antalya. In addition the straw and seed yield of the crops were determined when planted in the fall season. Chicling vetch, field pea, fenugreek, persian clover and berseem were planted. The experiment was conducted in the years 1994-1996 with three replications. The flowering day, seed and straw yield, maturity time and harvesting date ...

  5. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Rongyan; Jianwei LU; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate ...

  6. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

  7. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation comparing with that under succession (4.95 and 4.14 MgC ha-1, respectively). No differences between succession X rotation (1st year) and succession X rotation (3rd year) were found for litter. Differences in C stock in litter were found only comparing succession (2.42 MgC ha-1) X rotation (2nd year) (3.44 MgC ha-1). Average values of soil C stocks at depth 0-30cm under succession (67.79 MgC ha-1) and rotation (64.83 MgC ha-1) don't differ among treatments. These values in comparison with other determined for similar soil-climate conditions for soils under native forest (60.83 MgC ha-1) and under conventional tillage (60.68 MgC ha-1) reveals a beneficial effect of ZT in soil C stock. Finally, the C stocks determined for plants and litter, representing only 4.0% and 6.4% of that determined for soil, confirm the relevance of soil as a terrestrial C reservoir. Acknowledgments: The authors express thanks for the financial support and technical facilities receipt from Embrapa Trigo, CEPAGRI/ UNICAMP, and FAEPEX/ UNICAMP. CAPES/GOV.BRAZIL is also acknowledged by Dr. Michele K. C. Walter for the greeted scholarship.

  8. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  9. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  10. The Effect of Tillage System and Crop Rotation on Soil Microbial Diversity and Composition in a Subtropical Acrisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Triplett

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural management alters physical and chemical soil properties, which directly affects microbial life strategies and community composition. The microbial community drives important nutrient cycling processes that can influence soil quality, cropping productivity and environmental sustainability. In this research, a long-term agricultural experiment in a subtropical Acrisol was studied in south Brazil. The plots at this site represent two tillage systems, two nitrogen fertilization regimes and three crop rotation systems. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the archaeal and bacterial composition was determined from phylum to species level in the different plot treatments. The relative abundance of these taxes was correlated with measured soil properties. The P, Mg, total organic carbon, total N and mineral N were significantly higher in the no-tillage system. The microbial diversity was higher in the no-tillage system at order, family, genus and species level. In addition, overall microbial composition changed significantly between conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. Anaerobic bacteria, such as clostridia, dominate in no-tilled soil as well as anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which were detected only in the no-tillage system. Microbial diversity was higher in plots in which only cereals (oat and maize were grown. Soil management influenced soil biodiversity on Acrisol by change of composition and abundance of individual species.

  11. Diversifying cereal-based rotations to improve weed control. Evaluation with the AlomySys model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on a grass weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simplified rotations often select weed flora consisting of one or several dominant species. In rotations consisting mainly of winter cereals, one of the most frequent weeds in Atlantic European countries is blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.. In order to reduce environmental impacts and avoid the selection of herbicide-resistant populations, alternative weed management strategies are necessary. The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology for using a weed dynamics model called ALOMYSYS for evaluating prospective diversified crop rotations based on expert opinion. These prospective rotations were developed for a particular region aiming at reducing herbicide use while keeping weed infestation similar to that in current cropping systems. The prospective systems were also evaluated economically by calculating costs and margins for the farmer. The simulations showed that the more diverse the rotation, the better blackgrass was controlled and the less herbicides (rates and frequencies were necessary. Optimal herbicide spraying conditions and mouldboard ploughing were also less essential in diverse rotations. It was though essential to reason herbicide programs over the whole rotation and not simply as function of the preceding crop. The economic evaluation identified the interest of spring or winter pea either replacing or preceding oilseed rape (OSR in OSR/wheat/barley rotations.

  12. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  13. Irrigation management of crops rotations in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity, the crops rotations can decrease the water deficit of the rainfed crops cultivated after the irrigated crops. This is due to the storage of water in the deepest soil layers during the irrigated crops with shallow roots that increase the available soil water at the planting date of the wheat crop. For the soils with small water storage capacity and small depth, such as the Évora silt-clay-sandy soil, it was not observed the benefic effects of crops rotation in the reduction of the water deficit of the rainfed crops. The results obtained for the several climate change scenarios (2071-2100) show an increase in irrigation requirements between 13% and 70%, with the higher values corresponding to the Autumn-Winter crops (sugar beet), due to the combined effect of an increased evapotranspiration and a reduced precipitation during the crop cycle. The irrigation requirements for the peak period increased between 10% to 46%. For the climate change scenarios it was also found an increased risk of crop failure for the rainfed crops, with a water deficit value for the wheat ranging between 32% to 59%, and for the barley ranging between 34% to 45%. Keywords: Crops Rotation, Soil water balance, Irrigation, Climate change, Model

  14. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  15. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for...... whole rotation rather than single crops for impact assessments. Potato and sugar beet in arable farming and grain maize in pig farming contributed most to the productivity increase in the future scenarios. The highest productivity was obtained in the arable system on the sandy loam soil, with an...

  16. JET SYSTEM OF MIXTURE OF FERTILIZERS AT FERTIGATION IRRIGATION CROP ROTATION OF TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS FOR CULTIVATION IN THE PROTECTED SOIL IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyareva K. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the scheme of landing of early tomatoes and cucumbers in the climatic conditions of the Rostov region is described; we have also calculated the dose of fertilizers for jet system of mixture at a fertigation irrigation. The conclusion is drawn with a possibility of cultivation crop rotation of tomatoes and cucumbers in not heated greenhouses with application of fertilizers

  17. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  18. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Chirinda, Ngoni; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different...... results showed significantly lower carbon footprint of the crops from the ‘Biogas’ rotation (assuming that biogas replaces fossil gas) whereas the remaining crop rotations had comparable carbon footprints per kg cash crop. The study showed considerable contributions caused by the green manure crop (grass......-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included....

  19. Evaluation of oilseed crop rotations with agro-environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouzet André

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Common Agricultural Policy is shifting an increasing part of the subsidies to eco-conditionality. Henceforth, it becomes essential to evaluate the environmental effect of agricultural practices, and more generally performances of cropping and farming systems, in order to design and to develop more sustainable systems. This assessment is being implemented for the main cropping systems of some French regions, using environmental indicators. Eleven exposure indicators were chosen in order to represent a wide range of specific sustainability objectives dealing with water, soil, air, non-renewable resources, biodiversity, and landscape. The results present the sustainability assessment for the crop rotations of Champagne Berrichonne region in the Centre of France.

  20. Rotylenchulus reniformis Management in Cotton with Crop Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, R. F.; Koenning, S. R.; Kemerait, R. C.; Cummings, T. D.; Shurley, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    One-year crop rotations with corn or highly resistant soybean were evaluated at four locations for their effect on Rotylenchulus reniformis population levels and yield of a subsequent cotton crop. Four nematicide (aldicarb) regimes were included at two of the locations, and rotation with reniform-susceptible soybean was included at the other two locations. One-year rotations to corn or resistant soybean resulted in lower R. reniformis population levels (P ≤ 0.05) than those found in cotton at...

  1. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.; Lourenço, E.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason......, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among the...

  2. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikyt?, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  3. The role of short-rotation woody crops in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society's needs

  4. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  5. Sistemas de preparo do solo e rotação de culturas na produtividade de milho, soja e trigo Tillage systems and crop rotation on yield of corn, soybean and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. da Silveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1 milho-feijão; 2 soja-trigo; 3 soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4 milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas.The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, under center pivot irrigation system, for six consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a moldboard plough, b harrow disc and c no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1 corn-bean, 2 soybean-wheat, 3 soybean-wheat-soybean-bean-upland rice-bean and 4 corn-bean-corn bean-upland rice-bean. Rice, soybean and corn were sown in November/December and bean and wheat in May/June. For this study, only corn, soybean and wheat were considered. Soil tillage affected corn and wheat yields but did not affect soybean yield. Corn and wheat yields under mouldboard plough were higher than under no-tillage. The differences among no-tillage and the other tillage systems in relation to relative accumulative corn yield decreased as the cultivation period increased. Crop rotations did not affect the crop yields.

  6. Energy performances of intensive and extensive short rotation cropping systems for woody biomass production in the EU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo, S. N.; Ač, Alexander; Zenone, T.; De Groote, T.; Bergante, S.; Facciotto, G.; Sixto, H.; Ciria Ciria, P.; Weger, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, jan (2015), s. 845-854. ISSN 1364-0321 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : poplar * willow * bioenergy crops * energy balance * energy efficiency Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2014

  7. Nitrogen migration in crop rotations differing in fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Guzys

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of nitrogen fertilisers is becoming a global problem; however, continuous fertilisation with N fertiliser ensures large and constant harvests. To evaluate the relationships of differently fertilised cultivated plant rotation with N metabolism in the agroecosystem the research was conducted between 2006 and 2013 at Lipli?nai, Lithuania, in fields with calcareous gley brown soil, i.e. Endocalcari Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can. The research area covered three drained plots where crop rotation of differently fertilised cereals and perennial grasses were applied. The greatest productivity was found in a higher fertilisation (TII, 843 kg N/ha cereals crop rotation. With less fertilisation (TI, 540 kg N/ha crop rotation productivity of cereals and perennial grasses (TIII, 218 kg N/ha was 11-35% lower. The highest amount of mineral soil N (average 76 kg/ha was found in TI. It was influenced by fertilisation (r=0.71 and crop productivity (r=0.39. TIII tended to reduce Nmin (12.1 mg/L and Ntotal (12.8 mg/L concentrations in drainage water and leaching of these elements (7 and 8 kg/ha. Nmin and Ntotal concentrations in the water depended on crop productivity respectively (r=0.48; r=0.36, quantity of mineral soil N (r=0.65; r=0.59, fertilisation (r=0.59; r=0.52, and N balance (r=0.26; r=0.35. Cereal crop rotation increased N leaching by 12-42%. The use of all crop rotations resulted in a negative N balance. Nitrogen balance depended on fertilisation with N fertiliser (r=0.55. The application of perennial grasses crop rotation in agricultural fields was the best environmental tool, reducing N migration to drainage.

  8. Identification of key factors for reducing N and P leaching from organic crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Angelika; Torstensson, Gunnar; Aronsson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for different 6-year organic crop rotations was examined in separately tile-drained field plots on two different sites in southwest Sweden. On each site, two different farming systems, one with dairy cows and one without stock, were evaluated to identify parts of the crop rotations with the greatest risks of N and P leaching and to examine the scope for improvement. Although organic farming methods themselves already led to a reduction in nutrient l...

  9. Weed control through crop rotation and alternative management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic as well as agricultural and socio-political changes have an impact on crop management and thus also on crop rotation design and the related effects on the weed flora. Likewise other changes in cultivation such as reduced tillage practices, earlier sowing date, etc. cause an increase in weed infestation resp. an increased use of herbicides and if so contribute to herbicide resistance. The positive effects of crop rotation, but also of alternative management practices such as choice of varieties, catch crops, mixed cropping, green chop, and the share of predators, as well as methods of direct non-chemical weed control are presented and discussed for both, conventional and organic farming. If alternative management methods should be more practiced, especially trade-offs need to be broken, or incentives be offered.

  10. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  11. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  12. Principal factors of fodder crops production process in forage and grain-fodder crops rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research of energy- and mass-exchange dynamics of fodder crops and agrophytocenoses in intensive fodder and grain fodder crops rotations for various soil fertility are analysed. Elements of water balance regime of mineral nutrition, photosynthetic activity, radiation, productivity index and quality of raw materials are presented

  13. Economics, energy, and environmental assessment of diversified crop rotations in sub-Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Meena, Roshan Lal; Sharma, N K; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30.2-36.2 t/ha) than other crop rotations (5.04-7.68 t/ha). But interestingly in terms of energy efficiencies, traditional maize-wheat system (energy efficiency 7.9, human energy profitability of 177.8 and energy profitability of 6.9 MJ/ha) was significantly superior over other systems. Maize + ginger rotation showed greater competitive advantage over other rotations because of less consumption of non-renewable energy resources. Similarly, maize-tomato rotation had ability of the production process to exploit natural resources due to 14-38% less use of commercial or purchased energy sources over other crop rotations. Vegetable-based crop rotations (maize + ginger and maize-tomato) maintained significantly the least carbon footprint (0.008 and 0.019 kg CO2 eq./kg grain, respectively) and the highest profitability (154,322 and 274,161 Rs./ha net return, respectively) over other crop rotations. As the greatest inputs of energy and carbon across the five crop rotations were nitrogen fertilizer (15-29% and 17-28%, respectively), diesel (14-24% and 8-19%, respectively) and irrigation (10-27% and 11-44%, respectively), therefore, alternative sources like organic farming, conservation agriculture practices, soil and water conservation measures, rain water harvesting etc. should be encouraged to reduce dependency of direct energy and external carbon inputs particularly in sub-Himalayas of India. PMID:26739009

  14. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers. PMID:26476662

  15. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. PMID:26836846

  16. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  17. Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L K; Grandy, A S; Atkinson, E E; Marin-Spiotta, E; McDaniel, M D

    2015-08-01

    Biodiversity loss, an important consequence of agricultural intensification, can lead to reductions in agroecosystem functions and services. Increasing crop diversity through rotation may alleviate these negative consequences by restoring positive aboveground-belowground interactions. Positive impacts of aboveground biodiversity on belowground communities and processes have primarily been observed in natural systems. Here, we test for the effects of increased diversity in an agroecosystem, where plant diversity is increased over time through crop rotation. As crop diversity increased from one to five species, distinct soil microbial communities were related to increases in soil aggregation, organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial activity and decreases in the carbon-to-nitrogen acquiring enzyme activity ratio. This study indicates positive biodiversity-function relationships in agroecosystems, driven by interactions between rotational and microbial diversity. By increasing the quantity, quality and chemical diversity of residues, high diversity rotations can sustain soil biological communities, with positive effects on soil organic matter and soil fertility. PMID:26011743

  18. NDICEA as a user friendly model tool for crop rotation planning in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, Chris J.; van der Burgt, Geert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    For organic farming systems, the challenge is to become more specific in practices to maintain high standards in sustainability. Soil processes need to be clearly understood if rotations and manure applications are to become more precise. Simulation models like the NDICEA model help in the design and maintenance of these farming systems. These models play a key-role in the design of organic precision farming. The NDICEA model has been calibrated for a number of long-term crop rotation ex...

  19. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.

  20. The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad; Ali Asghari; Aleksander Mikhailovic Tulikov

    2007-01-01

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation ...

  1. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  2. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described

  3. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-RotateN simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-RotateN simulation model. EU-RotateN was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. - The EU-RotateN model can satisfactorily simulate crop N uptake and Nmin dynamics in a typical greenhouse cucumber production system of North China

  4. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  5. Nuclear methods for plant nutrient and water balance studies. Results of an FAO/IAEA regional technical co-operation programme on nuclear methods for plant nutrients and water balance studies under legume-cereal or fallow-cereal crop rotation systems implemented for Middle Eastern countries (1991-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In semi-arid Middle Eastern countries, the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products calls for urgent measures to increase plant nutrient availability and water use efficiency. Water and plant nutrients are the two main crop yield limiting factors in these regions. Improved methods must be developed to sustain crop productivity of the legume-cereal rotation systems. It has been recognized for years that the growth of leguminous crops can improve the N status of the soil through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The conditions to improve the efficiency of the fixation process should be further investigated in order to fully benefit from this cheap N source. The BNF process is especially interesting for those areas facing limited fertilizer N availability or where the price of the fertilizers is too high for the farmers. In view of sustainable productivity, even with adequate supply of nutrients (nitrogen) and water, crop rotations have been promoted for years. However, the best rotation, taking into account the available nutrients and water in a specific place, is not always known. Furthermore, if a leguminous crop can be incorporated into a crop rotation system, free N is provided for this crop and some of it can serve as residual N for the next crop in the rotation. The use of 15N technology provides a unique tool to separately study the behaviour of fertilizer N as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N is possible, as well as the quantification of BNF. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Modeling with Limited Data: The Influence of Crop Rotation and Management on Weed Communities and Crop Yield Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theory and models of crop yield loss from weed competition have lead to decision models to help growers with cost-effective tactical weed management. Weed management decision models are available for multiple-species populations in a single season of several crops. Growers also rely on crop rotation...

  7. EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZATION AND SOIL CULTIVATION IN CROP ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva CANDRÁKOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment with the crop rotation: winter wheat, pea, corn, spring barley and cow-grass were founded in 2001- 2004. We examined the effect of the preceding crop, the soil cultivation and fertilization on yield of grain of the main product. The methods of soil cultivation: tillage to the depth of 0.25 m, to the depth of 0.15 m and cultivation where we used disk tools to the depth of 0.10 m. In the variants of fertilization had been used fertilization of the artificial fertilizer with the balance method and fertilization with the artificial fertilizer with the placement of the remains of the preceding crop. By grain corn were statistically significant yield achieved after the tillage to the depth of 0.25 m and 0.15 m. Spring barley reacted positive on the soil cultivation with disk tools. Yield of the winter wheat and the pea were not statistically significant. Fertilization affected statistically significant on yield of winter wheat. The effect of the artificial fertilizers and the residues of the preceding crop on yield of corn, spring barley and pea did not show statistically significant.

  8. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended to......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... benefit for following crops is often high, and several studies have demonstrated substantial savings (up to 100–200 kg N ha−1) in the amount of N fertilizer required to maximize the yield of crops grown after faba bean. There is, however, a requirement to evaluate the potential risks of losses of N from...

  9. Effect of diversified crop rotations on groundwater levels and crop water productivity in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Guangya; Yan, Peng; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-03-01

    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable yield of agriculture in the North China Plain. Due to the over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigating the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping systems, a groundwater crisis is becoming increasingly serious. To help identify more efficient and sustainable utilization of the limited water resources, the water consumption and water use efficiency of five irrigated cropping systems were calculated and the effect of cropping systems on groundwater table changes was estimated based on a long term field experiment from 2003 to 2013 in the North China Plain interpreted using a soil-water-balance model. The five cropping systems included sweet potato ? cotton ? sweet potato ? winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle), ryegrass-cotton ? peanuts ? winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle), peanuts ? winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle), winter wheat-summer maize (WS, 1-year cycle), and continuous cotton (Cont C). The five cropping systems had a wide range of annual average actual evapotranspiration (ETa): Cont C (533 mm/year) RCPWS (0.7 m/year) > PWS (0.6 m/year) > SPCSPWS and Cont C (0.4 m/year). The annual average economic output water use efficiency (WUEe) increased in the order SpCSpWS (11.6 yuan ¥ m-3) > RCPWS (9.0 ¥ m-3) > PWS (7.3 ¥ m-3) > WS (6.8 ¥ m-3) > Cont C (5.6 ¥ m-3) from 2003 to 2013. Results strongly suggest that diversifying crop rotations could play a critically important role in mitigating the over-exploitation of the groundwater, while ensuring the food security or boosting the income of farmers in the North China Plain.

  10. Rotating Aperture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  11. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuels and in taking pressure off native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benefits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above- and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 10 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20 to 50 year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context, could generate a global levelling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years. 16 refs., 7 figs

  12. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuel and in taking pressure off of native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benetfits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above-ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 30 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20- to 56-year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terrestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context. could trencrate a global leveling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years

  13. The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds.

  14. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds. PMID:19090292

  15. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  16. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning; Klimaschutz und Energiepflanzenanbau. Potenziale zur Treibhausgasemissionsminderung durch Fruchtfolge- und Anbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckner, Jens [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany); Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-07-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  17. Soil water retention and s index after crop rotation and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. An experiment was carried out with soybean (Glycine max in rotation with triticale (X Triticosecale and sunflower (Helianthus annuus in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea in spring. Crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil quality was estimated using the S index and soil water retention curves (in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.075-0.125, 0.15-0.20, 0.275-0.325, and 0.475-0.525 m deep. Crop rotation and chiseling improved soil quality, increasing the S index to over 0.035 to a depth of 20 cm in the soil profile. The improved soil quality, as shown by the S index, makes the use of mechanical chiseling unnecessary, since after 3 years the soil physical quality under no-tilled crop rotation and chiseling was similar.

  18. Screening the Resilience of Short-Rotation Woody Crops to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable woody biofeedstock production systems require a reliable supply of woody biomass that could be affected by future climate change. However, there is limited understanding of the climatic sensitivity of short rotation woody crops, such as hybrid aspens. The general objective of this study is to identify climatically resilient hybrid aspen clones for woody biomass feedstock development. Specifically, tree-ring analysis methods (dendrochronology) were used to quantify the influence of...

  19. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Kristensen, Kristian

    manured treatments the application rate was lower than crop demand. The results identify management of crop and soil during autumn as the main determinant of N leaching. Nitrate leaching was lowest for a catch crop soil cover during autumn and winter (avg. 20 kg N ha−1), a soil cover of weeds......Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations in...... Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ceramic suction cells and modelled drainage. There were significant effects on annual N leaching of location...

  20. On the effect of crop rotation on artificially established weed species in two field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flucke, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate links between regional occurrence of well adapted weed species and crop rotations. Monocultures or very short crop rotation, which increased in the past decades are crucial for the establishment and dispersion of problematic weed species. In this study the impact of crop rotation on the occurrence of the species Amaranthus retroflexus (L., Anchusa arvensis (L. M. Bieb., Echinochloa crus-galli (L., Galium aparine (L., Geranium pusillum (L., Sisymbrium officinale (L., Solanum nigrum (L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Viola arvensis Murray is investigated in four crop rotations with varying potential of crop health risks. Therefore, maize (M, oilseed rape (WR and winter wheat [early sowing (WWF and late sowing (WWS] are cropped in four different rotations (M, WR – WWF, WR – M – WWS and WR – WWF – M – WWS at two study sites in Germany since year 2008 (Rostock and 2009 (Göttingen. At the start of the project selected weed species were sown into some plots in order to simulate an artificial similar weed pressure. In all plots weed species densities were counted before spraying in a standardized observation method. Analyses of four, respectively three years give evidences of crop specific effects regarding A. arvensis, E. crus-galli, G. pusillum, S. nigrum and S. media. Moreover, first effects of crop rotations on problematic weed species indicates that expanding crop rotations is a preventive tool to reduce weed densities.

  1. Genome Scan of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for Genetic Variation Associated with Crop Rotation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the United States Corn Belt. This failure appears to be d...

  2. PRE-PLANT CROP ROTATION AND COMPOST AMENDMENTS FOR IMPROVING RASPBERRY ESTABLISHMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two preplant treatments, a sorghum x sudangrass hybrid (Sudex) - rapeseed crop rotation, and a preplant compost amendment treatment, were compared to a control corn-barley rotation for alleviating replant problems on a field with a long history of perennial fruit crops. A raspberry selection trial ...

  3. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species-Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. PMID:26470320

  4. Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Carlos Calonego,; Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-01-01

    Soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. There is evidence that effects of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (NT) on the LLWR. Crop rotation...

  5. Evaluation of Long-Term Impacts of Tillage and Cropping Systems in Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of sustainable agriculture production systems depends on the use of reliable crop rotations and tillage systems. Understanding the interaction between different cropping and tillage systems as they affect crop yields over the long-term is essential for determining the best alternatives ...

  6. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring...... grain N contents were done in all plots. On average the FASSET model was able to predict the yield and grain N of cereals with a reasonable accuracy for the range of cropping systems and soil types studied, having a particularly good performance on winter wheat. Cereal yields were better on the more...... loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic...

  7. Yield trends in the long-term crop rotation with organic and inorganic fertilisers on Alisols in Mata (Rwanda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutunga, V.; Neel, H

    2006-01-01

    A crop rotation system with various species was established on Alisols at Mata grassland site, oriental side of Zaire-Nile Watershed Divide (CZN), Rwanda. Inorganic and organic fertilizers were applied in various plots under randomized complete blocs with three replicates. Crop yield data for each season were recorded over a 9-year period. Results showed that there was very low or no harvest in plots without fertilizers. In plots with fertilizers, the yield generally increased but remained re...

  8. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of prospective policies. PMID:22944220

  9. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a multiple cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of 15N-labelled fertilizer nitrogen, applied to the maize crop only, in a multiple cropping system for two crop rotations of maize-wheat-moong, has been studied. The pattern of fertilizer uptake by this crop, the utilization of fertilizer nitrogen residue by the succeeding crops of wheat and moong, residual nitrogen in the soil, and losses due to leaching and other processes were measured. The nitrate content of tube-well waters of an agricultural farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, monitored for three years (June 1975 - March 1978), varied from 5 ppm to 35 ppm. Broad conclusions based on the experimental data, for increasing the efficiency of applied nitrogen and reducing the nitrate pollution of groundwater in relation to fertilizer practices and the change in cropping pattern are discussed. (author)

  10. Soil microbial biomass and mineralizable carbon as a function of crop rotation and soil acidity amendment in a no-tillage system in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical climate and weathered soil conditions create significant challenges for increasing soil organic matter content. However, crop management strategies could affect short-term dynamics of active fractions of soil organic matter. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the microbial biomass and mineraliza...

  11. THE NUTRIENTS BALANCE OF CROP ROTATION AS AN INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING ON ARABLE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hanáčková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.

  12. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël; Wirth, Judith; Schwarz, Jürgen; van der Weide, Rommie; Bonin, Ludovic; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kudsk, Per Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems but their impact...

  13. Rye Cover Crops in a Corn Silage-Soybean Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silage is often grown in the Upper Midwest to provide feed for cattle. Silage harvest, however, does not leave enough crop residue to adequately protect the soil from erosion and can reduce soil organic matter. Winter cover crops planted after silage harvest and after other crops in the croppin...

  14. Crop rotation modelling-A European model intercomparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollas, C.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Nendel, C.; Manevski, K.; Müller, C.; Palosuo, T.; Armas-Herrera, C.; Beaudoin, N.; Bindi, M.; Charefeddine, M.; Conradt, T.; Constantin, J.; Eitzinger, J.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Gaiser, T.; de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G.; Giglio, L.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffman, H.; Hofmann, M.; Launay, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Mary, B.; Mirschel, W.; Moriondo, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Öztürk, I.; Pacholski, A.; Ripoche-Wachter, D.; Roggero, P. P.; Roncossek, S.; Rötter, R. P.; Ruget, F.; Sharif, B.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Waha, K.; Wegehenkel, M.; Weigel, H-J.; Wu, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, oct (2015), s. 98-111. ISSN 1161-0301 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : model ensemble * crop simulation models * catch crop * intermediate crop * treatment * Multi-year Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 2.704, year: 2014

  15. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Crop rotations in maintaining organic matter levels in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi, Centre (Fagna, Firenze and South (Foggia of Italy, characterized by different climate, soil, and cropping systems. In the two experiments conducted in the South of Italy, in a dry Mediterranean climate, the stock of C was kept steady in most of the rotations compared with the monoculture of durum wheat. In such environment, with very dry and hot summers, introducing a year of fallow seems to improve SOM content, but these data need further investigation. In the Centre of Italy (Fagna, with less extreme climate than in Foggia, the effect of rotation compared to the monoculture of maize is negligible, but investigation on the soil organic matter composition, showed that in the rotation the SOM appeared to be more stable and, in the long term, probably more resistant to degradation. Eventually, experiments conducted in the North of Italy, showed that the monoculture, despite the application of FYM (Farm Yard Manure or semi-liquid manure, led to a decrease of SOM. To an increase of the rotation complexity, corresponded an increase in the stock of C in soil. Summarizing, results showed that crop rotation could guarantee the maintenance of SOM level, given that the input of C to the soil is maintained at a good level or, in other word, that productivity of the system is high. Other practices such as conservation tillage, appropriate management of residues, and manure application could enhance the positive effect of rotations. Moreover, preliminary investigation of soil microbial diversity, suggests the positive effect of rotations on soil biological fertility.

  16. Efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas na fertilidade do solo, após vinte anos Soil tillage and crop rotation systems on soil fertility attributes after twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são escassos os estudos disponíveis com experimentos de longa duração em sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas. Após vinte anos (1985 a 2005, a fertilidade de solo foi avaliada, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Passo Fundo (RS, em quatro sistemas de manejo de solo (SMSs - 1 plantio direto (PD, 2 cultivo mínimo (CM, 3 preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos e com grade de discos (PCD e 4 preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e com grade de discos (PCA - e em três sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRCs: I (trigo/soja, II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho e III (trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia branca/soja, incluindo como testemunha um fragmento adjacente de floresta subtropical (FST. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas (4 x 90 m no total de 12, foram constituídas pelos SMSs, e as subparcelas, pelos SRCs (4 x 10 m, no total de 72. Os valores de pH, carbono, P extraível e K disponível diferiram entre os SMSs. No PD, houve acúmulo de carbono orgânico, P e K, na camada superficial. Não houve diferença do nível de matéria orgânica (MOS entre PD e FST, em todas as camadas estudadas. O nível de MOS e os teores de P e K foram mais elevados na camada 0-0,05 m, quando comparados com os observados de 0,15-0,20 m de profundidade, sob PD e nas rotações II e III. Observou-se que em FST os valores de pH, Ca, P e de K foram menores do que os dos SMSs e SRCs.Long term field studies on crop rotation and soil tillage systems under Brazilian conditions are scarce. Soil fertility characteristics were assessed after twenty years (1985 to 2005 on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol located in Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Four soil tillage systems (STS - 1 no-tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using disk plow followed by disk harrow, and 4 conventional tillage using moldboard plow followed by disk harrow - and three crop rotation systems (CRS: I (wheat/soybean, II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn, and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oat/soybean were evaluated, including as check a fragment of subtropical forest (FST. A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main field plots (4 x 90 m in a total of 12, were the soil tillage systems, whereas the subplots (4 x 10 m, in a total of 72 comprised the crop rotation systems. Values of soil pH, soil organic carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were affected by soil tillage systems (STSs. Higher levels of soil organic matter and contents of soil carbon, extractable P, and exchangeable K were observed in the 0-0,05 m layer for the no-tillage system. No statistical differences were found in soil organic matter levels between no-tillage and tropical forest, in any soil layer. Values of soil organic matter, P, and K were higher in the 0-0,05 m layer, when compared to the ones observed in the 0,15-0,20 m layer, in no-tillage and II and III CRSs. Values of pH, Ca, P, and K observed in all STSs and CRSs were higher than in the tropical forest area.

  17. The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.

  18. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan F. Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água de baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa sobre o acúmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijão-de-corda em sistema de rotação. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estação seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS, sendo realizadas as avaliações: crescimento vegetativo, produção de grãos por planta, matéria seca de 1.000 grãos e produtividade. Durante a estação chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijão caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliações de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e após o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijão caupi. A salinidade da água de irrigação acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o período seco. Os elevados totais de precipitação pluviométrica durante a estação chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviação dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estação seca e eliminaram os possíveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijão caupi. Porém, o feijão caupi apresentou um comportamento atípico com uma expressiva proporção de massa vegetativa e baixa produção de vagens, o que reduziu a eficiência dessa estratégia de rotação de culturas, nas condições do presente estudo.

  19. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters / Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudivan F., Lacerda; Geocleber G., Sousa; Francisco L. B., Silva; Francisco V. A., Guimarães; Giovana L., Silva; Lourival F., Cavalcante.

