Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations. PMID:18348803
O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E
Field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil at west Samalout, Minia, Egypt, from December 1996 to October 1999. The main objectives were (i) to examine long-term effects of applications of crop residues on crop nutrition, yields and soil fertility; (ii) to improve process-level understanding of nutrient flows through the use of isotopic techniques, and (iii) to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by a wheat-peanut rotation system. There were four treatments: (i) T1, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N with unlabelled residues; (ii) T2, 15N-labelled wheat residues, 26 kg N/ha at 1.94% 15N a.e, applied at the end of the first season; (iii) T3, to generate unlabelled residues and yield; and (iv) T4, 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4, 60 kg N/ha at 9.82% 15N atom excess, applied at the beginning of the first season, without residues. The Ndff recoveries during the first season in treatments T1 and T4 were 27% and 26% respectively, while 25% of the 15N remained in the soil for T1 and T4. Thus, the total amounts of 15N accounted for (in plant and soil) were 51% for T1 and 50% for T4. After the second crop, the total 15N recovery was 25% and 13% for T1 and T4, respectively. Application of the crop residues seemed to decrease N losses from the soil. Values for %N derived from labelled residues (%Ndfr) %N derived from labelled residues (%Ndfr) by wheat (T2) were 1.0% and 0.4% during seasons 3 and 5, respectively, while recoveries of %Ndfr by peanut from T2 treatments were 3.7, 4.1 and 0.3 during seasons 2, 4 and 6, respectively. In the following five seasons (peanut-wheat-peanut-wheat-peanut), total 15N recoveries by plant and soil were 67, 54, 34, 25 and 16%, respectively. (author)
Paddy rice-upland crop rotation system is a major cropping system in China, and practiced widely along the Yangtze River basin. A unique feature of this system is the annual conversion of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic condition, which can result in the changes of soil physical, chemical, and biological prosperities among seasons, making a special agroecosystem. The major challenges faced by this system include declining or stagnating productivity, increasing shortage of irrigation water, improper management of nutrients, low efficiency of resource utilization, and environmental pollution. Based on an overview of the characteristics and problems of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system, this paper put forward a strategy of practicing integrated nutrient management to solve the contradictions between nutrient input, crop production and environmental risk. The key points of this strategy included nutrient management from the whole rotation system perspective, integrated use of nutrients from various sources (chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and nutrients from the environment), synchronization of nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand, application of different management technologies based on the characteristics of different nutrient resources, and integration of nutrient management with other cropping system technologies like water saving and high-yielding cultivation, etc. PMID:18472447
Fan, Ming-Sheng; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lü, Shi-Hua; Liu, Xue-Jun
Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared.The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made.The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on the basis of weed biomass was higher in the system with potato. The similarity indices, which express the convergence of floristic composition as well as of the density and biomass of weeds growing in pea fields in the two crop rotation systems compared, were within a broad range (42–86%. The biodiversity of weed communities was more closely correlated to total precipitation than to air temperature.
Marta K. Kostrzewska
Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy
Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh
The response to P-Derived from phosphate rock and TSP by crops grown in a simulated crop rotation system. A green house experiment was carried out on a simulated crop rotation system of upland rice-soybean-mungbean to determine the effect of P-derived from different phosphate rock (PR) sources and TPS using 12P. The data obtained reveal that all the P-sources has a significant effect on the growth of all the there crops, expressed in dry weight, % P-total and total P-uptake (mg P pot-1). For the P-source it was shown that % P-derived from PR/TSP and their uptake (mg P pot-1) was quite high, showing that the PRs applied were of good reactivity. The residue of the PRs has also still a good effect on plant growth than that of TSP. The efficiency of PRs was far below that of TSP. This apparently was due to the high rate of application, ten times the rate of TSP
A green house experiment was carried out on a simulated crop rotation system of upland rice-soybean-mungbean to determine the effect of P-derived from different phosphate rock (PR) sources and TSP using 32P. The data obtained reveal that all the P-sources has a significant effect on the growth of all the three crops, expressed in dry weight, % P-total and total P-uptake (mg P pot-1). For the P-source it was shown that % P-derived from PR/TSP and their uptake (mg P pot-1) was quite high, showing that the PRs applied were of good reactivity. The residue of the PRs has also still a good effect on plant growth than that of TSP. The efficiency of PRs was far below that of TSP. This apparently was due to the high rate of application, ten times the rate of TSP. (author)
Temperate grassland soils, typically Mollisols, have remained agriculturally productive with limited inputs for many years, despite the mining of energy and nutrients reserves contained within the soil organic fraction (Janzen, 1987; Tiessen et al., 1994). Such system can be considered resilient, at least initially, but one must question for how long such systems can be sustained. Effect of long-term land-use on biologically active fractions of soil organic matter is not well understood. Investigations were conducted in more than 40-year static experiments in northern Kazakhstan. We examined five fallow-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems with different frequencies of the fallow phase: continuous wheat (CW), 6-y rotation (6R), 4-y rotation (4R), 2-y rotation (2R) and continuous fallow (CF). A unique sample from nationally protected virgin steppe near the experimental field was sampled for comparison with long-term cultivated soils. Soil samples were collected from the two phases of each rotation, pre- and post-fallow, and analyzed for biological soil properties that are potentially mineralizable C (PMC), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and "light fraction" C (LFC) and N (LFN). Potentially mineralizable C was inversely proportional to the frequency of fallow and was highest in CW. Potentially mineralizable N was more responsive to rotation phase than other indices of SOM. Light fraction OM was negatively correlated to the frequency of fallow and was higher in pre-fallow than in post-fallow phases. All studied biological characteristics were drastically greater in the soil from the natural steppe. The results suggested that the yearly input of plant residues in a less frequently fallowed system built up more PMC, whereas PMN was closely correlated to recent inputs of substrate added as plant residue. We concluded that a frequent fallowing for long period may deplete SOM via accelerated mineralization. The results may provide prediction of SOM response to fallow frequency in wheat-fallow based cropping systems in semi-arid regions.
Based on a long term field experiment, this paper studied the effects of different multiple cropping systems on the weed community composition and species diversity under paddy-upland rotation. The multiple cropping rotation systems could significantly decrease weed density and inhibited weed growth. Among the rotation systems, the milk vetch-early rice-late maize --> milk vetchearly maize intercropped with early soybean-late rice (CCSR) had the lowest weed species dominance, which inhibited the dominant weeds and decreased their damage. Under different multiple cropping systems, the main weed community was all composed of Monochoia vaginalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Sagittaria pygmae, and the similarity of weed community was higher, with the highest similarity appeared in milk vetch-early rice-late maize intercropped with late soybean --> milk vetch-early maize-late rice (CSCR) and in CCSR. In sum, the multiple cropping rotations in paddy field could inhibit weeds to a certain extent, but attentions should be paid to the damage of some less important weeds. PMID:24417111
Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Xu, Ning; Wang, Shu-Bin
The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area. The perennial legume rotation was identified as the most beneficial and eco-friendly energy crop rotation by showing an increase in Chum, lower GHG emissions per product and area and positive effects on nitrogen dynamics. However, the absolute magnitude of changes and effects differs between the sites indicating an influence of soil type and local climate on the final performance of the energy crop rotation. Generally, the results showed that the positive effect of a certain crop rotation on particular environmental indicators can have a less beneficial effect on another indicator, making an overall evaluation of the energy crop rotation complicated. The weighing of different environmental indicators finally depends on the environmental priorities, political targets and describes a further challenge.
Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael
Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Van meter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30 cm, and sieved. The soils were analyzed for total microbial biomass (C/sub mic/), basal respiration (BR) and specific maintenance respiration (qCO/sub 2/) rates as biological quality indicators; total organic carbon (TC), active carbon (AC) and total nitrogen (TN) as chemical quality indicators; and aggregate stability (AS), particulate organic matter (POM) and total porosity (ft) as physical quality parameters at different depths of soil. The inductive additive approach based on the concept of 'higher value of any soil property except ft, a better indicator of soil quality' was used to calculate the biological (SBQ), chemical (SCQ), physical (SPQ) and composite soil quality (SQI) indices. The results showed that crop rotation had significant impact on C/sub mic/, BR, qCO/sub 2/, TC, AC, TN, AS and POM except ft at different depths of soil. The CSW had higher soil quality values than CC and CS. The values of selected soil quality properties under the given crop rotation significantly decreased except ft with increasing soil depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%l depth. The SBQ (23%), SCQ (16%), SPQ (7%) and SQI (15%) improved under CSW over time. The results imply that multiple cropping systems could be more effective for maintaining and enhancing soil quality than sole-cropping systems. (author)
A dynamic model of nematode populations under a crop rotation that includes both host and nonhost crops is developed and used to conceptualize the problem of economic control. The steady state of the dynamic system is used to devise an approximately optimal decision policy, which is then applied to cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) control in a rotation of sugarbeet with nonhost crops. Long-run economic returns from this approximately optimal decision rule are compared with results from so...
Burt, O. R.; Ferris, H.
Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657
Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A
Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.
Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF
Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation comparing with that under succession (4.95 and 4.14 MgC ha-1, respectively). No differences between succession X rotation (1st year) and succession X rotation (3rd year) were found for litter. Differences in C stock in litter were found only comparing succession (2.42 MgC ha-1) X rotation (2nd year) (3.44 MgC ha-1). Average values of soil C stocks at depth 0-30cm under succession (67.79 MgC ha-1) and rotation (64.83 MgC ha-1) don't differ among treatments. These values in comparison with other determined for similar soil-climate conditions for soils under native forest (60.83 MgC ha-1) and under conventional tillage (60.68 MgC ha-1) reveals a beneficial effect of ZT in soil C stock. Finally, the C stocks determined for plants and litter, representing only 4.0% and 6.4% of that determined for soil, confirm the relevance of soil as a terrestrial C reservoir. Acknowledgments: The authors express thanks for the financial support and technical facilities receipt from Embrapa Trigo, CEPAGRI/ UNICAMP, and FAEPEX/ UNICAMP. CAPES/GOV.BRAZIL is also acknowledged by Dr. Michele K. C. Walter for the greeted scholarship.
Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio
Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).
Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge
Non-renewable energy inputs (both direct and indirect), metabolizable energy output and energy efficiency of 10 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotations were examined over 18 years on a loam soil in the Brown soil zone of the Canadian Prairies. The rotations, which were managed using conventional tillage, included a range of crops, cropping intensities, crop sequences and fertilizer practices. Results showed that the total energy input per unit of land was lowest for the traditional fallow-wheat (F-W) rotation (3482 MJ ha/sup -1/), intermediate (4470 MJ ha/sup -1/) for N- and P-fertilized fallow-wheat-wheat (F-W-W) and highest for N- and P-fertilized continuous wheat (7100 MJ ha/sup -1/). Substituting flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.) for wheat in the rotations reduced total energy input by 3 to 8%, while withholding the application of either N or P fertilizer reduced total energy input by 16-37%. Liquid fuel for field operations and local product transport, and fertilizer (primarily N) were the major energy inputs; both increased with cropping intensity. Fuel accounted for 30-50% of the total energy input of the rotations. Fertilizer represented 15-49% of the total energy input and was more important than fuel for the continuous crop rotations. Despite the high energy content in pesticides, they accounted for only 4-11% of the total energy input of the rotations. Metabolizable energy output displayed similar response patterns as total energy input reflecting the higher total annual grain yields as cropping intensity increased. The average energy output to input ratio for F-W was 3.6, or 262 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, while those for F-W-W and continuous wheat were 3.3 and 2.6, or 240 and 191 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, respectively. Rotations that included flax or cereal forage crops had the lowest energy efficiencies. 2 figs., 31 refs., 4 tabs.
Zentner, R.P.; Stumborg, M.A.; Campbell, C.A.
Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity, the crops rotations can decrease the water deficit of the rainfed crops cultivated after the irrigated crops. This is due to the storage of water in the deepest soil layers during the irrigated crops with shallow roots that increase the available soil water at the planting date of the wheat crop. For the soils with small water storage capacity and small depth, such as the Évora silt-clay-sandy soil, it was not observed the benefic effects of crops rotation in the reduction of the water deficit of the rainfed crops. The results obtained for the several climate change scenarios (2071-2100) show an increase in irrigation requirements between 13% and 70%, with the higher values corresponding to the Autumn-Winter crops (sugar beet), due to the combined effect of an increased evapotranspiration and a reduced precipitation during the crop cycle. The irrigation requirements for the peak period increased between 10% to 46%. For the climate change scenarios it was also found an increased risk of crop failure for the rainfed crops, with a water deficit value for the wheat ranging between 32% to 59%, and for the barley ranging between 34% to 45%. Keywords: Crops Rotation, Soil water balance, Irrigation, Climate change, Model
Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.
The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data for the baseline period (1961–90) and in combination with two regional circulation models (RCM) to generate climatic data under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario for four different 20-year time slices (denoted by midpoints 2020, 2040, 2060 and 2080) for two locations in Denmark, differing in soil and climate, and representative of the selected production systems. The CO2 effects were modelled using projected CO2 concentrations for the A1B emission scenario. Crop rotations were irrigated (sandy soil) and unirrigated (sandy loam soil), and all included systems with and without catch crops, with field operation dates adapted to baseline and future climate change. Model projections showed an increase in the productivity and N leaching in the future that would be dependent on crop rotation and crop management, highlighting the importance of considering the whole rotation rather than single crops for impact assessments. Potato and sugar beet in arable farming and grain maize in pig farming contributed most to the productivity increase in the future scenarios. The highest productivity was obtained in the arable system on the sandy loam soil, with an increase of 20% on average in 2080 with respect to the baseline. Irrigation and fertilization rates would need to be increased in the future to achieve optimum yields. Growing catch crops reduces N leaching, but current catch crop management might not be sufficient to control the potential increase of leaching and more efficient strategies are required in the future. The uncertainty of climate change scenarios was assessed by using two different climate projections for predicting crop productivity and N leaching in Danish crop rotations, and this showed the consistency of the projected trends when used with the same crop model
Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette
The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum m...
Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Hochmuth, R. C.
Crop-pasture rotations (CP) have been proposed as a more sustainable management system than continuous cropping (CC) under Uruguayan conditions. However, the impact of crop-pasture rotations under conventional tillage (CT) and no-till systems (NT) has not been evaluated in terms of long-term inputs ...