    Full Text Available A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água d [...] e baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa sobre o acúmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijão-de-corda em sistema de rotação. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estação seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1). As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS), sendo realizadas as avaliações: crescimento vegetativo, produção de grãos por planta, matéria seca de 1.000 grãos e produtividade. Durante a estação chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijão caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliações de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e após o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijão caupi. A salinidade da água de irrigação acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o período seco. Os elevados totais de precipitação pluviométrica durante a estação chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviação dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estação seca e eliminaram os possíveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijão caupi. Porém, o feijão caupi apresentou um comportamento atípico com uma expressiva proporção de massa vegetativa e baixa produção de vagens, o que reduziu a eficiência dessa estratégia de rotação de culturas, nas condições do presente estudo. Abstract in english The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and [...] fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1). The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS), and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.

  20. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Victor B. Ella; Reyes, Manuel R.; Mercado, Jr., Agustin; Adrian, Ares; Padre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed.  In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Phil...

  1. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Victor B. Ella; Reyes, Manuel R.; Agustin Mercado, Jr.; Ares Adrian; Rafael Padre

    2016-01-01

    Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Phil...

  2. Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop-based, organic rotational no-till soybean production has been gaining traction in the Eastern region of the United States because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic product...

  3. Crop rotations in the sea: Increasing returns and reducing risk of collapse in sea cucumber fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagányi, Éva Elizabeth; Skewes, Timothy; Murphy, Nicole; Pascual, Ricardo; Fischer, Mibu

    2015-05-26

    Rotational harvesting is one of the oldest management strategies applied to terrestrial and marine natural resources, with crop rotations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. The efficacy of this strategy for sessile marine species is of considerable interest given that these resources are vital to underpin food security and maintain the social and economic wellbeing of small-scale and commercial fishers globally. We modeled the rotational zone strategy applied to the multispecies sea cucumber fishery in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and show a substantial reduction in the risk of localized depletion, higher long-term yields, and improved economic performance. We evaluated the performance of rotation cycles of different length and show an improvement in biological and economic performance with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. As sea cucumber fisheries throughout the world succumb to overexploitation driven by rising demand, there has been an increasing demand for robust assessments of fishery sustainability and a need to address local depletion concerns. Our results provide motivation for increased use of relatively low-information, low-cost, comanagement rotational harvest approaches in coastal and reef systems globally. PMID:25964357

  4. Soil microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) in two crop rotations on a heavy marine clay soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard; De Ley, F.; Zwetsloot, Henk; Ponge, Jean-François; Brussaard, Lijbert

    1988-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 an inventory was made of the edaphic mites and springtails in a six-year rotation, a three-year rotation and a three-year rotation in which the soil was disinfectedwith metamsodium after the potato crop was harvested. The aim was to find possible direct or indirect biological factors related to the yield loss observed in the three-year rotation potato crop. The test site was situated on a heavy marine clay soil. Samples were taken four times in the course of the growing seaso...

  5. BIOLOGICAL AMENDMENTS AND CROP ROTATIONS FOR MANAGING SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOILBORNE DISEASES OF POTATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (CT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial com...

  6. Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application. These field plot studies are serving as the basis for a water shed study initiated in 1997. Results from the two studies will be used to develop and model nutrient and hydrologic budgets for woody crop plantings to identify potential constraints to sustainable deployment of short-rotation woody crops in the southeastern United States. (author)

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in soybean-based crop rotations under conventional and zero tillage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 70% of Brazilian agriculture is based on the cultivation of highly weathered soils located in tropical and subtropical savannah areas, where the zero or no tillage (ZT) system is now considered as the best alternative to the traditional conventional tillage (CT). During the period 1999-2004 the Agrobiology Centre of Embrapa implemented a research program using nuclear and related techniques to study the main processes involved in the dynamics and cycling of N for predominant crop rotations grown at five locations under ZT in comparison to CT, on acidic savannah soils of both southern and Cerrado regions of Brazil. The most relevant results of these studies were: (1) The soybean crop derived a high proportion of its N (over 80%) from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The BNF system is so efficient that attempts to increase grain yields by addition of N fertilizer are hardly ever successful as long as the plants have been effectively inoculated with the recommended Bradyrhizobium strains. (2) The N fertilizer use efficiency by the maize crop fertilized with 80 to 90 kg N ha-1 varied from 40 to 60%. (3). A maximum 10% of N-urea applied broadcast over the soil surface (40 kg N ha-1) in a maize crop was lost via NH3 volatilization, with the highest values under ZT. (4). The inclusion of green manure legumes (GMLs) such as lupin and vetch, which are highly efficient in BNF was essential to promote a positive soil N balance in crop rotations and to increase the stock of soil organic C. (5) Less than 900 g N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 were lost from the soil surface, and the highest values were found under CT. (6) Even thought the contribution of BNF to the Brazilian soybean crop is high (over 80%), the accurate assessment of this input to the soil N balance still remain unclear due to methodological problems using the leaf labeling technique to estimate residual below-ground N. Results obtained so far suggest that these methodological issues need to be overcome before these estimates can be considered as reliable. These results demonstrate the enormous potential impact of BNF in legumes such as soybean and green manures and their management under ZT and CT on the N cycling processes and overall C and N stocks in tropical acid savannah soils, thus contributing to the productivity and sustainability of the agricultural production systems. (author)

  8. Influence of Cover Crops in Rotation on Populations of Soil Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pot experiment was carried out in south Florida to elucidate suppressive or antagonistic effects of several cover crops grown in rotation on soil nematode populations. The crops were two marigolds, Tagetes patula L. 'Dwarf Double French Mix' (MI), and Tagetes patula L. 'Lemon Drop' (MII), Indian m...

  9. Tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice effects on dryland soil carbon fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at ...

  10. SOIL HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES FOR DIFFERENT SOILS, SLOPES, AND CROP ROTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop management can alter soil physical properties, but variability of these properties may mask treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to compare soil physical property variation under two crop rotations, and to examine interrelations among different soil physical properties. A six-year r...

  11. Análise econômica de sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo, num período de dez anos, sob plantio direto Economic analysis of crop rotation systems for wheat, over a ten year period, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1984 a 1993, foi conduzido, em Guarapuava, PR, experimento composto de sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo: sistema I (trigo/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989, e trigo/soja e aveia-branca/soja, de 1990 a 1993; sistema III (trigo/soja, linho/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989, e trigo/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia-branca/soja, de 1990 a 1993; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, leguminosas/milho, cevada/soja e aveia-branca/soja. A análise econômica do período é apresentada neste trabalho. De 1984 a 1989, os sistemas I, II, III e IV não mostraram diferenças entre as médias quanto à receita líquida. Da mesma forma, de 1990 a 1993, os sistemas II, III e IV não diferiram significativamente no tocante a receita líquida, em relação ao sistema I; no entanto, considerando-se as comparações anuais, o sistema II apresentou maior lucratividade do que o sistema I, em seis anos, e não diferiu em quatro anos, sendo, portanto, aquele, uma boa alternativa em relação a este, principalmente no primeiro período.From 1984 to 1993, in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil, the effect of crop rotation systems on wheat were assessed. Four rotation systems for wheat were studied: system I (wheat/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989, and wheat/soybean and white oats/soybean, from 1990 to 1993; system III (wheat/soybean, flax/soybean, and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989, and wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn, and white oats/soybean, from 1990 to 1993; and system IV (wheat/soybean, legume/corn, barley/soybean, and white oats/soybean. The economic analysis on that period is presented in this paper. From 1984 to 1989, systems I, II, III, and IV showed no differences in their net return means. Similarly, from 1990 to 1993, systems II, III, and IV mean net returns did not differ significantly in relation to the system I; however, considering the annual comparison, the system II showed higher profit than the system I in six years and did not differ in four years, making it a good alternative, mainly in the first period.

  12. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  14. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under cover crop management had lower N2O fluxes than soils that did not have a cover crop. Results from this study concluded that it is important to allow crop residues to return to the soil as they help to improve soil quality indicators. The presence of cover crops also will contribute to the improvement of these indicators once established and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    Elcio Liborio Balota; Miriam Kanashiro; Arnaldo Colozzi Filho; Diva Souza Andrade; Richard Peter Dick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a spli...

  16. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-Rotate{sub N} simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Ruiying [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshui Nanlu, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province (China); Nendel, Claas, E-mail: nendel@zalf.d [Institute for Landscape Systems Analysis, Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Strasse 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rahn, Clive [Warwick HRI, Wellesbourne CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Jiang Chunguang; Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-Rotate{sub N} simulation model. EU-Rotate{sub N} was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. - The EU-Rotate{sub N} model can satisfactorily simulate crop N uptake and N{sub min} dynamics in a typical greenhouse cucumber production system of North China

  17. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon of Crop Rotations in the Northern Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversified crop rotation may reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N) input for corn (Zea mays L.) and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and N on soil C sequestration. The experiment, started in 1990, was on a Barnes sandy clay loam near Brookings, SD...

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DO PREPARO DE SOLO E DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS NA SEVERIDADE DE PODRIDÕES RADICULARES NO FEIJOEIRO COMUM EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION ON DRY BEAN ROOT ROT SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.

    Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn-bean-corn-bean-rice-bean (R4. The severity of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli was evaluated 25 days after planting. The interaction was significant for this variable. The higher severity was under R3 with soil tillage system treatment P1. The lowest severity was under interaction R2 with soil preparation P3. Significant differences were found in the severity of the disease caused by R. solani. Soil tillage system P3 presented significantly higher disease severity than P4, whereas rotation R3 presented significantly higher disease severity when compared to other treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani f. sp. haseoli; cropping practices; fungi.

  19. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  20. A Cropping Systems Approach to Improving Water Use Efficiency in Semi-Arid Irrigated Production Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Shennan, Carol

    1994-01-01

    This recently-completed 3-year field study evaluated the effectiveness of winter cover crop incorporation and surface gypsum applications relative to conventional fallows for maintaining/improving soil physical properties, stand establishment and crop productivity in a cropping system relying on saline drainage water for irrigation. Six amendment/soil cover treatments were imposed on a rotation of tomato-tomato-cotton as summer crops. Drainage water accounted for about 70% of the total water ...

  1. Effects of crop rotation on the incidence of soil-borne pathogens and the consequences for potato production.

    OpenAIRE

    Scholte, K.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of various rotations on the growth pattern, yield and quality of potato and on the incidence of soil-borne pathogens, other than potato cyst nematodes ( Globodera spp.), associated with potato. These rotations differed in the frequency of potato and in the crops with which the potato crop was rotated.The effects of the rotations depended greatly on the soil type. Lower yields of potato in short rotations were mainly caused by Streptomyces spp. (causing netted...

  2. Analysis of cropping pattern and crop rotation using multidate, multisensor, and multiscale remote sensing data: case study for the state of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, K. R.; Kundu, Nitai; Panigrahy, Sushma

    2006-12-01

    The repetitive cultivation of an ordered succession of crops (or crop and fallow) on the same land defined as crop rotation has a significant role on sustainability of agricultural practice. This paper highlights the methodology used to map seasonal cropping pattern and crop rotation of West Bengal state in India. Multi-date, remote sensing data of IRS WiFS and Radarsat SAR were used to map seasonal cropping patterns, which were combined to derive the crop rotation map. Three distinct crop-growing seasons could be identified. The main one coinciding with monsoon from June- October, followed by winter crop season from November- February and the summer one March-June. It was feasible to classify seven major crops using the SAR and WiFS data sets. Rice is the dominant crop in wet season occupying more than 75 per cent of net sown area. Mustard, potato, wheat, gram, rice are the major dry season crops. Rice-rice, ricepotato, rice-wheat, rice-mustard, rice-gram, and jute-rice were the major two crop rotations. Rice-fallow was the dominant practice accounting for 55 per cent of area.

  3. Simulating Soil Moisture under Different Tillage Practices, Cropping Systems and Organic Fertilizers Using CropSyst Model, in Matuu Division, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Muli M. N.; Onwonga R. N.; Karuku G. N.; Kathumo V. M.; Nandukule M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture stress is a limiting factor in crop production particularly in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) as it affects many physiological and biochemical processes of plants. Research on moisture conservation measures is thus imperative. The current study used CropSyst model to simulate soil moisture under different tillage practices (oxen plough, tied ridges and furrows and ridges), cropping systems (monocropping, intercropping and crop-rotation) and organic fertilizers; farm yard manur...

  4. NITROGEN TRANSFORMATION FROM POTATO AND ROTATIONAL CROP RESIDUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) from the crop residues and soil organic matter transformed into inorganic forms, i.e. ammonium and nitrate forms, during January through September 2000 in a sandy soil under irrigation. Corn, wheat, and potato residues were evaluated....

  5. Economic evaluation of a crop rotation portfolio for irrigated farms in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González U

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of productive resources by agricultural producers in the central valley of Chile should be compatible with economic results so that producers can select an appropriate rotation or succession of annual crops and pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic behavior of four food crop and supplementary forage rotations using indicators of profitability and profit variability. Productive data were used from a long-term experiment (16 yr in the central valley of Chile under conditions of irrigation. With productive data and information on historic input/output prices, the real net margin per rotation (RNMR and its coefficient of variation (CV were determined. The results indicated that the highest economic benefits and greatest economic stability were obtained with rotations that only included crops, namely sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (CR2 and corn (Zea mays L.-wheat-bean-barley (CR4. These rotations included crops with low CV of the net margin, such as wheat, barley and beans, with values between 0.31 and 0.34. The rotations with crops and pasture, sugar beet-wheat-red clover (Trifolium pratense L. (2 (CR1 and corn-wheat-red clover (2 (CR3 had lower net margins and more variability of this indicator. Red clover had the highest CV value (1.00. The selection of crops for rotations and their sequence were determining factors in the economic behavior of rotations, affecting the level of RNMR and the degree of inter-annual variability of this indicator. Thus, differences among rotations of 47% in net margin were determined (CR2 vs. CR1, which only differed in the replacement of pasture with red clover (2 by bean-barley. The economic analysis based on the net margin and its variability allow for discriminating among rotations, providing valuable information for producers in deciding which crops to use in rotations.

  6. Rotationally Invariant Holographic Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Gheen, Gregory; Johnston, Alan R.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-06-01

    A multi-channel holographic correlator has been constructed which can identify and track objects of a given shape across the input field independent of their in-plane rotation. This system, derived from the classic Vander Lugt correlator, incorporates a hololens to store an array of matched spatial filters (MSFs) on thermoplastic film. Each member of the MSF array is generated from a different incrementally rotated version of the training object. Rotational invariant tracking is achieved through superposition of the corresponding array of the correlations in the output plane. Real time tracking is accomplished by utilizing a liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) illuminated with a CRT to process video input signals. The system can be programmed to recognize different objects by recording the MSF array on re-usable thermoplastic film. Discussion of the system architecture and laboratory results are presented.

  7. Harvest of Short-Rotation Woody Crops in Plantations with a Biobaler

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Savoie; Pierre-Luc Hébert; François-Simon Robert; Derek Sidders

    2013-01-01

    The biobaler is an alternative to the modified self-propelled forage harvester to cut and collect short rotation woody crops (SRWC). It is less capital intensive and more versatile, being able to harvest woody crops on plantations, on abandoned farmland, on brush land or within forest understory. The biobaler was evaluated specifically on five different plantations over 19 experimental units (546 bales harvested with an average mass of 427 kg and 49% moisture content). Average bale density w...

  8. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  9. Development of rotation sample designs for the estimation of crop acreages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycthuan-Lee, T. G. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The idea behind the use of rotation sample designs is that the variation of the crop acreage of a particular sample unit from year to year is usually less than the variation of crop acreage between units within a particular year. The estimation theory is based on an additive mixed analysis of variance model with years as fixed effects, (a sub t), and sample units as a variable factor. The rotation patterns are decided upon according to: (1) the number of sample units in the design each year; (2) the number of units retained in the following years; and (3) the number of years to complete the rotation pattern. Different analytic formulae for the variance of (a sub t) and the variance comparisons in using a complete survey of the rotation patterns.

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Jeuffroy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20–25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be cumulated with the reduction of GHG emissions linked with the lower level of production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop.

  11. Water extractable organic carbon and nitrogen affected by crop rotation and fertilizer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of soil water soluble organic matter on soil and its environment has been recognized. In this chapter, the role of soil water soluble organic C and N in crop rotation and fertilizer N management has been demonstrated in two cases. For the case of double (potato/barley) and triple cr...

  12. Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat(CW), spring wheat-fallow (W-F), spring wheat-lentil (W-L), spring wheat-spring wheat-fallow (W-W-F), and spring wheat-pea-fallow (W-P-F)], and a Conservation Reserve Program (...

  13. Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. There is evidence that effects of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (NT on the LLWR. Crop rotations involving triticale (X Triticosecale and sunflower (Helianthus annuus in the fall-winter associated with millet (Pennisetum glaucum, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea as cover crops preceding soybean (Glycine max were repeated for three consecutive years. In the treatment with chiseling (performed only in the first year, the area was left fallow between the fall-winter and summer crops. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006 on a Typic Rhodudalf. The LLWR was determined in soil samples taken from the layers 0-20 cm and 20- 40 cm, after chemical desiccation of the cover crops in December of the first and third year of the experiment. Chiseling decreases soil bulk density in the 0-20 cm soil layer, increasing the LLWR magnitude by lowering the soil water content at which penetration resistance reaches 2.0 MPa; this effect is present up to the third year after chiseling and can reach to a depth of 0.40 m. Crop rotations involving sunflower + sunn hemp, triticale + millet and triticale + sunn hemp for three years prevented soil bulk density from exceeding the critical soil bulk density in the 0- 0.20 m layer. This effect was observed to a depth of 0.40 m after three years of chiseling under crop rotations involving forage sorghum. Hence, chiseling and some crop rotations under no tillage are effective in increasing soil quality assessed by the LLWR.

  14. Climate change impacts on dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural systems models are essential tools to assess potential climate change (CC) impacts on crop production and help guide policy decisions. In this study, impacts of GCM projected CC on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), and wheat-corn-millet (WCM) at Akro...

  15. CropIrri: A Decision Support System for Crop Irrigation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Feng, Liping

    2010-01-01

    A field crop irrigation management decision-making system (CropIrri) was developed based on the soil water balance model, crop phenology model, root growth model, crop water production function, and irrigation management model. The irrigation plan is made through predicating of soil water content in root zone and daily crop water requirement using historical and forecasting weather data, measured real time soil moisture data. CropIrri provided four decision modes of non-limiting irrigation, w...

  16. Self-seeding small grain cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops provide environmental benefits, yet adoption in agronomic farming systems is low. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn (Zea m...

  17. Effects of crop rotation, tillage, and fertilizer applications on sorghum head insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Matocha, John E

    2007-02-01

    Rotations, tillage, and fertilizer treatments can affect yield, costs, and profitability in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depending on their effects on pests. Rotation or planting different crops reduces soil erosion and pests that build up when a field is planted to the same crop each year. Minimum tillage reduces the number of trips over a field, lessening soil compaction and reducing costs. We examined the effects of fertilizer, tillage, and rotation with cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sorghum head insects during three sampling periods each year from 2000 to 2003. We found that fertilizer treatments did not affect pests or predators. Also, predators were unaffected by rotation and tillage, which some years affected Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Oebalus pugnax (F.), both pests that feed on developing sorghum kernels, thereby reducing yield. In 2000, H. zea densities were greater in continuous sorghum, regardless of tillage practice, than in sorghum-cotton rotation. However, in 2003, H. zea densities were greater in minimum tillage plots within sorghum- cotton rotation than minimum tillage plots within continuous sorghum. In 2000, in sorghum- cotton rotation, O. pugnax densities were greater in minimum tillage than conventional tillage plots, whereas in continuous sorghum the opposite was true, O. pugnax were greater in conventional tillage. Also, O. pugnax were greater in sorghum- cotton rotation than in continuous sorghum. In 2002, O. pugnax densities were greater in conventional than minimum tillage plots. These results suggest that rotation of sorghum with cotton can sometimes reduce H. zea, but this reduction may occur with increased density of O. pugnax. Also, reducing tillage may reduce O. pugnax in some instances. PMID:17370814

  18. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation and Fertilisation on Bioavailability and Fractionation of Copper in Soil on the Loess Plateau in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yifei; Wei, Xiaorong; Hao, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability and fractionation of Cu reflect its deliverability in soil. Little research has investigated Cu supply to crops in soil under long-term rotation and fertilisation on the Loess Plateau. A field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design to determine the bioavailability and distribution of Cu fractions in a Heilu soil (Calcaric Regosol) after 18 years of rotation and fertilisation. The experiment started in 1984, including five cropping systems (fallow control, alfalfa cropping, maize cropping, winter wheat cropping, and grain-legume rotation of pea/winter wheat/winter wheat + millet) and five fertiliser treatments (unfertilised control, N, P, N + P, and N + P + manure). Soil samples were collected in 2002 for chemical analysis. Available Cu was assessed by diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, and Cu was fractionated by sequential extraction. Results showed that DTPA-Cu was lower in cropping systems compared with fallow control. Application of fertilisers resulted in no remarkable changes in DTPA-Cu compared with unfertilised control. Correlation and path analyses revealed that soil pH and CaCO3 directly affected Cu bioavailability, whereas available P indirectly affected Cu bioavailability. The concentrations of Cu fractions (carbonate and Fe/Al oxides) in the plough layer were lower in cropping systems, while the values in the plough sole were higher under grain-legume rotation relative to fallow control. Manure with NP fertiliser increased Cu fractions bound to organic matter and minerals in the plough layer, and its effects in the plough sole varied with cropping systems. The direct sources (organic-matter-bound fraction and carbonate-bound fraction) of available Cu contributed much to Cu bioavailability. The mineral-bound fraction of Cu acted as an indicator of Cu supply potential in the soil. PMID:26694965

  19. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the autotrophic component (65% of TER and more). Autotrophic respiration was closely related to GPP during the growth period. The main causes of uncertainty with these results were due to biomass samplings and eddy covariance measurements (mainly, uncertainties about the u* threshold determination).

  20. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    rotations, designed to reduce the reliance on import of external resources significantly. We compared a conventional system (C) and an organic system relying on manure import for soil fertility (O1) to two novel systems (O2 and O3) all based on the same crop rotation. The O2 and O3 systems represented new...... versions of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the main crop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for...... vegetable yields calculated based on total land area was only 63% of conventional yields. Differences in quality parameters of the harvested crops, i.e. nutrient content, dry matter content or damages by pests or diseases were few and not systematic, whereas clear effects on nutrient balances and nitrogen...

  1. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L. fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK, kidney bean (KB, cowpea (CP, maize for green manure (MGM, black bean for green manure (BGM, tomato (TM, bok choy (BC. As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  2. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinli, Liang; Caihong, Bai; Lan, Mu; Maojuan, Zhou.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.) fields in solar greenhouses, soil [...] respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year) from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK), kidney bean (KB), cowpea (CP), maize for green manure (MGM), black bean for green manure (BGM), tomato (TM), bok choy (BC). As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.

  3. Biogas from ley crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  4. Short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and biofuels applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hinchee, Maud; Rottmann, William; Mullinax, Lauren; Zhang, Chunsheng; Chang, Shujun; Cunningham, MIchael; Pearson, Leslie; Nehra, Narender

    2009-01-01

    Purpose-grown trees will be part of the bioenergy solution in the United States, especially in the Southeast where plantation forestry is prevalent and economically important. Trees provide a “living biomass inventory” with existing end-use markets and associated infrastructure, unlike other biomass species such as perennial grasses. The economic feasibility of utilizing tree biomass is improved by increasing productivity through alternative silvicultural systems, improved breeding and biotec...

  5. [Effects of rotations and different green manure utilizations on crop yield and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing; Yu, Chang-wei; Cao, Qun-hu; Cao, Wei-dong; Gao, Ya-jun

    2015-08-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three rotation systems and three corresponding leguminous green manure (LGM) application methods on wheat yield and soil properties. The rotation patterns were summer fallow--winter wheat (SW), LGM-- winter wheat (LW) and LGM--spring maize--winter wheat (LMW). The three LGM application methods of LW included: early mulch, early incorporation and late incorporation while the three LGM application methods of LMW were: stalk mulch, stalk incorporation and stalk move-away. The results indicated that for LW, LGM consumed more soil water, thus the wheat yield was not stable. The nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly higher than that of the others, indicating an increasing risk of nitrate leaching. Early mulch under LW had the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) content and storage of SOC (SSOC) in 0-20 cm soil. For LMW, wheat yield was comparatively stable among years, because of higher water storage before wheat seeding, and the nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly lower than LW, which decreased the risk of nitrate leaching. Stalk mulch had higher SOC content in 0-20 cm soil after wheat harvest compared with move-away. In addition, compared with the soil when the experiment started, stalk much also increased SSOC in 0-20 cm soil. In conclusion, LMW with stalk mulch could increase soil water storage, stabilize crop yield, improve soil fertility and decrease 0-200 cm soil nitrate storage. This system could be treated as a good alternative for areas with similar climate. PMID:26685595

  6. The Crop Growth Model in the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of the crop growth submodel (CROP) in the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) is to obtain realistic estimates of plant growth so that the influence of vegetative cover on wind erosion can be properly evaluated. Most crop growth models focus on estimating final crop yield. CROP...

  7. Short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and biofuels applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchee, Maud; Rottmann, William; Mullinax, Lauren; Zhang, Chunsheng; Chang, Shujun; Cunningham, Michael; Pearson, Leslie; Nehra, Narender

    2009-12-01

    Purpose-grown trees will be part of the bioenergy solution in the United States, especially in the Southeast where plantation forestry is prevalent and economically important. Trees provide a "living biomass inventory" with existing end-use markets and associated infrastructure, unlike other biomass species such as perennial grasses. The economic feasibility of utilizing tree biomass is improved by increasing productivity through alternative silvicultural systems, improved breeding and biotechnology. Traditional breeding and selection, as well as the introduction of genes for improved growth and stress tolerance, have enabled high growth rates and improved site adaptability in trees grown for industrial applications. An example is the biotechnology-aided improvement of a highly productive tropical Eucalyptus hybrid, Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. This tree has acquired freeze tolerance by the introduction of a plant transcription factor that up-regulates the cold-response pathways and makes possible commercial plantings in the Southeastern United States. Transgenic trees with reduced lignin, modified lignin, or increased cellulose and hemicellulose will improve the efficiency of feedstock conversion into biofuels. Reduced lignin trees have been shown to improve efficiency in the pre-treatment step utilized in fermentation systems for biofuels production from lignocellulosics. For systems in which thermochemical or gasification approaches are utilized, increased density will be an important trait, while increased lignin might be a desired trait for direct firing or co-firing of wood for energy. Trees developed through biotechnology, like all transgenic plants, need to go through the regulatory process, which involves biosafety and risk assessment analyses prior to commercialization. PMID:19936031

  8. Long-term effects of crop rotation and fertilizers on weed community in spring barley

    OpenAIRE

    CHAMANABAD, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust; GHORBANI, Ardavan

    2009-01-01

    Integrated weed management programs require a clear understanding of the mechanisms influencing the establishment, growth, and reproduction of unwanted plants (weeds) in agro-ecosystems. This study evaluates the effect of long-term (95 years after the establishment of the site) crop rotation and chemical fertilizers on the weed community dynamics in spring barley at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Agricultural Site in Moscow. The weed community occurring on plots of spring barley (...

  9. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  10. ESTIMATION OF RESOURCE-HEALING ROLE LUPINE AND STRAW IN THE GRAIN-ROW CROP ROTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In field experiences on soddy-podzolic sandy soil of Meshchersky lowland high agroeconomic efficiency of an adaptive link of a crop rotation with, grown up on grain, a potato and barley is established, at entering winter wheat straw under lupine . Straw in a combination with lupine has proved to be a perspective reserve of reproduction of fertility of soils without participation of nitrogen of mineral fertilizers.

  11. ESTIMATION OF RESOURCE-HEALING ROLE LUPINE AND STRAW IN THE GRAIN-ROW CROP ROTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2014-01-01

    In field experiences on soddy-podzolic sandy soil of Meshchersky lowland high agroeconomic efficiency of an adaptive link of a crop rotation with, grown up on grain, a potato and barley is established, at entering winter wheat straw under lupine . Straw in a combination with lupine has proved to be a perspective reserve of reproduction of fertility of soils without participation of nitrogen of mineral fertilizers.

  12. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  13. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year...... with age but indifference in CO2 emissions across the age and management in temporary grasslands, thus, indicates potential for long-term sequestration of soil C....

  14. Crops Rotation – the Solution of Environmental Problems (a Case Study of Prince Edward Island in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Procha?zka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prince Edward Island (PEI is well known around the world for its potato industry. While economically beneficial for PEI, potato production contributes to its environmental deterioration. This can be attributed to the high use of chemicals and fertilizers in the production, which leads to the pollution of PEI’s watercourses. In response to the environmental crisis, the PEI provincial government proposed several land use policies to mitigate the negative influence of potato production on water quality. One of the policies that is analyzed in this paper is a mandated crop rotation. The analysis of the mandatory crop rotation policy is achieved through the application of optimal control theory and dynamic programming. Findings from the co-integration model show that agriculture is most likely responsible for watercourse pollution in PEI. This provides statistical evidence that a policy aimed at water protection, specifically targeting potato land use is necessary. However the application of environmentally friendly approach (mandatory crops rotation is positive, its negative impact on individual farms economy is evident.

  15. Screening the Resilience of Short-Rotation Woody Crops to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable woody biofeedstock production systems require a reliable supply of woody biomass that could be affected by future climate change. However, there is limited understanding of the climatic sensitivity of short rotation woody crops, such as hybrid aspens. The general objective of this study is to identify climatically resilient hybrid aspen clones for woody biomass feedstock development. Specifically, tree-ring analysis methods (dendrochronology were used to quantify the influence of climate on stem growth rates of hybrid aspens by measuring year-to-year changes in tree-ring width from different cultivars of hybrid aspen and relating annual growth patterns with past instrumental climate records (i.e., temperature and moisture index. Tree-ring analysis was conducted on a full-sib progeny plantation of different cultivars of hybrid aspens (Populus × smithii derived from different geographical variants of aspen parents: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata located on Michigan State University property in the Sandhill Research Area (42.7°N latitude; 84.5°W longitude. Overall, the hybrid aspen families examined in this study were more sensitive to moisture related stressors compared to a weaker or no response to temperature stressors. By the end of the 21st century (2071–2100, 11 out of the 18 hybrid aspen families will be vulnerable to future changes in moisture stress, while the remaining families were screened to be resilient to future changes in moisture stress.

  16. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species: Elymus repens and Cirsium arvense.

  17. Relative Effects of Biological Amendments and Crop Rotations on Soil Microbial Communities and Soilborne Diseases of Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (ACT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial co...

  18. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Crop rotations in maintaining organic matter levels in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberto Borrelli; Salvatore Colecchia; Antonio Troccoli; Sarah Caradonna; Rossella Papini; Domenico Ventrella; Maria Teresa Dell'Abate; Carlo Galeffi; Cesare Tomasoni; Roberta Farina

    2011-01-01

    Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions) standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM) levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi), Centre (Fagna, Firenze) and South (Foggia...

  19. Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrnero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L, lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L. e soja (Glycine max L. e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L. girassol (Helianthus annuus L., milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek, milho (Zea mays L, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto.The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman (Coleoptera. Curculionidae was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, oviposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L, grandull (Cajanus cajan L., dolichos (Dolichos lablab L. and soybean (Glycine max L. and not in bengal hemp (Crotalaria júncea L , sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., millet (Pennisetum americanum Leek, corn (Zea mays L., black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. did not complete lhe life cycle Results indicated that P. vulgaris, C. cajan, D. lablab and G. max increased insect populatron but, a reduction was observed on C. juncea, H. annuus, P. americanum, Z. mays, S. aterrimum and S. bicolor. The first four related species are the preferred hosts and may be used as trap crops. The other six species did not host the insect, decreasing its populations and thus being ideal to be included in Summer crop rotafion systems to subslitute soybean monocropping under no-tillage.