The remarkable expansion of fertilization and irrigation may stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems in northern China. High-resolution measurements were conducted in irrigated cotton and wheat-maize rotational systems in Shanxi Province, P.R. China, between 2007 and 2010 (three year-round crop cycles, hereinafter referred to as Y1, Y2 and Y3) to investigate the impacts of natural inter-annual variations and agricultural management on annual N2O emissions and direct emission factors (EFs). Overall, N2O emissions fluctuated diurnally, seasonally and inter-annually in the fertilized treatments. The hourly N2O fluxes closely followed the daily air temperature patterns. The daily mean fluxes corresponded to these hourly fluxes, which were observed between 09:00-10:00 and 19:00-20:00. An optimized sampling protocol could improve the reliability of discrete measurements when estimating cumulative emissions. The N2O emissions for the fertilized treatments were 2.7 ± 0.2 (Y1) and 1.6 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2) from the cotton field and 6.2 ± 0.4 (Y1), 4.5 ± 0.3 (Y2) and 4.5 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y3) from the wheat-maize field. Peak N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation/rainfall lasted one to three weeks and accounted for 16-55% of the annual emissions. Leaching losses were estimated at 10.4 ± 3.0 (Y1) and 12.5 ± 3.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2), which accounted for 16-17% of the fertilizer-N applied to the cotton field. Annual N2O emissions did not increase with increasing fertilization rates or water inputs because significant amounts of fertilizer-N were lost through leaching. Background emissions amounted to one-third to one-half of the total N2O emissions from the fertilized treatments. The direct EFs were 2.2 ± 0.3% (Y1) and 0.9 ± 0.2% (Y2) in the cotton field and 1.3 ± 0.2% (Y1), 0.8 ± 0.1% (Y2) and 0.7 ± 0.1% (Y3) in the wheat-maize field. The large inter-annual variations in N2O emissions and direct EFs emphasize the importance of multiple-year continuous observations.
Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Rotação de culturas e variações sazonais podem promover alterações quantitativas e qualitativas na comunidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos e na formação da micorriza arbuscular. Essa dinâmica foi avaliada, em campo, num Latossolo Vermelho, em relação ao tempo de cultivo e variação saz [...] onal, em sistemas de rotação de culturas. Em casa de vegetação, avaliou-se, em solo proveniente da área experimental, a contribuição da micorriza arbuscular no crescimento de soja e capim-andropógon utilizados na rotação. O número de esporos dos fungos aumentou no solo cultivado. O número de esporos e o porcentual de colonização radicular, inicialmente maiores sob pastagem, variaram de acordo com o tempo de cultivo, as estações seca e chuvosa, a cultura e o sistema de rotação utilizados. O número de gêneros e espécies aumentou com o tempo de cultivo e manejo de culturas e foi maior sob culturas anuais em rotação. A presença dos fungos no solo contribuiu no crescimento da soja e do capim-andropógon em 53% e 95%, respectivamente. A cultura e o sistema de cultivo são fatores determinantes para o enriquecimento do sistema com micorriza arbuscular. Abstract in english Crop rotation and seasonal variations can promote quantitative and qualitative changes in the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi population in the soil and arbuscular mycorrhiza establishment. These fungi dynamics were evaluated in the field, in a Red Latosol, in relation to cropping time, seas [...] onal variation and rotation systems. The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhiza to the growth of andropogon grass and soybean, which were used in the systems, was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using soil from the experimental area. The number of spores of the fungi increased in the cultivated soil. The spores number and percent root colonization varied according to cropping time, soil moisture, crops and rotation system and were, initially, higher under pasture. The number of genus and species increased according to cropping time and culture management and was higher under annual crops in rotation. The presence of these fungi in the soil contributed 53% and 95% to the growth of soybean and andropogon grass, respectively. Crops and cultivation system are crucial for the system's enrichment in arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Jeanne Christine Claessen de, Miranda; Lourival, Vilela; Leo Nobre de, Miranda.
In the article growing interest in transformation of conventional agriculture toward sustainable is justified. Challenges related with environmental constraints on agriculture production growth are defined as critical. The authors suggest to consider farms applying Norfolk crop rotation system as environmentally sustainable. Comparison of main indicators characterising productivity of these farms with conventional ones proves their handicapped position in other spheres of sustainability. It i...
Zbigniew Floria?czyk; Joanna Buks
Full Text Available In this article the scheme of landing of early tomatoes and cucumbers in the climatic conditions of the Rostov region is described; we have also calculated the dose of fertilizers for jet system of mixture at a fertigation irrigation. The conclusion is drawn with a possibility of cultivation crop rotation of tomatoes and cucumbers in not heated greenhouses with application of fertilizers
Degtyareva K. A.
There is an urgent need for novel agronomic improvements capable of boosting crop yields while alleviating environmental impacts. One such approach is the use of optimized crop rotations. However, a set of measurements that can serve as guiding principles for the design of crop rotations is lacking. Crop rotations take advantage of niche complementarity, enabling the optimization of nutrient use and the reduction of pests and specialist pathogen loads. However, despite the recognized importance of plant-soil microbial interactions and feedbacks for crop yield and soil health, this is ignored in the selection and management of crops for rotation systems. We review the literature and propose criteria for the design of crop rotations focusing on the roles of soil biota and feedback on crop productivity and soil health. We consider that identifying specific key organisms or consortia capable of influencing plant productivity is more important as a predictor of soil health and crop productivity than assessing the overall soil microbial diversity per se. As such, we propose that setting up soil feedback studies and applying genetic sequencing tools towards the development of soil biotic community databases has a strong potential to enable the establishment of improved soil health indicators for optimized crop rotations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24408021
Dias, Teresa; Dukes, Angela; Antunes, Pedro M
In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability.
Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.
In dairy farming systems the risk of nitrate leaching is increased by mixed rotations (pasture/arable) and the use of organic manure. We investigated the effect of four organic farming systems with different livestock densities and different types of organic manure on crop yields, nitrate leaching and N balance in an organic dairy/crop rotation (barley – grass-clover – grass-clover – barley/pea – winter wheat – fodder beet) from 1994 until 1998. Nitrate concentrations in soil water ...
Eriksen, J.; Askegaard, M.; Kristensen, K.
Full Text Available A quantidade de calcário indicada de forma rotineira para hortaliças tem pouca experimentação de campo para dar suporte a níveis de aplicação. Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer valores para a saturação por bases (V e pH (CaCl2 para melhor produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (de inverno e alface (de verão, cultivadas sucessivamente por três anos agrícolas em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP. Avaliou-se a calagem aplicada no ano, bem como o efeito residual da calagem no segundo e terceiro anos subseqüentes. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no primeiro ano, e 4 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no segundo e terceiro anos. Constatou-se efeito positivo da calagem sobre a produção e qualidade comercial da cenoura e da alface nos três anos agrícolas e efeito residual da calagem aplicada no primeiro ano do experimento sobre as produções de cenoura e alface nos anos seguintes. No primeiro ano, a produtividade de cenoura comercial foi de 24% a 39% maior do que a testemunha sem calcário, enquanto o peso médio da cabeça de alface aumentou de 79% a 199%. As maiores produtividades de cenoura foram de 46 t ha-1 obtidas com V=73% e pH (CaCl2= 5,7. As melhores produções de alface foram atingidas com V entre 72% e 80% e o pH (CaCl2 entre 5,5 e 5,6. A omissão de B, Cu, Mn e Zn em um dos tratamentos com calagem acarretou na queda de produtividade e qualidade da cenoura nos três anos agrícolas.Amounts of lime recommended for carrots and lettuce have little experimental support for the amounts indicated. This research was developed to determine the adequate value of soil bases saturation (V and pH (CaCl2 to obtain the best yield and commercial quality of carrot (winter and lettuce (summer cultivated on crop rotation system during three years. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil, on a Typic Kandaudult soil. The residual effect of liming, at the second and third years, was also evaluated. The treatments were: 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 t ha-1 of lime on the first year; 4 and 8 t ha-1 of lime on the second and third years successively. As a result, the positive effects of liming on yield and commercial quality of carrot and lettuce were evident during the three years, and residual effect of liming in the second and third years was evident, too. In the first year, carrot yields were 24% to 39% higher than treatment without lime, while lettuce head average weight increased from 79% to 199%. The highest carrot yields were 46 t ha-1 obtained at V=73% and pH (CaCl2 = 5,7. The best commercial results for lettuce were reached with V between 72% and 80% and pH (CaCl2 between 5,5 and 5,6. The treatment with liming and without B, Cu, Mn and Zn presented lower carrot yield and commercial quality during three years.
Paulo E Trani
The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P castor, sesame, or American jointvetch than following okra or fallow. Several of the rotation crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops. PMID:19279897
McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C
One-year crop rotations with corn or highly resistant soybean were evaluated at four locations for their effect on Rotylenchulus reniformis population levels and yield of a subsequent cotton crop. Four nematicide (aldicarb) regimes were included at two of the locations, and rotation with reniform-susceptible soybean was included at the other two locations. One-year rotations to corn or resistant soybean resulted in lower R. reniformis population levels (P ? 0.05) than those found in cotton ...
Davis, R. F.; Koenning, S. R.; Kemerait, R. C.; Cummings, T. D.; Shurley, W. D.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A compreensão e a quantificação do impacto do uso e manejo do solo na qualidade física são fundamentais no desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo de solo e de rotação de culturas sobre alguns atributos físicos de solo em um experi [...] mento instalado em 1985, em Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico argiloso, em Passo Fundo (RS), estudou-se a variação desses atributos entre 2001 e 2005. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro modos de manejo de solo: 1) plantio direto (PD); 2) cultivo mínimo (CM); 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado e grade de discos (PCD) e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas e grade de discos (PCA), e três sistemas de rotação de culturas: I (trigo/soja), II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo) e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos sistemas de manejo de solo, e as subparcelas, pelos sistemas de rotação de culturas. Amostras de solo também foram coletadas em um fragmento de floresta subtropical adjacente ao experimento, como testemunha da condição original do solo. Os sistemas de manejo e de rotação de culturas influenciaram os atributos físicos do solo quando comparados entre si e com a condição sob floresta subtropical. Em quatro anos (2001 a 2005) ocorreram alterações significativas nos atributos físicos dos solos entre os distintos tipos de manejo. No sistema PD houve maior densidade de solo e microporosidade em comparação aos demais, principalmente na camada subsuperficial, e os sistemas de rotação de plantas não afetaram positivamente os atributos físicos de solo independentemente do tipo de manejo. Abstract in english Evaluation and quantification of soil use impact on its physical quality are important to achieve sustainable cropping systems. Soil physical attributes were assessed after twenty years of implementation (1985 to 2005) on a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Rodic Hapludox) located in Passo Fundo, Rio [...] Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Four soil tillage systems were evaluated: 1) no-tillage; 2) minimum tillage; 3) conventional tillage using a disk plow plus disk harrow, and 4) conventional tillage using a moldboard plow plus disk harrow. Three crop rotation systems were evaluated: I (wheat/soybean), II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum), and III (wheat/soybean, common vetch/corn or sorghum and white oats/soybean). A randomized complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main plots were formed by the soil tillage systems, while split-plots were composed by crop rotation systems. As control, soil samples were collected in a subtropical forest fragment adjacent to the experiment. Soil tillage systems and crop rotation systems influenced soil physical parameters when compared to the samples collected in a fragment of subtropical forest. During four years (2001 to 2005) the physical attributes were altered among different soil tillage management. The no-tillage system (PD) presented higher soil bulk density and microporosity in comparison to the other systems, mainly in 0.10 to 0.15 m layer, characterizing high soil compaction levels. Crop systems did not promote favorable changes in physical attributes independent of the type of soil management.
Silvio Tulio, Spera; Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Gilberto Omar, Tomm; Rainoldo Alberto, Kochhann; Alexandre, Ávila.
One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society's needs
Crop sequence and rotational effect of incorporating alternative crops of canola (Brassica napus) as a winter crop and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) as a summer crop into a double-crop system of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) on crop pest incidence, stand, and grain y...
An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg...
Okogun, J. A.; Sanginga, N.; Abaidoo, R. C.
The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended to focus on the effect of faba bean as a pre-crop in mainly cereal intensive rotations, whereas similar information on the effect of preceding crops on faba bean is lacking. Faba bean has the highest average reliance on N2 fixation for growth of the major cool season grain legumes. As a consequence the N benefit for following crops is often high, and several studies have demonstrated substantial savings (up to 100–200 kg N ha?1) in the amount of N fertilizer required to maximize the yield of crops grown after faba bean. There is, however, a requirement to evaluate the potential risks of losses of N from the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies, in order to provide farmers with strategies to minimize any possible undesirable effects on the environment that might result from their inclusion of faba bean in cropping system. This needs to be combined with research that can lead to a reduction in the current extent of yield variability, so that faba bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean in cropping systems.
Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.
Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1 milho-feijão; 2 soja-trigo; 3 soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4 milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas.The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, under center pivot irrigation system, for six consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a moldboard plough, b harrow disc and c no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1 corn-bean, 2 soybean-wheat, 3 soybean-wheat-soybean-bean-upland rice-bean and 4 corn-bean-corn bean-upland rice-bean. Rice, soybean and corn were sown in November/December and bean and wheat in May/June. For this study, only corn, soybean and wheat were considered. Soil tillage affected corn and wheat yields but did not affect soybean yield. Corn and wheat yields under mouldboard plough were higher than under no-tillage. The differences among no-tillage and the other tillage systems in relation to relative accumulative corn yield decreased as the cultivation period increased. Crop rotations did not affect the crop yields.
Pedro M. da Silveira
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em S [...] anto Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a) aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b) aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c) plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1) milho-feijão; 2) soja-trigo; 3) soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4) milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans), in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol), under center pivot irrigation system, for six [...] consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a) moldboard plough, b) harrow disc and c) no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1) corn-bean, 2) soybean-wheat, 3) soybean-wheat-soybean-bean-upland rice-bean and 4) corn-bean-corn bean-upland rice-bean. Rice, soybean and corn were sown in November/December and bean and wheat in May/June. For this study, only corn, soybean and wheat were considered. Soil tillage affected corn and wheat yields but did not affect soybean yield. Corn and wheat yields under mouldboard plough were higher than under no-tillage. The differences among no-tillage and the other tillage systems in relation to relative accumulative corn yield decreased as the cultivation period increased. Crop rotations did not affect the crop yields.
Pedro M. da, Silveira; Luís F., Stone.
A field experiment is conducted which focuses on crop rotations for cereal production in organic farming. The objective of the experiment is to explore the possibilities for both short-term and long-term increases in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design on different soil types. This paper describes the design of a rather complex experiment, and later papers will describe and discuss the results. Three factors are included in the experiment in a factorial desi...
Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær
Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different organic arable crop rotations with different sources of N supply. Data from long-term field experiments at three different locations in Denmark were used to analyse three different organic cropping...
Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-aurich, Andreas; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Chirinda, N.; Hermansen, J. E.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRC) sobre o rendimento de grãos e as características agronômicas de soja no período de 1996/1997 a 2010/2011 em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Embrapa Trigo, em Passo Fundo, RS. Foram comparados quatro tip [...] os de manejo de solo (TMS): 1) sistema plantio direto (SPD); 2) cultivo mínimo (CM); 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos (PCD); e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas (PCA) e três SRC: sistema I (monocultura de trigo/monocultura de soja); sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo); e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos TMS, e as subparcelas, pelos SRC. No presente trabalho serão abordados somente os dados sobre sistemas de rotação de culturas. A análise conjunta dos dados obtidos não indicou diferença entre os SRC em relação ao número de grãos por planta, à massa de mil grãos e à altura de inserção das primeiras vagens de soja. A rotação de culturas por um verão utilizando milho ou sorgo propicia maior rendimento de grãos de soja em comparação com os demais sistemas estudados e com a soja em monocultura. A combinação de sistemas conservacionistas (SPD e CM) e SRC favoreceu o maior rendimento de grãos de soja. Os menores rendimentos de grãos e massa de grãos ocorreram em monocultura de soja. Abstract in english The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS) on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS) were compared, namely: 1) no tillage, 2) minimum tillage, 3) conventional tillage using [...] a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4) conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean), system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum) and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum). This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage) and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.
Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Renato Serena, Fontaneli; João, Pires; Evandro Ademir, Lampert; Ana Maria, Vargas; Amauri Colet, Verdi.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de rotação de culturas (SRC) sobre o rendimento de grãos e as características agronômicas de soja no período de 1996/1997 a 2010/2011 em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Embrapa Trigo, em Passo Fundo, RS. Foram comparados quatro tip [...] os de manejo de solo (TMS): 1) sistema plantio direto (SPD); 2) cultivo mínimo (CM); 3) preparo convencional de solo com arado de discos (PCD); e 4) preparo convencional de solo com arado de aivecas (PCA) e três SRC: sistema I (monocultura de trigo/monocultura de soja); sistema II (trigo/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo); e III (trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho ou sorgo). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. A parcela foi constituída pelos TMS, e as subparcelas, pelos SRC. No presente trabalho serão abordados somente os dados sobre sistemas de rotação de culturas. A análise conjunta dos dados obtidos não indicou diferença entre os SRC em relação ao número de grãos por planta, à massa de mil grãos e à altura de inserção das primeiras vagens de soja. A rotação de culturas por um verão utilizando milho ou sorgo propicia maior rendimento de grãos de soja em comparação com os demais sistemas estudados e com a soja em monocultura. A combinação de sistemas conservacionistas (SPD e CM) e SRC favoreceu o maior rendimento de grãos de soja. Os menores rendimentos de grãos e massa de grãos ocorreram em monocultura de soja. Abstract in english The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS) on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS) were compared, namely: 1) no tillage, 2) minimum tillage, 3) conventional tillage using [...] a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4) conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean), system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum) and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum). This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage) and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.
Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Renato Serena, Fontaneli; João, Pires; Evandro Ademir, Lampert; Ana Maria, Vargas; Amauri Colet, Verdi.
The influence of rotation crop species on population densities of ectoparasitic nematode species common to soybean and corn fields of the North-Central region of the USA was studied for 5 years in 16 field blocks rotated to corn, soybeans, oats, wheat, and forage mixtures. Each block was sampled each year between mid-July and mid-August. High populations of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus were maintained in all crops, especially corn. Tylenchorhynchus martini and Xiphinema americanum also developed with all crops, but a second year of corn depressed densities of both species. Paratylenchus projectus densities were high on soybeans and on forage consisting primarily of legumes. PMID:19322357
Ferris, V R; Bernard, R L
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)
Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: email@example.com; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas
In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation ex...
Soler, C. M. Tojo; Bado, V. B.; Traore, K.; Bostick, W. Mcnair; Jones, J. W.; Hoogenboom, G.
Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotations favour sustainability of cultivation and productivity of the crops. Wheat-forage crops rotations (annual winter binary mixture and perennial alfalfa meadow combined with irrigation are the agronomical techniques able to better exploit the weather resources in Mediterranean environments. The experiment aimed to study the effect of 18 years of combined effect of irrigation and continuous durum wheat and wheat-forage rotations on productivities of crops and organic matter of topsoil. The experiments were established through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments and emphasized on the effect of irrigation and continuous wheat and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency and sustainability of organic matter. The effect of irrigation increased 49.1% and 66.9% the dry matter of mixture and meadow, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield, stability of production, crude protein characteristics of kernel and soil organic matter. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha·yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha·yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The crude protein and soil organic matter of wheat rotations, compared to those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was increase in term of point percentage by 0.8 and 0.5 in crude protein and 5.1 and 4.4 in organic matter, respectively. The rotations of mixture and meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the point of percentage of organic matter over continuous wheat (9.3.and 8.5 in mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduce the impact of weather on crop growing reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for dry mater production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in mixture [L water (kg·dry·matter-1 ] and wheat seed yield. The effect of agronomic advantages achieved by forage crops in topsoil expire its effect after three years of continuous wheat rotation.
The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 ro...
Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Hewlett, T. E.; Frederick, J. J.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento, instalado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo muito argiloso, teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas na produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch) em plantio direto sob condições de sequeiro no Cerrado. O delineamento experimental [...] foi de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das rotações soja-milheto-soja-milheto-algodoeiro; soja-amaranto-soja-nabo forrageiro-soja-algodoeiro; soja-sorgo granífero-soja-sorgo granífero-algodoeiro; soja-aveia preta-soja-aveia preta-algodoeiro e soja-soja-algodoeiro. A maior produtividade do algodoeiro foi obtida com a rotação de soja e milheto, em que houve melhor controle de plantas daninhas. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in a heavy red yellow latosol and aimed at evaluating crop rotation on herbaceous cotton yields in no-till system under rainfed Savannah conditions. The experimental design used was a completely randomised blocks with five treatments: soybean-millet-soybean-millet-cott [...] on; soybean-amaranth-soybean-forage radish-soybean-cotton; soybean-grain sorghum-soybean-grain sorghum-cotton; soybean-black rye-soybean-black rye-cotton and soybean-soybean-cotton and four replications. The highest cotton seed yield was obtained in the sequence soybean-millet-soybean-millet-cotton, in which best weed control also occurred.
José Carlos, Corrêa; Ravi Datt, Sharma.
Cover crop interest among Midwestern farmers has greatly increased over the past few years, with a focus on cover crops that can be successfully integrated into corn-soybean rotations. Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is receiving attention due to its large fleshy taproot that winter-kills and is excellent at scavenging nitrogen (N) and penetrating deep into the subsoil. Although oilseed radish (OSR) can scavenge large quantities of N in the fall, its rapid decomposition in spring may rel...
Horton, Kaylissa A.
Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation, but few have quantified the long term integrated effects of both. We studied the issue using a 30-year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C–C–S–S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard ploughing, MP. Topsoil structural quality was visually evaluated in early June and mid October. Minimal disturbed soil cores collected in early June were used for X-ray CT scanning and to quantify water content and porosity. Soil friability was determined on the soil samples using a drop shatter test. Crop yield was determined and correlated to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a diverse crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a diverse crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT for the studied soil.
Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O crescimento do sistema radicular do feijoeiro irrigado, cultivar IAC-Carioca, sob pivô central, em rotação com pousio, milho, aveia preta, Crotalaria juncea L., guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) e mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima), no período não-convencional de cultivo no outono-inverno, foi avali [...] ado de 1993 a 1995, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico típico, em área experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. A rotação de culturas do feijoeiro com milho e adubos verdes favoreceu a redução da resistência do solo à penetração na camada arável, garantiu a manutenção do teor de matéria orgânica do solo, bem como possibilitou a redução da acidez e o aumento do índice de saturação por bases (V%) em profundidade em relação ao teor inicial. A velocidade de infiltração básica da água no solo foi favorecida pela inclusão da mucuna preta, da Crotalaria juncea L. e do milho, no esquema de rotações. A profundidade efetiva observada do seu sistema radicular foi de 0,35 a 0,40 m. Abstract in english Root system growth of the common bean, variety IAC-Carioca, under center pivot irrigation in rotation with fallow; corn; black oat; sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.); pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) was evaluated during a non-conventional (Autumn - Winter) cu [...] ltivation period, from 1993 to 1995, on a typic Haplorthox soil, at an experimental area of the Instituto Agronômico, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The crop sequences of common bean with corn and green manure reduced the soil resistance to penetration into the ploughed layer; maintained the normal contents of the soil organic matter; reduced acidity and increased the base saturation index in depth, in relation to the initial content. The basic infiltration rate was increased with the inclusion of velvet bean, sunn hemp and corn in the crop sequence. Effective root depth (80% of the total) was around 0.35 to 0.40 m.
E. B., Wutke; F. B., Arruda; A. L., Fancelli; J. C. V. N. A., Pereira; E., Sakai; M., Fujiwara; G. M. B., Ambrosano.
Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.
Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. PMID:21941761
Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping
Crops on sandy soils (<5% clay) are exposed to K deficiency due to the small release and high leaching losses of K. Reliable tools are needed to improve the K management in cropping systems with limited K input, such as organic farming where import of nutrients are restricted according to the EC regulations. We investigated K balances and exchangeable K (Kexch) changes in an organic crop rotation experiment. Potassium leaching decreased from 42 kg ha-1 in 1998/99 to 21 kg ha-1 in 2000/01 as a...
Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen; Olesen, Jørgen E.
Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.
Wright, L L; Ranney, J W
Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described
Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation. Fertilizer was the main energy input, accounting from 52% in B-V to 62% in B-B. EO increased in the order B-B (19.1 GJ ha-1 year-1) ? B-F B-F > B-S > B-B (2.00), indicating the low energy use efficiency of barley monoculture. Vetch was the most energetically efficient crop (yield/input), a result of the low requirements for producing a unit of vetch hay. EP ranged from 360 kg GJ-1 for B-V to 137 kg GJ-1 for B-B. As conclusions and in terms of energy efficiency, cereal monoculture, independent of the crop management system used, appeared to be an energetically unsustainable practice. However, crop rotations, especially those that include a leguminous crop, increase energy efficiency.
Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.
Nuclear methods for plant nutrient and water balance studies. Results of an FAO/IAEA regional technical co-operation programme on nuclear methods for plant nutrients and water balance studies under legume-cereal or fallow-cereal crop rotation systems implemented for Middle Eastern countries (1991-1994)
In semi-arid Middle Eastern countries, the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products calls for urgent measures to increase plant nutrient availability and water use efficiency. Water and plant nutrients are the two main crop yield limiting factors in these regions. Improved methods must be developed to sustain crop productivity of the legume-cereal rotation systems. It has been recognized for years that the growth of leguminous crops can improve the N status of the soil through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The conditions to improve the efficiency of the fixation process should be further investigated in order to fully benefit from this cheap N source. The BNF process is especially interesting for those areas facing limited fertilizer N availability or where the price of the fertilizers is too high for the farmers. In view of sustainable productivity, even with adequate supply of nutrients (nitrogen) and water, crop rotations have been promoted for years. However, the best rotation, taking into account the available nutrients and water in a specific place, is not always known. Furthermore, if a leguminous crop can be incorporated into a crop rotation system, free N is provided for this crop and some of it can serve as residual N for the next crop in the rotation. The use of 15N technology provides a unique tool to separately study the behaviour of fertilizer N as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N is possible, as well as the quantification of BNF. Refs, figs, tabs
Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas
The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block desi...
Lacerda, Claudivan F.; Sousa, Geocleber G.; Silva, Francisco L. B.; Guimara?es, Francisco V. A.; Silva, Giovana L.; Cavalcante, Lourival F.
In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum-fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with observed soil organic matter (SOM) data similar to the study presented here, there are many opportunities for the application of the CSM for carbon sequestration and resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22505776
Soler, C M Tojo; Bado, V B; Traore, K; Bostick, W McNair; Jones, J W; Hoogenboom, G
The use of crop rotation and manure application can provide sustainability for an agricultural production system by improving soil quality and increasing nutrient use efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mineral, organic and mineral+organic fertilization on grain yield and on soil phosphorus and potassium balance, in two crop systems under no-till, with and without rotation of cover crops. The experiment was carried out from 2006 to 2008 on a clayey Rhodic Hapludox in Marech...
Fabio Steiner; Laércio Augusto Pivetta; Gustavo Castoldi; Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça Costa; Luiz Antonio de Mendonça Costa
Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuel and in taking pressure off of native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benetfits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above-ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 30 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20- to 56-year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terrestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context. could trencrate a global leveling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years
Soil mycoflora play an important role in agricultural economy of a country. Soil borne pathogen produces serious losses to the yield of a crop. In rice Bwheat cropping system due to continuous cropping and reduced rotation, soil borne pathogens have become increasingly important with the yield decline. The current study was made to have the knowledge about soil borne fungi associated with rice and wheat crop in rice- wheat cropping system under zero and conventional tillage technologies. One ...
Shamim Iftikhar; Amir Sultan; Anjum Munir; Shazia Iram; Iftikhar Ahmad
Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems Estoque e compartimentos de carbono em um latossolo vermelho subtropical sob diferentes sistemas de longo prazo de preparo e rotação de culturas
Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C stock qualitatively in relation to CT R0. The results highlighted the diversification of crop rotation with cover crops as a crucial strategy for atmospheric C-CO2 sequestration and SOM quality improvement in highly weathered subtropical Oxisols.A matéria orgânica do solo (MOS desempenha papel relevante na qualidade do solo e pode atuar como dreno de C-CO2 atmosférico em solos sob sistemas de manejo conservacionista. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos de sistemas de preparo do solo (PC-preparo convencional e PD-plantio direto e de rotação de culturas (R0- sucessão de monoculturas, R1- rotação de culturas de inverno e R2- rotação intensiva de culturas no estoque de carbono (C orgânico total, particulado e associado a minerais de um Latossolo Vermelho, originalmente degradado, do Sul do Brasil. O clima é subtropical úmido Cfa 2, segundo a classificação de Köppen, com média anual de precipitação pluvial de 1.774 mm e média anual de temperatura de 19,2 ºC. As parcelas experimentais foram divididas em três segmentos, e em cada um destes foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. As amostras foram coletadas por meio da abertura manual de pequenas trincheiras. O estoque de C no solo apresentou relação linear com o aporte anual de C, independentemente do sistema de preparo investigado. Assim, o preparo do solo teve pequeno efeito no incremento da taxa de decomposição da MOS. Na camada de 0-0,30 m, a taxa de sequestro de C variou de zero a 0,51 Mg ha-1 ano-1 considerando o tratamento CT R0 como referência, sendo a rotação de culturas uma estratégia mais eficiente em determinar o acúmulo de C do que os sistemas de preparo. Na média dos sistemas de cultura, uma taxa de sequestro de C de 0,13 Mg ha-1ano-1 foi observada sob PD em relação ao PC. Isso é claro? Esse resultado foi determinado pelo maior aporte de C proporcionado pela melhoria da qualidade do solo em PD adotado por longo prazo. A fração particulada de C foi um indicador eficie
Ben-Hur Costa de Campos
The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as protein source for food and feed, but at the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in ...