  20. Tropical annual cropping systems: Ant ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. Ronald; Risch, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The ecological role of ants in tropical annual cropping systems is discussed in general and with respect to a specific Mexican agroecosystem Generally, the potential positive contributions of ants to crop yields result from their impact on soil structure, nutrient cycling, and reduction of insect and weed pests In annual wet lowland fields in eastern Mexico, the ant community is simple and dominated by the aggressive fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. The influence of vegetation structure and composition on the ant community and, specifically, on the foraging behavior of S geminata is discussed

  1. Replacing bare fallow with cover crops in an irrigated cropping system: soil salinity and salt leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros García, Patricia; Gabriel Pérez, José Luis; Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In irrigated areas where cover crop establishment can be assured, consequent soil or nutrient conservation could increase sustainability of cropping systems. Replacing bare fallow with cover crops may increase sustainability by enhancing soil aggregate stability, water retention capacity or controlling nitrate leaching. Nevertheless, adoption of cover crops increase evapotranspiration and reduce water percolation beyond the root systems; therefore, it could lead to salt accumulation in the up...

  2. Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Etter, S; Riddle, L J; Anderson, C A

    1998-12-01

    In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation followed by an at-planting application of an organophosphate or carbamate. Nematicide usage has resulted in ground-water contamination. Several factors that could lead to an improved crop rotation program were examined in five field trials in Oregon. Examining the relative nematode host status of crops for feeding cattle and sheep indicated differences in host suitability among clovers and fescues that could prove useful in development of pasture mixes. Populations of P. penetrans under continuous fallow and pasture were monitored for 4 years following harvest of Easter lilies. Populations fluctuated in both situations but generally increased on pasture plants and decreased under fallow. Nematodes were still detectable at the end of 4 years of weed-free fallow. Populations of P. penetrans on Easter lilies were followed over two successive crops. Numbers in soil peaked in July and then decreased while numbers within roots continued to increase until harvest in October. PMID:19274250

  3. Sorbent-Bed Crop-Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed aeration system helps reduce spoilage of stored grain or other crop stored in bulk. Air circulates through bin, sorbent bed, and heat exchanger. Outside air cools circulating air in heat exchanger. Sensors measure temperature and humidity, and adjust dampers to obtain requisite temperature and humidity. Suitable for grain bins and shipping barges.

  4. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N2O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N2O and CO2 emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N2O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N2O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N2O and CO2 were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO2 levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N2O and CO2 emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  5. Crop rotation in the Valle Calido del Alto Magdalena a sustainable focus of high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out during five years at the Nataima Research Center, located at 431 m.a.s.l, with average temperature of 28 Celsius degrades and annual rainfall of 1274 Boyaca mm, on a soil classified as Arenic Haplustalf, to evaluate different crops rotation based on rice and sorghum; the combinations used were as follows; rice-rice (R-R), rice-- soybean (R-SY), rice-crotalaria-sorghum (R-C-S), sorghum-sorghum (S-S), sorghum-soybean (S-SY) and cotton-sorghum (Al-S). Simultaneously it was evaluated the response to four nitrogen levels, which allowed to find out yield functions and optimum economical. The rotations S-SY, R-SY and AI-S have been the best qualified from an environmental perspective. Sorghum-soybean rotation presents increases in yield compared with expected values, which allows thinking that it is a truly sustainable rotation. This rotation also had an excellent profitability and for that reason is considered the best option within the goals of this work

  6. Nitrogen management in organic farming: comparison of crop rotation residual effects on yields, N leaching and soil conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Manfred; Müller, Jürgen; Isselstein, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    After 3 years of different crop rotations in an organic farming experiment on a sandy soil in northwest Germany, spring triticale was cultivated on all plots in the fourth year to investigate residual effects on yield, nitrogen (N) leaching and nutrient status in the soil. Previous crop rotations differed in the way N was supplied, either by farmyard manure (FYM, 100 and 200 kg N ha−1 year−1) or by arable legumes like grass-red clover and field beans, or as a control with no N. Other crops in...

  7. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop management on quality parameters and (iv) environmentally benign crop rotation systems. Differently maturing maize varieties were grown in six different crop rotation systems (continuous maize with and without an undersown grass, maize as a main crop partially preceded by different winter catch crops and followed by winter wheat) and tested at two sites. Additional factors were sowing and/or harvest dates. Maize and cumulative biomass yields of the crop rotation systems were compared. Specific methane yield measurements were carried out to evaluate the energy performance of the tested crops. Quality was assessed either by measurements of the dry matter content or by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of chemical composition. Results indicate that an environmentally benign crop rotation system requires nearly year-round soil cover to minimize nitrogen leaching. This can be achieved through the cultivation of undersown or catch crops and additional main crops alongside maize, such as winter wheat. Late maturing maize varieties can be cultivated at a site where the maize can build adequate dry matter contents due to a long growth period (late harvest date). The energy generation in terms of methane production was primarily dependent on high biomass yields. It could be further shown that the specific methane yield of maize increased with increasing starch content, digestibility and decreasing fiber content. To conclude, selected site-specific energy crops and crop rotation systems, with suitable crop management, (fertilizer and soil tillage) can produce high quality biomass and the highest net energy return. Lignocellulosic biomass can be optimized for combustion. Wet biomass is an optimal substrate for anaerobic digestion. Profitable energy production is characterized by a high land and energy use efficiency and especially high net energy yields. (orig.)

  8. Cooling system for rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstler, William Dwight (Niskayuna, NY); El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); Quirion, Owen Scott (Clifton Park, NY); Palafox, Pepe (Schenectady, NY); Shen, Xiaochun (Schenectady, NY); Salasoo, Lembit (Schenectady, NY)

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  9. INFLUENCE OF GREEN MANURE AND INTERCROPPING CULTURES IN THE CHAIN OF IRRIGATED CROP ROTATION ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babichev A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results for the study of productivity and quality of vegetable crops in irrigated chains of crop rotation by using intermediate and green manure crops. The greatest number of units of grain produced in the first variant of the experiment, where in a part of crop rotation cultivated sweet corn, mustard as a green manure for potato and onion planting summer planting seeds in the ground and reached 37.4 tons of grain units. The infection of potato tubers with complex disease was lowest at the control variant and compose 11 %. The highest infection with diseases of potatoes fixed at the intermediate and without the use of Side-General culture and was 18 %, which is 63.6 % more than the control options. When we are using intermediate crops diseases of onion increased by 7,7–15,4 % in case of green manure using. When you include treatment of the soil under the previous culture it was the largest infest with diseases and was 16–17 %, which is by 23.1 and 30.8 % higher than in the control variant. Based on these results, we can conclude that the use of green manure crops and intermediates more favorable effect both on the productivity of the subsequent crops or the quality and marketability

  10. Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Nuñoz, P

    2010-01-01

    Two different modeling approaches were used to simulate the N leached during an intensively fertigated crop rotation: a recently developed crop-based simulation model (EU-Rotate_N) and a widely recognized solute transport model (Hydrus-2D). Model performance was evaluated using data from an...... input parameters based on the same pedotransfer functions in both models resulted in a very similar simulation of soil water content in spite of the different nature of the approaches. Good correlations were found between the simulated water draining below 60 cm and that calculated by water balance....... Accuracy of the predicted nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) contents in the 0-90 cm soil profile was acceptable with both models, with values of the mean absolute error (MAE) below the average standard deviation of the observations. The uptake of nitrate was better simulated with EU-Rotate_N where specific crop N...

  11. Cropping Systems Dynamics in the Lower Gangetic Plains of India using Geospatial Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Manjunath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cropping system study is useful to understand the overall sustainability of agricultural system. Capturing the change dynamics of cropping systems, especially spatial and temporal aspects, is of utmost importance in overall planning and management of natural resources. This paper highlights the remote sensing based cropping systems change-dynamics assessment. Current study is aimed at use of multidate-multisensor data for deriving the seasonal cropping pattern maps and deriving the remote sensing based cropping system performance indicators during 1998–99 and 2004–05 in West- Bengal state of India. The temporal assessment of the changes of cropping systems components such as cropping pattern and indices for the study years 1998–99 and 2004–05 have been brought out. The results indicate that during the six years of time the kharif cropping pattern has almost remained the same, being a rice dominant system. A notable point is the decrease in the aus rice due to readjusting the cropping system practice to suit the two crop systems in many places was observed. Marginal variations in mustard and wheat areas during rabi season was observed. The boro (summer rice area has almost remained constant. The rice-fallow-fallow (R-F-F rotation reduced by about 4 percent while the rice-fallow-rice (R-F-R increased by about 7 percent percent. The Area Diversity Index reduced by about 38 percent in 2004 which may be attributed to decrease in kharif pulses and minor crops during kharif and summer. However, diversity during rabi season continued to remain high. The increase in Multiple Cropping Index was observed predominantly in the southern part of the state. Cultivated Land Utilization Index shows an increase by about 0.05.

  12. Crop rotation and seasonal effects on fatty acid profiles of neutral and phospholipids extracted from no-till agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Alejandro E.; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John; Tønnersen, Tina; Maronna, Ricardo A.; Wall, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipids (PLFA) and neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFA) was used to characterizeno-till productive agricultural soils associated with different crop rotation levels, replicated across a400 km transect in the Argentinean pampas, during two sampling seasons, summer and winter...... of NLFA in winter samples as ifhigh crop rotation improves lipids reserves in soil during winter more than in monocropping soilmanagement. In conclusion, PLFA and particularly NLFA profiles appear to provide useful andcomplementary information to obtain a footprint of different soil use and....... Highrotation (HR) management consisted in maize–wheat–soybean intense rotation including cover crops.Low rotation (LR) management trend to soybean monocultures. Soils from nearby naturalenvironments (NEs) were used as references. Fatty acids concentration in soils (nmol/g) decreased c.a.50% from summer to...

  13. Effects of integrated weed management in cropping systems on soils, microbial activity and N2O fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Vermue, Anthony; Philippot, Laurent; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bizouard, Florian; Bru, David; Coffin, Arnaud; Hénault, Catherine; Nicolardot, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated soils have been widely highlighted as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This suggests that greenhouse gas emissions should be taken in account when evaluating the impact of new cropping systems. The development of integrated weed management in cropping systems introduces new agricultural practices (combinations of crop rotation, soil management, fertilization, and mechanical and chemical weed control, etc.), which may affect the microbial processes responsible for N2...

  14. Crop systems biology : an approach to connect functional genomics with crop modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, X; Struik, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    The response of the whole crop to environmental conditions is a critical factor in agriculture. It can only be understood if the organization of the crop system is taken into account. A popular view in modern science is that genomics (and other `omics¿) will provide knowledge and tools to allow the characteristics of the crop to be altered for improved actual and potential crop yields, increased resource use efficiency and enhanced crop system health. As a result of this view, (molecular) pla...

  15. Avaliação do potencial de coberturas verdes e de sitemas de rotações de cultura na supressão do nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax em pré-plantio ao pessegueiro Evaluation of green covering potential and crop rotation systems in the suppression of the ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach pre-planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Bauer Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área naturalmente infestada com o nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax, coberturas verdes foram testadas quanto a sua hospedabilidade, em cultivos de inverno e verão, comparativamente às parcelas mantidas sob pousio. Três sistemas de rotação de culturas, com as mesmas espécies vegetais (aveia-preta/feijão-de-porco/milheto/nabo-forrageiro; nabo-forrageiro/milheto/aveia-branca/milho, e aveia-branca/mucuna-anã/trigo/sorgo, foram avaliados quanto ao potencial supressor do nematóide de M. xenoplax por dois anos, utilizando-se, como testemunhas, de parcelas mantidas sob pousio e alqueive. Os experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Antes e após o estabelecimento de cada cultivo, as populações do nematoide foram avaliadas quanto ao número de M. xenoplax/100cm³ de solo e fator de reprodução (FR= população final/população inicial do nematoide anelado, onde FR1,00, favorecimento da reprodução. A maioria das culturas testadas foi hospedeira desfavorável (FRIn a field naturally infested with ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax, green covering were tested for their hostel in winter and summer crops comparing to plots kept in fallow lands. Tree crop rotation system with the same plant species (black oat/pig bean/ millet/forage radish; forage radish/ millet/white oat/corn; and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum were evaluated for suppression potential to nematode M. xenoplax for two years, using as witness plots that were kept in fallow lands. The experiments were conducted in the field in a randomized block design with six repetitions. Before and after the establishment of each plot, the nematode populations were evaluated on the number of M. xenoplax/100cm³ of soil and the reproduction factor (RF= final population/initial population of the ring nematode, where RF 1,00, favoring of the reproduction. Most of the crops analyzed were unfavorable host (RF<1,00 of M. xenoplax, except the mucuna deeringiana that behaved as favorable to the nematode reproduction. Although all treatments have removed M. xenoplax the crop rotations forage radish/ millet/white oat/corn and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum realized the largest reduction of the nematode in the soil (93-95%.It was noted a sharp decline in the M. xenoplax population in the first two crops, with later stabilization of its level, regardless of the studied system.

  16. AGRONOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF TROPICAL COVER CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...

  17. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha?1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  18. Synergism: a rotation effect of improved growth efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems in the Great Plains are changing because of no-till. Rotations now include a diversity of crops in contrast with rotations in tilled systems that grow only one or two crops. This diversity of crops often leads to yield increases because of the rotation effect. We have observed th...

  19. ENERGY AND CARBON BUDGETS IN TRANSITIONAL CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MINNESOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and carbon budgets were constructed for a wide range of cropping systems during the transition from conventional cropping practices. Cropping system treatments included factorial combinations of: conventional and organic systems (CNV and ORG), conventional tillage and strip tillage (CT and ST...

  20. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    penetration rate. The different ways of improving NUE have different effects on the cropping system, affecting either N uptake, the ability of the crop to hold on to N already taken up, or the fraction of crop N being harvested. Due to the different modes of action, the model simulations show that these...... changes in NUE traits will also have different effects on N leaching loss and on N availability and N loss in the following years. Simulations also show that the effect of genotypes with improved NUE depend on environment and crop management. This is true for the improved crop itself and when its effect...

  1. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency. PMID:27012675

  2. Conservation tillage, rotations, and cover crop affect soil quality in the Tennessee Valley: Particulate organic matter, organic matter, and microbial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocropping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with conventional tillage provides little carbon input to soil, increases erosion and promotes rapid oxidation of existing soil organic carbon (SOC). Management practices like conservation tillage, crop rotation, and cover cropping can impact soil carbon, ...

  3. Stability of rotating spherical stellar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, J. -M.; Perez, J.; Serna, A.

    1999-01-01

    We study the stability of rotating collisionless self-gravitating spherical systems by using high resolution N-body experiments on a Connection Machine CM-5. We added rotation to Ossipkov-Merritt (hereafter OM) anisotropic spherical systems by using two methods. The first method conserves the anisotropy of the distribution function defined in the OM algorithm. The second method distorts the systems in velocity space. We then show that the stability of systems depends both on their anisotropy ...

  4. Effects of Tillage, Rotation and Cover Crop on the Physical Properties of a Silt-Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Samuel Idoko; Nkongolo, Nsalambi Vakanda

    2015-04-01

    Soil and crop management practices can affect the physical properties and have a direct impact on soil sustainability and crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate how soil physical properties were affected by three years of tillage, cover crop and crop rotation treatments in a corn and soybean field. The study was conducted on a Waldron siltyloam soil at Lincoln University of Missouri. Soil physical properties studied were soil bulk density, volumetric and gravimetric water contents, volumetric air content, total pore space, air-filled and water-filled pore space, gas diffusion coefficient and pore tortuosity factor. Results showed significant interactions (pimproved soil physical properties better in rotation than in monoculture.

  5. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  6. The impact of new energy crops on weed flora diversification in energy cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glemnitz, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite various options in energy cropping for the diversification of agricultural land use, such as the introduction of new crops, in practice, there is a one-sided orientation toward the use of maize as biogas feedstock in Germany. One reason, why they are not yet introduced in practice, is that for most of them neither the agricultural feasibility nor their ecological and economic benefit could be clearly shown to the farmers up to now. As part of the research projects “Site-adapted Cropping Systems for Energy Crops” (EVA, and “Optimized energy cropping systems for the sustainable biogas production (Upscaling” the effects of three new energy crops have been tested under real farm conditions in two different regions in the northern part of Germany. The large scale field trial consisted of the comparison of the following energy crops: 0- maize as reference crop, 1- perennial Silphie (Silphium perfoliatum, 2- Szarvasi grass (Agropyron elongatum, and 3-perennial wild flower mixture. The trail has been investigated regarding the following effects: α-diversity at the plot scale, contribution to the β-diversity among the crops and species composition. The results suggest that the integration of the new perennial energy crop might contribute to an essential weed diversity enhancement. Weed flora diversity was between 2-4 times higher in most of the cases in the new energy crops compared to maize.

  7. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  8. Vibration Monitoring of Rotating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Probert, S. D.; S. O. T. OGAJI; Lilly, M. T.; K. N. EDE; Ogbonnaya, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Most energy-conversion machines (e.g. vehicle engines and electric motors) involve rotating components (e.g. roller bearings and gears), which generate vibrations. The behavior of a pump which includes a deliberate fault was chosen to illustrate this assertion. The test bearing at the driven end of the pump’s motor was deliberately damaged using a 1.5mm wire-cutting method and an adjustable coupling disk introduced to impose a shaft misalignment of 40. The resulting undesirable behavior of th...

  9. Nitrogen turnover and leaching in cropping systems with ryegrass catch crops

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) catch crops and their short- and long-term effects on nitrogen leaching and nitrogen turnover in soils. Results are presented from three field experiments on a sandy soil in south-west Sweden, where undersown catch crops were used in cropping systems with and without applications of liquid manure. The effects of different tillage practices on soil mineral nitrogen and leaching were also studied. Two coupled simulation models, which...

  10. Measurement of unsteady pressures in rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienappel, K.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of the experimental determination of unsteady periodic pressure distributions in rotating systems are reported. An indirect method is discussed, and the effects of the centrifugal force and the transmission behavior of the pressure measurement circuit were outlined. The required correction procedures are described and experimentally implemented in a test bench. Results show that the indirect method is suited to the measurement of unsteady nonharmonic pressure distributions in rotating systems.

  11. Modeling poplar growth as a short rotation woody crop for biofuels in the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the economic viability and environmental sustainability of a biofuels industry based on intensively cultivated short rotation woody crops (SRWC) requires spatial predictions of growth and yield under various environmental conditions and across large regions. The Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth (3PG) model was modified to evaluate the growth and yield of coppiced poplar (Populus spp). This included an additional biomass partitioning method and developing a sub-model which takes into account the impact of coppicing on post harvest regeneration, extending the applicability of the 3PG model to coppice management regimes. The parameterized model was applied to the entire Pacific Northwest of the United States, using appropriate climate and soil input data. Results predict the yield of poplar cultivation at a spatial resolution of ≈64 km2 throughout the ≈8,000,000 km2 of the study region. Existing agricultural cultivation patterns were used to estimate regional water availability for irrigation, and for non-irrigated regions, land cover features including ownership, slope, soil salinity and water table depth where used to select areas with a real potential to support a SRWC plantation. Results can be integrated with other models that allow for optimizing crop selection and biorefinery site selection. Important results include; an updated 3PG model for coppiced SRWC plantings, estimates of biomass feedstock yields under different irrigation patterns and weather conditions, and estimates for feedstock availability when combined with crop adoption scenarios. - Highlights: • A poplar growth model was applied to the Pacific Northwest of the US. • We included a coppicing module to the exsiting 3PG growth model. • We investigated growth under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. • We developed Geospatial yield estimates. • We discuss changes in yield from climate change

  12. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  13. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and...... the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested...

  14. Feature Recognition System for Rotational Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of a knowledge-based features recognition system for mechanical parts. The main aim of the research was to concentrate on recognition of rotational features, namely, blind hole, through hole and slanting hole to be used in automatic process planning system. The rule-based technique was applied to recognize rotational features. The recognition criteria were based upon geometrical data from Standard for Exchange of Product data file (STEP of Computer-aided Design (CAD system. The system consists of several modules, namely, pre-processing module, inference engine module and user interface module. The developed system succeeds the design activities in manufacturing industries.

  15. Scientific Basis for Sustainable Management of Eucalyptus and Populus as Short-Rotation Woody Crops in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Vance

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Short rotation woody crops (SRWC, fast growing tree species that are harvested on short, repeated intervals, can augment traditional fiber sources. These crops have economic and environmental benefits stemming from their capability of supplying fiber on a reduced land base in close proximity to users and when sensitive sites cannot be accessed. Eucalyptus and Populus appear to be genera with the greatest potential to provide supplemental fiber in the U.S. Optimal productivity can be achieved through practices that overcome site limitations and by choosing the most appropriate sites, species, and clones. Some Eucalyptus species are potentially invasive, yet field studies across multiple continents suggest they are slower to disperse than predicted by risk assessments. Some studies have found lower plant and animal diversity in SRWC systems compared to mature, native forests, but greater than some alterative land uses and strongly influenced by stand management, land use history, and landscape context. Eucalyptus established in place of grasslands, arable lands, and, in some cases, native forests can reduce streamflow and lower water tables due to higher interception and transpiration rates but results vary widely, are scale dependent, and are most evident in drier regions.

  16. ECONOMIC AND RISK ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the profitability and economic risks associated with six cropping systems for the Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration site at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland. The six systems are: (1) no-tillage system, (2) corn/soybean system, (3) cover crop system, (...

  17. Crop productivity and economics during the transition to alternative cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing economic pressures and continued environmental concerns in agricultural production have heightened the need for more sustainable cropping systems. Research is needed to identify systems that simultaneously improve the economic and social viability of farms and rural communities while prot...

  18. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation pipes were pressed into the soil as enclosures to restrict root access to soil nitrogen. Soil samples were taken as close to 2-week intervals as possible from both inside and outside the enclosures. The crop rotation N values were also compared to triple replicated perennial native grassland plot areas (predominate sp. Western wheatgrass - Pascopyrum smithii, Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis, Little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium, Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum). Trends identified for both NH4-N and NO3-N indicate that the values are relatively similar with respect to seasonal change over time. There was a greater amount of soil nitrogen accumulation inside the enclosures indicating that outside the enclosures roots scavenge nitrogen for plant growth and production. Seasonally, comparing the cropping system crops, NO3-N declined mid-July and then rebounded by mid-August and continued to increase until leveling off in September. Corn NO3-N, however, did not follow this pattern, but increased from early June to the end of June and remained high until the first of September. We will present the results of bulk density data and seasonal N fertility data providing evidence for the impact of previous CC on corn production. Probable explanation for the mid-summer nitrogen decline will be presented and justification for reduced fertilizer application will be discussed.

  19. Efect of organic barley-based crop rotations on soil nutrient balance in a semiarid environment for a 16-year experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta; Lacasta, Carlos; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In natural ecosystems with no percolating moisture regime, the biogeochemical cycle can be considered a closed system because the nutrients extracted by the roots will be returned to the soil after a certain time. In organic farming, a cycle model as close as possible is taken as a guideline, but we have to consider that unlike natural ecosystems, where most of the nutrients remain in the cycle, the agrosystems are open cycles. To achieve a sustainable fertility of the soil, the soil nutrient levels, the extractions according to the expected crop yields and the export refunds in the form of crop residues, biological nitrogen fixation, green manure or compost will have to be determined. Nutrient balance should be closed with external inputs, always avoiding to be a source of negative impacts on the environment. In organic farming without exogenous inputs, the effect of the crop rotations is much more noticeable in the nutrient balance than in the conventional farming fields which every year receive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the form of chemical fertilizers. The most extractive crop rotations are those that produce a greater decrease in soil reserves, and in these cases exogenous inputs to maintain sustainability should be considered; however, in less extractive crop rotations, extractions can be restored by the edaphogenesis processes. In this work, soil organic matter, phosphorus and potassium balances were analyzed in different organic barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture [b-b] and in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-Vh], vetch as green manure [B-Vm], sunflower [B-S], chickpea [B-C] and fallow [B-F]) in clay soils under a semiarid environment ("La Higueruela" Experimental Farm, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain) over a 16 year period. Additionally, barley monoculture in conventional farming [B-B] was included. In the organic system, the fertilization involved the barley straw in all rotations, the sunflower straw in B-S, the symbiotic nitrogen from the vetch crops and the green manure in B-Vm. In the conventional system, fertilization consisted on barley straw and chemical fertilizers at a rate of 80-60-30 kg N-P-K ha-1. Before the organic management, the whole plot was subjected to conventional practices. The highest total yields (and therefore the nutrients extractions) were obtained in B-Vh, followed in this order by B-B, B-S, B-F, B-Vm, B-C and b-b. The crop rotations with the highest yields favoured the microbial activity and the organic residues mineralization, although this caused, eventually, a small decrease in the soil organic matter content. Since the eighth year, this parameter remained more stable until the end of the study period. The highest decrease of soil organic matter took place in B-F and B-S, while the lowest ones happened in B-B, where the great amounts of barley straw incorporated into the soil compensated the organic matter losses. The conversion from conventional to organic management with the incorporation of the straw to the soil implies a re-adaptation process with a decrease of the soil phosphorus level by the increasing soil microbial biomass. A decrease of phosphorus during the first six years of the experiment and a posterior recovery and stabilization of this ratio by the solubilisation of the fixed phosphorus was observed. B-F and B-S presented the lowest soluble phosphorus losses, while B-C the highest ones. In the same way, the potassium level decreased during the first eight years and after that remained constant. The highest decreases took place in the rotations with the biggest amounts of barley straw; this decrease could be explained by the nutrient immobilization caused by the microbial biomass.

  20. On weed competition and population dynamics. Considerations for crop rotations and organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: organic farming, weeds, weed management, weed ecology, weed diversity, matrix population model, elasticity analysis, neighbourhood model, survey, crop row spacing, mechanical hoe, harrow, Polygonum convolvulus , Polygonum persicaria , Stellaria mediaExperiments, monitoring studies and modelling of weed population dynamics were carried out to investigate potential methods for reducing weed populations in farming systems where herbicides are not applied (organic farming). Six years o...

  1. The influence of reduced spring tillage on soil properties, crop yield and profitability in a rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Feiza, Virginijus; Feizienė, Dalia; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate different reduced spring tillage methods on yielding capacity of spring sown crops, soil physical and chemical properties and to evaluate the profitability of reduced tillage methods investigated. The field experiment was set up at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003-2005. Spring barley, spring oil-seed rape and spring wheat were grown. Five soil tillage systems were investigated in the field trial: 1. Shallow spring-time ploughing (15-17 ...

  2. Chapter 3.1. Dynamics of legume nitrogen fixation in intercrops and in crop rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of nitrogen-15 lends understanding of the dynamics and interactions between various pools in agricultural systems, including nitrogen fixation by legumes and utilization of soil and fertilizer nitrogen by crops in general. Biological nitrogen fixation in sole and intercropped legumes is discussed, as are intercrop design and methods of assessing possible yield benefits from intercropping. Advantages that accrue from inclusion of legumes, only some of which are linked with nitrogen transfer, are discussed with particular reference to two case studies

  3. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L. e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.. A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa: 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca.This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops irrigated in the dry season and two dry in the rainy season. The study was conducted under field conditions using a randomized block design with five replications. In irrigated crops were used the following water with electrical conductivity (ECw: 0.8; 2.2; 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The rainfed crops were conducted on the same plots that were cultivated during the dry season, which remained demarcated and identified. At the beginning and end of each crop were collected samples in two subareas in the region of root system plant, in the middle third of the central row of each plot. Increasing of salinity in irrigation water led to increase in the total number of spores and reduced soil basal respiration, biomass carbon and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2, mainly in the area cultivated with cowpea. The genus Glomus accounted for more than 70% of total spores found, and this percentage increased in treatments with high salinity in dry season crops. The data reveal no residual negative effect of salinity on the microbial variables assessed in function irrigation with saline water during the dry season crops.

  4. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  5. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  6. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  7. Enhancing productivity of salt affected soils through crops and cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)

  8. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  9. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  10. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  11. Nitrogen Leaching in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tam Duong District, Red River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, M.V.; Keulen, H. van; Roetter, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of nitrogen (N) lost in rice-based systems in Vietnam is important but has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of N lost in major cropping systems in the Red River Delta. An experiment was conducted in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, on five different crops including rose, daisy, cabbage, chili, and a rice–rice–maize rotation during 2004 and 2005. Core soil samples were taken periodically in 20-cm inc...

  12. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  13. Cropping System to Limit Blast Disease in Upland Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Sester, M.; Raveloson, H.; Michellon, R.; Dusserre, J.; Tharreau, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cropping system is an essential aspect to take into account to manage blast disease (caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae). In addition to the selection of resistant cultivars, studies report opportunities to limit blast incidence by managing mineral amendment (N, Si, P, etc.), cultivar mixtures or other cropping system adaptations. In Madagascar, rice is the staple crop and food. Farmers traditionally grow irrigated or rainfed lowland rice wherever possible. In the mid-1980s, CIRAD and FO...

  14. Rotating Convection in an Anisotropic System

    CERN Document Server

    Roxin, A; Roxin, Alex; Riecke, Hermann

    2002-01-01

    We study the stability of patterns arising in rotating convection in weakly anisotropic systems using a modified Swift-Hohenberg equation. The anisotropy, either an endogenous characteristic of the system or induced by external forcing, can stabilize periodic rolls in the K\\"uppers-Lortz chaotic regime. For the particular case of rotating convection with time-modulated rotation where recently, in experiment, chiral patterns have been observed in otherwise K\\"uppers-Lortz-unstable regimes, we show how the underlying base-flow breaks the isotropy, thereby affecting the linear growth-rate of convection rolls in such a way as to stabilize spirals and targets. Throughout we compare analytical results to numerical simulations of the Swift-Hohenberg equation.

  15. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was equipped to measure environmental parameters and N2O fluxes. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using six stainless steel automatic chambers coupled with an infra red gas analyzer every 6 hours. We first analyzed N2O flux rates obtained between the two treatments and then we quantified the impact of temperature and soil moisture on their daily and seasonal variations.

  16. The full GHG balance over two crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Thuringia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo; Brümmer, Christian; Don, Catharina; Dechow, Rene; Fuß, Roland; Freibauer, Annette; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Kolle, Olaf; Ziegler, Waldemar

    2013-04-01

    Gebesee in Thuringia is the eldest cropland eddy covariance (EC) site in Europe. The site has been part of CarboEurope, NitroEurope and IMECC and has been selected to be one of the German Level 1 sites within the European research infrastructure ICOS. Continuous measurements of NEE by EC, NPP by regular harvesting, lateral in- and outputs of carbon and nitrogen as well as climatic parameters have been conducted since 2001. Automated chamber measurements of N2O and CH4 were conducted since 2007. Fluxes of these greenhouse gases (GHG) for the years 2001 - 2006 were calculated based on a Fuzzy Logic model calibrated by means of the chamber measurements. In this study we present NEE, NBP and full GHG balances of over two rotation periods (2001 - 2004 and 2005 - 2009, respectively) comprising four times winter wheat, two times potatoes and one cropping period of oil seed rape, sugar beet and barley each. The GHG balance is dominated by moderate losses of soil organic matter (~120 +/- 50 g C m-2 y-1) and by N2O emissions of about 0.17 g N2O-N m-2 y-1 (50 g C-eq m-2 y-1). The on-site emissions of GHG balance about 43 % of the harvested carbon.

  17. Bioenergy cropping systems for food, feed, fuel, and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop production can meet multiple needs including food, livestock feed, and bioenergy or biofuels. Cropping systems can be developed to focus on meeting any one of these needs, or they can be developed to simultaneously meet multiple needs. In any case, these systems must also protect the soil resou...

  18. Cover cropping to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in diversified crop rotations of the upper midwest U.S. corn belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive agricultural practices, such as tillage, monocropping, seasonal fallow periods, and inorganic nutrient application, have been shown to reduce arbuscular mycorrrhizal fungi (AMF). Agricultural practices that reduce AMF may reduce the benefits provided to crops by AMF, such as nutrient acqu...

  19. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In such areas soil carbon usually increases at a faster initial rate compared to agricultural land which means that these areas could provide high level of carbon sequestration service in the short term. The approach will be broadened to include assessment of other ecosystem services provided by ACS in Germany which would increase the possibility to adequately compensate farmers for the supply of environmental benefits. Keywords: agroforestry, biomass production, carbon sequestration, ecosystem services, marginal sites

  20. Rotating beams in isotropic optical system

    OpenAIRE

    Alieva, Tatiana Krasheninnikova; Abramochkin, Eugeny; Asenjo García, Ana; Razueva, Evgeniya

    2010-01-01

    Based on the ray transformation matrix formalism, we propose a simple method for generation of paraxial beams performing anisotropic rotation in the phase space during their propagation through isotropic optical systems. The widely discussed spiral beams are the particular case of these beams. The propagation of these beams through the symmetric fractional Fourier transformer is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  1. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  2. Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

  3. Crop Nitrogen Uptake in A Legume-wheat Rotation Using1'5N Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afield experiment was conducted to assess the impact of residual N from legume crops, fertilizer applied N, and fallow on the subsequent wheat production. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complex block design for the years 1993 and 1994. In 1993, barley was planted as a reference crop in legume plots. Micro plots, in both years were treated with 15 N. In 1994, whole plots were planted with wheat. In 1993, the yield of lentil treatments was not significantly different. The wheat yield, responded significantly to N addition. Lentil and chickpea derived 2/3 and 3/4 of their N needs from the atmosphere, respectively. In contrast, wheat derived most of its N needs(90%) from the soil. Water consumption was similar expect for wheat fertilized at low rate of N (179.5 mm). In 1994, wheat yields, the harvesting index and water consumption were not significantly different. Traditional harvesting of lentil and fertilizing wheat at a low rate reduced significantly the N% of wheat bio-mass. The % of N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) by wheat was much higher in 1994 (4.18 to 9.24%), but it was 3.62% for the fallow treatments. The % of N derived from soil (%Ndfs) by wheat 93% in 1994 for wheat planted after legume. The results indicated that legumes depleted soil N under the croping system currently adopted in Jordan, and the benefit of fallow to the subsequent wheat crop is attributed to the increase of soil organic N mineralization. (Author) 35 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades. PMID:21769884

  5. Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with cropping systems in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of intensive traditional cropping systems with burning crop residues and soil plough down with heavy machinery in food production is considered the cause of environmental degradation, i.e. soil erosion and atmospheric contamination with carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions. At a world scale the soil holds 1500 Gt of carbon, which can decrease by the inadequate soil management, increasing at the same time CO2 emission. Thus, traditional soil management can produce a large soil carbon reduction, whereas conservative soil management can increase soil carbon at a rate of 1 ton ha-1 per year. Research done by the IPCC, stated that in the next 50 to 100 years, soil might be a sink for 40-80 Gt of atmospheric carbon, if soil plough is substituted by no till with crop residues management over the soil surface, the use of appropriate crop rotations with the inclusion of grain legumes and the use of animal manure. In southern Chile, 70% of cropped land area is found, along with high level of soil degradation, since the dominant use of the traditional soil management. An exercise done with data collected from a Nitrogen Use Efficiency Research Project, on an Ultisol soil, the most eroded in southern Chile, demonstrate the feasibility of increase soil carbon sequestration shifting from soil ploughing to no burn-no till system and by the inclusion of legume crop in rotations. Soil carbon input can increase from 24 to 30.5 Gg under no burn no till, from crop residues decomposition. These figures matches with real soil carbon variation content in the 0-20 cm depth, +2,2 10-6 Mg C ha-1 in no burn-no till systems in a 3 year period, and -3 10-1 Mg C ha-1 under traditional soil management. In the other hand with the continuous inclusion of grain legume crops in 188.000 has in rotation with grain annual crops, there is a potential to decrease carbon emission in 50 G, moreover, the shifting in the IX Region from traditional to conservation soil management system would mitigates carbon atmospheric emissions from 350 to 450 Gg

  6. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, A.; Hardy, M.; Booyse, M.; Botha, A.

    2012-01-01

    Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN), community level physiological profiling (CLPP), and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine chan...

  7. Linking N Cycling to Microbial Function Within Soil Microenvironments in Cover Crop Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. Y.; Scow, K. M.; Hristova, K.; Six, J.

    2007-12-01

    Cover crops have emerged as a crop management strategy to achieve agricultural sustainability and maintain environmental quality. Thus, fundamental knowledge of microbial-mediated C and N cycling is vital to understanding soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in cover cropped agroecosystems. We investigated the effects of short-term cover crop-C input on N processing by microbial communities within SOM microenvironments and in bulk soil, across a gradient of organic to conventional crop management. We hypothesized that cover crop C and N inputs promote soil aggregation, which increases the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and stimulates greater microbial cycling of N within soil microenvironments, thereby leading to potential increases in N stabilization coupled with decreases in N loss. Our hypothesis was tested on the long-term organic, low-input, and conventional maize-tomato rotations at the Center for Integrated Farming Systems experiment (Davis, CA). We collected soil samples (0-15cm) across the cover crop and subsequent maize growing seasons and then isolated three SOM fractions soil: coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM; >250um), microaggregates (53-250um), and silt-and-clay (organic than conventional and low-input systems. The amoA and no Z copy numbers g-1 dry soil were highest in the microaggregate fraction and similar between the cPOM and silt-and-clay fractions, among all cropping treatments. Abundances of AOB and denitrifiers were lower in bulk soil from the conventional and low- input than organic system. Our study indicates that long-term, annual cover crop inputs to the organic system lead to greater aggregation and development of microaggregate structures. Consequently, the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers as well as the rates of ammonification and nitrification are augmented in the organic system compared to the conventional, which does not receive a cover crop, and the low-input system, which receives cover crops only in alternate years. These results shed light on the specific mechanisms governing short-term N stabilization versus losses under long-term crop management.

  8. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babulicová Mária

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  9. Rotation Numbers for Random Dynamical Systems on the Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weigu; Lu, Kening

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study rotation numbers of random dynamical systems on the circle. We prove the existence of rotation numbers and the continuous dependence of rotation numbers on the systems. As an application, we prove a theorem on analytic conjugacy to a circle rotation.

  10. Password Based Rotational Multistory Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Suhail Hamirani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to verify the object and detects number of free spaces available in the parking lot. The world has become a global market and numbers of vehicles are also increased to an uncontrollable situation. Keeping this problem the intended model is designed. Password locking system embedded in the work has made the parking of vehicles very much secure.

  11. Atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho e produtividade de culturas cultivadas em sucessão e rotação / Physical properties of an Oxisol and crops yield under succession and rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Aymone, Genro Junior; Dalvan José, Reinert; José Miguel, Reichert; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da sucessão e rotação de culturas nos atributos físicos e na produtividade dos cultivos agrícolas de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto, localizado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os tratamentos contaram de quatro seqüências de culturas cultivadas de 19 [...] 98 a 2001: 1) sucessão trigo / soja; 2) rotação milho / aveia / milho+guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo; 3) rotação guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo / soja / aveia; e 4) rotação Crotalária / trigo / soja / aveia / milho / trigo. Em outubro de 2000 e de 2001, foram coletadas amostras de solo para determinar os atributos físicos do solo. Em todas as safras foi medida a produtividade das culturas. O Latossolo Vermelho cultivado com plantio direto apresenta um grau de compactação elevado, com densidade do solo acima e volume de macroporos abaixo do limite crítico para a classe textural muito argiloso. As maiores limitações ocorrem abaixo da camada de 0 a 0,03m, pois na camada mais superficial, apesar das pressões exercidas, a mobilização do solo nas operações de semeadura e adubação em linha aumenta a porosidade e reduz a densidade do solo. Nessa camada, houve maior volume de poros entre a saturação e a capacidade de campo, responsáveis pela aeração do solo, e entre a capacidade de campo e o ponto de murcha permanente, responsáveis pelo armazenamento da água disponível para as plantas. A introdução de plantas de cobertura a cada três anos não foi eficiente para reduzir a compactação. A produtividade das culturas foi influenciada positivamente na rotação com Crotalária, enquanto os demais sistemas não diferiram da sucessão de culturas. Abstract in english This study had as objective to evaluate the effects of crops succession and rotation on physical properties and crops yield on an Oxisol (clayey Haplortox) under no tillage system, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The treatments included four cropping sequences, used from 1998 to 2001: 1) success [...] ion wheat / soybean, 2) rotation corn / oat / corn+ Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat, 3) rotation Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat / soybean / oat, and 4) rotation Crotalaria juncea L. / wheat / soybean / oat / corn / wheat. In October of 2000 and 2001, soil samples were collected to determine physical properties. In all years, the crops yield was measured. The Oxisol cultivated under no-tillage had a high compaction degree, with soil bulk density greater and macroporosity smaller than the critical limit for clay texture. The largest limitations were observed below the layer of 0 to 0,03m, because in the uppermost layer soil mobilization by successive operations of fertilization and sowing increases soil porosity and reduces soil density. Thus, greater volume of pores is observed between soil saturation and field capacity, responsible for soil aeration, and between field capacity and wilting point, responsible for storage of plant available water. The use of cover crops once every three years was not efficient to reduce soil compaction. The yield of the subsequent crops was influenced positively in the rotation with Crotalaria juncea, while the other cropping systems did not differ from crop succession.

  12. Atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho e produtividade de culturas cultivadas em sucessão e rotação Physical properties of an Oxisol and crops yield under succession and rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Aymone Genro Junior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da sucessão e rotação de culturas nos atributos físicos e na produtividade dos cultivos agrícolas de um Latossolo Vermelho sob plantio direto, localizado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os tratamentos contaram de quatro seqüências de culturas cultivadas de 1998 a 2001: 1 sucessão trigo / soja; 2 rotação milho / aveia / milho+guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo; 3 rotação guandu anão / trigo / soja / trigo / soja / aveia; e 4 rotação Crotalária / trigo / soja / aveia / milho / trigo. Em outubro de 2000 e de 2001, foram coletadas amostras de solo para determinar os atributos físicos do solo. Em todas as safras foi medida a produtividade das culturas. O Latossolo Vermelho cultivado com plantio direto apresenta um grau de compactação elevado, com densidade do solo acima e volume de macroporos abaixo do limite crítico para a classe textural muito argiloso. As maiores limitações ocorrem abaixo da camada de 0 a 0,03m, pois na camada mais superficial, apesar das pressões exercidas, a mobilização do solo nas operações de semeadura e adubação em linha aumenta a porosidade e reduz a densidade do solo. Nessa camada, houve maior volume de poros entre a saturação e a capacidade de campo, responsáveis pela aeração do solo, e entre a capacidade de campo e o ponto de murcha permanente, responsáveis pelo armazenamento da água disponível para as plantas. A introdução de plantas de cobertura a cada três anos não foi eficiente para reduzir a compactação. A produtividade das culturas foi influenciada positivamente na rotação com Crotalária, enquanto os demais sistemas não diferiram da sucessão de culturas.This study had as objective to evaluate the effects of crops succession and rotation on physical properties and crops yield on an Oxisol (clayey Haplortox under no tillage system, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The treatments included four cropping sequences, used from 1998 to 2001: 1 succession wheat / soybean, 2 rotation corn / oat / corn+ Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat, 3 rotation Cajanus cajan L. Millsp / wheat / soybean / wheat / soybean / oat, and 4 rotation Crotalaria juncea L. / wheat / soybean / oat / corn / wheat. In October of 2000 and 2001, soil samples were collected to determine physical properties. In all years, the crops yield was measured. The Oxisol cultivated under no-tillage had a high compaction degree, with soil bulk density greater and macroporosity smaller than the critical limit for clay texture. The largest limitations were observed below the layer of 0 to 0,03m, because in the uppermost layer soil mobilization by successive operations of fertilization and sowing increases soil porosity and reduces soil density. Thus, greater volume of pores is observed between soil saturation and field capacity, responsible for soil aeration, and between field capacity and wilting point, responsible for storage of plant available water. The use of cover crops once every three years was not efficient to reduce soil compaction. The yield of the subsequent crops was influenced positively in the rotation with Crotalaria juncea, while the other cropping systems did not differ from crop succession.

  13. Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in integrated crop-livestock systems in subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system is an agricultural practice in which crop-pasture rotation is carried out in the same field over time. In Brasil, ICL associated with no-tillage farming is increasingly gaining importance as a soil use strategy that improves food production (grain, milk and beef) and economic returns to farmers. Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) is a recent modification of ICL in Brazil, with the inclusion of trees cultivation aiming at additional wood production and offering thermal comfort to livestock (Porfírio-da-Silva & Moraes, 2010). However, despite the increasing importance of ICL, little information is available on how this system may affect soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)

  14. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g-1and 7.36±1.0 μg g-1) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g-1 and 3.01± μg g-1) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates with plant growth promoting activity (nitrogen fixation, phosphate-solubilization, IAA production). Among these, the most predominant genera were Arthrobacter, Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Cyanobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. PMID:26121588

  15. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1) dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1) and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1)) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1) and 3.01± μg g(-1)) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates with plant growth promoting activity (nitrogen fixation, phosphate-solubilization, IAA production). Among these, the most predominant genera were Arthrobacter, Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Cyanobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. PMID:26121588

  16. NEW TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE - CROP SYSTEMS WITHOUT SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan GRAD; Camelia MĂNESCU; Mateoc, Teodor; Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied new system of agriculture - crop systems without soil. The culture systems without soil can be called also the hydroponic systems and now in Romania are not used only sporadically. In other countries (USA, Japan, the Netherlands, France, UK, Denmark, Israel, Australia, etc..) they represent the modern crop technology, widely applied to vegetables, fruits, fodder, medicinal plants and flowers by the experts in this area. In the world, today there are millions of hectares hydr...

  17. Lentil production in Germany : testing different mixed cropping systems, sowing dates and weed controls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lina

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of legume crop, lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) with their high nutritional value are grown mainly for human consumption in many regions of the world. The crop has benefits in crop rotation due to its symbiotic N-fixation, which is important especially in organic farming, and it can also increase crop biodiversity in arable land. In Europe, lentils are considered one of the popular leguminous food crops. However, the cultivation and scientific research on lentils were neglected in G...

  18. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  19. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E; Christensen, S; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2013-01-01

    In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...... aestivum L.) in four experimental cropping systems established in 1997 on three soil types. Three of the four systems were under organic management. Topsoil N, depth of the A horizon, and cumulated inputs of N since 1997 were determined at plot level. Labile soil N pools [mineral N, potentially...

  20. Crop Yields and Nematode Population Densities in Triticale-Cotton and Triticale-Soybean Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Dowler, C.C.; Baker, S H; Handoo, Z.A.

    1998-01-01

    Triticale cv. Beagle 82, cotton cv. McNair 235, and soybean cv. Twiggs were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage for 4 years. The cropping sequences were triticale (T)-cotton (C)-T-C, T-soybean (S)-T-S, and T-C-T-S. Numbers of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles declined on trificale but increased on cotton and soybean each year. Root-gall indices o...

  1. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  2. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg-1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg-1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg-1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  3. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John Roy; Schjønning, Per

    2010-01-01

    : total soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, microbial biomass N (MBN), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), and levels of potential ammonium oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA). In situ measurements of soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration and nitrous oxide emissions were...... crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha?1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application and......Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...

  4. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  5. Pesticide transfer models in crop and watershed systems : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mottes, Charles; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Le Bail, Marianne; MALEZIAUX, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are now occurring worldwide in almost all water resources, thus threatening the health of humans and other life. As a consequence, there is a strong social demand for designing safe cropping systems with less or no hazardous pesticides. Safe cropping systems can be designed now using pesticide transfer models. These models are mathematical tools that allow to predict the flow and concentration of pesticides in a field or a watershed. Here, we review the effects of agricultural prac...

  6. MODELIMG CROP PATTEN SYSTEM USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq A. Lone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural situations, farmers usually faced with the problem of how to allocate their limited production resources among cropping and livestock activities. Farmer's planners can offer effective techniques, such as linear programming (lp to address the problem and produce optimal solution. In this paper we have demonstrated that how a farmer who has limited resources such as farmers availability ,storage capacity and availability of land can be formulated as a linear programming having linear objective function with three constraints. The objective is to develop an understanding of utility of farmer's availability resources and then maximization of total profit. In our case we have selected two crops rice and corn, formulate the (lp problem and after solving through LINGO, the results showed that farmer obtained maximum profit using his resources.

  7. Models of cuspy triaxial stellar systems. IV: Rotating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, D D

    2016-01-01

    We built two self-consistent models of triaxial, cuspy, rotating stellar systems adding rotation to non-rotating models presented in previous papers of this series. The final angular velocity of the material is not constant and varies with the distance to the center and with the height over the equator of the systems, but the figure rotation is very uniform in both cases. Even though the addition of rotation to the models modifies their original semiaxes ratios, the final rotating models are considerably flattened and triaxial. An analysis of the orbital content of the models shows that about two thirds of their orbits are chaotic yet the models are very stable over intervals of the order of one Hubble time. The bulk of regular orbits are short axis tubes, while long axis tubes are replaced by tubes whose axes lie on the short-long axes plane, but do not coincide with the major axis. Other types of regular orbits that do not appear in non-rotating systems, like horseshoes and orbits that cross themselves, are...

  8. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and maintaining farm profitability with good weed control. PMID:27046141

  9. Using the DNDC model to compare soil organic carbon dynamics under different crop rotation and fertilizer strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, L.; Liang, Y.; Xue, Q.; Chen, C.; Lin, X.

    2014-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC) to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i) single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ii) in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security. (Author)

  10. Using the DNDC model to compare soil organic carbon dynamics under different crop rotation and fertilizer strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Mu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ⅱ in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security.

  11. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem (Andropogon geradii Vitman), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass [ Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.). Generally, the optimum rate of fertilization for biomass yield by the grasses was 140 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen inputs also had pronounced but grass-specific effects on biomass and nutrient partitioning, and on carbon storage. For big bluestem and switchgrass, 140 kg N ha -1. maximized root biomass, favored allocation of nutrients to roots over shoots, and led to net increases in carbon storage over the study duration. In contrast, for indiangrass and eastern gamagrass, root biomass and root nutrient allocation were generally adversely affected by N fertilization and carbon storage increased only with 0 or 65 kg N ha-1. For all grasses, 220 kg N ha -1 tended to shift allocation of nutrients to shoots over roots and resulted in no net increase in carbon storage. Optimal nitrogen management strategies for perennial, warm-season grass energy crops should take into consideration the effects of N on biomass yield as well as factors such as nutrient and carbon balance that will also impact economic feasibility and environmental sustainability.

  12. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO INCORPORATE BIOFUEL CROPS INTO CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beston Bille Maonga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.

  13. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed of north-west Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yield, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice ii Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i Tillage (crop residues removed and Tillage (crop residues retained and ii No-tillage (crop residues removed and No-tillage (crop residues retained. Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1 to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1 to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry conditions.

  14. Effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat crop productivity, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency and soil organic carbon status in dry area (rainfed) of north-west Pakistan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W, Mohammad; S. M, Shah; S, Shehzadi; S. A, Shah.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC), fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE) in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yi [...] eld, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i) Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice) ii) Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii) Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i) Tillage (crop residues removed) and Tillage (crop residues retained) and ii) No-tillage (crop residues removed) and No-tillage (crop residues retained). Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1) to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1) to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry) conditions.

  15. Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil carbon under short rotation forestry energy crops in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dondini, Marta; Jones, Edward O.; Richards, Mark; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca L.; Keith, Aidan M.; Perks, Mike P.; McNamara, Niall P.; Smith, Joanne U.; Smith, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the effects of land-use change to short rotation forestry (SRF) on soil C is an important requirement for fully assessing the C mitigation potential of SRF as a bioenergy crop. There is little current knowledge of SRF in the UK and in particular a lack of consistent measured datasets on the direct impacts of land use change on soil C stocks. The ECOSSE model was developed to simulate soil C dynamics and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in mineral and organic so...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Jörg, Lena; Kraus, David; Racela, Heathcliff S U; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Global rice agriculture will be increasingly challenged by water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from double-rice cropping to the introduction of upland crops in the dry season. For a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, we measured methane (CH4 )/nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and agronomic parameters over 2.5 years in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2 O emissions increased two- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction in CH4 led to a significantly lower (P balance but also with regard to soil fertility. Economic assessment showed a similar gross profit span for R-M and R-R, while gross profits for R-A were reduced as a consequence of lower productivity. Nevertheless, regarding a future increase in water scarcity, it can be expected that mixed lowland-upland systems will expand in SE Asia as water requirements were cut by more than half in both rotation systems with upland crops. PMID:26386203

  17. PEARL MILLET AS A ROTATION CROP FOR REDUCING NEMATODES AND SOIL-BORNE DISEASES IN PEANUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of pearl millet on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), stem rot, and Rhizoctonia limb rot when planted in rotation with peanut. The experiment was conducted in a field naturally infested with the nematode. Peanut was rotated with either two years ...

  18. Crop Rotation and N Input Effects on Soil Fertility, Maize Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Seed Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of maize (Zea mays L.) rotated annually with soybean (Glycine max merr.) is better than its yield in monoculture. To determine how maize would respond to rotations that includes wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under different levels of N input, we evaluated N fer...

  19. Rotation angle system of bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Houping; Feng, Guojin; Zheng, Chundi; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    This article described the rotation angle system of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement device. A high-precision multidimensional angle platform device is built. The rotation angle system uses two scanning rotational mechanical arms and a two-dimensional coaxial turntable mechanical structure, each rotational axis are driven by high-power motor and completed closed-loop control with high-precision encoder. Rotation of the motors can be automatically measured in accordance with point by the control software. The detecting arm can be rotated to measure any point in hemisphere space, the rotary range of light arm is +/- 90 °, the rotary range of sample stage is 360 ° and the angular resolution is 0.01°. The rotation angle system meets the absolute positioning hemisphere space requirements of BRDF device. The experimental result shows that the rotation angle system met the high-precision positioning requirements for the BRDF absolute measurement.

  20. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the highest expenses in beef cattle production. Senior research investigating the impact of livestock integration and multi-species cover crop grown within the crop rotation is studying changes in soil attributes resulting from the crop-animal integration by measuring bulk density and in-season soil fertility in the crop rotation. These responses are further contrasted with results from within the crop rotation and responses from perennial native range. Students that become engaged in the research represent a broad cross section of the consuming public and include high school junior and senior students, college undergraduate students that conduct research projects, postdoctoral research scientists engaged in senior level research, agricultural extension educators, and finally, farmer and rancher businessmen. The integrated nature of the research provides a wealth of learning opportunities for these various groups. For the high school students, visits to the living laboratory increase awareness and introduces students to a potential career path in agriculture, natural resource fields, and the many allied vocational fields that support agriculture. When college undergraduate students visit the living laboratory, they seek to address a researchable question or a problem in agriculture, while fulfilling requirements for graduation by conducting a research project. Because postdoctoral students want to be actively engaged in research and advanced learning, they are interested in conducting research in the living laboratory that can be published in peer reviewed journals. Agricultural extension educators, who advise farmers and ranchers, are looking for research results from the living laboratory that can be convey to their constituents. Farmers and ranchers participate in workshop events that give them face-to-face learning opportunities that they can use to effect change in their farm and ranch businesses. Each of these demographic groups are unique in their interest in the interaction between agricultural production and soil science. The authors will describe and discuss how each of these very different research consumers have been assisted during their experience and involvement in the living laboratory.

  1. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

  2. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM. In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4-soybean (C3 rotation system over the period 2001–2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12–27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13–61% compared to the without dynamic case.

  3. Assessment of factors influencing groundwater-level change using groundwater flow simulation, considering vertical infiltration from rice-planted and crop-rotated paddy fields in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yumi; Nakamura, Kimihito; Horino, Haruhiko; Kawashima, Shigeto

    2014-12-01

    Assessing factors that influence groundwater levels such as land use and pumping strategy, is essential to adequately manage groundwater resources. A transient numerical model for groundwater flow with infiltration was developed for the Tedori River alluvial fan (140 km2), Japan. The main water input into the groundwater body in this area is irrigation water, which is significantly influenced by land use, namely paddy and upland fields. The proposed model consists of two models, a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated-zone water flow model (HYDRUS-1D) for estimating groundwater recharge and a 3-D groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Numerical simulation of groundwater flow from October 1975 to November 2009 was performed to validate the model. Simulation revealed seasonal groundwater level fluctuations, affected by paddy irrigation management. However, computational accuracy was limited by the spatiotemporal data resolution of the groundwater use. Both annual groundwater levels and recharge during the irrigation periods from 1975 to 2009 showed long-term decreasing trends. With the decline in rice-planted paddy field area, groundwater recharge cumulatively decreased to 61 % of the peak in 1977. A paddy-upland crop-rotation system could decrease groundwater recharge to 73-98 % relative to no crop rotation.

  4. Effects of different cropping systems and weed management methods on free energy and content of pigments in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Spasojević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotation is a cropping system that has many advantages and ensures better crop growth and yielding. Its combinination with other cropping measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximal growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems: monoculture and two rotations, including maize, wheat and soybean (MSW and MWS, and different weed management methods (weed removal by hoeing, application of a full recommended herbicide dose (RD and half that dose (0.5 RD, and weedy check on weed biomass and maize growth parameters - leaf area index (LAI, free energy, contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, grain yield, and their possible relationships in two fields of the maize hybrids ZP 677 (H1 and ZP 606 (H2. The lowest LAI and grain yield were found in monoculture, particularly in weedy check, which had relatively high weed infestation. Higher weed biomass was also observed in herbicide treated plots in monoculture. Such high competition pressure indicates a stress reflected on reduced LAI and chlorophyll content, and increased free energy and content of carotenoids. On the other hand, rotation, particularly if it is combined with the application of herbicides or hoeing, had a positive impact on yielding potential by increasing LAI and the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and decreasing free energy.

  5. Productivity of winter rye in organic vs. Conventional cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja?a Jasmina M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye is a cereal which is very much demanded at the market, for making a special kind of bread, but it is little grown in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to investigate possibilities of organic growing of winter rye, comparing with the conventional one, in agroecological conditions of Valjevo hilly region during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 cropping seasons. The trial was set up in a village of Kotešica, on soil which had not been used for agriculture for 7 years. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertiliser baktofil with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Half of each plot was treated with foliar microbiological fertiliser Slavol during crop growing period. In conventional cropping system three variants with mineral fertilisers were included: NPK, NPK+zeolite, NPK+hydrogel. Results of the yield obtained in the experiment showed a significant difference between two seasons, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In comparison with the control, the treatments in an organic cropping system resulted with statistically insignificant differences for mean values in both years, while the mean in conventional cropping system has significantly higher yield of winter rye. Organic cropping system under conditions of Valjevo hilly region did not give significantly lower rye yield compared with the conventional one in a moderate growing season such was 2008/2009. The combination of soil microbiological fertiliser (Baktofil with foliar fertiliser (Slavol and zeolite gave the highest winter rye grain yield in all other treatments in the second year of investigation. In a very wet season (2009/2010 mineral fertiliser NPK showed an advantage, especially in combinations with zeolite, and this treatment can be recommended.

  6. Fate of nitrogen from mineral fertilizer and liquid manure over a two-year crop rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizer was used to gain a better understanding of fertilizer-N uptake by crops in the year of application, the immobilization of applied N in the soil, fertilizer N uptake by a subsequent crop, and fertilizer-N leaching to groundwater. Fertilizer-N-utilization values for winter wheat (planted in the first year) were 15 to 36%, and 27 to 63% of the applied N was immobilized in the soil. Losses of fertilizer N by leaching to groundwater were not significant. At harvest of the winter wheat, between 50% and 82% of applied fertilizer N was accounted for in total. Unaccounted-for N was probably lost by volatilization. Only a few kilograms of applied N were taken up by the succeeding cover crop and corn. (author)

  7. Relation between N fertilization and N{sub 2}O release in different crop rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeven, K.; Kohrs, K.; Schnug, E. [Federal Research Central Agency, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The influence of N-fertilization and crop species on the release of the greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O was investigated at two sites in northern Germany from June 1994 till October 1996. The N{sub 2}O release was measured daily. The results were correlated to the nitrate and ammonia content of the soil as well as to fertilizer type, crop species and soil moisture. The results of the investigations showed no effect of N-fertilizer type or crop species on the N{sub 2}O release. Main result of this work is that lowering the N fertilization to about 50% of the standard could reduce the N{sub 2}O release.

  8. Consequences for weed management in crop rotations by introducing imidazolinone-tolerant oilseed rape varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Krato, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    OSR (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important arable oil crops globally and is grown on an area of 31,680,945 ha as winter- and spring-sown varieties. The harvest is mainly used in human nutrition, animal feeding and as a renewable resource for the production of paints, varnishes and biodiesel. OSR can be considered a quite competitive crop but nonetheless weed control is carried out on the vast majority of the grown area. The most common treatments are done PRE-E or early POST-E, m...

  9. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  10. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on biodiversity of weed communities in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.

  11. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. MAKINDE; O.T. Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic m...

  12. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    –C–S–S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard ploughing, MP. Topsoil structural quality was...

  13. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    (Lolium perenne L.) – white clover (Trifolium repens L.) catch crop followed by a first crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and second crop of winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide L.). The rotation sequence was repeated twice. Natural 15N abundance techniques were used to determine grain legume...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing was...... observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop...

  14. Nitrogen abatement cost comparison for cropping systems under alternative management choices

    OpenAIRE

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for cost-effective methods to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for nitrate-nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed are evaluated using estimated crop yield and nitrate pollution production functions for alternative cropping systems. The cropping systems considered in this study included i) two grain corn-based cropping systems; ii) two potato-based cropping systems; and iii) a vegetable-horticulture system, managed under ...