Jensen, Erik Steen; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-nielsen, Henrik
Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation but few have quantified long term integrated effects tillage and rotation. We studied the issue using a 30 year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C-C-S-S) corn, corn, soybean (Glycine max L.), soybean. A red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) cover crop was under seeded in oats and spring barley in R6. In 2010, first year corn was grown in R6 and R8. The tillage treatments included no tillage, NT and mouldboard plowing, MP. Topsoil structural quality was visually evaluated early June and mid October. Minimal disturbed soil cores early June and these were used for X-ray CT scanning and more traditional analysis. Soil friability was determined on the soil samples using a drop shatter test. Crop yield was determined and correlated to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a versatile crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a versatile crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT for the studied soil.
Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard
Understanding N fertility and crop rotation effects on changes in soil organic matter in irrigated cropping systems is required before producers or regulators can make informed decisions regarding management or policy. An experiment initiated in 1991 with 3 cropping systems, (i) continuous corn, (ii...
The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring barley–(faba bean or grass-clover)–potato–winter wheat. Experiments were done at three locations representative of the different soil types and climatic conditions in Denmark. The three organic systems that included faba bean as the N fixing crop comprised a system with manure (stored pig slurry) and undersowing catch crops (OF + C + M), a system with manure but without undersowing catch crops (OF ? C + M), and a system without manure and with catch crops (OF + C ? M). A grass-clover green manure was used as N fixing crop in the other organic system with catch crops (OG + C + M). Cuttings of grass-clover were removed from the plots and an equivalent amount of total-N in pig slurry was applied to the cropping system. Theconventional rotation included mineral fertilizer and catch crops (CF + C + F), although only non-legume catch crops were used. Measurements of cereal dry matter (DM) at harvest and of grain N contents were done in all plots. On average the FASSET model was able to predict the yield and grain N of cereals with a reasonable accuracy for the range of cropping systems and soil types studied, having a particularly good performance on winter wheat. Cereal yields were better on the more loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark
Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette
Desempenho agronômico da soja sob diferentes rotações e sucessões de culturas em sistema plantio direto / Agronomic performance of soybean in different rotations and successions of crops in no tillage system
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho faz parte de um projeto de longa duração que teve início em 1997 e envolve produção de grãos baseada em sistemas de rotação ou sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi desenvolvido no ano agrícola 2005/06, em LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distroférrico, na Fazenda Experimental de Ciências Agrárias [...] da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados - UFGD, em Dourados, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Em cada parcela, foram semeadas mecanicamente 26 linhas de soja com 36 m de comprimento, espaçadas entre si por 0,45 m. Os tratamentos consistiram de sete sistemas de rotação ou sucessão, envolvendo espécies semeadas solteiras ou com misturas de espécies antecessoras a soja, constituindo os seguintes tratamentos: Sistema 1: crotalária+ervilhaca/soja; Sistema 2: ervilhaca+aveia+nabo/soja; Sistema 3: girassol/soja; Sistema 4: milheto/soja; Sistema 5: milho/soja; Sistema 6: trigo/soja e Sistema 7: aveia/soja. Foram avaliadas a altura de planta, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de ramificações por planta, número de vagens por planta, produtividade da soja, massa de 100 grãos. Concluiu-se que podem ser utilizadas várias espécies em rotação ou sucessão de cultura com a soja no sistema plantio direto consolidado, sem afetar os componentes de produção da leguminosa. Abstract in english This work is a part of a long-term project that began in 1997 and which involves grain production based on crop rotation or crop succession systems. The experiment was carried out in the 2005/06 season, in a Dystroferric Red Latosol, in the Agrarian Science Experimental Farm of Federal University of [...] Great Dourados - UFGD, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with seven treatments and three replications. In each parcel, 26 rows of soybean were sowed, 36 m long, spaced 0.45 m apart. Treatments consisted of seven systems of rotation or succession, involving species that were sowed alone or mixed with species that preceded soybean, comprising the following treatments: System 1: crotalaria + vetch /soybean; System 2: vetch +oat + turnip/soybean; System 3: sunflower/soybean; System 4: millet/soybean; System 5: corn/soybean; System 6: wheat/soybean; and System 7: oat/soybean. Plant height, insertion height of first pod, number of plant ramifications, number of pods per plant, soybean yield, and mass of 100 grains were evaluated. It was concluded that in a no-tillage consolidated system, various species can be used in rotation or succession with soybean, without affecting the components of the leguminous yield.
Cinthia Raquel, Mancin; Luiz Carlos Ferreira de, Souza; José Oscar, Novelino; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Manoel Carlos, Gonçalves.
A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.
Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.
The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P castor, cotton, velvetbean, and crotalaria than following peanut. Compared to the peanut rotation, yield of eggplant was enhanced (P castor, crotalaria, hairy indigo, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass. Several of these rotation crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop. PMID:19279880
McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J
Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of prospective policies. PMID:22944220
Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P
Using a computer model to simulate effective rainfall, it is shown that a flexible rainfed cropping system based on a legume crop planted before rice has a greater expected return than present subsistent rainfed cropping systems. Combining a legume crop intercropped with cassava or kenaf further increases the expected returns yet maintains the stability of the new system. Further research is required to bring the farmer's yields up to match experiment station results and to facilitate effective transfer policies.
Johnson, Sam H., III; Charoenwatana, Terd
The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of s...
Cook, R. James
Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.
This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...
In the mid-altitude zones of Madagascar, cropping systems based on direct seeding, with a cover crop and crop rotation, have been disseminated on smallholdings since the turn of the century with a degree of success. In order to disseminate these new cropping patterns, CIRAD and its development partners in Madagascar have developed modelling tools to monitor and assess activities through a DSS (Decision Support System). For developers, these tools provide decision-support in the technological ...
Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ceramic suction cells and modelled drainage. There were significant effects on annual N leaching of location (coarse sand > loamy sand > sandy loam) and catch crops (without > with). Including a grass-clover green manure on 25% of the area did not increase N leaching compared with crop rotations without green manure. Also the application of animal manure did not influence N leaching, probably because even in the manured treatments the application rate was lower than crop demand. The results identify management of crop and soil during autumn as the main determinant of N leaching. Nitrate leaching was lowest for a catch crop soil cover during autumn and winter (avg. 20 kg N ha?1), a soil cover of weeds/volunteers had on avg. 30 kg N ha?1, and the largest N leaching losses were found after stubble cultivation (avg. 55 kg N ha?1). The N leaching losses increased with increasing number of autumn soil cultivations
Askegaard, M; Olesen, JØrgen E
Full Text Available Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi, Centre (Fagna, Firenze and South (Foggia of Italy, characterized by different climate, soil, and cropping systems. In the two experiments conducted in the South of Italy, in a dry Mediterranean climate, the stock of C was kept steady in most of the rotations compared with the monoculture of durum wheat. In such environment, with very dry and hot summers, introducing a year of fallow seems to improve SOM content, but these data need further investigation. In the Centre of Italy (Fagna, with less extreme climate than in Foggia, the effect of rotation compared to the monoculture of maize is negligible, but investigation on the soil organic matter composition, showed that in the rotation the SOM appeared to be more stable and, in the long term, probably more resistant to degradation. Eventually, experiments conducted in the North of Italy, showed that the monoculture, despite the application of FYM (Farm Yard Manure or semi-liquid manure, led to a decrease of SOM. To an increase of the rotation complexity, corresponded an increase in the stock of C in soil. Summarizing, results showed that crop rotation could guarantee the maintenance of SOM level, given that the input of C to the soil is maintained at a good level or, in other word, that productivity of the system is high. Other practices such as conservation tillage, appropriate management of residues, and manure application could enhance the positive effect of rotations. Moreover, preliminary investigation of soil microbial diversity, suggests the positive effect of rotations on soil biological fertility.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar culturas de inverno para formação de cobertura morta que reduza a população de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris. Ocupou-se o terreno durante o ano todo, com a sucessão, em plantio direto, de pousio ou cultura de inverno/feijão/cultura para silagem, estudando-se três modalidades de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão. A maior renda líquida acumulada após duas safras foi obtida com feijão semeado sobre palha de aveia-preta e controle de plantas daninhas com um gramicida pré-emergente, completando-se com capinas, quando necessário.This study was undertaken to select winter crops for mulching to reduce the weed infestation and to lower weed control costs in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production. The soil was kept convered all the year under no-tillage with a sequence of a winter crop or fallow/beans/silage crop. Three weed control methods for beans were studied. After two complete crop sequences, the highest total net income was obtained with the beans directly drilled on the black oats (Avena strigosa mulching, spraying a pre-emergence grasskiller plus hoeing when needed.
Benedito N. Rodrigues
Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.
H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad
Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas
Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água de baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa sobre o acúmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijão-de-corda em sistema de rotação. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estação seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura (DAS, sendo realizadas as avaliações: crescimento vegetativo, produção de grãos por planta, matéria seca de 1.000 grãos e produtividade. Durante a estação chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijão caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliações de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e após o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijão caupi. A salinidade da água de irrigação acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o período seco. Os elevados totais de precipitação pluviométrica durante a estação chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviação dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estação seca e eliminaram os possíveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijão caupi. Porém, o feijão caupi apresentou um comportamento atípico com uma expressiva proporção de massa vegetativa e baixa produção de vagens, o que reduziu a eficiência dessa estratégia de rotação de culturas, nas condições do presente estudo.
Claudivan F. Lacerda
World-wide, there is an increasing demand for phytomass for production of renewable CO2-neutral fuel and as an inexpensive environmentally friendly raw material source for food and industry production. Together with the development of appropriate technology, is becoming a matter of paramount importance. Amaranth species hold much promise in fulfilling these demands. Amaranth could be characterised as a high energy multipurpose C4 plant, fits the bill as a true '4F crop' (Food, Feed, Fuel and Fibre) as well as being a short cycle, drought and salinity tolerant crop. The Amaranth agro-ecological system is a key link in the sustainable production of agriculture. It will play an important role in 'healthy' food as well as environmental protection in the next century. From the environmental point of view it should be mentioned that Amaranth is the plant species, which is also suitable for marginal lands and contaminated soils. It is known for its dry or saline land resistance as well as contamination by radioactive dust or other harmful material. (author)
Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems / Estoque e compartimentos de carbono em um latossolo vermelho subtropical sob diferentes sistemas de longo prazo de preparo e rotação de culturas
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) desempenha papel relevante na qualidade do solo e pode atuar como dreno de C-CO2 atmosférico em solos sob sistemas de manejo conservacionista. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos) de sistemas de preparo do solo (PC- [...] preparo convencional e PD-plantio direto) e de rotação de culturas (R0- sucessão de monoculturas, R1- rotação de culturas de inverno e R2- rotação intensiva de culturas) no estoque de carbono (C) orgânico total, particulado e associado a minerais de um Latossolo Vermelho, originalmente degradado, do Sul do Brasil. O clima é subtropical úmido Cfa 2, segundo a classificação de Köppen, com média anual de precipitação pluvial de 1.774 mm e média anual de temperatura de 19,2 ºC. As parcelas experimentais foram divididas em três segmentos, e em cada um destes foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,30 m. As amostras foram coletadas por meio da abertura manual de pequenas trincheiras. O estoque de C no solo apresentou relação linear com o aporte anual de C, independentemente do sistema de preparo investigado. Assim, o preparo do solo teve pequeno efeito no incremento da taxa de decomposição da MOS. Na camada de 0-0,30 m, a taxa de sequestro de C variou de zero a 0,51 Mg ha-1 ano-1 considerando o tratamento CT R0 como referência, sendo a rotação de culturas uma estratégia mais eficiente em determinar o acúmulo de C do que os sistemas de preparo. Na média dos sistemas de cultura, uma taxa de sequestro de C de 0,13 Mg ha-1ano-1 foi observada sob PD em relação ao PC. Isso é claro? Esse resultado foi determinado pelo maior aporte de C proporcionado pela melhoria da qualidade do solo em PD adotado por longo prazo. A fração particulada de C foi um indicador eficiente da qualidade dos sistemas de manejo, enquanto o C orgânico associado aos minerais foi um importante dreno de C-CO2 atmosférico nesse Latossolo argiloso. A retenção de C nessa fração estável da MOS contribuiu com 81 e 89 % do total de C sequestrado no solo em PD, nos sistemas R1 e R2, respectivamente. O maior índice de manejo de C foi verificado sob PD R2, confirmando o potencial de práticas de manejo em melhorar qualitativamente o C armazenado no solo, em relação ao PC R0. Esses resultados mostram que a diversificação da rotação de culturas, notadamente com a inclusão de plantas de cobertura, é uma importante estratégia para o sequestro de C-CO2 atmosférico e melhoria da qualidade da MOS em Latossolos subtropicais intemperizados. Abstract in english Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture sy [...] stem, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification), the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result w
Ben-Hur Costa de, Campos; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Cimélio, Bayer; Rodrigo da Silveira, Nicoloso; Jackson Ernani, Fiorin.
Approximately 70% of Brazilian agriculture is based on the cultivation of highly weathered soils located in tropical and subtropical savannah areas, where the zero or no tillage (ZT) system is now considered as the best alternative to the traditional conventional tillage (CT). During the period 1999-2004 the Agrobiology Centre of Embrapa implemented a research program using nuclear and related techniques to study the main processes involved in the dynamics and cycling of N for predominant crop rotations grown at five locations under ZT in comparison to CT, on acidic savannah soils of both southern and Cerrado regions of Brazil. The most relevant results of these studies were: (1) The soybean crop derived a high proportion of its N (over 80%) from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The BNF system is so efficient that attempts to increase grain yields by addition of N fertilizer are hardly ever successful as long as the plants have been effectively inoculated with the recommended Bradyrhizobium strains. (2) The N fertilizer use efficiency by the maize crop fertilized with 80 to 90 kg N ha-1 varied from 40 to 60%. (3). A maximum 10% of N-urea applied broadcast over the soil surface (40 kg N ha-1) in a maize crop was lost via NH3 volatilization, with the highest values under ZT. (4). The inclusion of green manure legumes (GMLs) such as lupin and vetch, which are highly efficient in BNF was essential to promote a positive soil N balance inal to promote a positive soil N balance in crop rotations and to increase the stock of soil organic C. (5) Less than 900 g N-N2O ha-1 yr-1 were lost from the soil surface, and the highest values were found under CT. (6) Even thought the contribution of BNF to the Brazilian soybean crop is high (over 80%), the accurate assessment of this input to the soil N balance still remain unclear due to methodological problems using the leaf labeling technique to estimate residual below-ground N. Results obtained so far suggest that these methodological issues need to be overcome before these estimates can be considered as reliable. These results demonstrate the enormous potential impact of BNF in legumes such as soybean and green manures and their management under ZT and CT on the N cycling processes and overall C and N stocks in tropical acid savannah soils, thus contributing to the productivity and sustainability of the agricultural production systems. (author)
Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after ‘Saia’ oat/‘Polynema’ marigold, ‘Triple S’ sorghum-sudangrass, or ‘Garry’ oat than ‘Superior’ potato or ‘Humus’ rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Sai...