  15. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  16. A STELLA Model to Estimate Water and Nitrogen Dynamics in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jiaen; Leininger, Theodor D; Frey, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Although short-rotation woody crop biomass production technology has demonstrated a promising potential to supply feedstocks for bioenergy production, the water and nutrient processes in the woody crop planation ecosystem are poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to estimate the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) species (e.g., NH-N, NO-N, particulate organic N, and soluble organic N [SON]) in a woody crop plantation using STELLA (tructural hinking and xperiential earning aboratory with nimation) software. A scenario was performed to estimate diurnal and monthly water and N variations of a 1-ha mature cottonwood plantation over a 1-yr simulation period. A typical monthly variation pattern was found for soil water evaporation, leaf water transpiration, and root water uptake, with an increase from winter to summer and a decrease from summer to the following winter. Simulations further revealed that the rate of soil water evaporation was one order of magnitude lower than that of leaf water transpiration. In most cases, the relative monthly water loss rates could be expressed as evapotranspiration > root uptake > percolation > runoff. Leaching of NO-N and SON depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. Leaching of NO-N from the cottonwood plantation was about two times higher than that of SON. The relative monthly rate of N leaching was NO-N > SON > NH-N. This study suggests that the STELLA model developed is a useful tool for estimating water and N dynamics from a woody crop plantation. PMID:25602335

  17. Influence of defects on the vibrations of rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high rotation speeds, the imperfections (cracks, anisotropy...) of rotating machinery of the energy sector lead to a specific vibratory behavior which can damage the machine. The simulation of rotating machinery are usually realized for systems without defect. The aim of this thesis is to understand the influence of defects and to propose an algorithm to predict the dynamical behavior. In a first part the author studies the simplified rotating oscillators to propose a numerical method in order to taking into account the dynamic of these systems. This method is then applied to real rotating machinery with the Cast3m software. The numerical results are validated with experiments. (A.L.B.)

  18. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more favored with application of 10 tons ha-1 organic fertilizer.

  19. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.

  20. SELF BALANCING SYSTEM FOR ROTATING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meraz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A self balancing system analysis is presented which utilizes freely moving balancing bodies (balls rotating in unison with a rotor to be balanced. Using Lagrange´s Equation, we derive the non-linear equations of motion for an autonomous system with respect to the polar coordinate system. From the equations of motion for the autonomous system, the equilibrium positions and the linear variational equations are obtained by the perturbation method. Because of resistance to motion, eccentricity of race over which the balancing bodies are moving and the influence of external vibrations, it is impossible to attain a complete balance. Based on the variational equations, the dynamic stability of the system in the neighborhood of the equilibrium positions is investigated. The results of the stability analysis provide the design requirements for the self balancing system.Se presenta el análisis de un sistema de autobalance el cual utiliza bolas libres de movimiento rotando con el rotor que será balanceado. Se usa la ecuación de Lagrange para derivar un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales para un sistema autónomo con respecto a un sistema de coordenadas polares. De las ecuaciones de movimiento, se obtienen ecuaciones linealizadas variacionalmente y posiciones de equilibrio por el método de perturbación. A causa de la resistencia al movimiento, la excentricidad y el movimiento de los cuerpos libres que son provocados por la influencia de vibraciones externas, hace imposible obtener un balanceo completo. Basado en el método variacional, se investiga el comportamiento dinámico del sistema en la frontera de la posición de equilibrio. Los resultados del análisis de estabilidad proveen los requerimientos de diseño para el sistema de autobalance.

  1. N, P, and K Budgets and Changes in Selected Topsoil Nutrients over 10 Years in a Long-Term Experiment with Conventional and Organic Crop Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Audun Korsaeth

    2012-01-01

    This study presents soil system budgets of N, P and K in six contrasting cropping systems during 10 years of a long-term experiment in southeast Norway. The experiment included systems with arable cash-cropping and with mixed arable-dairy cropping (cash- and fodder crops), with organic and conventional management represented in both groups. All major nutrient inputs and outputs were measured or estimated. State of the art conventional cash-cropping appeared to be balanced in terms of N, where...

  2. The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, Gianpasquale; Meriggi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays we are seeing the largest biodiversity loss since the extinction of the dinosaurs. To conserve biodiversity it is essential to plan protected areas using a prioritization approach, which takes into account the current biodiversity value of the sites. Considering that in the Mediterranean Basin the agro-ecosystems are one of the most important parts of the landscape, the conservation of crops is essential to biodiversity conservation. In the framework of agro-ecosystem conservation, farmland birds play an important role because of their representativeness, and because of their steady decline in the last Century in Western Europe. The main aim of this research was to define if crop dominated landscapes could be useful for biodiversity conservation in a Mediterranean area in which the landscape was modified by humans in the last thousand years and was affected by the important biogeographical phenomenon of peninsula effect. To assess this, we identify the hotspots and the coldspots of bird diversity in southern Italy both during the winter and in the breeding season. In particular we used a scoring method, defining a biodiversity value for each cell of a 1-km grid superimposed on the study area, using data collected by fieldwork following a stratified random sampling design. This value was analysed by a multiple linear regression analysis and was predicted in the whole study area. Then we defined the hotspots and the coldspots of the study area as 15% of the cells with higher and lower value of biodiversity, respectively. Finally, we used GAP analysis to compare hotspot distribution with the current network of protected areas. This study showed that the winter hotspots of bird diversity were associated with marshes and water bodies, shrublands, and irrigated crops, whilst the breeding hotspots were associated with more natural areas (e.g. transitional wood/shrubs), such as open areas (natural grasslands, pastures and not irrigated crops). Moreover, the results underlined the negative effects of permanent crops, such as vineyards, olive groves, and orchards, in particular during the winter season. This research highlights the importance of farmland areas mainly for wintering species and the importance of open areas for breeding species in the Mediterranean Basin. This may be true even when the species' spatial distribution could be affected by biogeography. An important result showed that the hotspots for breeding species cannot be used as a surrogate for the wintering species, which were often not considered in the planning of protected areas. PMID:26918960

  3. The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, Gianpasquale; Meriggi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays we are seeing the largest biodiversity loss since the extinction of the dinosaurs. To conserve biodiversity it is essential to plan protected areas using a prioritization approach, which takes into account the current biodiversity value of the sites. Considering that in the Mediterranean Basin the agro-ecosystems are one of the most important parts of the landscape, the conservation of crops is essential to biodiversity conservation. In the framework of agro-ecosystem conservation, farmland birds play an important role because of their representativeness, and because of their steady decline in the last Century in Western Europe. The main aim of this research was to define if crop dominated landscapes could be useful for biodiversity conservation in a Mediterranean area in which the landscape was modified by humans in the last thousand years and was affected by the important biogeographical phenomenon of peninsula effect. To assess this, we identify the hotspots and the coldspots of bird diversity in southern Italy both during the winter and in the breeding season. In particular we used a scoring method, defining a biodiversity value for each cell of a 1-km grid superimposed on the study area, using data collected by fieldwork following a stratified random sampling design. This value was analysed by a multiple linear regression analysis and was predicted in the whole study area. Then we defined the hotspots and the coldspots of the study area as 15% of the cells with higher and lower value of biodiversity, respectively. Finally, we used GAP analysis to compare hotspot distribution with the current network of protected areas. This study showed that the winter hotspots of bird diversity were associated with marshes and water bodies, shrublands, and irrigated crops, whilst the breeding hotspots were associated with more natural areas (e.g. transitional wood/shrubs), such as open areas (natural grasslands, pastures and not irrigated crops). Moreover, the results underlined the negative effects of permanent crops, such as vineyards, olive groves, and orchards, in particular during the winter season. This research highlights the importance of farmland areas mainly for wintering species and the importance of open areas for breeding species in the Mediterranean Basin. This may be true even when the species’ spatial distribution could be affected by biogeography. An important result showed that the hotspots for breeding species cannot be used as a surrogate for the wintering species, which were often not considered in the planning of protected areas. PMID:26918960

  4. Soil, Maize Crop, and Kernel Composition Responses to Rotation and N Fertilizer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize can utilize nitrogen (N) from inorganic fertilizers as well as from mineralized organic sources. We were interested in how maize responds to rotations that contain legumes. The objective of this 2-yr field investigation conducted on a long-term field study (started in 1990) was to measure effe...

  5. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    OpenAIRE

    A.F Belo; L.S. Dias

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  6. Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettiol Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum and corn (Zea mays crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.

  7. Diagnostic system based on vibration measurement for rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale electric power plants have a number of rotating machines which occupy important positions in the plant system. Therefore, respective users assign several countermeasures to improve their reliability and availability. Especially, the maintenance of rotating machines for efficient operation as well as the promotion and strengthening of precautions for safety have now become system requirements. In the above context, we have developed a machinery diagnostic system for rotating machinery, fully utilizing the experience and technology that we have so for developed. This paper introduces the various diagnostic systems for rotating machines. (author)

  8. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  9. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1985. [Sycamore, alders, black locust, larch, poplars, saltbush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.; Trimble, J.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report covers the progress of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) during the third quarter of fiscal year 1985. This report summarizes ORNL management activities, technical activities at ORNL and subcontract institutions, and the technology transfer that is occurring as a result of subcontractor and ORNL activities. Third-year results of a nutrient utilization study confirmed that there were no benefits to quarterly fertilization with urea nitrogen. Testing of one prototype short-rotation intensive culture harvester was conducted on a sycamore plantation on Scott Paper Company land in southern Alabama. Coppice yields of European black alder reported by Iowa State University indicate potential productivity of about 7.2 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ if the best trees are selected. Coppice yields were more than double first-rotation yields. About 31,000 black locust and larch trees were established in 12 genetic tests at 4 sites in Michigan. Seedling rotation productivity rates of 4-year-old hybrid poplar, based on harvest data, were reported by Pennsylvania State University. Rates varied from 4.8 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ to 10.7 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/, depending on site, management strategy, and planting year. An efficient method for in vitro micropropagation of elite genotypes of fourwing saltbush was developed by Plant Resources Institute. A new study to evaluate yield/density relationships was established by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Dissertation research on the crown geometry of plantation-grown American sycamore was completed.

  10. Present and potential weed infestation of spring cereals in different cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigations on the weed infestation and vertical distribution of weed seed bank in rendzina under spring cereals cultivation in crop rotations and monoculture. Used herbicides (MCPA and fenoxaprop-P-etylu decreased the number of weeds and species composition in comparison with harrowing. In the soil layer of 0-25 cm used in the monoculture there was found about 22,9% weed seeds more than in crop rotation. In the canopy of spring cereals the following weeds dominated: in crop rotation - Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli and Veronica persica; and in monoculture - Stellaria media, Galium aparine and Chenopodium album. In the soil layer of 0-25 cm used in crop rotation and monoculture the following weed seeds dominated : Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Stellaria media.

  11. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  12. Nitrogen dynamics in integrated crop-livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture has been utterly transformed by the availability of manufactured fertilizers that are inexpensive and easy to transport and handle. Fertilizers severed the need for livestock and poultry manure in crop production. Improved transport systems have allowed farmers to utilize distant markets...

  13. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  14. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N2O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO2 eq. MJbiomassproduced-1. Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits

  15. Slip systems, lattice rotations and dislocation boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    Plastic deformation by slip induces rotations of the crystallographic lattice and evolution of dislocation structures. Both lattice rotations and dislocation structures exhibit a dependence on the grain orientation, which reflects underlying relations to the slip pattern. Relations between the type...... tension. The grain orientations, for which the relations do not hold in tension, are also the grain orientations where the deviation between lattice rotations observed by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) during tension deviate the most from those predicted with the Taylor model. The origin of...

  16. Rotating Camera System for Propeller and Rotor Blade Deformation Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Fritz; Stasicki, Boleslaw; Szypula, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU project AIM² project a rotating stereoscopic camera system was designed, build and successfully flight tested in order to apply the non-intrusive Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) to 360° propeller deformation measurements. The complete system was affixed to the axis of the aircraft engine rotating together with the propeller at its full rotational speed. It enabled the direct measurement of the propeller blades shape as well as its local pitch angle under real operatin...

  17. Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Giraud, D.; Etter, S.; Riddle, L. J.; Anderson, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation...

  18. Changes in bird community composition in response to growth changes in short-rotation woody crop planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid poplar established as intensively managed short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) on former agricultural lands can provide habitat for wildlife. Studies of bird use of SRWC for nesting and during fall migration have shown that the numbers and kinds of breeding birds using mature plantings of hybrid poplar are similar to natural forested lands. In Minnesota, the number of species of breeding birds using habitat provided by clonal-trial plantings and young larger-scale plantings (12-64 ha) of hybrid poplar were initially most similar to those using grasslands and row-crops. As the plantings approached canopy closure, successional species became predominant. In the Pacific Northwest, breeding bird composition and density were very similar for mature plantings and forested areas; however, fall migrants were found primarily in forested areas. In the Southeast, preliminary comparisons of breeding bird use of plantings of sweetgum and sycamore with naturally regenerating forests of different ages and sizes and vegetation structure are showing no size effect on use. As with hybrid poplar, species use of the more mature plantings of sweetgum and sycamore was most similar to that of natural forests. (author)

  19. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarath Kumar; B. S. Prabhu

    2000-01-01

    Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that tim...

  20. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N140 P100 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N140 P100 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg-1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg-1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg-1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg-1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  3. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  4. Soil/plant nutrition in lowland cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming system approaches have led to rapid changes in agricultural systems in Asia and the Pacific. They have increased food and other agricultural commodities as well as developing awareness of scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation and dissemination of new agricultural technology. This paper reviews and summarizes recent research and technology on soil/plant nutrition with emphasis on nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur in rice-based lowland cropping systems in Asia and the Pacific region. It mainly focuses on the application of isotopes 15N, 32P and 35S in such studies, but some current research using conventional methods is also covered. A search of the literature shows that technology studies have mostly concentrated on identifying improved varieties for short duration rice, improving tillage practices, pest and weed management. Research in soil/plant nutrition in rice-based cropping systems particularly using isotopes, is limited. (author). 51 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Rotating Disk Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V

    2009-01-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid- body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than unity. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industr

  6. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Brito Lisboa; Cimélio Bayer; Luciane Maria Pereira Passaglia; Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira Camargo; Anelise Beneduzi; Adriana Ambrosini; Luciano Kayser Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were ...

  7. Adaptation strategies of Mediterranean cropping systems to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mula, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The EPIC simulation model was used to assess the impact of climate change (CC) on intensive and extensive Mediterranean forage systems to study the effects of CC and adaptation strategies. The intensive cropping system (corn silage – Italian ryegrass) is linked to dairy cattle farms. As first step the EPIC model was calibrated based on experimental data. After calibration the EPIC model was used to perform simulations with different climate scenarios (present and future climate) with diffe...

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing analysis of short rotation woody crops grown with controlled nutrient and irrigation treatments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jungho; Jensen, John R.; Coleman, Mark; Nelson, Eric

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Hyperspectral remote sensing research was conducted to document the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of controlled forest plots subjected to various nutrient and irrigation treatments. The experimental plots were located on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. AISA hyperspectral imagery were analysed using three approaches, including: (1) normalized difference vegetation index based simple linear regression (NSLR), (2) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (3) machine-learning regression trees (MLRT) to predict the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the crops (leaf area index, stem biomass and five leaf nutrients concentrations). The calibration and cross-validation results were compared between the three techniques. The PLSR approach generally resulted in good predictive performance. The MLRT approach appeared to be a useful method to predict characteristics in a complex environment (i.e. many tree species and numerous fertilization and/or irrigation treatments) due to its powerful adaptability.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing analysis of short rotation woody crops grown with controlled nutrient and irrigation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jungho; Jensen, John R.; Coleman, Mark; Nelson, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Abstract - Hyperspectral remote sensing research was conducted to document the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of controlled forest plots subjected to various nutrient and irrigation treatments. The experimental plots were located on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. AISA hyperspectral imagery were analysed using three approaches, including: (1) normalized difference vegetation index based simple linear regression (NSLR), (2) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (3) machine-learning regression trees (MLRT) to predict the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the crops (leaf area index, stem biomass and five leaf nutrients concentrations). The calibration and cross-validation results were compared between the three techniques. The PLSR approach generally resulted in good predictive performance. The MLRT approach appeared to be a useful method to predict characteristics in a complex environment (i.e. many tree species and numerous fertilization and/or irrigation treatments) due to its powerful adaptability.

  10. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  11. Impact of shortened crop rotation of oilseed rape on soil and rhizosphere microbial diversity in relation to yield decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sally; Bennett, Amanda J; Keane, Gary; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Stobart, Ron; Mills, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR) grown in monoculture shows a decline in yield relative to virgin OSR of up to 25%, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. A long term field experiment of OSR grown in a range of rotations with wheat was used to determine whether shifts in fungal and bacterial populations of the rhizosphere and bulk soil were associated with the development of OSR yield decline. The communities of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soil from the field experiment were profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and sequencing of cloned internal transcribed spacer regions and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. OSR cropping frequency had no effect on rhizosphere bacterial communities. However, the rhizosphere fungal communities from continuously grown OSR were significantly different to those from other rotations. This was due primarily to an increase in abundance of two fungi which showed 100% and 95% DNA identity to the plant pathogens Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, respectively. Real-time PCR confirmed that there was significantly more of these fungi in the continuously grown OSR than the other rotations. These two fungi were isolated from the field and used to inoculate OSR and Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse to determine their effect on yield. At high doses, Olpidium brassicae reduced top growth and root biomass in seedlings and reduced branching and subsequent pod and seed production. Pyrenochaeta sp. formed lesions on the roots of seedlings, and at high doses delayed flowering and had a negative impact on seed quantity and quality. PMID:23573215

  12. Planting dates for multiple cropping of biofuel feedstock and specialty crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is necessary to determine planting and harvesting windows in order to develop production systems for biofuel feedstock and specialty crops in rotation. The biodiesel feedstock crops Canola and Sunflower; and the bioethanol feedstock crops Sorghum and Sweet corn were established at various dates ...

  13. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  14. Energy and climate benefits of bioelectricity from low-input short rotation woody crops on agricultural land over a two-year rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A full energy and GHG balance of bioelectricity from SRWC was performed. • Bioelectricity was efficient; it reduced GHG by 52–54% relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix. • Bioelectricity required 1.1 m2 of land kWh−1; land conversion released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha−1. • SRWC reduced GHG emission when producing electricity during the 1st rotation period. - Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are a promising means to enhance the EU renewable energy sources while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are concerns that the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity may be nullified due to GHG emissions from direct land use changes (dLUCs). In order to evaluate quantitatively the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity from SRWC we managed an operational SRWC plantation (18.4 ha) for bioelectricity production on a former agricultural land without supplemental irrigation or fertilization. We traced back to the primary energy level all farm labor, materials, and fossil fuel inputs to the bioelectricity production. We also sampled soil carbon and monitored fluxes of GHGs between the SRWC plantation and the atmosphere. We found that bioelectricity from SRWCs was energy efficient and yielded 200–227% more energy than required to produce it over a two-year rotation. The associated land requirement was 0.9 m2kWhe-1 for the gasification and 1.1 m2kWhe-1 for the combustion technology. Converting agricultural land into the SRWC plantation released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha−1, which represented ∼89% of the total GHG emissions (256–272 g CO2e kWhe-1) of bioelectricity production. Despite its high share of the total GHG emissions, dLUC did not negate the GHG benefits of bioelectricity. Indeed, the GHG savings of bioelectricity relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix power ranged between 52% and 54%. SRWC on agricultural lands with low soil organic carbon stocks are encouraging prospects for sustainable production of renewable energy with significant climate benefits

  15. The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Z. M.; Taylor, G.; Alberti, G.; Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimised. Initial analyses included an extensive literature review and meta-analysis with a focus on the effects of land-use change to bioenergy on soil carbon and GHGs. This data mining exercise allowed us to understand the current state of the literature and identify key areas of research which needed to be addressed. Significant knowledge gaps were identified, with particular uncertainty around transitions from grasslands and transitions to short rotation forestry. A paired site experiment was established on a commercial SRC willow plantation and grassland to measure soil and ecosystem respiration. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transition to SRC bioenergy willow will potentially result in increased soil carbon, in the long-term. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas, and for considering future climate scenarios. The spatial modelling outputs will be used to build a modelling tool for non-specialist users which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI).

  16. Fibre Optic System for Monitoring Rotational Seismic Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kurzych; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Zbigniew Krajewski; Teisseyre, Krzysztof P.; Kowalski, Jerzy K.

    2014-01-01

    We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS), which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operatio...

  17. In vitro mutation system for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology based on plant tissue culture is complementary to conventional breeding technologies, not a substitute for them. Effective incorporation of new biotechnologies into plant breeding programmes is dependent on the plant species and the breeding objectives. Tissue culture techniques that ensure genetic stability (e.g. shoot tip and nodal cultures) are particularly useful for in vitro mutation induction and mutant plant regeneration. Direct organogenesis of adventitious buds and/or somatic embryogenesis on cultured explants offers a unique potential to dissolve chimerism and to produce homohistont mutants. In mutation breeding, non-heritable somaclonal variation should be avoided in order to minimize complications in the selection and genetic stability of mutants. Application of mutagens during in vitro culture requires certain modification, depending on the explant and the mutagen used. The advantages are large populations of individuals (propagula, cells and tissue) which can be treated before regeneration into intact plants. Experience with plant tissue culture shows several disadvantages in this system of mutation breeding. The main limitations are inadequate techniques for early screening and in vitro selection. Too little is known about the plant developmental processes and host-pathogen interaction to permit the breeder to design an effective means of selecting desirable mutants. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs

  18. Rotating pressure measuring system for turbine cooling investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, F. G.; Liebert, C. H.; Peterson, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a 10-channel rotating pressure measuring system capable of operation to speeds of 9000 rpm at transducer temperatures of about 320 K (120 F) is described. Variable-reluctance pressure transducers were mounted in the rotating system for sensing pressure. Rotating performance tests on a spin rig showed that the output data from 7 of the 10 transducers tested were within a desired system error of 3 percent. However, the error of the output data from three other transducers was as large as 8 percent of 9000 rpm. It was concluded from these test results that a rotating screening method was necessary to evaluate each pressure transducer channel within a system that will be used under rotating conditions.

  19. Multiple-cylindrical Electrode System for Rotational Electric Field Generation in Particle Rotation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Benhal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip micro-devices utilizing electric field-mediated particle movement provide advantages over current cell rotation techniques due to the flexibility in configuring micro-electrodes. Recent technological advances in micro-milling, three-dimensional (3D printing and photolithography have facilitated fabrication of complex micro-electrode shapes. Using the finite-element method to simulate and optimize electric field induced particle movement systems can save time and cost by simplifying the analysis of electric fields within complex 3D structures. Here we investigated different 3D electrode structures to obtain and analyse rotational electric field vectors. Finite-element analysis was conducted by an electric current stationary solver based on charge relaxation theory. High-resolution data were obtained for three-, four-, six- and eight-cylindrical electrode arrangements to characterize the rotational fields. The results show that increasing the number of electrodes within a fixed circular boundary provides larger regions of constant amplitude rotational electric field. This is a very important finding in practice, as larger rotational regions with constant electric field amplitude make placement of cells into these regions, where cell rotation occurs, a simple task – enhancing flexibility in cell manipulation. Rotation of biological particles over the extended region would be useful for biotechnology applications which require guiding cells to a desired location, such as automation of nuclear transfer cloning.

  20. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN

  1. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, I.

    1996-09-18

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN.

  2. Suspension System Provides Independent Translation And Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Spring suspension provides one translational and one rotational degree of freedom. Suspension used to provide for pitching and plunging movements of airfoil in wind tunnel. Translational freedom provided by two thin, flat steel spring tines, clamped at one end to stationary block fixed to ceiling of wind tunnel, and clamped to movable block at other end.

  3. Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse–momentum equation (Poinsot–Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work–energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed. (paper)

  4. Thermodynamics in rotating systems -- analysis of selected examples

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with the Newton's second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an `angular' impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a `rotational' pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.

  5. Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2014-01-01

    We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.

  6. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, Igor V. [MBtech Powertrain GmbH, Fellbach-Schmiden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat-and-mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid-body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than one. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industrial R and D engineers, university lecturers and graduate/postgraduate students working in the area of rotating-disk systems. (orig.)

  7. Smart biologics for crop protection in agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    BAYSAL, Ömür; TÖR, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Crop losses caused by insects, pests, and pathogens remain one of the major problems in sustainable agriculture. Environmental and health concerns regarding the overuse of pesticides, and the impacts of climate change on epidemics are immediate pressing issues. In addition, the breakdown of plant resistance by pathogen populations brings limitations to the genetic control of diseases. Biologics can be effective in all types of agricultural systems including organic, sustainable, and conventio...

  8. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio Andújar; Roland Gerhards; Martin Weis

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance ...

  9. Slip systems, dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    2009-01-01

    of the mechanical anisotropy of rolled sheets. The rotation of the crystallographic lattice in each grain during deformation also exhibits grain orientation dependence, originating from the slip systems. A combined analysis of dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations concludes that the two...

  10. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, H.; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the most important crop production regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To better describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth, the crop phenology and physiology scheme of the SiBcrop model was coupled with the Simple Biosphere model version 2 (SiB2) for simulating crop phenology,...

  11. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Short-Rotation Energy Crops in Hungary: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Rédei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the establishment of short-rotation tree plantations for fuel production has been of international interest for many years. In this context, in Hungary, these plantations have been conducted for a long time. In this country, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is one of the most important stand-forming tree species, covering approximately 23% of the forested land (410 000 ha and providing about 19% of the annual timber output. This paper describes an experimental energy plantation that was established in Helvécia (Central-Hungary, sand-soil region using common black locust and its improved cultivars. The site may be considered as representative of an average yield class for black locust in Hungary. The experimental plantation was established with a spacing of 1.5 m x 1.0 m and included common black locust and two cultivars, 'Üllői' and 'Jászkiséri, as well as a plot regenerated by coppice. At the age of 7, the highest annual increment in stem oven-dry mass was produced by the cultivar 'Üllői' (9.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 followed by the common black locust (8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and the cultivar 'Jászkiséri (7.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1. In the plot of coppice origin, dendromass ranged from 6 to 8 Mg ha-1 yr-1 on an average.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  13. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  14. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  15. ROMADIS - A rotating machinery diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the PC-based software package ROMADIS developed for the rotating machinery diagnosis. It contains advanced signal processing techniques for extracting multi-features from the time records and uses a modified decision tree technique for the knowledge acquisition, the knowledge representation and the failure diagnosis process. It is user-friendly programmed and the diagnostic results are very easy to be verified. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  16. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Marques; Fátima, Baptista; Luis Leopoldo, Silva; Dina, Murcho; Maurícia, Rosado.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and [...] no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  17. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  18. Plant nutrient and water balance studies under legume-cereal rotation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year cycle of crop rotation experiments with at least three main treatments of cereal-cereal, legume-cereal and fallow-cereal treatments was outlined. The water balance approach was utilized to estimate crop water consumption and to compare different crop rotation systems, in view of water conservation and of increasing efficient use of scarcely available water under rainfed areas of Middle-Eastern Countries, with low and erratic rainfall characteristics. The use of the neutron scattering technique was recommended for easy monitoring of changes in soil water storage, as one of the key field data required in the water balance equation. The use of 15N-labelled fertilizers provided a unique tool allowing to separately study the behaviour of N-fertilizer as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N was possible. Also, the use of labelled N allowed to quantify the amount of biologically fixed N2. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. A methodological approach for deriving regional crop rotations as basis for the assessment of the impact of agricultural strategies using soil erosion as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Fürst, Christine; Thiel, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties in crop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way. In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques. Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony. PMID:23751946

  20. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    Sources of soil organic matter (SOM) input to the soil in agro-ecosystems are typically crop residues. The question arises how removing crop residues from a field influences soil carbon sequestration. We investigated four long-term maize and grass dominant cropping systems each with a different residue management. Under silage maize (SM) all stover is removed from the field and only a stubble remains, whereas under grain maize (GM) only the grains are harvested and all stover is returned to the soil. Fields with a history of at least 15 consecutive years of either SM (with or without a second annual crop of Italian ryegrass) or GM, and fields under permanent grass were selected from a geodatabase that covers 15 years of crop rotation for all of the ca. 500,000 agricultural fields in Flanders. For each cropping system 10 fields were sampled (40 in total) following the area-frame randomized soil sampling (AFRSS) protocol (Stolbovoy et al., 2007). For 6 out of 10 fields only the topsoil was sampled (0-30 cm), whereas for the 4 other fields both topsoil and subsoil (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) were sampled. The total soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content and the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) were determined for each soil sample. From each field 1 topsoil sample was fractionated by the Zimmermann fractionation procedure (Zimmermann et al., 2007) which distinguishes between 5 different SOC fractions (POM, DOC, silt and clay associated SOC, chemically resistant SOC, SOC associated with sand fraction). Besides analysis of the SOC and nitrogen content of each fraction, the origin of the carbon was determined through isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Although there was no significant difference between SM and GM regarding the total SOC stock for the upper 30 cm (ca. 75 à 80 Mg C.ha-1), fields under continuous GM contained in the 0-30 cm layer 60% more maize-derived C4-SOC as compared to fields under continuous SM (ca. 14 and 9 Mg C.ha-1 respectively). Significant differences could also be demonstrated for the carbon fractions of soils with different cropping histories. Each fraction of a GM-topsoil contained significantly more C4-SOC as compared to a SM-topsoil (with or without a second annual crop) with the sizes of the fractions being equal. The more labile POM- en DOC-fractions accounted for the biggest part of the maize C4-SOC detected in the bulk sample, whereas the silt and clay associated SOC and chemically resistant SOC consisted mainly out of old grass C3-SOC. For the deeper soil layers no significant differences could be demonstrated between GM and SM, neither for the total SOC stock nor for the C4-SOC stock. Our results suggest that the soils with maize cropping systems in Flanders are near carbon saturation, such that crop residue management does not influence the total amount, but rather the quality of the carbon sequestered. Stolbovoy, V., Montanarella, L., Filippi, N., Jones, A., Gallego, J., and Grassi, G. (2007). Soil sampling protocol to certify the changes of organic carbon stock in mineral soil of the European Union. Version 2. EUR 21576 EN/2. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 56p. Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M.W.I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J. (2007). Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 658-667.

  1. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  2. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  3. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  4. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: A strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fumagalli; Comolli, R.; Ferrè, C; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; S. Citterio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to- seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as in...

  5. An expert system for vibration based diagnostics of rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very often changes in the mechanical condition of the rotating machinery can be observed as changes in its vibration. This paper presents an expert system for vibration-based diagnosis of rotating machines by describing the architecture of the developed prototype system. The importance of modelling the problem solving knowledge as well as the domain knowledge is emphasized by presenting the knowledge in several levels

  6. Soil Organic Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils: the combined impact of no tillage continuous cropping and no tillage crop-pasture rotation on the level of soil organic carbon in the unfractionated soil and three size fractions and on the C:N ratio in an Uruguayan Agriudoll.

    OpenAIRE

    Zierfuss, T.

    2014-01-01

    Sequestration of atmospheric carbon in agricultural soils in the form of soil organic carbon (SOC) can help fight climate change and improve soil fertility. This can be achieved by changing current agricultural management practices to new practices that store more carbon in the soil. Two promising practices are no-tillage and crop pasture rotation. This thesis evaluated the combined effect of these two practices by comparing no-tillage continuous cropping, no-tillage crop pasture rotation wit...

  7. Impacts of Organic Zero Tillage Systems on Crops, Weeds, and Soil Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick M. Carr; Liebig, Mark A.; Gramig, Greta G.

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress ...

  8. Magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids in rotating seal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbath, T; Borbath, I; Boros, T [Roseal Corporation, Nicolae Balcescu street, no. 5/A, Odorheiu Secuiesc, 535600 (Romania); Bica, D; Vekas, L [Lab. Magnetic Fluids, Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Timisoara Division (LMF-CFATR-RATD) Mihai Viteazul Bvd., no. 24, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania); Potencz, I, E-mail: office@roseal.topnet.r [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University Politehnica Timisoara, Mihai Viteazul Bvd., no. 1, Timisoara, 300222 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Recent results are presented concerning the development of magnetofluidic leakage-free rotating seals for vacuum and high pressure gases, evidencing significant advantages compared to mechanical seals. The micro-pilot scale production of various types of magnetizable sealing fluids is shortly reviewed, in particular the main steps of the chemical synthesis of magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids with light hydrocarbon, mineral oil and synthetic oil carrier liquids. The behavior of different types of magnetizable fluids in the rotating sealing systems is analyzed. Design concepts, some constructive details and testing procedures of magnetofluidic rotating seals are presented such as the testing equipment. The main characteristics of several magnetofluidic sealing systems and their applications will be presented: vacuum deposition systems and liquefied gas pumps applications, mechanical and magnetic nanofluid combined seals, gas valves up to 40 bar equipped by rotating seal with magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids.

  9. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, H.; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simula...

  10. Interacting galaxies: co-rotating and counter-rotating systems with tidal tails

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa, Valeria; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego G

    2013-01-01

    We analyse interacting galaxy pairs with evidence of tidal features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). The pairs were selected within $z<0.1$ by requiring a projected separation $r_p < 50 \\kpc$ and relative radial velocity $\\Delta V < 500 \\kms$. We complete spectroscopic pairs using galaxies with photometric redshifts considering $\\Delta V_{phot} < 6800 \\kms$, taking into account the mean photometric redshift uncertainty. We classify by visual inspection pairs of spirals into co-rotating and counter-rotating systems. For a subsample of non-AGN galaxies, counter-rotating pairs have larger star formation rates, and a higher fraction of young, star-forming galaxies. These effects are enhanced by restricting to $r_p < 12 \\kpc$. The distributions of $C$, $D_n(4000)$ and $(M_u-M_r)$ for AGN galaxies show that counter-rotating hosts have bluer colours and younger stellar population than the co-rotating galaxies although the relative fractions of Seyfert, Liner, Composite and Am...

  11. INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS IN ROTATION ON IMPROVING OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) YIELD AND SUPPRESSING PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of growing and incorporating summer cover crops on subsequent vegetable crop production and on population densities of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated in field and pot experiments at Homestead, Florida. The cover crops utilized in the field and pot exper...

  12. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mulianga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014 to characterize cropping practices. To map the crop type and harvest mode we used ground survey and factory data over 1280 fields, digitized field boundaries, and spectral indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI were computed for all Landsat images. The results showed NDVI classified crop type at 83.3% accuracy, while NDWI classified harvest mode at 90% accuracy. The crop map will inform better planning decisions for the sugar industry operations, while the harvest mode map will be used to plan for sensitizations forums on best management and environmental practices.

  13. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  14. Machine protection system for rotating equipment and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimha, Arkalgud N. (Marietta, GA); Rucigay, Richard J. (Marietta, GA); Ozgur, Dincer (Kennesaw, GA)

    2003-01-01

    A machine protection system and method for rotating equipment introduces new alarming features and makes use of full proximity probe sensor information, including amplitude and phase. Baseline vibration amplitude and phase data is estimated and tracked according to operating modes of the rotating equipment. Baseline vibration and phase data can be determined using a rolling average and variance and stored in a unit circle or tracked using short term average and long term average baselines. The sensed vibration amplitude and phase is compared with the baseline vibration amplitude and phase data. Operation of the rotating equipment can be controlled based on the vibration amplitude and phase.

  15. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Mulianga; Agnès Bégué; Pascal Clouvel; Pierre Todoroff

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014) to characterize c...

  16. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring; Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures...... low manure input than others, variety mixtures that give a robust and stable organic production may potentially be developed....

  17. Classification of the field drainage and wetness by using aerial photographs in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsuko, Fuchiyama; Takeshi, Ota; Michikazu, Fukuhara

    2013-04-01

    Information about field drainage/wetness is useful for farmers to plan field management in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field. Wet injury is a loss to farmers in upland crop farming, experience is the most common way of approaching this risk. In this study, we propose to provide efficient and objective classify and mapping method of such field drainage information using aerial photography. Study area (500 ha) is located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. In this area, we acquired multitemporalaerial photographs (ADS40) three times after the rain on winter. Digital Number (DN) of Blue, Green, Red and Near Infrared band were used to analyze. To analyze the relationship between each band DN and soil moisture, mass soil water content of 0-5cm depth was determined using the 100ml core sample at 22 sites on shooting date. And to verify our classification of the drainage and wetness, volumetric soil water content was monitored using TDR sensor (Decagon, ECH2O) at 5cm, 10cm and 20 cm depth at 16 sites. First, optimum band was selected from correlation analysis of mass soil water content and DN. Next, optimum band DN of three aerial photographs at field area was grouped by cluster analysis (ISODATA method). We found a good positive correlation between mass soil water content and red band DN, by selecting optimum bands. 17 groups were found from cluster analysis using three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions. After that, we classified them into five levels of field drainage based on red band DN values. We generated maps of drainage/wetness based on these results. We compared volumetric soil water content at the monitoring site for the "Dry" and "Wet" points, water was drained quickly at the "Dry" site but it needed more than 1 week the volume soil water content back to revert before rain at the "Wet" site. By the result, we positively verified our classification. We used three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions as proxy of top soil moisture content. It is thought to be an indication of drainage/wetness. Generally, estimating soil water content at field scale from a remote sensing data was difficult. But this method can classify the study area relatively. We think it is enough as a soil information for farmers.

  18. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, H.; D. Yang; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Shen

    2010-01-01

    The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simulate crop phenology,...

  19. Abandoned lands and tree crops on short rotations : a favourable combination for energy; Les terres abandonnees et les cultures d`arbres sur courtes rotations : une conjoncture favorable pour l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Short-rotation intensive culture on abandoned farmlands has successfully been used in Sweden to produce woody biomass as an energy source. Because of changing economic conditions, it is estimated that 33,000 hectares of farmland are abandoned every year in Quebec. Although it is impractical to use these lands for conventional farming crops, they are nevertheless well-suited for tree plantations. Results of a study to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in Quebec were discussed. Three plantations of one hectare each were established on abandoned farmlands 90 km southwest of Montreal for this pilot study. Salix discolor and Salix viminalis were planted in fertilized and non-fertilized plots. A detailed analysis of costs for planting, maintaining, and harvesting the crop was conducted over a period of three years. Results demonstrate that the economic and soil conditions in southern Quebec make wood biomass a profitable crop on abandoned farmlands. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Diagnostic system based on vibration measurement for rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale electric power plants are equipped with a number of the rotating machines which occupy important positions in the plant system. Therefore, respective users assign several countermeasure to improve their reliability and availability as well, among which the maintenance of such equipment for efficient operation as well as the promotion and strengthening of precautions for safety have now become system requirements. In the above context, we have developed a machinery diagnostic system for rotating machinery, fully utilizing the experience and technology that we have so far developed. This paper indroduces this machinery diagnostic system which was installed at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant of Japan Atomic Power Company. (author)

  1. Development test procedure for the ground demonstration system rotating seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test procedure provides a detailed description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) rotating seals of the Combined Rotating Unit (CRU) assembly to fulfill the requirements of the Ground Demonstration System design criteria. The test ojectives are to characterize seal performance so that data can be used for seal configuration selection and system performance evaluation during Ground Demonstration System (GDS) testing. The various configurations that will be tested and their test parameters are shown

  2. Visual Servoed Three-Dimensional Cell Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenan; Latt, Win Tun; Tan, Steven Yih Min; Ang, Wei Tech

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) positioning and orientation of embryos/oocytes is necessary to facilitate micromanipulation tasks such as cell injection and cellular structural biopsy commonly performed under a microscope. Conventional cell orientation is performed manually by using a vacuum equipped micropipette to aspirate and release the cell, which is a trial-and-error approach. The conventional method relies heavily on the skill of the operator; it also suffers from low precision, low success rate and low controllability. These drawbacks illustrate the need for a systematic 3-D cell rotational system to automate the cell orientation process. In this paper, we present a noninvasive single cell rotation system that can automatically orientate a zebrafish embryo to a desired position when both the cytoplasm and the yolk are in the focal plane. A three-point-contact model for cell rotation that involves a custom-designed rotational stage is introduced to provide precise rotational position control. A vision recognition algorithm is also proposed to enable the visual servoing function of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve high success rates of 92.5% (x-axis rotation with 40 trails) and 97.5% (about the z-axis with 80 trails). The system can also successfully complete 3-D cell orientation at an average speed of 31 s/cell with a high in-plane rotation accuracy of 0.3 (°) . As a high precise, high controllable and deterministic cell manipulating system, it provides a starting point for automated cell manipulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:25993702

  3. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  4. Analysis and modelling of rotational systems with the Modyfit application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Żółkiewski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this article is to present an application to analysis and modelling of rotational systems. Independent modules of application enables controlling and regulation of characteristics of systems in transportation. The base problem of analyzing systems in transportation is expressing the interaction between the main motion and local vibrations of subsystems.Design/methodology/approach: Mathematical models derived in previous articles were used to implement the mathematical models in numerical calculations. The objectives of creating the Modyfit application were connected with analyzing and modelling rotating systems with taking into account relations between major and local motions. Considerations were done by the Galerkin’s method.Findings: There are many effects of analyzing systems with rotation consideration. Main of them are connected with analyzing systems in function of increasing the value of angular velocity. In such way of analyzing we can observe creating additional poles in the dynamical characteristics and we can also observe that instead of modes there are created zeros.Research limitations/implications: Analyzed systems are simple linear homogeneous beams and rods. Working motion is limited to plane motion. Future research would consider complex systems, damping and nonlinearity.Practical implications: of the application are numerical analysis of beams and rods in rotational transportation and designing such systems. Thank to the Modyfit we can derived the stability zones of analyzed beams and rods and we can observe eigenfrequencies and zeros in function of angular velocity.Originality/value: The Modyfit is a forerunner implementation of derived models in a numerical environment of dynamical flexibility. Analyzing models are rotating flexible systems with consideration the rotational transportation effect.

  5. Fiber-optic rotational seismic system for investigation of the rotational events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Jerzy; Zinówko, Pawe?

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents a new telemetric system for direct measurement and investigation the rotational components exist in seismic events. The FORS - fiber optic rotational seismometer and seismographs constructed on the base of the Sagnac interferometer are the elements of the system. The special construction of the system protects their elements remote control in real time via internet utilize the GSP/GSM connections. The first results according application autonomous FORS (AFORS) with accuracy in the range 4.9.10-9 - 6.1.10-8 rad/s in detection bandpass 1.66 - 212.30 Hz located in Ksi?z and Warsaw, as well as older one FORS-II (mounted in Ojców) are reported.

  6. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H.; Yang, D.; Lokupitiya, E.; Shen, Y.

    2010-10-01

    The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simulate crop phenology, crop production, and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and summer maize, which are two of the main crops in the region. In the coupled model, the leaf area index (LAI) produced by the crop phenology and physiology scheme was used in estimating sub-hourly energy and carbon fluxes. Observations obtained from two typical eddy covariance sites located in this region were used to validate the model. The coupled model was able to accurately simulate carbon and energy fluxes, soil water content, biomass carbon, and crop yield, especially for latent heat flux and carbon flux. The LAI was also well simulated by the model. Therefore, the coupled model is capable of assessing the responses of water resources and crop production to the changes of future climate and irrigation schedules of this region.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Associations in Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K.

    2012-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play an important role in delivering nutrients to plant roots via mutualistic symbiotic relationships. AMF root colonization was compared between four different biofuel cropping systems in an effort to learn more about the factors that control colonization. The four biofuel systems sampled were corn, switchgrass, prairie, and fertilized prairie. We hypothesized that prairie systems would have the highest levels of AMF colonization and that fertilization would result in lower AMF colonization rates. Roots were sampled from each system in early June and mid-July. Soil P and pH were also measured. In contrast to our hypothesis, corn systems had 70-80% colonization and the unfertilized prairie system had ~35% (P=0.001) in June. In July, all systems saw an increase in colonization rate, but corn roots still had significantly more AMF colonization than unfertilized prairie (P=0.001). AMF colonization in the unfertilized prairie system increased ~55% from June to July. In contrast to previous work, AMF colonization rates were highest in systems with the greatest availability on P and N (corn systems). These results indicate that seasonal differences in root growth were more influential to AMF root colonization than soil nutrient availability.

  8. A system of standard stars for rotational velocity determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles for the He I lambda 4471, Mg II lambda 4481, and Fe I lambda 4476 lines were measured in the spectra of 217 bright northern and southern stars of types 09-F9, using photoelectric scans and photographic coude spectrograms obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Lowell Observatory. Half-intensity widths of the observed line profiles were compared with the corresponding quantities in a set of theoretical rotationally-broadened line profiles computed using the model-atmosphere approach. The resulting v sin i's are used to establish a system of standard rotational velocity stars, for use in estimating v sin i directly from visual inspection of spectrograms. An atlas of rotationally broadened spectra is presented, showing the effects of rotation on spectra of representative B-, A-, and F-type stars

  9. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy; Schjønning, Per

    2010-01-01

    : total soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, microbial biomass N (MBN), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), and levels of potential ammonium oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA). In situ measurements of soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration and nitrous oxide emissions were...... crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha-1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application and......Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...

  10. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  11. Patient QA systems for rotational radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredh, Anna; Scherman, J.B.; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of commercial patient quality assurance (QA) systems to detect linear accelerator-related errors.......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of commercial patient quality assurance (QA) systems to detect linear accelerator-related errors....

  12. Nitrogen dynamics and balance in a lowland rice cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were conducted during consecutive dry and wet seasons of 1997 in central Thailand to determine the effects of rice-residue management on the fate and use efficiency of urea-N broadcast to lowland rice (70 kg N ha-1). Ammonia (NH3) losses during the 11 days following urea application were 7, 12, and 8% of the applied N from no-residue, burned-residue, and residue-treated plots, respectively, whereas the cumulative percentage of N2+N2O emission from added urea corresponded to 10, 4.3, and nil, respectively. During the first crop, only about 9% of the fertilizer N applied was recovered in grain and straw. Appreciable N fertilizer was either lost from the soil-plant system (27-33%) or remained in the soil at the end of the growing season (50- 53%). Residual fertilizer-N recovery in the second crop was only about 5% of what was initially applied. (author)

  13. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel production.

  14. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel production

  15. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazmand, Mohammad; Haller, George

    2016-02-01

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  16. Combined Solar System and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Hees, A; Angus, G W; Gentile, G

    2015-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this External Field Effect can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this External Field Effect also appears in the Solar System and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar System constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that LISA Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  17. Combined Solar system and rotation curve constraints on MOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Aurélien; Famaey, Benoit; Angus, Garry W.; Gentile, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this external field effect (EFE) can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this EFE also appears in the Solar system and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar system constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

  18. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farazmand, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  19. A rotating liquid helium transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter demonstrates the successful operation of a stable transfer system suitable for fault worthy superconducting generators. A turbine type flowmeter for liquid helium has been developed and successfully operated. The transfer system was cooled to helium temperature and the transfer of liquid was initiated without any detectable pressure oscillations or surges. Transfer system losses were computed for subcooled, two-phase and superheated helium transfer and various mass flow rates up to 70 L/h. Transfer losses are shown to be a strong function of angular velocity, void fraction and mass flow rate. It is suggested that to minimize losses and oscillation a vapor separator should be used at the transfer system inlet to control void fraction in the transfer stream

  20. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  1. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  2. Automatic expert system based on images for accuracy crop row detection in maize fields

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, J. M.; Guijarro, M.; Montalvo, M.; Romeo, J.; Emmi, L.; A. Ribeiro; Pajares, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic expert system for accuracy crop row detection in maize fields based on images acquired from a vision system. Different applications in maize, particularly those based on site specific treatments, require the identification of the crop rows. The vision system is designed with a defined geometry and installed onboard a mobile agricultural vehicle, i.e. submitted to vibrations, gyros or uncontrolled movements. Crop rows can be estimated by applying geometrical pa...

  3. Balanced-Rotating-Spray Tank-And-Pipe-Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Spray head translates and rotates to clean entire inner surface of tank or pipe. Cleansing effected by three laterally balanced gas/liquid jets from spray head that rotates about longitudinal axis. Uses much less liquid. Cleaning process in system relies on mechanical action of jets instead of contaminant dissolution. Eliminates very difficult machining needed to make multiple converging/diverging nozzles within one spray head. Makes nozzle much smaller. Basic two-phase-flow, supersonic-nozzle design applied to other spray systems for interior or exterior cleaning.

  4. Rotating electroweak sphaleron-antisphaleron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At finite weak mixing angle the sphaleron solution of Weinberg-Salam theory can be endowed with angular momentum proportional to the electric charge. Here we show, that this holds also for sphaleron-antisphaleron systems such as pairs, chains and vortex rings. We also address the equilibrium conditions for these solutions.

  5. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    At the interface between atmosphere and deep sub-soil, the root zone plays a major role in regulating the flow of water between major compartments: groundwater / surface / atmosphere (drainage, runoff, evapotranspiration). This role of soil as regulator/control of water fluxes, but also as a supporting medium to plant growth, is strongly dependent on the hydric properties of the soil. In turn, the plant roots growing in the soil can change its structure; both in the plow layer and in the deeper horizons and, therefore, could change the soil properties, particularly hydric properties. Such root-related alteration of soil properties can be linked to direct effect of roots such as soil perforation during growth, aggregation of soil particles or indirect effects such as the release of exudates by roots that could modify the properties of water or of soil particles. On an another hand, the rhizosphere, the zone around roots influenced by the activity of root and associated microorganisms, could have a high influence on hydric properties, particularly the water retention. To test if crops and plant roots rhizosphere may have a significant effect on water retention, we conducted various experiment from laboratory to field scales. In the lab, we tested different soil and species for rhizospheric effect on soil water retention. Variation in available water content (AWC) between bulk and rhizospheric soil varied from non-significant to a significant increase (to about 16% increase) depending on plant species and soil type. In the field, the alteration of water retention by root systems was tested in different pedological settings for a Maize crop inoculated or not with the bacteria Azospirillum spp., known to alter root structure, growth and morphology. Again, a range of variation in AWC was evidenced, with significant increase (~30%) in some soil types, but more linked to innoculated/non-innoculated plants rather than to a difference between rhizospheric and bulk soil. Finally, in field condition, on a larger time scale, we investigated the effect of crop alternations on the Lusignan ACBB SOERE site. That site presents on the same soil type different crop alternation treatments: an old, continuous grassland, a 8-year continuous cereal rotation and an alternation of cereal/grassland (3-years cereals and 3 to 6 years grassland). Measurements of AWC in these different crop systems setting, 8 years after implementation of the SOERE, show that AWC was different in the cereal/grassland alternation compared to the continuous cereal or grassland cropping systems (~15-20% increase). If such alteration of AWC may seem modest, modeling (in the case of ACBB SOERE) shows that this increase in AWC would increase the cereal yield but also decrease the water drainage out of the root zone, and the possible associated loss of nitrate and pesticides. As a conclusion, in line with some other literature data, roots can influence soil hydric properties and this opens a way to use plants as "soil engineers" to modulate the properties of the root zone, and thus the components of water balance, to mitigate effects of drought on crops… However, how and how much plants will modify the hydric properties, a question which mixes physics, biology, microbiology, crop system settings, is still in infancy and needs further research.

  6. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  7. Energy crops for biogas plants. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  8. Energy crops for biogas plants. Baden-Wuerttemberg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others

    2013-05-01

    For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  9. Rotation and momentum transport in tokamaks and helical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Rice, J. E.

    2014-04-01

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation has been recognized to play an important role in heat transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in tokamaks and helical systems. It is well known that the E × B shear due to poloidal and toroidal flow suppresses turbulence in the plasma and contributes to the improvement of heat and particle transport, while toroidal rotation helps one to stabilize MHD instabilities such as resistive wall modes and neoclassical tearing mode. Therefore, understanding the role of momentum transport in determining plasma rotation is crucial in toroidal discharges, both in tokamaks and helical systems. In this review paper, the driving and damping mechanisms of poloidal and toroidal rotation are outlined. Driving torque due to neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves, and damping due to parallel viscosity and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are described. Regarding momentum transport, the radial flux of momentum has diffusive and non-diffusive (ND) terms, and experimental investigations of these are discussed. The magnitude of the diffusive term of momentum transport is expressed as a coefficient of viscous diffusivity. The ratio of the viscous diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity (Prandtl number) is one of the interesting parameters in plasma physics. It is typically close to unity, but sometimes can deviate significantly depending on the turbulent state. The ND terms have two categories: one is the so-called momentum pinch, whose magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the velocity itself, and the other is an off-diagonal term in which the magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the temperature or/and pressure gradient, independent of the velocity or its gradient. The former has no sign dependence; rotation due to the momentum pinch does not depend on the sign of the rotation itself, whether it is parallel to the plasma current (co-direction) or anti-parallel to the plasma current (counter-direction). In contrast, the latter has a sign dependence; the rotation due to the off-diagonal residual term is either in the co- or counter-direction depending on the turbulence state, but not on the sign of the rotation itself. This residual term can also act as a momentum source for intrinsic rotation. The experimental results of investigations of these ND terms are described. Finally the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the ND terms in momentum transport, and predictions of intrinsic rotation driven by these terms are reviewed.

  10. Rotation and momentum transport in tokamaks and helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloidal and toroidal rotation has been recognized to play an important role in heat transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in tokamaks and helical systems. It is well known that the E × B shear due to poloidal and toroidal flow suppresses turbulence in the plasma and contributes to the improvement of heat and particle transport, while toroidal rotation helps one to stabilize MHD instabilities such as resistive wall modes and neoclassical tearing mode. Therefore, understanding the role of momentum transport in determining plasma rotation is crucial in toroidal discharges, both in tokamaks and helical systems. In this review paper, the driving and damping mechanisms of poloidal and toroidal rotation are outlined. Driving torque due to neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves, and damping due to parallel viscosity and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are described. Regarding momentum transport, the radial flux of momentum has diffusive and non-diffusive (ND) terms, and experimental investigations of these are discussed. The magnitude of the diffusive term of momentum transport is expressed as a coefficient of viscous diffusivity. The ratio of the viscous diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity (Prandtl number) is one of the interesting parameters in plasma physics. It is typically close to unity, but sometimes can deviate significantly depending on the turbulent state. The ND terms have two categories: one is the so-called momentum pinch, whose magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the velocity itself, and the other is an off-diagonal term in which the magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the temperature or/and pressure gradient, independent of the velocity or its gradient. The former has no sign dependence; rotation due to the momentum pinch does not depend on the sign of the rotation itself, whether it is parallel to the plasma current (co-direction) or anti-parallel to the plasma current (counter-direction). In contrast, the latter has a sign dependence; the rotation due to the off-diagonal residual term is either in the co- or counter-direction depending on the turbulence state, but not on the sign of the rotation itself. This residual term can also act as a momentum source for intrinsic rotation. The experimental results of investigations of these ND terms are described. Finally the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the ND terms in momentum transport, and predictions of intrinsic rotation driven by these terms are reviewed. (review article)

  11. Intensive crop rotation yield and economic performance in minimum tillage and no-tillage, in northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the intermediate precipitation zone (15-18 in.) of northeastern Oregon, there is interest in increasing the intensity of cropping with spring crops. Mechanical tillage remains popular for seedbed preparation and weed control, but contributes to environmental problems and labor and fuel are costly...

  12. Aircraft body-axis rotation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdin, K. T. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A two gyro four gimbal attitude sensing system having gimbal lock avoidance is provided with continuous azimuth information, rather than roll information, relative to the magnetic cardinal headings while in near vertical attitudes to allow recovery from vertical on a desired heading. The system is comprised of a means for stabilizing an outer roll gimbal that is common to a vertical gyro and a directional gyro with respect to the aircraft platform which is being angularly displaced about an axis substantially parallel to the outer roll gyro axis. A means is also provided for producing a signal indicative of the magnitude of such displacement as an indication of aircraft heading. Additional means are provided to cause stabilization of the outer roll gimbal whenever the pitch angle of the aircraft passes through a threshold prior to entering vertical flight and destabilization of the outer roll gimbal upon passing through the threshold when departing vertical flight.

  13. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  14. Fibre Optic System for Monitoring Rotational Seismic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kurzych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS, which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10−9 to 5.5 × 10−8 rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland seismological observatory are also presented.

  15. Fibre optic system for monitoring rotational seismic phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzych, Anna; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Teisseyre, Krzysztof P; Kowalski, Jerzy K

    2014-01-01

    We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS), which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10(-9) to 5.5 × 10(-8) rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland) seismological observatory are also presented. PMID:24651723

  16. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental stresses. This could help to sustain future yield levels in challenging production environments. PMID:25658914

  17. Tile drain losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from fields under integrated and organic crop rotations. A four-year study on a clay soil in southwest Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Maria; Ulén, Barbro; Söderström, Mats; Roland, Björn; Delin, Karl; Helander, Carl-Anders

    2012-09-15

    In order to explore the influence of site-specific soil properties on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses between individual fields and crop sequences, 16 drained fields with clay soils were investigated in a four-year study. Mean total N (TN) loss was 6.6-11.1 from a conventional, 14.3-21.5 from an organic and 13.1-23.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1) from an integrated cropping system across a 4 year period, with 75% in nitrate form (NO(3)-N). Mean total P (TP) loss was 0.96-3.03, 0.99-4.63 and 0.76-2.67 kg ha(-1) year(-1), from the three systems respectively during the same period, with 25% in dissolved reactive form (DRP). Median N efficiency was calculated to be 70% including gains from estimated N fixation. According to principal component factor (PCA) analysis, field characteristics and cropping system were generally more important for losses of N and P than year. Accumulation of soil mineral N in the autumn and (estimated) N fixation was important for N leaching. No P fertilisers were used at the site in either cropping system. Total P concentration in drainage water from each of the fields was marginally significantly (pcrop with efficient nutrient uptake and good soil structure was general preconditions for low nutrient leaching. Incorporation of ley by tillage operations in the summer before autumn crop establishment and repeated operations in autumn as well, increased N leaching. Crop management in sequences with leguminous crops needs to be considered carefully when designing cropping systems high efficiency in N utilisation and low environmental impact. PMID:22264921

  18. Rotation Invariant Content-Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Bharati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multimedia technology and the rapid growth in the number and type of multimedia assets controlled by several entities, yet because the increasing range of image and video documents showing on the Internet, have attracted vital analysis efforts in providing tools for effective retrieval and management of visual data. So the need for image retrieval system arose. Out of many existing systems “ROTATION INVARIANT CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM” is the most efficient and accurate one. Effective texture feature is an essential component in any CBIR system. In the past, spectral features like Gabor and Wavelet have shown superior retrieval performance than most statistical and structural options. Recent researches on multi-resolution analysis have found that curvelet captures texture properties like curves, lines and edges with additional accuracy than Gabor filters. However, the texture feature extracted using curvelet transform is not rotation invariant. This can degrade its retrieval performance considerably, particularly in cases where there are many similar images with different orientations. We analyses the curvelet transform and derives a useful approach to extract rotation invariant curvelet features. The new system which uses curvelet transform for extracting texture features includes rotation invariant.

  19. Rotation Invariant Content-Based Image Retrieval System

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vijaya Bharati; A.Rama Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multimedia technology and the rapid growth in the number and type of multimedia assets controlled by several entities, yet because the increasing range of image and video documents showing on the Internet, have attracted vital analysis efforts in providing tools for effective retrieval and management of visual data. So the need for image retrieval system arose. Out of many existing systems “ROTATION INVARIANT CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM” is the most efficient and acc...

  20. Spatiotemporal simulation of changes in rice cropping systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic development of agro-economics, population growth, and climate change, the rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) have been undergoing a major change. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to map rice cropping systems and predict future dynamics of rice cropping systems using MODIS time-series data from 2002 to 2012. A phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems. Then, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) model was used to simulate future changes in rice-cropping activities. To obtain precise prediction, a calibration of CA-Markov were implemented by using a series of rice crop maps. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies above 81%, and Kappa coefficients above 0.75, respectively. The simulated maps of rice cropping systems for 2010-2012 were extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002-2009. The comparison between the predicted scenarios and the classification maps for 2010-2012 presents a reasonably close agreement. In summary, the CA-Markov model with a long-term calibration confirmed the validity of the approach for dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems in the study region. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the approach produced satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast, and spatial pattern changes. Thus, projections of future changes would provide useful information for the agricultural policymakers in respect to formulating effective management strategies of rice cropping practices in VMD.

  1. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author)

  2. Simplified aerodynamic analysis of the cyclogiro rotating wing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, John B

    1930-01-01

    A simplified aerodynamic theory of the cyclogiro rotating wing is presented herein. In addition, examples have been calculated showing the effect on the rotor characteristics of varying the design parameters of the rotor. A performance prediction, on the basis of the theory here developed, is appended, showing the performance to be expected of a machine employing this system of sustentation. The aerodynamic principles of the cyclogiro are sound; hovering flight, vertical climb, and a reasonable forward speed may be obtained with a normal expenditure of power. Auto rotation in a gliding descent is available in the event of a power-plant failure.

  3. The earth dynamic system: the earth rotation vs mantle convection

    OpenAIRE

    Shuping Chen

    2010-01-01

    The earth dynamic system is one of the key scientific questions on the earth science. The thermodynamic behavior and gravity force of the earth and the rheology nature of the mantle prove that mantle convection is the main power source leading the lithosphere to break and move. Yet the directivity of both the structures in the crust and plate movement reminds of the earth rotation. Here we demonstrate that the mantle convection and inertia force of the earth rotation affect each other, the fo...

  4. Rotação e sucessão de culturas para o manejo do nematoide reniforme em área de produção de soja / Crop rotation and crop sequences for the management of the reniform nematode in area of soybean production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo Márcio, Leandro; Guilherme Lafourcade, Asmus.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O nematoide reniforme (Rotylenchulus reniformis) tem se tornado crescente problema fitossanitário da cultura da soja. Considerando a limitada disponibilidade de cultivares de soja que aliem resistência ao nematoide a outras características agronômicas desejáveis, estuda-se a possibilidade de utiliza [...] ção de manejo cultural para seu controle. Este trabalho visou avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas no verão com milho, Crotalaria ochroleuca ou soja; e o manejo de entressafra, com Brachiaria ruziziensis como espécie de cobertura ou pousio. O experimento foi implantado em solo naturalmente infestado pelo nematoide reniforme (1245 nematoides/200cc de solo) em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (cultivos de verão x manejo de entressafra). Foram avaliadas a densidade populacional do nematoide no solo e sua variação durante as safras e entressafras, bem como a produtividade da soja na safra subsequente à rotação de culturas. Não houve efeito do manejo da entressafra com braquiária sobre o nematoide. A rotação de culturas com milho ou crotalária no verão propiciou redução da densidade populacional do nematoide reniforme em comparação ao monocultivo de soja, com reflexos positivos sobre a produtividade de soja na safra seguinte Abstract in english The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has become a growing disease problem to soybean crop. Considering the limited availability of soybean varieties that combine resistance to the nematode and other desirable agronomic traits, cultural management could be an approach for the nematode man [...] agement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of summer season crop rotations with corn or sunnhemp compared with soybean monocropping, and fall management with ruzizigrass as a covercrop compared to fallow on the nematode population. The experiment was carried-out in a naturally infested soil (1245 reniform nematodes/200cc soil) in a randomized block design, with six treatments arranged in plots with 6x3m (18m2) with four replications in a factorial 3x2 (summer crop x fall management). The nematode soil population density and its variation during the season as well as the soybean yield in the subsequent soybean crop were evaluated. Crop rotation with corn or sunnhemp led to the decrease on the reniform nematode population density compared to the monoculture of soybeans, with positive effects on soybean yield in the following season. There was no effect of cover cropping with ruzizigrass on the reniform nematode population

  5. Rotational angular momenta of close binary system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio between rotational angular momentum, Jsub(rot), and orbital angular momentum, Jsub(orb), in close binary systems and its variation with mass ratio is studied. The tables and the graphs give this variation for detached systems, contact systems, semidetached systems and for systems containing a supernovae-remnant component and a containing a supernovae-remnant component and a contact component. For this study some statistical relations of close binary stars were used. The ratio Jsub(rot)/Jsub(orb) is sensitive to the variation of the mass ratio q. If q differs much from unity and if the concentration of the stellar matter is moderate (polytropic index n approximately 3), the neglect of rotational angular momentum, Jsub(rot), is not justified. (Auth.)