Lamondia, J. A.
Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the US corn belt. This failure appears to be due to a change in the insect's oviposition behaviour, which, in all probability, has an underlying genetic basis. A preliminary genome scan using 253 amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers sought to identify genetic varia...
Miller, N. J.; Ciosi, M.; Sappington, T. W.; Ratcliffe, S. T.; Spencer, J. L.; Guillemaud, T.
Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at ...
Crop management can alter soil physical properties, but variability of these properties may mask treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to compare soil physical property variation under two crop rotations, and to examine interrelations among different soil physical properties. A six-year r...
Full Text Available Extensification has recently become an important option in Western European agriculture, driven both by economic considerations (product surpluses together with the fact that developed countries cropping systems have been heavily relying on fossil energy and growing public concern on the possible adverse effects of intensive farming on the environment and human health. The adoption of rational fodder crop rotations, with the rediscovery of the beneficial effect of the meadow, is viewed as a possible mean to reduce the impact of farming systems in the lowlands of Northern Italy, characterised by highly intensive cropping and animal husbandry. For this reason our study examines the effects of crop rotation on the energy balance during 1985-2007 period in a long-term crop rotation trial in Northern Italy comparing five fodder crop systems, different in the degree of crop intensification and for the presence or absence of the meadow: a 1-year continuous cereal double cropping (R1; a 3-year rotation (R3; a 6-year rotation (R6; a permanent meadow (PM; and a continuous grain maize cropping (CM. Each rotation was subjected to two input treatments, defined as high (mostly used in lowlands of northern Italy and low (input reduction of ca. 30% respectively, in terms of nutrient levels, herbicide doses, and soil tillage methods. The crop rotations exerted a marked influence on the energy balance. The most efficient rotations in terms of net energy production energy efficiency have been characterized by reduced length and presence of maize and catch-crops.
For accurate regional modelling of (agro-)ecosystems, up-to-date land use information is essential to assess the impact of the permanent changing vegetation cover of agricultural land on matter fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system. In this regard, officially available land use datasets are mostly inadequate, since they only provide generalised information concerning agricultural land use. In this contribution, we present our work for the year 2008 on the generation of multi temporal, disaggregated land use data with the goal to derive a crop rotation map for the years 2008-2010 for the study area of the research project CRC/TR 32. For this purpose, the Multi-Data Approach (MDA) was used to integrate multitemporal remote sensing classifications with additional spatial information by the means of expert knowledge-based production rules. Our results show that the information content of a land use dataset is considerably enhanced by combining crop type information of multiple observations during each growing season. For a sufficient temporal coverage, the usage of multiple sensors is generally inevitable. Thus, datasets of ASTER, Landsat TM & ETM+ as well as IRS-P6 were incorporated. In terms of classification accuracy our analysis yielded similar results with support vector machines (SVM) and the classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) for all sensors, with SVM being mostly only slightly better. For the refinement of land parcel boundaries and the reduction of misclassification, the incorporation of the 'field block' (FB) vector information was very effective. 'Field blocks', provided by the chamber of agriculture, are coherent agricultural areas with (relatively) permanent boundaries. As a result, a much more accurate differentiation of agricultural land and non-agricultural land was achieved. With the enhanced annual MDA land use data of the three consecutive years containing crop type information sufficient information is available for the derivation of crop rotation. Again, adapted knowledge-based production rules are used for this purpose.
Waldhoff, G.; Curdt, C.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bareth, G.
Análise de risco em quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo, num período de dez anos, em Passo Fundo, RS / Risk analysis of four crop rotation systems for wheat, over a ten-year period, in Passo Fundo, RS
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Num período de dez anos (1980 a 1989), foi conduzido, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT), em Passo Fundo, RS, experimento reunindo quatro sistemas de rotação de culturas para trigo (Triticum aestivum L.): sistema I (trigo/soja); sistema II (trigo/soja, colza/soja, cevada/soja e t [...] remoço ou serradela/milho); sistema III (trigo/soja, trevo vesiculoso/trevo vesiculoso, trevo vesiculoso/milho, de 1980 a 1983, e trigo/soja, aveia branca/soja e ervilhaca/milho, de 1984 a 1989); e sistema IV (trigo/soja, colza/soja, linho/soja e tremoço ou serradela/milho). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcelas com área útil de 120 m². No presente trabalho, mostra-se a análise de risco naquele período. Foram aplicados dois tipos de análise na receita líquida dos sistemas: análise da média variância e análise de risco (distribuição de probabilidade acumulada e dominância estocástica). Pela análise da média variância da receita líquida, os sistemas II e IV foram superiores aos sistemas I e III. Pelo método da dominância estocástica, o sistema II apresentou- se como a melhor alternativa de produção a ser oferecida aos agricultores, do ponto de vista de lucratividade e menor risco. Abstract in english During ten years (1980 to 1989), at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT), in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, the effects of crop rotation systems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were assessed. Four rotation systems for wheat were studied: system I (wheat/soybean); system II (wheat/soybea [...] n, rapeseed/soybean, barley/soybean, lupine or serradella/corn); system III (wheat/soybean, arrowleaf clover/arrowleaf clover, and arrowleaf clover/corn, from 1980 to 1983, and wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, and common vetch/corn, from 1984 to 1989); and system IV (wheat/soybean, rapeseed/soybean, flax/soybean, and lupine or serradella/corn). A randomized complete block design, with four replications and plots with 120 m², was used. Risk analysis over that period is presented in this paper. Two types of analysis were applied to the net return of the systems: mean-variance analysis and risk analysis (safety-first and stochastic dominance). By the mean-variance analysis, systems II and IV showed higher net returns as compared to systems I and III. The system II showed the highest profit and the lowest risk to be offered to the farmer, as compared to the remaining systems studied.
Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Ivo, Ambrosi; Julio Cesar Barreneche, Lhamby.
Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after 'Saia' oat/'Polynema' marigold, 'Triple S' sorghum-sudangrass, or 'Garry' oat than 'Superior' potato or 'Humus' rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tuber yields were greater than continuous potato after all crops except sorghum-sudangrass. Saia oat/marigold crops resulted in the greatest tuber yields. After one year of rotation/green manure, a marigold crop increased tuber yields and reduced AUDPC and P. penetrans. In the second potato crop after a single year of rotation, plots previously planted to marigolds had reduced P. penetrans densities and AUDPC and increased tuber yield. Rapeseed supported more P. penetrans than potato, but had greater yields. After two years of rotation/green manure crops and a subsequent potato crop, continuous potato had the highest AUDPC and lowest tuber weight. Rotation with Saia oats (2 yr) and Rudbeckia hirta (1 yr) reduced P. penetrans and increased tuber yields. AUDPC was lowest after R. hirta. Two years of sorghum-sudangrass did not affect P. penetrans, tuber yield or AUDPC. These results demonstrate that P. penetrans may be reduced by one or two years of rotation to non-host or antagonistic plants such as Saia oat, Polynema marigold, or R. hirta and that nematode control may reduce the severity of potato early dying. PMID:19259461
Lamondia, J A
Legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may act as an important source of nitrogen (N) in organic crop rotations because of biological N fixation. However, the potential risk of high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions needs to be taken into account when including LBCCs in crop rotations. Here, we report the results from a one-year field experiment, which investigated N availability and N2O emissions as affected by three LBCCs, i.e., red clover (CL), red clover–ryegrass mixture (GC) and winter vetch (WV), two non-LBCCs, i.e., perennial ryegrass (GR) and fodder radish (FR), and a control (CO) without catch crops. The effect of two catch crop management strategies was also tested: autumn harvest of the catch crop versus incorporation of whole-crop residues by spring ploughing. LBCCs accumulated 59–67 kg N ha?1 in their tops, significantly more than those of the non-LBCC, 32–40 kg N ha?1. Macro-roots accounted for >33% of total N in the catch crops. In accordance with this, LBCCs enhanced the performance of the succeeding unfertilised spring barley, thus obtaining a grain yield of 3.3–4.5 Mg ha?1 compared to 2.6–3.3 Mg ha?1 grain yield from non-LBCC and the fallow control treatments. Autumn harvest of catch crops, especially LBCCs, tended to reduce crop yield. The annual N2O emissions were comparable across treatments except for fodder radish, which had the highest N2O emission, and also the highest average yield-scaled N2O emission, at 499 g N2O-N Mg?1 grain. Although the sampling strategy employed in this study introduces uncertainty about the spatial and temporal variability, differences in seasonal emission patterns among catch crops were captured and harvest of catch crops in late autumn induced significantly higher emissions during winter, but lower emissions after residue incorporation in spring. In comparison with non-LBCC, LBCCs have the potential to partly replace the effect of manure application in organic cropping systems with greater crop production and less environmental footprint with respect to N2O emissions. However, harvest of the catch crops may reduce crop yield unless the harvested N is recycled as fertiliser to the crops in the rotation.
Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, SØren O
Full Text Available In the long-term stationary experiment since 1968, we have studied the influence of crop rotation on soil fertility and productivity. The modernization schemes of field rotations in the direction of alternation crop change were held 40 years later, by introducing a scheme of oilseeds (canola, soy. According to the research, the authors made conclusions about the efficiency of cultivation of oil crops in crop rotations in the region. The resulting materials can be used in the development of crop rotations schemes for forest-steppe of Western Siberia
Chibis V. V.
Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical
Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a spli...
Elcio Liborio Balota; Miriam Kanashiro; Arnaldo Colozzi Filho; Diva Souza Andrade; Richard Peter Dick
This experiment was conducted to compare biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contributions to soybean crops and the effect of the presence of its residues to the production of wheat under two tillage systems. The plots were established in the experimental area of the Embrapa Soybean Centre in the State of Parana, southern Brazil. A soybean/wheat rotation was planted under conventional and zero tillage (CT and ZT, respectively). The contribution of BNF to soybean was assessed using the ?15N technique and the relative abundance of ureides. An N balance was performed based on the dry matter and N content of, and the BNF contribution to, the whole crop. Plant-residue decomposition was evaluated by field sampling. Wheat responses to the previous soybean crop and tillage treatments were evaluated from the wheat yields and the 'A'-value technique. Comparing ZT and CT, there were no marked differences in grain yield or N accumulation by the crops, but BNF was higher in the soybean under ZT. Although for both tillage systems the BNF contribution to soybean was over 170 kg N/ha, the benefit to the subsequent crop was due to the release of N from extremely labile soybean residues of low C:N ratio and not because of a net gain of N from BNF. (author)
Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical
Full Text Available Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a split-plot experiment (3 replications where tillage (no till and conventional was the main plot and crop rotation (soybean/wheat, S/W; maize/wheat, M/W or cotton/wheat, C/W was the subplot. The experiment was established in 1976 in southern Brazil. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in 1997 and 1998. The 0-5 cm layer under NT system showed increases up 68% for amylase, 90% for cellulase, 219% for arylsulfatase, 46% for acid phosphatase, and 61% for alkaline phosphatase. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with total organic C, and C and N microbial biomass. These results showed that NT increased microbial activity and that soil enzyme activity is a sensitive indicator of alteration soil quality by management.Práticas agrícolas que reduzam a degradação do solo e promovam sustentabilidade são importantes para os agrossistemas tropicais/subtropicais. O plantio direto (PD diminui as perdas de solo e, se combinado com rotação de culturas pode proteger o solo da degradação físico-química provocada pela agricultura intensiva. A atividade enzimática do solo pode fornecer importantes informações de como o manejo do solo está afetando a decomposição da material orgânica e a ciclagem dos nutrientes. Assim, avaliou-se a atividade das enzimas amilase, celulose, arilsulfatase, fosfatase ácida e fosfatase alcalina em um experimento a campo, instalado em 1976 em Londrina, PR, que tem como tratamentos o preparo do solo (plantio direto ou convencional nas parcelas e a rotação de culturas (soja/trigo, milho/trigo e algodão/trigo nas subparcelas. Amostras de solos foram coletadas a 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm de profundidade em 1997 e 1998. Na profundidade de 0-5 cm sob PD, observaram-se aumentos de 68% na atividade da amilase, 90% na celulase, 219% na arilsulfatase, 46% na fosfatase ácida e 61% na fosfatase alcalina. Observaram-se correlações significativas entre a atividade enzimática e o C-orgânico total do solo e o C e N da biomassa microbiana. Esses resultados evidenciam que a atividade enzimática do solo é um indicador sensível de alterações na qualidade do solo, promovidas pelo manejo.
Elcio Liborio Balota
Full Text Available
As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.
Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn-bean-corn-bean-rice-bean (R4. The severity of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli was evaluated 25 days after planting. The interaction was significant for this variable. The higher severity was under R3 with soil tillage system treatment P1. The lowest severity was under interaction R2 with soil preparation P3. Significant differences were found in the severity of the disease caused by R. solani. Soil tillage system P3 presented significantly higher disease severity than P4, whereas rotation R3 presented significantly higher disease severity when compared to other treatments.
KEY-WORDS: Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani f. sp. haseoli; cropping practices; fungi.
Pedro Marques da Silveira
The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how improvement of NUE traits of individual crops affects the succeeding crops and the NUE of the crop rotation. Based on experimental results parameterization was altered for different types of improved NUE in the EU-Rotate_N model, e.g. through higher N harvest index, reduced litter loss or improved root depth penetration rate. The different ways of improving NUE have different effects on the cropping system, affecting either N uptake, the ability of the crop to hold on to N already taken up, or the fraction of crop N being harvested. Due to the different modes of action, the model simulations show that these changes in NUE traits will also have different effects on N leaching loss and on N availability and N loss inthe following years. Simulations also show that the effect of genotypes with improved NUE depend on environment and crop management. This is true for the improved crop itself and when its effect is analyzed for the whole cropping system. The environmental conditions, crop choices and management will all affect the fate of the N left in the soil, and whether this will contribute mainly to leaching loss or be used for production in later crops. As an example, increasing pre-crop fertilization was shown to affect the leaching after the following oilseed rape crop with up to 50 kg N ha?1 taken up before it was lost to the environment when pre-crop fertilization as well as root depth penetration rate was high. All in all, the simulations illustrate the concept of NUE as the result of interactions between genotype, environment and crop management (G×E×M).