  6. Suppression of soilborne pathogens in mixed cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hiddink, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the green revolution, agricultural production has increased tremendously due to synthetic fertilizers, chemical crop protectants and high yielding plant varieties. However, soilborne pathogens remain yield-limiting factors in agricultural production. Hardly any sustainable solutions are available to control soilborne diseases and effective chemicals are limited and often have unwanted environmental side effects. Therefore, more sustainable ways of cultivating crops and agricultural prod...

  7. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N2O emissions plus CH4 uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH4 by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N2O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N2O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N2O + CH4 emission differ among cropping systems. • An alternative cropping system is recommended for the North China Plain region. • A rotation cycle of it is in sequence winter wheat, summer maize and spring maize. • This alternative is better than an optimized winter wheat–summer maize system. • It is sustainable due to saving water and N, maintaining yields and reducing GHG

  8. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  9. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP) on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat-maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Wang, K.; Zheng, X.

    2013-04-01

    The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U), urea + dicyandiamide (DCD) and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) treatments in a wheat-maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p < 0.01). The variations of soil temperature, moisture and inorganic nitrogen content regulated the seasonal fluctuation of N2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p < 0.01); shifted the main soil inorganic nitrogen form from nitrate to ammonium; and tended to increase the dissolved organic carbon content, crop yield, aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake by aboveground plant. The results demonstrate the roles the nitrification inhibitors play in enhancing yield and nitrogen use efficiency and reducing N2O emission from the wheat-maize cropping system.

  10. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Shugo; Kawai, Masanori; Tajima, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (> 99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition; cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 revolutions per minute. The developed system can be applied in various fields; e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio as...

  11. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (peffect of tillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying high crop water demands, especially at the end of spring when atmospheric water demands become very high, resulting in an extension of the growing period under DD. The results provide also an explanation for the observed soil water dynamics pattern in the field, with rapid transitions between persistent wet and dry water content states. References Dexter, A.R., E.A. Czy?, G. Richard, A. Reszkowska, 2008. A user-friendly water retention function that takes account of the textural and structural pore spaces in soil. Geoderma, 143:243-253. Groenevelt, P.A., C.D. Grant, 2004. A new model for the soil-water retention curve that solves the problem of residual water contents. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:479-485.

  12. Estrategias de fertilización fosforada en una rotación de cultivos en el sudeste bonaerense / Phosphorus fertilization strategies in a Buenos Aires southeast crop rotation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Adrián, Divito; Hernán, Sainz Rozas; Hernán Eduardo, Echeverría.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En suelos del sudeste Bonaerense el fósforo (P) del fertilizante forma productos de mediana a alta solubilidad, lo cual le confiere un alto valor residual. A partir de esto, surge la posibilidad de definir estrategias de fertilización basadas en la frecuencia con que se efectúa su aplicación. Para r [...] otaciones de cuatro cultivos en tres años se desconoce el efecto de alternativas de fertilización fosfatada. Los objetivos fueron: 1) evaluar el rendimiento de cultivos fertilizados con P anualmente y cada tres años, a la rotación de cultivos, y 2) determinar la eficiencia de uso y de recuperación del P (EUP y ERP, respectivamente) aplicado para dichas estrategias de fertilización. El experimento se realizó sobre un complejo de Paleudol Petrocálcico y Argiudol Típico en la EEA I.N.T.A. Balcarce, con un alto nivel inicial de P-Bray (28,7 mg kg-1) y bajo siembra directa. A lo largo de dos ciclos de rotación, integrados por maíz, soja y trigo/soja de segunda, se evaluaron tres tratamientos: aplicación de P con frecuencia anual, por única vez a la rotación y un testigo sin P, en bloques completos aleatorizados con cuatro repeticiones. No se observaron diferencias en el rendimiento de los cultivos fertilizados en forma anual y a la rotación, durante los dos ciclos. El testigo difirió de los tratamientos fertilizados solo durante el segundo ciclo de rotación. La EUP de la rotación (EUProt) no difirió entre estrategias de aplicación (19,4 y 32,4 kg kg-1 durante el primer ciclo y 32,9 y 37,4 kg kg-1 durante el segundo, para tratamientos fertilizados anualmente y a la rotación, respectivamente). Tampoco existieron diferencias entre estrategias de fertilización en la EUP de cada cultivo. En cambio, durante el primer ciclo, la ERP resultó mayor para el tratamiento fertilizado a la rotación respecto de la aplicación anual (0,13 y 0,03 kg kg-1), mientras que en el segundo ciclo no se detectaron diferencias entre ambos (0,16 y 0,17 kg kg-1 para la aplicación anual y a la rotación, respectivamente). Se encontró una débil asociación entre la variación anual en el nivel de P-Bray y el balance de P correspondiente al cultivo implantado dicho año. Para el tratamiento testigo, se elaboró un modelo para predecir la disminución en el P disponible considerando el nivel inicial de P-Bray y la exportación de P de los cultivos como variables. Abstract in english In the soils of southeast Buenos Aires, fertilizer phosphorus (P) forms medium to high solubility products, making it possible to define different fertilization strategies based on application frequency. The effect of P application rates capable of fulfilling all crop requirements in intensive rotat [...] ions in the region is unknown. The objectives of this work were to: (1) assess yields in crops fertilized with P annually and once during the crop rotation and (2) determine P use efficiency and P recovery for each fertilization strategy. The experiment was conducted at the E.E.A. I.N.T.A. Balcarce on a Typic Argiudoll and Petrocalcic Paleudoll complex, under no-tillage and with high P-Bray (Bray & Kurts, 1945) content (28.7 mg kg-1). During the two rotation cycles for maize, soybean, and double wheat/soybean crop, three treatments were assessed: application of P annually, application once during the rotation cycle, and a control without P application. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four repetitions. No crop yield differences were found between annual and rotation fertilization strategies across the two cycles evaluated. The control crop yield did not differ from the fertilized crop during the first rotation cycle but did during the second. The crop rotation P use efficiency (EUProt) did not differ between nutrient applications strategies (19.4 and 32.4 kg kg-1 during the first cycle and 32.9 and 37.4 kg kg-1 during the second for annually and rotation fertilized treatments respectively). There were no differences between strategies in the crop P use efficiency of each crop (EUPcult). In contrast, during t

  13. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    RUSU, Teodor

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L.), soyabean (Glycine hispida L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The ...

  15. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and environmental performance of cropping systems. PMID:26391215

  16. Emergy Assessment of a Wheat-Maize Rotation System with Different Water Assignments in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xingguo; Lin, Zhonghui; Qiu, Jianxiu

    2010-10-01

    Sustainable water use is seriously compromised in the North China Plain (NCP) due to the huge water requirements of agriculture, the largest use of water resources. An integrated approach which combines the ecosystem model with emergy analysis is presented to determine the optimum quantity of irrigation for sustainable development in irrigated cropping systems. Since the traditional emergy method pays little attention to the dynamic interaction among components of the ecological system and dynamic emergy accounting is in its infancy, it is hard to evaluate the cropping system in hypothetical situations or in response to specific changes. In order to solve this problem, an ecosystem model (Vegetation Interface Processes (VIP) model) is introduced for emergy analysis to describe the production processes. Some raw data, collected by investigating or observing in conventional emergy analysis, may be calculated by the VIP model in the new approach. To demonstrate the advantage of this new approach, we use it to assess the wheat-maize rotation cropping system at different irrigation levels and derive the optimum quantity of irrigation according to the index of ecosystem sustainable development in NCP. The results show, the optimum quantity of irrigation in this region should be 240-330 mm per year in the wheat system and no irrigation in the maize system, because with this quantity of irrigation the rotation crop system reveals: best efficiency in energy transformation (transformity = 6.05E + 4 sej/J); highest sustainability (renewability = 25%); lowest environmental impact (environmental loading ratio = 3.5) and the greatest sustainability index (Emergy Sustainability Index = 0.47) compared with the system in other irrigation amounts. This study demonstrates that application of the new approach is broader than the conventional emergy analysis and the new approach is helpful in optimizing resources allocation, resource-savings and maintaining agricultural sustainability.

  17. Influence of long-term tillage and crop rotations on soil hydraulic properties in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the semi-arid region of the Pacific Northwest, USA, no-tillage continuous spring cereal and spring cereal/chemical fallow rotations are being examined as alternatives to the traditional winter wheat/summer fallow rotation for improving soil and water conservation. There is limited information, ho...

  18. Spectrometer with direct NMR detection in a rotating coordinate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrometer with direct NMR detection in efficient magnetic field in a rotating coordinate system (rcs) during nuclear spin system irradiation by strong high-frequency field is described. The detection is carried out at comparatively low frequency in the 10-100 kHz range using the inductance coil oriented parallel to constant magnetic field. The concrete spectrometer parameters are presented as applied to 1H and 19F NMR of solids under ''magic'' angle conditions. The spectrometer permits to obtain the NMR frequency spetrum in rcs, lateral and longitudinal relaxation curves in rcs and double-rotating coordinate system, echo signals in rcs, The detection is continuous and is carried out in one pass. With respect to the spectra resolution in solids the spectrometer is by two-three order in excess of traditional wide-line spectrometers with continuous irradiation

  19. Physics of strongly coupled rotation-translation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review some of the interesting physical properties of simple molecular solids which arise from a strong coupling between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the constituent atoms or molecules. They discuss two classes of systems, alkali cyanides in 3-dimension and diatomic Lennard-Jones molecules lying flat on a uniform 2d substrate, the latter closely resembling the ?-phase of a submonolayer of O2 molecules adsorbed on a graphite substrate. The reason for choosing these systems is to understand qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively the effects of the competition between direct and indirect intermolecular interactions, the latter arising from the rotation-translation (RT) coupling, and intersite and intrasite (cation cage in 3d and substrate corrugation in 2d) interactions on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these systems

  20. A WEB BASED TOMATO CROP EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Babu M.S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato Information System and the other is Tomato Crop Expert System where in Information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases,Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Tomato fruits and plants. In Advisory System, the user is having aninteraction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measure of disease. This Tomato Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Tomato Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to tomato crop based on the symptoms.This Rule based Expert System validates the symptoms of the tomato crop using the techniques of ID3 Algorithm and some optimization algorithms. This is a Web based Expert System with java as the front end and SQL as the backend.

  1. Development of a HANARO vibration monitoring system for rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop a vibration monitoring system for HANARO's rotating machinery. To achieve this purpose, the standards and references related to the vibration monitoring system for the rotating machinery were investigated. In addition, the vibration signals of the primary cooling pumps and the reflector cooling pumps have been measured and analyzed. The results show that the vibration magnitudes of the horizontal directions are larger than those of the axial and vertical directions. The vibration analysis results demonstrate that the accelerometers mounted on the bearing locations of the pumps can monitor the current status of the pump such as the unbalance, misalignment, and bearing condition. Based on the results of a literature survey and the vibration measurements, detailed construction plans for the vibration monitoring system for HANARO were established. According to the construction plans, the vibration monitoring system for HANARO has been developed and installed at the reactor hall. It is expected that the developed vibration monitoring system can be utilized for the realization of the preventive maintenance of the rotating machinery of HANARO

  2. Estabilidade de agregados do solo após manejo com rotações de culturas e escarificação Soil aggregate stability after management with crop rotation and chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Carlos Calonego

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão. No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP, nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno.The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack and sunflower (Helianthus annus as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop. In the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. The study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. The samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher Mean Geometric Diameter and Mean Weight Diameter (MWD of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher MWD at 5-10 cm. Chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and MWD values at 5-10 cm. Aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.

  3. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  4. 29 CFR 780.407 - System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operated for profit, or be operated on a share-crop basis. The employer is paid on a share-crop basis when... a share-crop basis. The exemption does not apply to employees employed in the described operations... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop...

  5. On line diagnostics of rotating machinery using expert system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last years it became apparent that on line diagnostics will become more and more important for increasing safety in nuclear power plants and the availability of machinery. Expert system technology in combination with conventional methods for pattern recongnition and data preparation turned out to be a favorite candidate for automatic on line diagnostics of rotating machinery and related diagnostical problems. The article describes the conceptual design of an on line diagnostic system for a liquid sodium pump in a nuclear power plant. An overview on the system design, the system parameters, the user interface, and an example for the construction of the knowledge base will be given. (orig.)

  6. A Greenhouse Tomato Crop Grey Mould Disease Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, M.; BAPTISTA, F.J.; Navas, L.M.; Ruiz, G.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is a very important crop in the Mediterranean region in general and in Portugal in particular being the production for fresh consumption made essentially in greenhouses. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. is the causal agent of grey mould disease and is one of the most important diseases affecting greenhouse tomato crops, high relative humidity and the presence of free water on the plant surfaces have been recognized as favourable to the development of this disease. The avai...

  7. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and liveweight gain per hectare of bovine increased, as the nitrogen levels increased. The results showed the effect of nitrogen input on the daily accumulation rate, dry matter yield, stocking rate and liveweight gain.

  8. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus)-related environmental burdens are released from the soil during cultivation

  9. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  10. Rotation, magnetism, and metallicity of M dwarf systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Reiners, A; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N

    2011-01-01

    Close M-dwarf binaries and higher multiples allow the investigation of rotational evolution and mean magnetic flux unbiased from scatter in inclination angle and age since the orientation of the spin axis of the components is most likely parallel and the individual systems are coeval. Systems composed of an early (M0.0 -- M4.0) and a late (M4.0 -- M8.0) type component offer the possibility to study differences in rotation and magnetism between partially and fully convective stars. We have selected 10 of the closest dM systems to determine the rotation velocities and the mean magnetic field strengths based on spectroscopic analysis of FeH lines of Wing-Ford transitions at 1 $\\mu$m observed with VLT/CRIRES. We also studied the quality of our spectroscopic model regarding atmospheric parameters including metallicity. A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Land\\'e g-factors for FeH lines. Magnetic spectral synthesis was performed with the Synmast code. We confirmed previously...

  11. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop rotation, i.e., RT, CT, and NT, showed a lower efficiency in the reduction of water losses with regard to the efficiency of soil losses decrease. So many rainfall events during our experimental period showed similar water losses for all the management and crop systems, which was mainly true for rainfalls causing high volumes of runoff and with a small time interval between successive events. During the autumn-winter seasons water losses were lower than in the spring-summer seasons, whereas greater soil losses in the spring-summer season were solely recorded in the CT and BS treatments. Heavy water losses by runoff recorder under conservation tillage, specifically in the NT management system suggest the need for adoption of additional structural conservation practices, such as for example terracing, in order to supplement the positive effect of soil cover by crop residues in controlling water erosion. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity and the significance of this relationship decreased as the efficiency of soil management system for the control of soil erosion increased.

  12. Upland rice yield as affected by previous summer crop rotation (soybean or upland rice) and glyphosate management on cover crops Produtividade do arroz de terras altas afetada pela rotação de cultura e pelo manejo de glifosato nas plantas de cobertura do solo

    OpenAIRE

    A.S Nascente; C.A.C. Crusciol; L.F Stone; T Cobucci

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate chemical management of cover crops in no-tillage aims to obtain greater benefits with its employment in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to assess upland rice yield as affected by the previous summer crop, species and desiccation timing of cover crops by glyphosate. Sown cover crops were sown (November 2007), followed by rice in half of the experimental area and soybean in the other half (November 2008). After the harvesting of these crops, the same cover ...

  13. Impact of sole cropping and multiple cropping on soil humified carbon fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was planned to improve our understanding how crop rotation can enhance humified C fractions. A long term experiment was conducted on Vanmeter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA from 2002 to 2007. Crop rotation treatments included were continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) rotations. Randomized complete block design with 6 replications was used under natural field conditions. The findings of this long-term study revealed that multiple cropping had significantly improved humified carbon fractions compared to mono-cropping system. Although total humified carbon (THOC), sugar free humified carbon (HOC) concentration were non-significant however, humin (NH) contents, humic (HA), fulvic acids (FA), humic and fulvic acid associated glucose (HA-NH and FA-NH) were significantly affected by various crop rotations within five years. The soil under CC had 22-52% significantly greater NH concentration than CSW and CS rotations respectively. Similarly all crop rotations had shown 5-16 increase in HA and 5-17% decreased in FA over time. Likewise soil under CC had 16 and 54% greater HA-NH concentration as compared to CSW and CS rotations. The FA-NH concentration increased significantly by 27- 51% in soil under all treatments over time. The soil under CSW had greater HA/FA (1.6) fallowed by CC (1.4) and CS (1.1). Soils under CSW had significantly greater HA/HOC (12-18%) as compare to CC and CS respectively. Conversely, the value of FA/HOC decreased (1-23%) in soil under all crop rotation treatments within five years. Degree of humification (DH) had shown a significant increase (7-12%) in soil under all treatments as compared to 2002. Irrespective of crop rotation THOC, HOC, NH, humin, HA, HR and FA/HOC concentration decreased significantly with increase in soil depth. While fulvic acid concentration HA/HOC in all crop rotation increased with increase in soil depth. The effect of crop rotation on humified C fractions could be because of variations in type, amount and quality of C returned by different plants into the soil. So replacing mono-cropping with multiple cropping can enhance humified C fractions and can improve soil functional properties. (author)

  14. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  15. Searching for synergism in dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously published research reported a “synergistic effect” of corn on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) water use efficiency when corn (Zea mays L.) was the preceding crop for dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains, i.e., less water was requ...

  16. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe; Kristensen, Kristian; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Elytrigia repens is a noxious perennial weed in organic cropping systems in Scandinavia. It can easily spread in any crop type and reach unacceptable infestation levels through its proliferation from rhizome fragments. This study aimed at analyzing and quantifying the population dynamics of E...

  17. Fertilizer induced losses of nitrous oxide gas from Montana dryland cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization to crops contributes a significant portion of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. This information is, however, lacking in the dryland cropping system in the northern Great Plains. Soil N2O and methane (CH4) fluxes from May to No...

  18. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  19. Cover Crop and Liquid Manure Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in a Corn Silage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to a lack of surface residue and organic matter inputs, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production is one of the most demanding cropping systems imposed on our soil resources. In this study, our objective was to determine if using cover/companion crops and/or applying low-solids liquid dair...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  1. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  2. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    L.) and R8, (C-C-S-S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard plowing, MP. Topsoil...

  3. Economics of wheat based cropping systems in rainfed areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pothwar tract of rainfed area has enormous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate -15 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM at the rate 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time. (author)

  4. Integração lavoura-pecuária: intensificação de uso de áreas agrícolas / Crop-livestock system: intensified use of agricultural lands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvadi Antonio, Balbinot Junior; Anibal de, Moraes; Milton da, Veiga; Adelino, Pelissari; Jeferson, Dieckow.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) se constitui em sistema de produção que alterna, na mesma área, o cultivo de pastagens anuais ou perenes, destinadas à alimentação animal, e culturas destinadas à produção vegetal, sobretudo grãos. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir os principais fundamentos e as [...] características do sistema ILP na região Sul do Brasil e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade do solo e o rendimento animal e vegetal. A ILP pode proporcionar algumas vantagens para o produtor, tais como maior renda por área, maior diversificação de atividades, menor risco econômico e menor custo de produção. Além disso, pode proporcionar vantagens biológicas, como maior biodiversidade e melhoria da qualidade do solo. Dentre as desvantagens, pode-se relacionar a possibilidade de ocorrência de compactação superficial do solo, em situação de manejo inadequado da pastagem. Para que o sistema ILP tenha êxito, alguns fundamentos devem ser atendidos, como uso de rotação de culturas, do sistema plantio direto e de genótipos de animais e vegetais melhorados, correção da acidez e fertilidade do solo e, principalmente, manejo adequado da pastagem. Abstract in english Crop-livestock is a production system that succeeds, at the same area, pastures to animal production and vegetal crops, especially cereals. The objective of this work was to discuss the major presuppositions and characteristics of the crop-livestock system in Southern Brazil, and its effects on the [...] soil quality and animal and vegetal yield. This production system can result in some advantages to farmers such as increase of rent per area, higher diversification, decrease of economic hazards and production costs. Moreover, the crop-livestock system can show biological advantages such as biodiversity increase and improved soil quality. Among the disadvantages, it can point out the possibility of superficial soil compaction in inappropriate pasture management. To success of crop-livestock system some presuppositions must be considered, such as crop rotation, use of no-tillage system, correction of soil acidity and fertility, use of improving vegetal and animal genotypes and, mainly, adequate pasture management.

  5. Integração lavoura-pecuária: intensificação de uso de áreas agrícolas Crop-livestock system: intensified use of agricultural lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP se constitui em sistema de produção que alterna, na mesma área, o cultivo de pastagens anuais ou perenes, destinadas à alimentação animal, e culturas destinadas à produção vegetal, sobretudo grãos. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir os principais fundamentos e as características do sistema ILP na região Sul do Brasil e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade do solo e o rendimento animal e vegetal. A ILP pode proporcionar algumas vantagens para o produtor, tais como maior renda por área, maior diversificação de atividades, menor risco econômico e menor custo de produção. Além disso, pode proporcionar vantagens biológicas, como maior biodiversidade e melhoria da qualidade do solo. Dentre as desvantagens, pode-se relacionar a possibilidade de ocorrência de compactação superficial do solo, em situação de manejo inadequado da pastagem. Para que o sistema ILP tenha êxito, alguns fundamentos devem ser atendidos, como uso de rotação de culturas, do sistema plantio direto e de genótipos de animais e vegetais melhorados, correção da acidez e fertilidade do solo e, principalmente, manejo adequado da pastagem.Crop-livestock is a production system that succeeds, at the same area, pastures to animal production and vegetal crops, especially cereals. The objective of this work was to discuss the major presuppositions and characteristics of the crop-livestock system in Southern Brazil, and its effects on the soil quality and animal and vegetal yield. This production system can result in some advantages to farmers such as increase of rent per area, higher diversification, decrease of economic hazards and production costs. Moreover, the crop-livestock system can show biological advantages such as biodiversity increase and improved soil quality. Among the disadvantages, it can point out the possibility of superficial soil compaction in inappropriate pasture management. To success of crop-livestock system some presuppositions must be considered, such as crop rotation, use of no-tillage system, correction of soil acidity and fertility, use of improving vegetal and animal genotypes and, mainly, adequate pasture management.

  6. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Ross D [Berkeley, CA; Budinger, Thomas F [Berkeley, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  7. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  8. Robust cropping systems to tackle pests under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Barzman, Marco; Booij, Kees; Boonekamp, Piet; Desneux, Nicolas; Huber, Laurent; Kudsk, Per; Langrell, Stephen R. H.; Ratnadass, Alain; Ricci, Pierre; Sarah, Jean-Louis; Messéan, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    the severity of their outbreaks. Increasing concerns over health and the environment as well as new legislation on pesticide use, particularly in the European Union, urge us to find sustainable alternatives to pesticide-based pest management. Here, we review the effect of climate change on crop......Agriculture in the twenty-first century faces the challenge of meeting food demands while satisfying sustainability goals. The challenge is further complicated by climate change which affects the distribution of crop pests (intended as insects, plants, and pathogenic agents injurious to crops) and...... protection and propose strategies to reduce the impact of future invasive as well as rapidly evolving resident populations. The major points are the following: (1) the main consequence of climate change and globalization is a heightened level of unpredictability of spatial and temporal interactions between...

  9. Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)

  10. Conservation Agriculture in mixed crop–livestock systems: Scoping crop residue trade-offs in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Valbuena, D.F.; Erenstein, O.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Abdoulaye, T.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Duncan, A.J.; Gerard, B.; Rufino, M.; Teufel, N.; van Wijk, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) is being advocated to enhance soil health and sustain long term crop productivity in the developing world. One of CA's key principles is the maintenance of soil cover often by retaining a proportion of crop residues on the field as mulch. Yet smallholder crop–livestock systems across Africa and Asia face trade-offs among various options for crop residue use. Knowledge of the potential trade-offs of leaving more residues as mulch is only partial and the objective ...

  11. Efficient optimal design of suspension systems for rotating shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Wang, B. P.; Vannoy, D.

    1975-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for the optimum design of suspension systems for rotating shafts. In this approach the conventional method of trial and error search for optimum parameter values for a prescribed design configuration has been replaced by an efficient two-stage procedure. In the first stage a generic force is substituted for the suspension system to be designed and the absolute optimum (or limiting) performance characteristics of the shaft are computed. In the second stage, using a chosen suspension system configuration, parameter identification techniques are are applied to find the design parameters so that the suspension system will respond as close as possible to the absolute optimal performance. In this approach the repetitive shaft analyses required in the conventional search techniques are avoided. Hence, the new technique is relatively efficient computationally and is suitable for large systems. Both linear and nonlinear suspension systems can be designed. A simple Jeffcott rotor is used to demonstrate the new technique.

  12. Rhizo-lysimetry: facilities for the simultaneous study of root behaviour and resource use by agricultural crop and pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberbach Philip L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizo-lysimeters offer unique advantages for the study of plants and their interactions with soils. In this paper, an existing facility at Charles Sturt University in Wagga Wagga Australia is described in detail and its potential to conduct both ecophysiological and ecohydrological research in the study of root interactions of agricultural crops and pastures is quantitatively assessed. This is of significance to future crop research efforts in southern Australia, in light of recent significant long-term drought events, as well as potential impacts of climate change as predicted for the region. The rhizo-lysimeter root research facility has recently been expanded to accommodate larger research projects over multiple years and cropping rotations. Results Lucerne, a widely-grown perennial pasture in southern Australia, developed an expansive root system to a depth of 0.9 m over a twelve month period. Its deeper roots particularly at 2.05 m continued to expand for the duration of the experiment. In succeeding experiments, canola, a commonly grown annual crop, developed a more extensive (approximately 300% root system than wheat, but exhibited a slower rate of root elongation at rates of 7.47 x 10–3 m day–1 for canola and 1.04 x10–2 m day–1 for wheat. A time domain reflectometry (TDR network was designed to accurately assess changes in soil water content, and could assess water content change to within 5% of the amount of water applied. Conclusions The rhizo-lysimetry system provided robust estimates of root growth and soil water change under conditions representative of a field setting. This is currently one of a very limited number of global research facilities able to perform experimentation under field conditions and is the largest root research experimental laboratory in the southern hemisphere.

  13. Ranking the magnitude of crop and farming system effects on soil microbial biomass and genetic structure of bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Fliessbach, Andreas; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Widmer, Franco

    2006-09-01

    Biological soil characteristics such as microbial biomass, community structures, activities, and functions may provide important information on environmental and anthropogenic influences on agricultural soils. Diagnostic tools and detailed statistical approaches need to be developed for a reliable evaluation of these parameters, in order to allow classification and quantification of the magnitude of such effects. The DOK long-term agricultural field experiment was initiated in 1978 in Switzerland for the evaluation of organic and conventional farming practices. It includes three representative Swiss farming systems with biodynamic, bio-organic and conventional fertilization and plant protection schemes along with minerally fertilized and unfertilized controls. Effects on microbial soil characteristics induced by the long-term management at two different stages in the crop rotation, i.e. winter wheat after potato or corn, were investigated by analyzing soil bacterial community structures using analysis of PCR-amplified rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Application of farmyard manure consistently revealed the strongest influence on bacterial community structures and biomass contents. Effects of management and plant protection regimes occurred on an intermediate level, while the two stages in the crop rotation had a marginal influence that was not significant. PMID:16907752

  14. New climate-proof cropping systems in dry areas of the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    A climate-proof cropping system is a system which is able to mitigate the effects of climate change, which often are unpredictable and extreme. The special issue is related to the subject of improving cropping systems in the Mediterranean region, which is one of the regions in the world facing most...... world, where Mediterranean climate is found, such as Western Australia and Western Chile, and in many dry areas of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East....

  15. Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling / Intervalo hídrico ótimo em solo sob rotação de culturas e escarificação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de água às plantas é alterada pela compactação do solo e outras variáveis. O Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO) integra variáveis físicas do solo que alteram o crescimento radicular e a disponibilidade de água e pode ser manejado por métodos mecânicos ou biológicos. Há evidências de que [...] os efeitos da rotação de culturas são mais duradouros que os da escarificação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da escarificação e, ou, rotação de culturas em sistema de semeadura direta (SSD) no IHO. Rotações envolvendo triticale (X Triticosecale) e girassol (Helianthus annuus) no outono-inverno e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor) e crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) com plantas de cobertura precedendo a soja (Glycine max) foram repetidas por três anos. No tratamento com escarificação, a área foi deixada em pousio entre as culturas de outono-inverno e verão. O experimento foi conduzido em Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil, de 2003 a 2006 em um Nitossolo Vermelho. O IHO foi determinado em amostras de solo das profundidades de 0-20 e 20-40 cm, logo após a dessecação química das plantas de cobertura, em dezembro do primeiro e do terceiro ano do experimento. A escarificação diminui a densidade do solo na camada de 0-20 cm, aumentando o IHO por meio da redução da umidade do solo em que a resistência à penetração atinge 2,0 MPa; esse efeito mantém-se até o terceiro ano após a escarificação, podendo chegar a até 40 cm de profundidade. As rotações de culturas envolvendo girassol + crotalária, triticale + milheto e triticale + crotalária por três anos ajudaram a prevenir o aumento na densidade do solo acima do valor crítico na camada de 0-20 cm. Esse efeito é observado na camada de 20- 40 cm após três anos da escarificação e com rotações de culturas envolvendo sorgo. Assim, a escarificação e algumas rotações de culturas em sistema de semeadura direta são eficientes em melhorar a qualidade do solo avaliada pelo IHO. Abstract in english Soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. There is evidence that effec [...] ts of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (NT) on the LLWR. Crop rotations involving triticale (X Triticosecale) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the fall-winter associated with millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) as cover crops preceding soybean (Glycine max) were repeated for three consecutive years. In the treatment with chiseling (performed only in the first year), the area was left fallow between the fall-winter and summer crops. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006 on a Typic Rhodudalf. The LLWR was determined in soil samples taken from the layers 0-20 cm and 20- 40 cm, after chemical desiccation of the cover crops in December of the first and third year of the experiment. Chiseling decreases soil bulk density in the 0-20 cm soil layer, increasing the LLWR magnitude by lowering the soil water content at which penetration resistance reaches 2.0 MPa; this effect is present up to the third year after chiseling and can reach to a depth of 0.40 m. Crop rotations involving sunflower + sunn hemp, triticale + millet and triticale + sunn hemp for three years prevented soil bulk density from exceeding the critical soil bulk density in the 0- 0.20 m layer. This effect was observed to a depth of 0.40 m after three years of chiseling under crop rotations involving forage sorghum. Hence, chiseling and some crop rotations under no tillage are effective in increasing soil quality assessed by the LLWR.

  16. Conversão e balanço energético de sistemas de rotação de culturas para triticale, sob plantio direto Energy and balance conversion of crop rotation systems for triticale , under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura moderna, interessam sistemas de produção eficientes no uso da energia. Objetivou-se avaliar a conversão e o balanço energético de cinco sistemas de rotação de culturas envolvendo o triticale. Os sistemas avaliados, no período de 1987 a 1991, foram: I (triticale/soja, II (triticale/soja e aveia preta/soja, III (triticale/soja e ervilhaca/milho, IV (triticale/ soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja e V (triticale/soja, triticale/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja. Em 1990, nos sistemas II, IV e V, a aveia preta foi substituída por aveia branca. O experimento foi estabelecido em plantio direto, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas com área útil de 24 m². Na média do período de 1987 a 1989, o sistema III apresentou conversão (9,30 e balanço energético (23.860 Mcal/ha maiores do que os demais sistemas estudados (I: 5,38, II: 5,02, IV: 8,12 e V: 7,37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivamente. Nesse período, as condições climáticas transcorreram normalmente. Na média do período de 1990 a 1991, não houve diferenças significativas entre as médias para conversão e para balanço energético. Nesse período, as condições climáticas foram adversas às culturas em estudo.Efficient energy conversion production systems are important for modern agriculture. The objetive was to evaluate the energy conversion and balance of five rotation systems that included triticale. The evaluated systems, from 1987 to 1991, were: I (triticale/soybean, II (triticale/soybean and black oats/soybean, III (triticale/soybean and common vetch/corn, IV (triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/soybean, and V (triticale/soybean, triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/ soybean. In 1990, black oats was replaced by white oats in systems II, IV, and V. The experiment was set up under no-tillage, using a randomized block design with three replications and plots totalizing 24 m² . On average, for the period 1987 to 1989, system III showed higher energy conversou (9.30 and balance (23.860 Mcal/ha, as compared to the othen studied systems (I: 5.38, II: 5.02, IV: 8.12 e V: 7.37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivily. In this period, the climatic conditions were normal. On average, the period 1990 to 1991, there were no significant differences between energy conversion and balance means. In this period, climatic conditions were adverse.

  17. Water balance, drought stress and yields for rainfed field crop rotations under present and future conditions in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavinka, Petr; Kersebaum, K. C.; Dubrovský, Martin; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Balek, Jan; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, sep (2015), s. 175-192. ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk LD12029; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop growth model * evapotranspiration * soil * climate change Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (UFA-U) Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2014

  18. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...

  19. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  20. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and ?450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem

  1. An electronic pan/tilt/magnify and rotate camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new camera system has been developed for omnidirectional image-viewing applications that provides pan, tilt, magnify, and rotational orientation within a hemispherical field of view (FOV) without any moving parts. The imaging device is based on the fact that the image from a fish-eye lens, which produces a circular image of an entire hemispherical FOV, can be mathematically corrected using high-speed electronic circuitry. More specifically, an incoming fish-eye image from any image acquisition source is captured in the memory of the device, a transformation is performed for the viewing region of interest and viewing direction, and a corrected image is output as a video image signal for viewing, recording, or analysis. The image transformation device can provide corrected images at frame rates compatible with RS-170 standard video equipment. As a result, this device can accomplish the functions of pan, tilt, rotation, and magnification throughout a hemispherical FOV without the need for any mechanical devices. Multiple images, each with different image magnifications and pan-tilt-rotate parameters, can be obtained from a single camera

  2. Impacts of Organic Zero Tillage Systems on Crops, Weeds, and Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress annual weeds, but large amounts are needed for adequate early season weed control. Established perennial weeds are not controlled by cover crop mulch. Integrated weed management strategies that include other cultural as well as biological and mechanical controls have potential and need to be incorporated into organic zero tillage research efforts. Market crop performance in organic zero tillage systems has been mixed because of weed, nutrient cycling, and other problems that still must be solved. Soil quality benefits have been demonstrated in comparisons between organic conservation tillage and inversion tillage systems, but studies that include zero tillage treatments are lacking. Research is needed which identifies agronomic strategies for optimum market crop performance, acceptable levels of weed suppression, and soil quality benefits following adoption of organic zero tillage.

  3. METRIC OF ACCELERATING AND ROTATING REFERENCE SYSTEMS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame. Consequently, there exist a metric in general relativity, in which the Coriolis theorem and classic velocity-addition formula are true. This means that classical mechanics is accurate rather than approximate model in general relativity. A theory of potential in non-inertial reference systems in general relativity is considered. The numerical model of wave propagation in non-inertial reference frames in the case when potential depending of one, two and three spatial dimensions has been developed. It is shown in numerical experiment that the acceleration of the reference system leads to retardation effects, as well as to a violation of the symmetry of the wave front, indicating that there is local change of wave speed

  4. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  5. Companion cropping for organic field vegetables (OF0181)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, M.S.; Cormack, W.F.

    2002-01-01

    Typical organic crop rotations are extensive with at least one year in four as a fertility building crop. However, the economic viability of organic systems may be compromised by having 75% or less of the farm productive at one time, limited further by the absence of the Arable Area Payments Scheme, particularly Set-aside, for vegetable crops. In addition, the system gives rise to a high fertility/low fertility sequence which is inefficient in terms of nutrient management (particularly nitrog...

  6. Management of nitrogen and evaluation of water-use efficiency in traditional and improved cropping systems of the southern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative research project among the International Atomic Energy Agency, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, was initiated in 1999 with the objective of developing a set of options for improving the nitrogen (N) nutrition of dry-land cropping systems by use of N from biological N2 fixation, fertilizer and organic matter at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh. The main experiment consisted of traditional (sorghum-castor) and improved (sorghum/pigeon pea-castor) cropping systems on a two-year rotation cycle with four N-management options. Nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) were included as sources of N. In spite of low rainfall (390 mm in 1999; and 450 mm in 2000) both sorghum and castor responded to applied N. Intercropped pigeon pea had beneficial effects on the succeeding castor crop. A grain yield advantage of 88 kg ha-1 was obtained with castor following sorghum/pigeon pea compared to that following sole sorghum. In on-farm participatory trials, the yields of sorghum, castor and pigeon pea were substantially higher with improved practice compared to farmers' practice. There was no significant difference between urea alone and urea plus FYM as a source of N to sorghum and castor-based cropping systems. (author)

  7. An embedded intelligent monitoring system for rotating machiney vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Qingkai; Zhang, Mo; Zhang, Tianxia; Wen, Bangchun

    2007-12-01

    As required of multi-level and network based fault diagnosis system for large-scale rotating machinery, a new kind of embedded intelligent local set is introduced in the paper for machine condition monitoring and fundamental diagnosis. Its functions include high-speed acquisition of vibration signals, time-frequency analyses, ANN-based fault diagnosis and remote communications. The experimental results show that it performs with higher efficiency with real time, reliability and accuracy in data acquisition, vibration monitoring and typical fault diagnosis.

  8. Proposition of Unique Pumping System with Counter-Rotating Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Kanemoto; Shin Oba

    2004-01-01

    Turbo-pumps have weak points, such as when the pumping operation becomes unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics and/or the cavitation occurs under the intolerably low suction head. To overcome both weak points simultaneously, this article proposes a unique pumping system with counter-rotating mechanism, which consists of two stage impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotors. The front and the rear impellers are driven by the inner and the outer rotors of the motor, r...

  9. Collective composite-rotating consensus of multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Lu, Wan-Ting; Song, Yong-Duan

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates a distributed composite-rotating consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems, where all agents move in a nested circular orbit. A distributed control law is proposed which contains two parts: the local state feedback that guarantees the circular motion and the distributed relative state feedback that guarantees the consensus of all agents. A sufficient condition is derived to drive all agents as well as ensure their circle centers make circular motion in a distributed manner. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  10. Collective composite-rotating consensus of multi-agent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates a distributed composite-rotating consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems, where all agents move in a nested circular orbit. A distributed control law is proposed which contains two parts: the local state feedback that guarantees the circular motion and the distributed relative state feedback that guarantees the consensus of all agents. A sufficient condition is derived to drive all agents as well as ensure their circle centers make circular motion in a distributed manner. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results. (general)

  11. Residual phosphorus and zinc influence wheat productivity under rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Inamullah

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) deplete soil fertility and crop productivity. One strategy to increase crop productivity under rice-wheat system is balanced application of crop nutrients. Field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 kg P ha(-1)) and zinc (0, 5, 10, 15 kg Zn ha(-1)) on the productivity of rice genotypes (fine and coarse) and their residual effects on the grain yield (GY) and its components (YC) of the succeeding wheat crop under rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in North Western Pakistan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. After rice harvest in both years, wheat variety "Siren-2010" was grown on the same layout but no additional P, K and Zn was applied to wheat crop in each year. The GY and YC of wheat significantly increased in the treatments receiving the higher P levels (120 > 80 > 40 > 0 kg P ha(-1)) and Zn (15 > 10 > 5 > 0 kg Zn ha(-1)) in the previous rice crop. The residual soil P and Zn contents after rice harvest, GY and YC of wheat increased significantly under low yielding fine genotype (B-385) as compared to the high yielding coarse genotypes (F-Malakand and Pukhraj). The residual soil P and Zn, GY and of wheat increased significantly in the second year as compared with the first year of experiment. These results confirmed strong carry over effects of both P and Zn applied to the previous rice crop on the subsequent wheat crop under RWCS. PMID:27026947

  12. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in legume based cropping systems; a case study of West Africa farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) has been gradually depleted from West African soils and now poses serious threats to food production. Many ways of increasing N supply (e.g. judicious use of inorganic fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing plants) have been tried in West African farming systems. Herbaceous and woody legumes commonly contribute 40-70 kg N ha-l season. This represents about 30% of the total N applied as residues. Nevertheless and despite repeated demonstrations of the usefulness of green manures in enhancing soil fertility, their practices and adoption are still limited. Promiscuous soya beans are being used to develop sustainable cropping systems in the moist savannah. Reliable estimates of N2 fixed by soya beans and their residual N benefits to subsequent cereal crops in the savannah zone of southern Guinea have only infrequently been made. The actual amounts measured varied between 38 and 126 kg N ha-l assuming that only seeds of soya beans are removed from the plots, the net N accrual of soil nitrogen ranges between minus 8 kg N ha-l and plus 47 kg N ha-l depending on the soyabean cultivar. Residual soyabean N values of 10-24 kg N ha-l (14-36% of the total N in maize) were obtained in a soyabean-maize rotation. Although cereal yields following legume cultivation have been attributed to greater N accumulation, our data show that the relative increase in maize N was smaller than the relative increase in dry-matter yield. Hence, the increased yields of maize following soy beans are not entirely due to the carry-over of N from soyabean residues (as well as to conservation of soil N) but to other rotational effects as well. It is thus clear that the N benefit of grain legumes to non-legumes is small compared to the level of N fertilizer use in more intensive cereal production systems but is nevertheless significant in the context of the low amounts of input in subsistence farming. (author)

  13. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  14. An Air Bearing Rotating Coil Magnetic Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Taylor, David J; Thayer, William

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a rotating coil magnetic measurement system supported on air bearings. The design is optimized for measurements of 0.1micron magnetic centerline changes on long, small aperture quadrupoles. Graphite impregnated epoxy resin is used for the coil holder and coil winding forms. Coil holder diameter is 11 mm with a length between supports of 750mm. A pair of coils is used to permit quadrupole bucking during centerline measurements. Coil length is 616mm, inner radius 1.82mm, outer radius 4.74mm. The key features of the mechanical system are simplicity; air bearings for accurate, repeatable measurements without needing warm up time and a vibration isolated stand that uses a steel-topped Newport optical table with air suspension. Coil rotation is achieved by a low noise servo motor controlled by a standalone Ethernet servo board running custom servo software. Coil calibration procedures that correct wire placement errors, tests for mechanical resonances, and other system checks will also be discu...

  15. Real-time control systems for plasma rotation in RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time feedback control is a key issue in the RFX experiment, as it can play a significant role in solving the problem of the wall locking of the RFX localised helical deformation (LHD) that severely limits the machine performance. Two techniques have been developed at RFX to overcome the problem, both based on the application of external magnetic fields. The first one aims at distributing the energy of plasma-wall interaction on a wide wall surface and operates by dragging the LHD in rotation along the toroidal and poloidal directions. The second technique aims at cancelling the radial magnetic field errors in the magnetic field structure, which contribute to the LHD wall locking significantly. After a brief description of the systems used in RFX to induce the plasma column rotation and to correct the field errors, the paper presents the functional structure of the digital real-time system to control the process and discusses its design. The implementation of the resulting, integrated, distributed real-time control system is finally presented. This is based on a network of floating point DSPs, equipped with built-in communication ports, particularly designed for parallel processing

  16. A WEB BASED TOMATO CROP EXPERT INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Babu M.S; Ramana Murty .N.V; Narayana S.V.N.L

    2010-01-01

    Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato...

  17. Information Collection System of Crop Growth Environment Based on the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hua; Zhang, Guangyu; Lu, Ningbo

    2013-01-01

    Based on the technology of Internet of things, for the issues of large amount data acquisition and difficult real time transport in the data acquisition of crop growth environment, this paper designs one information collection system for crop growth environment. Utilizing the range free location mechanism which defines the node position and GEAR routing mechanism give solutions to the problems of node location, routing protocol applications and so on. This system can realize accurate and auto...

  18. Effect of cropping systems in no-till farming on the quality of a Brazilian Oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Getulio de Freitas Seben Junior; José Eduardo Corá; Rattan Lal

    2014-01-01

    The no-till system with complex cropping sequences may improve the structural quality and carbon (C) sequestration in soils of the tropics. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cropping sequences after eight years under the no-till system on the physical properties and C sequestration in an Oxisol in the municipality of Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A randomized split-block design with three replications was used. The treatments were combinations of three summer ...

  19. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  20. Long-term effects of organic, conventional, and integrated crop systems on Carabids

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Arnaud; Gaucherel, Cedric; Baudry, Jacques; Meynard, Jean Marc

    2011-01-01

    One of the main aims of sustainable agriculture is to reduce the risk of disease in cropping systems and thereby contribute to preserving public health and conserving the environment. In particular, if we are to reduce our recourse to agrochemicals, we need to acquire a deeper understanding of ecological processes, for instance biological pest control by predatory arthropods such as Carabids. We analyzed the population dynamics of a carabid (Pterostichus melanarius) in various cropping system...

  1. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    harvested in sole cropped barley. Calculation of the LER showed that plant growth resources were used from 17 to 31% more efficiently by the intercrop than by the sole crops. Pea increased the N derived from N-2 fixation from 70% when sole cropped to 99% of the total aboveground N accumulation when...... significantly different from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N......The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...

  2. Technical specification for fabrication of vibration monitoring system for HANARO rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical specification details the requirements and the acceptance criteria for H/W and S/W design, fabrication, function test, inspection, packing, shipping, installation and quality assurance for the vibration monitoring system for HANARO rotating machinery which will be installed at the Reactor Concrete Island(RCI). The vibration monitoring system for HANARO rotating machinery is classified as Non-Nuclear Safety(NNS), and quality class S. The designed real-time vibration monitoring system can monitor the rotating speed and the vibration level of the rotating machinery of the primary cooling system and the reflector cooling system. When the rotating speed or the vibration level exceeds the allowable limit of the rotating machinery, the vibration monitoring system gives an alarm signal to reactor control room for early warning of the abnormal operation of the rotating machinery. It is capable of showing the rotating speed and the vibration level of the rotating machinery in bar graph and digital form. In addition, the measured data can be displayed to the computer in the reactor control room or in the office via LAN interface. The vibration monitoring system for HANARO rotating machinery will be used as an advance alarming system for the prevention of the abnormal operation of the rotating machinery. It is expected that the developed vibration monitoring system can be utilized for the realization of the preventive maintenance of the rotating machinery

  3. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  4. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  5. New weed control strategies in maize considering narrow crop rotations with maize, greater ALSresistance in common weeds and application restrictions with regard to active substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many herbicides with different HRAC-groups are available for weed control in maize. Because of narrow maize crop rotation summer weeds and warmth loving weeds are encouraged. On the other hand the new confirmed cases of an ALS target site resistance in the weed species Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in Brandenburg, Stellaria media in Saxony and Matricaria recutita and Tripleurospermum perforatum in Brandenburg and Thuringia, warn that in the future the sulfonylureas must be used only according to the management of herbicide resistance. In this way the selection of resistant weed biotypes will be prevented. Moreover in protected water areas it may be a requirement to reduce and to substitute the input of some active substances, for example terbuthylazine and bentazon. The control of E. crus-galli and P. convolvulus with non-sulfonylurea or/and non-terbuthylazine herbicides according to management of herbicide resistance will be discussed.

  6. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1 year-1). The difference between conservation and conventional systems was as result of the greater use of machinery and, consequently, of fuel in conventional, though the use of herbicides was slightly lower. In both systems, fertilizer was the most important energy input. EO was lower for organic (17.9 GJ ha-1 year-1) than for either conventional or conservation systems (25.7 and 23.4 GJ ha-1 year-1, respectively), a result of the lower barley grain and vetch hay yields. The highest NE was obtained in organic (14.5 GJ ha-1 year-1), and the lowest in conservation (13.0 GJ ha-1 year-1). In relation to O/I, organic farming were about 2.3 times more energetically efficient (5.36) than either the conventional or conservation systems (about 2.35). EP ranged from 400 kg GJ-1 in organic to 177 kg GJ-1 in conventional. No differences in all the energy variables considered were recorded between the conventional and conservation managements. As conclusions and in terms of energy efficiency, farming systems requiring agrochemicals in semi-arid Mediterranean conditions, whether conventional or conservation, appeared to be little efficient. Chemical fertilizer was the most important energy input in these two systems, but their use did not lead to an equivalent increase in yield because of the irregular distribution in many years. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  7. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. and two control treatments: sole maize with or without fertilizer NPK. Eight months after the plantation, the legumes species were pruned and incorporated in soil. Maize was sown interows legumes, in rows spaced 80 cm. New prune carried on sixty days after the first cut. In the second cycle, the crop handlings were similar to the first cycle. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. In the alley cropping with Cajanus cajan the maize show the larger N foliar concentration, in first cycle. In the second cycle, maize+Gliricidia sepium, maize+Cajanus cajan and sole maize with NPK produced more grain than others treatments.

  8. Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality for Agricultural Lands with Crop Rotation in China by Using a HYPE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunxing; Jiang, Sanyuan; Pers, Charlotta; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Yuan, Jin; Yao, Mingxing; He, Yi; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Many water quality models have been successfully used worldwide to predict nutrient losses from anthropogenically impacted catchments, but hydrological and nutrient simulations with limited data are difficult considering the transfer of model parameters and complication of model calibration and validation. This study aims: (i) to assess the performance capabilities of a new and relatively more advantageous model, namely, Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE), that simulates stream flow and nutrient load in agricultural areas by using a multi-site and multi-objective parameter calibration method and (ii) to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations and loads with crop rotation by using the model for the first time. A parameter estimation tool (PEST) was used to calibrate parameters. Results show that the parameters related to the effective soil porosity were highly sensitive to hydrological modeling. N balance was largely controlled by soil denitrification processes. P balance was influenced by the sedimentation rate and production/decay of P in rivers and lakes. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variations of discharge and TN/TP relatively well in both calibration (2006–2008) and validation (2009–2010) periods. Among the obtained data, the lowest Nash-Suttclife efficiency of discharge, daily TN load, and daily TP load were 0.74, 0.51, and 0.54, respectively. The seasonal variations of daily TN concentrations in the entire simulation period were insufficient, indicated that crop rotation changed the timing and amount of N output. Monthly TN and TP simulation yields revealed that nutrient outputs were abundant in summer in terms of the corresponding discharge. The area-weighted TN and TP load annual yields in five years showed that nutrient loads were extremely high along Hong and Ru rivers, especially in agricultural lands. PMID:26999184

  9. Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality for Agricultural Lands with Crop Rotation in China by Using a HYPE Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunxing; Jiang, Sanyuan; Pers, Charlotta; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Yuan, Jin; Yao, Mingxing; He, Yi; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Many water quality models have been successfully used worldwide to predict nutrient losses from anthropogenically impacted catchments, but hydrological and nutrient simulations with limited data are difficult considering the transfer of model parameters and complication of model calibration and validation. This study aims: (i) to assess the performance capabilities of a new and relatively more advantageous model, namely, Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE), that simulates stream flow and nutrient load in agricultural areas by using a multi-site and multi-objective parameter calibration method and (ii) to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations and loads with crop rotation by using the model for the first time. A parameter estimation tool (PEST) was used to calibrate parameters. Results show that the parameters related to the effective soil porosity were highly sensitive to hydrological modeling. N balance was largely controlled by soil denitrification processes. P balance was influenced by the sedimentation rate and production/decay of P in rivers and lakes. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variations of discharge and TN/TP relatively well in both calibration (2006-2008) and validation (2009-2010) periods. Among the obtained data, the lowest Nash-Suttclife efficiency of discharge, daily TN load, and daily TP load were 0.74, 0.51, and 0.54, respectively. The seasonal variations of daily TN concentrations in the entire simulation period were insufficient, indicated that crop rotation changed the timing and amount of N output. Monthly TN and TP simulation yields revealed that nutrient outputs were abundant in summer in terms of the corresponding discharge. The area-weighted TN and TP load annual yields in five years showed that nutrient loads were extremely high along Hong and Ru rivers, especially in agricultural lands. PMID:26999184

  10. Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality for Agricultural Lands with Crop Rotation in China by Using a HYPE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxing Yin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many water quality models have been successfully used worldwide to predict nutrient losses from anthropogenically impacted catchments, but hydrological and nutrient simulations with limited data are difficult considering the transfer of model parameters and complication of model calibration and validation. This study aims: (i to assess the performance capabilities of a new and relatively more advantageous model, namely, Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE, that simulates stream flow and nutrient load in agricultural areas by using a multi-site and multi-objective parameter calibration method and (ii to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorous (TP concentrations and loads with crop rotation by using the model for the first time. A parameter estimation tool (PEST was used to calibrate parameters. Results show that the parameters related to the effective soil porosity were highly sensitive to hydrological modeling. N balance was largely controlled by soil denitrification processes. P balance was influenced by the sedimentation rate and production/decay of P in rivers and lakes. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variations of discharge and TN/TP relatively well in both calibration (2006–2008 and validation (2009–2010 periods. Among the obtained data, the lowest Nash-Suttclife efficiency of discharge, daily TN load, and daily TP load were 0.74, 0.51, and 0.54, respectively. The seasonal variations of daily TN concentrations in the entire simulation period were insufficient, indicated that crop rotation changed the timing and amount of N output. Monthly TN and TP simulation yields revealed that nutrient outputs were abundant in summer in terms of the corresponding discharge. The area-weighted TN and TP load annual yields in five years showed that nutrient loads were extremely high along Hong and Ru rivers, especially in agricultural lands.

  11. Produção de trigo e triticale em rotações de sequeiro Wheat and triticale in crop rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos em Vila Real (Trás-os-Montes. O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro de Trás-os-Montes, cereal-alqueive (TA, e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL, cereal-consociação forrageira (TC e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP. Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha, os teores de nutrientes do grão e da palha e acompanharam-se os parâmetros do solo, pH, matéria orgânica e os teores de P2 O 5, K2 O e bases de troca. Destacam-se alguns resultados importantes, tais como: as produções de grão de cereal das rotações não mostrarem diferenças significativas entre si; a produção de palha da rotação TL ser superior às das restantes; o trigo cultivado após prado de sequeiro não dispensar a adubação azotada; as rotações conduzirem a modificações dos teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio de troca ou do valor do pH do solo, factores a que se deve atender, caso a rotação se prolongue por muitos anos.The results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA, traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL, cereal-forage mixture (TC and cereal-rain-fed pasture (TP. The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields were evaluated together with concentrations of nutrients. The soil parameters studied were pH, organic matter and P 2 O 5, K2O and exchange cations. Wheat straw yield of TL rotation was higher than that of the others. Wheat from TP rotation still requires nitrogen fertilization. The soils of the different rotations registered changes of organic matter, Ca, Mg and pH values, which should be taken into account if these rotations are practised over several years.

  12. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber-gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8±103.2 g CH4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0~135 kg N·ha(-1). Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. PMID:26282743

  13. Improving soil microbiology under rice-wheat crop rotation in Indo-Gangetic Plains by optimized resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Singh, G; Sarkar, Sushil K; Singh, Rana P

    2015-03-01

    The resource-intensive agriculture involving use of chemical fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage practices is a major cause of soil, water, and air pollution. This study was conducted to determine whether integrated use of nutrient, water, and tillage (reduced) can be manipulated to improve the population of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas) to enhance soil fertility and yield. The study was conducted in the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) region of India, where resource-intensive agriculture is practiced. Various combinations of chemical (urea) and organic fertilizers (farmyard manure (FYM), biofertilizer, and green manure) were used on replicated field plots for all the experiments. The effect of integrated resource management (IRM) on activities of Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas and its relation to the yields of rice and wheat crops in subtropical soils of IGP region were also observed. The increased population of all the three microbes, namely, Azotobacter (5.01-7.74 %), Bacillus (3.37-6.79 %), and Pseudomonas (5.21-7.09 %), was observed due to improved structure and increased organic matter in the soil. Similarly, kernel number and 1000 kernel weight were found increased with sole organic N source, three irrigations, and conservation tillage. Thus, it was found that the IRM practices affect the environment positively by increasing the population of beneficial soil microbes and crop yield as compared to high-input agriculture (conventional practices). PMID:25720969

  14. Possible impact of the Renewable Energy Directive on N fertilization intensity and yield of winter oilseed rape in different cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), established sustainability criteria for biofuels including legal thresholds for specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, expressed as g CO2eq per MJ of biofuel. Because biofuels are a major market for winter oilseed rape (WOSR), investigating the possible impact of the RED on WOSR cropping practices is prudent. This study analyses GHG emissions for WOSR cropping practices (namely N fertilization intensity, tillage method and crop rotation) basing on a 6-year field trial in a high yielding area of northern Germany. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology the field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are calculated from the nitrogen (N) inputs to the cropping system. Results showed that the predominant source of GHG emissions is the N related emissions from production of fertilizer and N2O field emissions. Specific GHG emissions are lowest without N fertilizer but rise continuously with increasing N rates. Yield per ha also responded to N fertilization resulting in lowered acreage productivity when reducing GHG emissions by reducing N fertilization level. Most calculated scenarios and cropping systems result in a drastic decrease of N fertilization to achieve thresholds, causing substantial yield losses. To a certain extent, the required drastic reduction of N fertilization in some scenarios is driven by using the IPCC methodology for calculating N2O emissions. Therefore characteristics of this methodology are also discussed within this study. To mitigate the impact of the RED on WOSR, peas (legumes) may be a possible preceding crop to WOSR. -- Highlights: •Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were calculated for varying cropping systems. •Specific GHG emissions rise continuously with increasing N fertilization. •The impact of the Renewable Energy Directive was evaluated in a scenario analysis. •Most calculation scenarios require a substantial reduction of N fertilization. •Low N fertilization results in drastic yield losses and low acreage productivity

  15. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho’s probability method, moreover, abridges in effective way the analysis of variance results, supplying precise indications about the influence of crop sequence on quali-quantitative productive variables; in particular, wheats in three-year crop rotation (F1 and F2 have higher probability to obtain higher qualitative and quantitative productions than one in one-year crop rotations (Fc+i and Fc, so as wheat in one-year crop rotation with catch crop vs. wheat monoculture.

  16. [Characteristics of seasonal drought and its adaptation in southern China under the background of global climate change. VI. Optimized layout of cropping system for preventing and avoiding drought disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-11-01

    Southern China is an important agricultural planting region of China, but the seasonal drought severely impacted the regional agricultural production. Based on the 1981-2007 meteorological data from 13 typical meteorological stations in the seasonal drought areas in southern China and the data of related crops growth period and yield, three precipitation year types (drought year, normal year, and wet year) were classified based on the yearly precipitation, and by using five indices (coupling degree of water requirement and precipitation during crop water critical stages, meteorological crop yield, output value per unit area, and water use efficiency and precipitation during whole growth period), the comprehensive benefit of all possible cropping patterns in each typical region was evaluated, and the optimal cropping patterns in the different regions of southern China in different precipitation years were obtained. In the semi-arid region, the optimal cropping patterns in dry year included potato-maize-sweet potato and winter wheat-rice-sweet potato. In the semi-humid region and during dry year, winter wheat-rice-sweet potato was the best choice, and rape seed-rice-sweet potato was the second one. In the warm and humid region (the typical region where seasonal drought happened), the best cropping pattern in Jiangnan area in different precipitation years was potato-double cropping rice, and the suitable patterns in southwest area were the triple cropping systems with drought-resistant crops, such as winter wheat-rice-sweet potato, winter wheat-maize-sweet potato, and potato-double cropping rice. From the aspect of maximally utilizing water and heat resources, triple cropping would be the best choice, with the rice and upland crop rotation as the main and with the rice arranged in pairs in wet year. PMID:24564149

  17. Crop yield network and its response to changes in climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop failure (reduction in crop yield) due to extreme weather and climate change could lead to unstable food supply, reflecting the recent globalization in world agricultural production. Specifically, in several major production countries producing large amount of main cereal crops, wheat, maize, soybean and rice, abrupt crop failures in wide area are significantly serious for world food supply system. We examined the simultaneous changes in crop yield in USA, China and Brazil, in terms of the changes in climate system such as El Nino, La nina and so on. In this study, we defined a crop yield networks, which represent the correlation between yearly changes in crop yields and climate resources during the crop growing season in two regions. The climate resources during the crop growing season represents here the average temperature and the accumulated precipitation during the crop growing season of a target crop. As climate data, we used a reanalysis climate data JRA-25 (Japan Meteorological Agency). The yearly changes in crop yields are based on a gridded crop productivity database with a resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude (Iizumi et al. 2013). It is constructed from the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureau in each country, which covers the period during 1982 to 2006 (25 years). For the regions being lack of data, the data was interpolated referring to NPP values estimated by satellite data. Crop yield network is constructed as follows: (1) let DY(i,y) be negative difference in crop yield of year y from the trend yield at grid i; (2) define the correlation of the differences Cij(y) = DY(i, y) DY(j, y); (3) if Cij(y) > Q, then grids i and j are mutually linked for a threshold value Q. Links between grids make a crop yield network. It is here noted that only negative differences are taken into account because we focused on the lean year cases (i.e. yields of both grids were lower than those in the long-term trend). The arrays of correlation function Cij(y) construct the adjacent matrix of year y for the network. That is, non zero elements of the matrix mean that there occurred yield reduction at the corresponding grids at year y. When the number of non zero elements is large, it indicates that simultaneous yield reduction occurred in broad area in the country. We firstly examined the time changes of link density, which is defined as the ratio of the number of non zero elements to that of all the elements (=n(n+1)/2, where n denotes the number of grids), in terms of climate variability. As the results, the link density of crop yield network for maize in USA was about 0.4 as the mean and changed temporally larger than that in China in the past years, which in China was about 0.3 as the mean for the past 25 years (1982-2006). To examine the relationship climate variability and time changes in link density, we conducted multiple regression analysis taking the link density as a dependent variable and SOI indices of the preceding months before harvest (October) as the independent variables. It is shown that the link density for th