DresbØll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian
In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in four experimental cropping systems established in 1997 on three soil types. Three of the four systems were under organic management. Topsoil N, depth of the A horizon, and cumulated inputs of N since 1997 were determined at plot level. Labile soil N pools [mineral N, potentially mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were correlated across all sites and rotations (r2 = 0.72). The MBN corresponded to 46 to 85, 85 to 145, and 74 to 172 kg N ha?1 at the three sites and differed significantly between cropping systems, but MBN could not explain differences in wheat grain N yields. Instead, a multiple linear regression model explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all contributed to winter wheat N supply.
Petersen, SØren O; SchjØnning, Per
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The sustainable use of productive resources by agricultural producers in the central valley of Chile should be compatible with economic results so that producers can select an appropriate rotation or succession of annual crops and pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic beha [...] vior of four food crop and supplementary forage rotations using indicators of profitability and profit variability. Productive data were used from a long-term experiment (16 yr) in the central valley of Chile under conditions of irrigation. With productive data and information on historic input/output prices, the real net margin per rotation (RNMR) and its coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. The results indicated that the highest economic benefits and greatest economic stability were obtained with rotations that only included crops, namely sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (CR2) and corn (Zea mays L.)-wheat-bean-barley (CR4). These rotations included crops with low CV of the net margin, such as wheat, barley and beans, with values between 0.31 and 0.34. The rotations with crops and pasture, sugar beet-wheat-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) (2) (CR1) and corn-wheat-red clover (2) (CR3) had lower net margins and more variability of this indicator. Red clover had the highest CV value (1.00). The selection of crops for rotations and their sequence were determining factors in the economic behavior of rotations, affecting the level of RNMR and the degree of inter-annual variability of this indicator. Thus, differences among rotations of 47% in net margin were determined (CR2 vs. CR1), which only differed in the replacement of pasture with red clover (2) by bean-barley. The economic analysis based on the net margin and its variability allow for discriminating among rotations, providing valuable information for producers in deciding which crops to use in rotations.
Jorge, González U; Pablo, Undurraga; Juan, Hirzel; Ingrid, Martínez G.
The effects of crop rotation and the nematicides 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ethoprop, and fenamiphos on the relative frequency of Meloidogyne incognita race 3, M. arenaria race 2, and M. javanica and tobacco yields on a sandy loam soil were determined. Cropping sequences altered the species composition and population densities of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita predominated when cotton, corn, sorghum, or rye-fallow preceded tobacco. Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenari...
Fortnum, B. A.; Lewis, S. A.; Johnson, A. W.
Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.
Asker U. Taychibekov
The research was performed on the basis of soil samples taken from a multi-year long fertilization experiment carried out in Skierniewice. The source of samples was soil under potato and rye cultivated in monoculture and in the 5-fields rotation system. The following combinations of fertilization were concerned: Ca, NPK and CaNPK (doses since 1976: 1.6 t·ha-1 CaO every 4 years in monoculture and 2 t·ha-1 CaO every 5 years in crop rotation, 90 kg·ha-1 N, 26 kg·ha-1 P, 91 kg·ha-1 K). Labor...
Wojewo?dzki, Piotr; Ciescinska, Bogumi?a
Elytrigia repens is a noxious perennial weed in organic cropping systems in Scandinavia. It can easily spread in any crop type and reach unacceptable infestation levels through its proliferation from rhizome fragments. This study aimed at analyzing and quantifying the population dynamics of E. repens recorded in a long-termed crop rotation experiment on coarse sand in Southern Denmark. The study gives an insight into the factors responsible for E. repens population changes and especially those that require particular attention to prevent outbreaks of E. repens. Data originated from three 4-year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without’ not in the last course) and with and without catch crops. E. repens was controlled by different tillage tactics and mowing strategies between and within crops and were conducted whenever the population had exceeded certain thresholds. Pulses, either in pure stands or in mixtures with spring barley, and spring cereals (barley and wheat) caused the highest population increases (up to eightfold), especially when preceded by grass-clover. Winter rye and potatoes with ridging cultivations were neutral to the E. repens population. Cultivations between crops were necessary to diminish the infestation and were the main reason for lower infestations in treatments without catch crops. Manuring resulted in a general reduction of E. repens by 28 % when analyzing data from all three courses. The study has identified the crop types that need particular attention when designing crop sequences, the importance of sufficient nutrients supplies to strengthen crop suppression of weeds and the need for mechanical interventions to mange E. repens satisfactorily.
Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo
Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research.
Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas
Among several alternative agricultural systems have been developed, organic agriculture has deserved increasing interest from. The objective of this paper was comparing both organic (OS) and conventional (CS) tomato cropping systems for varieties Débora and Santa Clara, through an interdisciplinary study. The experiment was set up in a randomized blocks design with six replicates, in a dystrophic Ultisol plots measuring 25 ´ 17 m. Cropping procedures followed by either local conventional or...
Bettiol Wagner; Ghini Raquel; Galvão José Abrahão Haddad; Siloto Romildo Cássio
This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs
Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems / Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Práticas agrícolas que reduzam a degradação do solo e promovam sustentabilidade são importantes para os agrossistemas tropicais/subtropicais. O plantio direto (PD) diminui as perdas de solo e, se combinado com rotação de culturas pode proteger o solo da degradação físico-química provocada pela agric [...] ultura intensiva. A atividade enzimática do solo pode fornecer importantes informações de como o manejo do solo está afetando a decomposição da material orgânica e a ciclagem dos nutrientes. Assim, avaliou-se a atividade das enzimas amilase, celulose, arilsulfatase, fosfatase ácida e fosfatase alcalina em um experimento a campo, instalado em 1976 em Londrina, PR, que tem como tratamentos o preparo do solo (plantio direto ou convencional) nas parcelas e a rotação de culturas (soja/trigo, milho/trigo e algodão/trigo) nas subparcelas. Amostras de solos foram coletadas a 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm de profundidade em 1997 e 1998. Na profundidade de 0-5 cm sob PD, observaram-se aumentos de 68% na atividade da amilase, 90% na celulase, 219% na arilsulfatase, 46% na fosfatase ácida e 61% na fosfatase alcalina. Observaram-se correlações significativas entre a atividade enzimática e o C-orgânico total do solo e o C e N da biomassa microbiana. Esses resultados evidenciam que a atividade enzimática do solo é um indicador sensível de alterações na qualidade do solo, promovidas pelo manejo. Abstract in english Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can p [...] rovide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a split-plot experiment (3 replications) where tillage (no till and conventional) was the main plot and crop rotation (soybean/wheat, S/W; maize/wheat, M/W or cotton/wheat, C/W) was the subplot. The experiment was established in 1976 in southern Brazil. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in 1997 and 1998. The 0-5 cm layer under NT system showed increases up 68% for amylase, 90% for cellulase, 219% for arylsulfatase, 46% for acid phosphatase, and 61% for alkaline phosphatase. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with total organic C, and C and N microbial biomass. These results showed that NT increased microbial activity and that soil enzyme activity is a sensitive indicator of alteration soil quality by management.
Elcio Liborio, Balota; Miriam, Kanashiro; Arnaldo, Colozzi Filho; Diva Souza, Andrade; Richard Peter, Dick.
Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and perennial grasses used as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber can provide multiple economic and environmental benefits. Site-specific environmental studies are providing information needed to help evaluate the economic and environmental impacts of biomass production at both local and regional scales. Erosion and chemical movement from an annual row crop, switchgrass, and tree crop with and without a groundcover are being compared in the Southeast. Studies of SRWC productivity on the South Carolina coastal plain are comparing surface and subsurface movement of chemicals applied under different fertilization and irrigation regimes, and addressing use of mill and agricultural residues to enhance crop production. Results are helping to assess the effects of biomass crops produced on different principal soil types and to match tree species with appropriate sites to maximize productivity and minimize environmental impacts. Studies are comparing wildlife use of biomass crops to row crops, grasslands, and natural forests. Results to date show that SRWCs support greater bird diversity than row crops, but less than natural forests; switchgrass plantings extend habitat for grasslands birds. Collaboration with an industrial partner on diverse SRWC plantings in the Southeast is addressing the relationship between plantings of different acreage, age, tree species, and landscape context and breeding bird use. Information from wildlife diversity, water, and soil quality studies can be used by the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), researchers, producers, and industry to identify management strategies to maintain productivity While enhancing the environment.
Tolbert, V.R.; Schiller, A.
Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and cash-crop yields in an organic arable crop rotation on a sandy loam soil in a cool temperate climate. The four-course crop rotation included spring barley (with undersown grass-clover), grass-clover, potato and winter wheat (with undersown cover crop). Two fertilization treatments were compared: “?M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was left in the field to decompose and no fertilizer or manure was applied to any crop in the rotation; and “+M” where plant material from grass-clover cuts was harvested and equivalent amounts of N in digested manure used for fertilization of cash crops in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had little or no effect on N2O emissions. Periods of high N2O emissions coincided with cover crop and grass-clover residue turnover, with little added effect of digested manure application. Annual N2O emissions did not vary between fertilization treatments, but the +M treatment had cash crop dry matter yields that were 14% higher than in the ?M treatment, and cash crop N yields were increased by 40%. The results show that reallocation of nutrients from grass-clover to cash crops following anaerobic digestion can help solve problems with low N availability. However, issues remain regarding N2O from cover crops and grass-clover in spring.
Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, SØren O
Full Text Available The research was performed on the basis of soil samples taken from a multi-year long fertilization experiment carried out in Skierniewice. The source of samples was soil under potato and rye cultivated in monoculture and in the 5-fields rotation system. The following combinations of fertilization were concerned: Ca, NPK and CaNPK (doses since 1976: 1.6 t·ha-1 CaO every 4 years in monoculture and 2 t·ha-1 CaO every 5 years in crop rotation, 90 kg·ha-1 N, 26 kg·ha-1 P, 91 kg·ha-1 K. Laboratory analyzes involved determination of total organic carbon (TOC and glomalin operationally described as a total glomalin related soil protein (TGRSP. It was found that regardless of cultivated plants and the method of fertilization, only cultivation system such as rotation and monoculture significantly influenced the content of TGRSP. TOC was significantly influenced by interaction between species of cultivated plant and the system of cultivation. The analyzed factors within the method of cultivation (monoculture and crop rotation did not influence significantly the TGRSP content while cultivated plant species, in monoculture, significantly influenced on TOC content. There was also noted positive correlation (r = 0.72 between TGRSP and TOC.
Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual ...
Corky ringspot disease (CRS) is a serious disease in potato that is caused by tobacco rattle virus (TRV). TRV is transmitted by the stubby root nematode (Paratrichodorus allius) in the Pacific Northwest potato producing regions. Alfalfa has been suggested as a rotation crop to eliminate the diseas...
Corn and wheat are important rotation crops with potato in the Northwest. The roots of both are infected by tobacco rattle virus(TRV), the causal agent of corky ringspot disease of potato. Our work demonstrated that the vector of TRV may acquire TRV from infected roots of both wheat and corn and tra...
NAPAP model and USDS POLYSYS models were linked to project future market scenarios of pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the US. Results suggest that pulpwood supply from fast-growing hybrid poplars and cottonwoods will become marginally economical but fairly limited in the next several decades.
Alexander N. Moiseyev; Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte; Peter J. Ince
Full Text Available Impact of long-term crop rotations on populations of soilborne pathogens in the genera Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia and on canola seedling establishment and development was evaluated under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from two crop rotation experiments conducted at two sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. A part of the 2006-soil sample of each rotation was sterilized to compare canola seedling growth with and without soilborne pathogens. With 2007-soil, the sterilization treatment was replaced with a fungicide seed treatment (Apron Maxx to assess the potential to reduce seedling diseases. Populations of Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia sp. were estimated in the soil of each rotation using dilution plating onto selective media for each fungus. Higher seedling emergence and increased growth of canola were obtained in the sterilized soil or due to seed treatment. Fusarium was the predominant genus followed by Pythium and Rhizoctonia sp. in the soil of both sites. This study suggests that diverse crop in the rotation may reduce the populations of Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia in the soil and may contribute to improve the overall growth of canola.
Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co-digestion with manure. The biomass yield per hectare and the specific methane yield of the catch crops in two different locations, namely Holstebro and Aabenraa, were investigated. The volatile solids (VS) yield per hectare was notably influenced by the differences in climate and soil conditions between the locations, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha?1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha?1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t?1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha?1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since this biomass is not competing with food/feed production.
Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, SØren U.
The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.
Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni
A multi-channel holographic correlator has been constructed which can identify and track objects of a given shape across the input field independent of their in-plane rotation. This system, derived from the classic Vander Lugt correlator, incorporates a hololens to store an array of matched spatial filters (MSFs) on thermoplastic film. Each member of the MSF array is generated from a different incrementally rotated version of the training object. Rotational invariant tracking is achieved through superposition of the corresponding array of the correlations in the output plane. Real time tracking is accomplished by utilizing a liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) illuminated with a CRT to process video input signals. The system can be programmed to recognize different objects by recording the MSF array on re-usable thermoplastic film. Discussion of the system architecture and laboratory results are presented.
Lambert, James L.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Gheen, Gregory; Johnston, Alan R.; Liu, Hua-Kuang
Variabilidade espacial de atributos do solo em sistema de semeadura direta com rotação de culturas no cerrado brasileiro / Spatial variability of soil attributes in no a no-tillage system with crop rotation in the Brazilian savannah
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou analisar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos e da textura de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. A propriedade onde o estudo foi realizado localiza-se no município de Sidrolândia (MS) e produz soja, milho e algodão, adotando rotação de culturas e o sistema de [...] plantio direto. Em uma área experimental de aproximadamente 90 hectares foi amostrado solo em 181 pontos georeferenciados. As amostras foram compostas por quatro amostras simples, representativas da profundidade de 0,00-0,20 m. Foram mensurados os atributos químicos e a textura do solo. Realizou-se, inicialmente, análise de discrepantes e, posteriormente, análise descritiva e geoestatística para caracterizar as amostras e identificar a dependência espacial dos atributos estudados. Não foi detectada dependência espacial para os atributos acidez ativa em água, alumínio, acidez potencial, saturação por bases e matéria orgânica. As melhores estimativas de valores para locais não amostrados foram observadas para os atributos físicos do solo, os quais apresentaram os melhores parâmetros de ajuste dos variogramas e da validação cruzada. As técnicas de geoestatística utilizadas possibilitaram o ajuste dos modelos teóricos que melhor representaram a semivariância experimental, possibilitando assim a construção de mapas temáticos da distribuição espacial dos valores dos atributos do solo estudado. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze the spatial variability of the chemical attributes and texture of a red latosol. The study was carried out on a property in the town of Sidrolândia, Matto Grosso do Sul, which produces soybeans, corn and cotton, using crop rotation and a no-tillage system. In an experimen [...] tal area of approximately 90 hectares, samples were taken of the soil at 181 geo-referenced points. The samples were each composed of four single samples, representing depths of from 0 to 0.2 m. The chemical and texture of the soil were measured. Initially a discrepancy analysis was performed followed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses, to characterize the samples and identify the spatial dependence of the attributes studied. No spatial dependence was detected for the attributes: active water acidity, aluminum, potential acidity, base saturation and organic matter. The best estimates of values for non-sampled locations were observed for the physical properties of the soil, which presented parameters which best fit the variograms and cross-validation. The geostatistical techniques used allowed adjustment of the theoretical models that best represented the experimental semivariance, thus enabling the construction of thematic maps of spatial distribution for the values of the attributes of the studied soil.
Eduardo Leonel, Bottega; Daniel Marçal de, Queiroz; Francisco de Assis de Carvalho, Pinto; Cristiano Márcio Alves de, Souza.
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass); continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop); and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all indivi...
Robélio Leandro Marchão; Patrick Lavelle; Leonide Celini; Luiz Carlos Balbino; Lourival Vilela; Thierry Becquer
Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil microbiotic properties. More research will expand our understanding of combined effects of these alternatives on feedbacks between soil microbiotic properties and SOC accrual. PMID:25090235
Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B; Stahl, Peter D; Norton, Urszula
Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6?g?N?m?2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12?g?N?m?2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown w...
Rahman, Motior M.; Islam, Aminul M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.
A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L), pea (Pisum sativum L), oat (Avena sativa L) and pea-oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) - white clover (Trifolium repens L) catch crop followed by a first crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and second crop of winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide L). The rotation sequence was repeated twice. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine grain legume N-2 fixation and N-15 labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing was observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop after grain legumes had a higher grass proportion before incorporation as compared to grass-clover after oat, which had the greatest clover proportion. The dynamic response of interspecific interactions in the catch crop to the soil mineral N levels is moderating the preceding effect of main crops in the subsequent cereal - and sometimes to a higher degree than the main crop effect. For research involving rotation principles it is recommended to evaluate cumulative effects over several years and not only single seasons.
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon
A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – white clover (Trifolium repens L.) catch crop followed by a first crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and second crop of winter triticale (Triticale hexaploide L.). The rotation sequence was repeated twice. Natural 15N abundance techniques were used to determine grain legume N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing was observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop after grain legumes had a higher grass proportion before incorporation as compared to grass-clover after oat, which had the greatest clover proportion. The dynamic response of interspecific interactions in the catch crop to the soil mineral N levels is moderating the preceding effect of main crops in the subsequent cereal – and sometimes to a higher degree than the main crop effect. For research involving rotation principles it is recommended to evaluate cumulative effects over several years and not only single seasons.
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon
Full Text Available Soil management practices exert important influence on biological and biochemical properties of soil. This work aimed to valuate the impact of crop rotation on soil biochemical and microbiological attributes, as well and influence on corn crop yield. The experiment was carried out during 2005/06 crop season, in Dourados – MS, Brazil. Experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments established in sub-divided plots with tree replications, which seasons were plots and management systems were sub-plots. Studied seasons were winter and summer and no tillage systems were represented by five crop rotation schemes, which involved the cultures of hairy vetch, bean, oat, forage turnip, soybean, crotalaria, corn, sorghum, pearl millet, sunflower and, in conventional tillage, with corn in winter and with soybean in summer. Native vegetation constituted one treatment and, with conventional tillage, it was used as ecosystem of reference as control for comparison between possible alterations in chemical and microbiological attributes with the establishment of a system more conservationist for soil management. There was a positive correlation among Norg, Corg, Porg and C-BMS contents with chemical attributes of soil fertility, which shows interdependence between chemical and biology of soil. The elimination of native vegetation and the substitution for cultivation system after that reduce the C-BMS. In Cerrado conditions, studied cultivation systems increased phosphorus content in soil. Crop rotation influenced corn yield after the cultivation of determined species as crotalaria and vetch in crop rotation.As práticas de manejo do solo exercem importantes influências nas propriedades biológicas e bioquímicas do solo. Neste sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o impacto do manejo do solo nos atributos químicos e microbiológicos, bem como, a influência na produtividade da cultura do milho. O estudo foi realizado no ano agrícola de 2005/06, no Munic?pio de Dourados, MS, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, sendo as estações do ano alocados nas parcelas e os sistemas de manejo nas subparcelas. As estações estudadas foram inverno e verão e, os sistemas de manejo no plantio direto foram representados por cinco esquemas de rotação envolvendo as culturas ervilhaca peluda, feijão, aveia, nabo forrageiro, soja, crotalária, milho, sorgo, milheto, girassol e, no plantio convencional, com milho no inverno e soja no verão. A vegetação nativa constituiu um tratamento e, juntamente com o plantio convencional, foi utilizada como ecossistema de referência. Houve correlação positiva entre os teores de Norg, Corg, Porg e C-BMS com os atributos químicos de fertilidade do solo demonstrando a interdependência entre a química e a biologia do solo. A eliminação da vegetação nativa e posterior substituição por sistemas de cultivo reduze o C-BMS. Nas condições de Cerrado, os sistemas de cultivos estudados incrementam o teor de fósforo no solo. A rotação de culturas influencia a produtividade do milho quando cultivado após determinadas espécies de cobertura como crotalária e ervilhaca no sistema de rota??o.
Manoel Carlos Gonçalves
This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the autotrophic component (65% of TER and more). Autotrophic respiration was closely related to GPP during the growth period. The main causes of uncertainty with these results were due to biomass samplings and eddy covariance measurements (mainly, uncertainties about the u* threshold determination).
Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.
Full Text Available Cropping systems are affected by climate change because of the strong relationship between crop development, growth, yield, CO2 atmospheric concentration and climate conditions. The increasing temperatures and the reduction of available water resources may result in negative impacts on the agricultural activity in Mediterranean environments than other areas. In this study the CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO-Tomato models were used to assess the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum durum L. and processing tomato (Lycopersicon aesculentum Mill. in one of most productive areas of Italy, located in the northern part of the Puglia region. In particular we have compared three different General Circulation Models (HadCM3, CCSM3, ECHAM5 subjected to a statistical downscaling under two future IPCC scenarios (B1 and A2. The analysis was carried out at regional scale repeating the simulations for seven homogeneous area characterizing the spatial variability of the region. In the second part of the study, considering only HadCM3 data set, climate change impact on long-term sequences of the two crops combined in three crop rotations were evaluated in terms of yield performances and soil fertility as indicated by the soil organic content of carbon and nitrogen. The comparison between GCMs showed no significant differences for winter durum wheat yield, while noticeable differences were found for yield and irrigation requirements of tomato. Under future scenarios, the production levels were reduced for tomato, whereas positive yield effects were observed for winter durum wheat. For winter durum wheat the simulation indicated that two- and three-year rotations, including one year of tomato cultivation, improved the cereal yield and this positive effect maintained its validity also in future scenarios. For both crops higher requirements of water and nitrogen were predicted under future scenarios. This result coupled with the decrease of yield caused negative reduction of water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency for tomato cultivation.
Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...
Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species: Elymus repens and Cirsium arvense.
Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.
Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.
The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control), herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK) and...
Mohamad Dost Chamanabad, H.; Asghari, A.
In a field experiment conducted on sandy soil in Florida during the 1993 season, rotation crops of castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringina), 'Mississippi Silver' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), 'Dehapine 51' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and 'SX-17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense) were effective in maintaining low population densities (<12/100 cm³ soil) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, whereas high population dens...
Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.
Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.
Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.
There is strong interplant competition in a crop stand for various limiting resources, resulting in complex compensation and regulation mechanisms along the developmental cascade of the whole crop. Despite decades-long use of principles in system dynamics (e.g. feedback control), current crop models often contain many empirical elements, and model parameters may have little biological meaning. Building on the experience in designing the relatively new model GECROS, we believe models can be ma...
Yin, X.; Struik, P. C.
Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m(-2) preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m(-2). No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13-23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m(-2). The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m(-2). The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility. PMID:24971378
Rahman, Motior M; Islam, Aminul M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N
Purpose-grown trees will be part of the bioenergy solution in the United States, especially in the Southeast where plantation forestry is prevalent and economically important. Trees provide a “living biomass inventory” with existing end-use markets and associated infrastructure, unlike other biomass species such as perennial grasses. The economic feasibility of utilizing tree biomass is improved by increasing productivity through alternative silvicultural systems, improved breeding and bi...
Hinchee, Maud; Rottmann, William; Mullinax, Lauren; Zhang, Chunsheng; Chang, Shujun; Cunningham, Michael; Pearson, Leslie; Nehra, Narender
The relative economic profitability and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement potential of alternative tillage and cropping systems were examined. The aim of the study was to provide information about climate change mitigation strategies targeted at annual crop production in the agricultural sector. A model was used to estimate the relative potential of each of the management practices to sequester carbon and to emit GHGs. The model also provided estimates of the profitability of the management practices over a period of 30 years. The model used biophysical and economic data representing different crop rotations under traditional, minimum and zero tillage cropping systems in the Black soil zone of Saskatchewan. Results of the simulation were then used to develop trade-off functions reflecting net income and net GHG abatement for each cropping system. An income risk measure was used to facilitate the analysis of the economic viability of the simulated cropping systems, and a sensitivity analysis was performed on nitrous oxide emission coefficients and weather patterns to account for uncertainties in future climate change impacts. The baseline simulation indicated that all the management systems were net GHG sinks. However, the minimum and zero tillage cropping systems provided a greater net sink than the conventional system, while the reduced tillage cropping system provided lower profitability over the 30 year time frame. It was suggested that economic factors such as risk and economies of size may have a significant influence on future results. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.
Samarawickrema, A.K.; Belcher, K.W. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Full Text Available In this study we examined the impact on soil C, total soil N and available P of six rotations namely: long season tobacco cultivar ‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10, medium season tobacco cultivar ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8, grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10, grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8, KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr. The experiment was established in 1990 under irrigation on a sandy loam soil at Kutsaga Research Station, Zimbabwe. Soil samples were taken from 0- to 15-cm deep, after each season. After 9 years, tobacco-grass rotations showed higher soil C than monocropping, regardless of variety. The monocropping systems, ContKM10 and ContRK8, did not differ from KM10-Cr and RK8-Cr respectively showing that when crop intensity is maintained soil C will be reduced regardless of a winter C. juncea green manure in a sandy loam soil. After 9 years, soil N was greatest in the G-G-G-KM10 rotation. Available P was lower in the grass (G-G-G-KM10, G-G-G-RK8 relative to the other rotations regardless of variety. Available P accumulated in monocropping systems (ContRK8, ContKM10 and was consistently lower in the grass-tobacco rotations. This indicated an accumulation of P in the case of monocropping systems because of continuous inorganic fertiliser input. The results reaffirmed the deleterious effect of monocropping and suggested the need for diverse rotations.
Energy ef?ciency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy ?ows of a wheatemaizeesoybeanemaize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most ef?cient techniques to reduce energy...
Grignani, Carlo; Moretti, Barbara; Alluvione, Francesco; Sacco, Dario
The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full...
Kostrzewska, Marta K.; Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrz?bska
The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop management on quality parameters and (iv) environmentally benign crop rotation systems. Differently mat
Boehmel, Ute Constanze
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower from fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots. The total yield of potato in the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences increased from 1983 to 1985 in plots infested with M. hapla or M. arenaria and M. incognita in combination and decreased in 1986 to 1987 when root-knot nematode populations shifted to M. incognita. The total yields of sweet potato in the PO-SP-PE-GS sequence were similar in 1983 and 1985, and declined each year in the PO-SP sequence as a consequence of M. incognita population density increase in the soil. Yield of peanut from soil infested with M. hapla increased 82% in fenamiphos-treated plots compared to untreated plots. Fenamiphos treatment increased yield of grain sorghum from 5% to 45% over untreated controls. The declining yields of potato and sweet potato observed with both the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences indicate that these crop systems should not be used longer than 3 years in soil infested with M. incognita, M. arenaria, or M. hapla. Under these conditions, these two cropping systems promote a population shift in favor of M. incognita, which is more damaging to potato and sweet potato than M. arenaria and M. hapla. PMID:19277157
Johnson, A W; Dowler, C C; Glaze, N C; Handoo, Z A
Beam pump systems are among the most cost efficient artificial lift systems in the industry, assuming a long run time between pulling jobs to repair tubing failures caused by rod wear. The tubing string represents the second largest investment in the well. The longer the period of time the well can be kept on-line and producing between pulling jobs, the more efficient and cost effective is the beam pump system. This paper describes in detail the conception, development and implementation of a new system that extends tubing life on rod pumped wells. The system uses a very simple concept; rotate the tubing string to extend the length of time between tubing failures and the resultant pulling jobs. The system is powered directly from the walking beam and requires no additional power source; nor does the system use any additional energy
We conjecture a universal upper bound to the entropy of a rotating system. The entropy bound follows from application of the generalized second law of thermodynamics to an idealized gedanken experiment in which an entropy-bearing rotating system falls into a black hole. This bound is stronger than the Bekenstein entropy bound for non-rotating systems.
Comportamento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) em dez espécies vegetais de verão para rotação de culturas ou cultura armadilha no plantio direto / Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) behaviour in ten summer rotation specles and trapping crops for no-tillage system
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) foi avaliado em dez espécies vegetais sob condições naturais num solo manejado há três anos no sistema de plantio direto corn soja cultivada no verão. Foram observados o número de plantas atacadas, a oviposição, o núrn [...] ero e peso de larvas, o número de larvas hibernantes no solo e o número de adultos emergidos. O inseto se reproduziu e desenvolveu ern feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L) guandu anão (Cajanus cajan L), lab-lab (Dolichos lablab L.) e soja (Glycine max L.) e ao contrário, em crotalária júncea (Crotalaria júncea L). girassol (Helianthus annuus L.), milheto (Pennisetum americanum Leek), milho (Zea mays L), mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy) e sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.) não completou o ciclo de vida. Os resultados indicaram que a cultura do feijão, guandu anão, lab-lab e soja aumentaram a população do inseto. Entretanto, ocorreu redução na população do inseto corn as culturas da crotalária júncea, girassol, milheto, milho, mucuna preta e sorgo. As quatro primeiras espécies são hospedeiras preferenciais, podendo ser usadas como culturas armadilhas e as demais, não são hospedeiras, pois propiciam a diminuição da população do inseto, sendo ideais para uso em sistemas derotação de culturas no verão, em áreas infestadas, para substituir o monocultivo da soja em plantio direto. Abstract in english The development of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera. Curculionidae) was evaluated on ten crop species under natural conditions under no-tillage system for three years and infested with the insect Soybean was the Summer crop continously cultivated in the area. Number of attacked plants, o [...] viposition, number and weight of larvae and number of adults emerged were the parameters evaluated. The insect reproduced and developed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L), grandull (Cajanus cajan L.), dolichos (Dolichos lablab L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) and not in bengal hemp (Crotalaria júncea L ), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), millet (Pennisetum americanum Leek), corn (Zea mays L.), black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper et Tracy) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) did not complete lhe life cycle Results indicated that P. vulgaris, C. cajan, D. lablab and G. max increased insect populatron but, a reduction was observed on C. juncea, H. annuus, P. americanum, Z. mays, S. aterrimum and S. bicolor. The first four related species are the preferred hosts and may be used as trap crops. The other six species did not host the insect, decreasing its populations and thus being ideal to be included in Summer crop rotafion systems to subslitute soybean monocropping under no-tillage.
Mauro Tadeu Braga da, Silva.
This patent describes a liquid-metal fastbreeder nuclear reactor comprising a reactor pressure vessel and closure head therefor, a reactor core barrel disposed within the reactor vessel and enclosing a reactor core having therein a large number of closely spaced fuel assemblies, and the reactor core barrel and the reactor core having an approximately concentric circular cross-sectional configuration with a geometric center in predetermined location within the reactor vessel. The improved refueling system described here comprises: a large controllably rotatable plug means comprising the substantial portion of the closure head, a reactor upper internals structure mounted from the large rotatable plug means. The large rotatable plug means has an approximately circular configuration which approximates the cross-sectional configuration of the reactor core barrel with a center of rotation positioned a first predetermined distance from the geometric center of the reactor core barrel so that the large rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the reactor core barrel; a small controllably rotatable plug means affixed to the large rotatable plug means and rotatable with respect thereto. The small rotatable plug means has a center of rotation which is offset a second predetermined distance from the rotational center of the large rotatable plug means so that the small rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the large rotatable plug meanst to the large rotatable plug means
Little information exists about how global warming potential (GWP) is affected by management practices in agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI or GWP per unit crop yield) calculated by soil respiration (GWP and GHGI) and organic C (SOC) (GWP and GHGI) methods after accounting for CO emissions from all sources (irrigation, farm operations, N fertilization, and greenhouse gas [GHG] fluxes) and sinks (crop residue and SOC) in a Lihen sandy loam from 2008 to 2011 in western North Dakota. Treatments were two irrigation practices (irrigated vs. nonirrigated) and five cropping systems (conventional-till malt barley [ L.] with N fertilizer [CTBN], conventional-till malt barley with no N fertilizer [CTBO], no-till malt barley-pea [ L.] with N fertilizer [NTB-P], no-till malt barley with N fertilizer, and no-till malt barley with no N fertilizer [NTBO]). While CO equivalents were greater with irrigation, tillage, and N fertilization than without, NO and CH fluxes were 2 to 218 kg CO eq. ha greater in nonirrigated NTBN and irrigated CTBN than in other treatments. Previous year's crop residue and C sequestration rate were 202 to 9316 kg CO eq. ha greater in irrigated NTB-P than in other treatments. Compared with other treatments, GWP and GWP were 160 to 9052 kg CO eq. ha lower in irrigated and nonirrigated NTB-P. Similarly, GHGI and GHGI were lower in nonirrigated NTB-P than in other treatments. Regardless of irrigation practices, NTB-P may lower net GHG emissions more than other treatments in the northern Great Plains. PMID:25602807
Sainju, Upendra M; Stevens, William B; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Liebig, Mark A; Wang, Jun
The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction cups. The effects of climate, soil and management were examined in a linear mixed model, and only parameters with significant effect (P < 0.05) were included in the final model. The model explained 61% and 47% of the variation in the square root transform of flow-weighted annual NO3single bondN concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop management. There were significant effects on annual N concentration and NO3single bondN leaching of location, rotation, previous crop and crop cover during autumn and winter. The relative effects of temperature and precipitation differed between seasons and cropping systems. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the predicted N concentration and leaching increased with increases in temperature and precipitation.
Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten
Wheat, cotton, and peanut were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage and irrigation for 6 years. The cropping sequences included a wheat winter cover crop each year and summer crops of cotton every year, peanut every year, or cotton rotated every other year with peanut. The population densities of Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus dihyster...
Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Handoo, Z. A.
Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.
Marta K. Kostrzewska
The present paper presents a method to characterize typical crop rotations from temporal series analysis of land use maps derived from supervised classifications of Landsat TM images. The analysis is based on spatial cross-tabulation of land use maps in raster format. As a case study, a temporal land use map series from 1993 to 2000 of the Flumen irrigation area (Huesca, Spain) was considered. The spatial cross-tabulation analysis between each pair of consecutive land use maps, performed in Idrisi 32, yielded a two dimensional matrix that allowed the identification of the typical crop rotations in the study area. Those are rice - fallow land - rice, sunflower - winter cereals - alfalfa - corn, and others as winter cereal or sunflower - fallow land - corn or alfalfa. Rice appears as a typical crop in this area, in which it is usually associated to salt- and/or sodium-affected soils. Those typical rotations have been also spatially located and represented in a map following the crop changes from one year to another year that are registered in the cross-tabulation images. The method can be useful to identify tendencies in the temporal variation of crop rotations in agricultural areas, and to locate typical areas with salt- and/or sodium-affected soils by mapping rotations in which rice is the main crop.
Martinez-Casasnovas, Jose A.; Martin-Montero, Almudena
Weed Manager is a model-based decision support system to assist arable farmers and advisers in weed control decisions on two time scales: within a single season and over several years in a rotation. The single season decision is supported by a wheat crop and annual weed growth simulation, with a multi-stage heuristic decision model. The rotational aspect uses a model of seed population dynamics, with decisions optimised using stochastic dynamic programming. Each time scale h...
Parsons, David J.; Benjamin, L. R.; Clarke, J.; Ginsburg, D.; Mayes, A.; Milne, A. E.; Wilkinson, D. J.
One of the core ideas behind organic production is that cropping systems should be less dependent on import of resources, and minimize negative effects on the surrounding environment compared to conventional production. However, even when clearly complying with regulations for organic production, it is not always obvious that these goals are reached. As an example, strong dependence on import of manure is often seen in current organic production, especially in systems producing high value crops such as vegetable crops. The aim of the present study was to test novel approaches to organic rotations, designed to reduce the reliance on import of external resources significantly. We compared a conventional system (C) and an organic system relying on manure import for soil fertility (O1) to two novel systems (O2 and O3) all based on the same crop rotation. The O2 and O3 systems represented new versions of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the maincrop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for biodiversity and natural pest regulation in the crops. Reliance on resource import to the systems differed, with average annual import of nitrogen fertilizers of 149, 85, 25 and 25 kg N ha-1 in the C, O1, O2 and O3 systems, respectively. As expected, the crop yields were lower in the organic system. It differed strongly among crop species, but on average the organic crops yielded c. 82% of conventional yields in all three organic systems, when calculated based on the area actually grown with the main crops. In the O3 system some of the area of the vegetable fields was allocated to intercrops, so vegetable yields calculated based on total land area was only 63% of conventional yields. Differences in quality parameters of the harvested crops, i.e. nutrient content, dry matter content or damages by pests or diseases were fewand not systematic, whereas clear effects on nutrient balances and nitrogen leaching indicators were found. Root growth of all crops was studied in the C and O2 system, but only few effects of cropping system on root growth was observed. However, the addition of green manures to the systems almost doubled the average soil exploration by active root systems during the rotation from only 21% in C to 38% in O2 when measured to 2.4 m depth. This relates well to the observed differences in subsoil inorganic N content (Ninorg, 1–2 m depth) across the whole rotation (74 and 61 kg N ha-1 in C and O1 vs. only 22 and 21 kg N ha-1 in O2 and O3), indicating a strongly reduced N leaching loss in the two systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C and O1 vs. O2 and O3).
Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; DresbØll, Dorte Bodin
Avaliação do potencial de coberturas verdes e de sitemas de rotações de cultura na supressão do nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax em pré-plantio ao pessegueiro Evaluation of green covering potential and crop rotation systems in the suppression of the ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach pre-planting
Full Text Available Em uma área naturalmente infestada com o nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax, coberturas verdes foram testadas quanto a sua hospedabilidade, em cultivos de inverno e verão, comparativamente às parcelas mantidas sob pousio. Três sistemas de rotação de culturas, com as mesmas espécies vegetais (aveia-preta/feijão-de-porco/milheto/nabo-forrageiro; nabo-forrageiro/milheto/aveia-branca/milho, e aveia-branca/mucuna-anã/trigo/sorgo, foram avaliados quanto ao potencial supressor do nematóide de M. xenoplax por dois anos, utilizando-se, como testemunhas, de parcelas mantidas sob pousio e alqueive. Os experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Antes e após o estabelecimento de cada cultivo, as populações do nematoide foram avaliadas quanto ao número de M. xenoplax/100cm³ de solo e fator de reprodução (FR= população final/população inicial do nematoide anelado, onde FR1,00, favorecimento da reprodução. A maioria das culturas testadas foi hospedeira desfavorável (FRIn a field naturally infested with ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax, green covering were tested for their hostel in winter and summer crops comparing to plots kept in fallow lands. Tree crop rotation system with the same plant species (black oat/pig bean/ millet/forage radish; forage radish/ millet/white oat/corn; and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum were evaluated for suppression potential to nematode M. xenoplax for two years, using as witness plots that were kept in fallow lands. The experiments were conducted in the field in a randomized block design with six repetitions. Before and after the establishment of each plot, the nematode populations were evaluated on the number of M. xenoplax/100cm³ of soil and the reproduction factor (RF= final population/initial population of the ring nematode, where RF 1,00, favoring of the reproduction. Most of the crops analyzed were unfavorable host (RF<1,00 of M. xenoplax, except the mucuna deeringiana that behaved as favorable to the nematode reproduction. Although all treatments have removed M. xenoplax the crop rotations forage radish/ millet/white oat/corn and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum realized the largest reduction of the nematode in the soil (93-95%.It was noted a sharp decline in the M. xenoplax population in the first two crops, with later stabilization of its level, regardless of the studied system.
Cesar Bauer Gomes
Full Text Available Soil mycoflora play an important role in agricultural economy of a country. Soil borne pathogen produces serious losses to the yield of a crop. In rice Bwheat cropping system due to continuous cropping and reduced rotation, soil borne pathogens have become increasingly important with the yield decline. The current study was made to have the knowledge about soil borne fungi associated with rice and wheat crop in rice- wheat cropping system under zero and conventional tillage technologies. One hundred and seven fungal species belonging to 54 genera were isolated from foliar parts, roots and soil on general and specific media. Forty three genera including 59 species were isolated for the first time from rice, wheat plants and soil of rice-wheat cropping system. The fungi were categorized into four groups (pathogenic, saprophytic, toxin producing and beneficial. Aspergillus flavus was identified as only toxin producing fungus and isolated from both rice and wheat crops. Trichoderma spp were isolated from both crops and Paecilomyces spp were isolated only from wheat fields and are known as beneficial fungi. Among the pathogenic fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were isolated as pathogenic fungi both from rice and wheat soils. Alternaria trtiticina, Fusarium equiseti, F. grameniarum, F. poae, F. solani and Pythium sp. were isolated only from wheat fields whereas Nigrospora oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and Sclerotium oryzae were isolated only form rice fields. Total fungal colony counts isolated from soil on five specific media show some effect of zero tillage on soil mycoflora.
Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos em Vila Real (Trás-os-Montes. O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro de Trás-os-Montes, cereal-alqueive (TA, e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL, cereal-consociação forrageira (TC e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP. Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha, os teores de nutrientes do grão e da palha e acompanharam-se os parâmetros do solo, pH, matéria orgânica e os teores de P2 O 5, K2 O e bases de troca. Destacam-se alguns resultados importantes, tais como: as produções de grão de cereal das rotações não mostrarem diferenças significativas entre si; a produção de palha da rotação TL ser superior às das restantes; o trigo cultivado após prado de sequeiro não dispensar a adubação azotada; as rotações conduzirem a modificações dos teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio de troca ou do valor do pH do solo, factores a que se deve atender, caso a rotação se prolongue por muitos anos.The results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA, traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL, cereal-forage mixture (TC and cereal-rain-fed pasture (TP. The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields were evaluated together with concentrations of nutrients. The soil parameters studied were pH, organic matter and P 2 O 5, K2O and exchange cations. Wheat straw yield of TL rotation was higher than that of the others. Wheat from TP rotation still requires nitrogen fertilization. The soils of the different rotations registered changes of organic matter, Ca, Mg and pH values, which should be taken into account if these rotations are practised over several years.
Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.
Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.
Full Text Available Most energy-conversion machines (e.g. vehicle engines and electric motors involve rotating components (e.g. roller bearings and gears, which generate vibrations. The behavior of a pump which includes a deliberate fault was chosen to illustrate this assertion. The test bearing at the driven end of the pump’s motor was deliberately damaged using a 1.5mm wire-cutting method and an adjustable coupling disk introduced to impose a shaft misalignment of 40. The resulting undesirable behavior of the pump was observed. Experimental data were measured at various speeds of the rotor. The sample period at various operating frequencies were 0.9, 0.6 and 0.45s respectively. The ball-passage frequency was observed at 4.4, 8.8, 13.2 and 17.6Hz. A computer-based analytical model was developed, in visual basic, for monitoring the machine failures: this led to an integrated system-process algorithm for diagnosis of faults in rotating components.
S. D. PROBERT
Full Text Available Small scale operations in which poultry forage freely around farms is widespread on rural properties. In Australia grain farmers, market gardeners and graziers integrate poultry into their farming system. In this system, birds are unrestricted in their movements except that they are usually locked in sheds at night for protection from predators. Consumers pay a premium for eggs and chicken meat on the grounds of enhanced welfare of birds in this system. Eggs are perceived as having superior taste and nutritional properties. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the impact of poultry integrated into a pasture and crop rotation system. The pasture availability, insects, weeds and soil fertility were measured before and after grazing by poultry. Sheep were used as a comparison in the experiment. Laying hens stocked at 110/ha (compared to sheep-stocking density 12/ha were allowed to forage a medic pasture in a crop and pasture rotation system during summer in a Mediterranean environment. The egg production of layers (Hyline Brown in the free-range system was lower than the standard performance expected in a cage system. Rate of lay from 18-40 weeks was 79% vs 93% (cage standard. The mortality of free-range birds was higher than the cage standard (9.1 vs 1.2%. The reduction of performance of birds relative to the standard was expected considering the heat wave conditions experienced during the experiment. Sheep were very effective in grazing the wire seed, which contaminated the paddocks whereas poultry avoided this weed. In contrast, the number of unidentified weeds in the sheep paddocks was greater than the poultry paddock. This raises the possibility that sheep and poultry could be grazed together in some circumstances, to provide a method for reducing weed build up. Sheep could be used to graze out weeds they prefer and poultry to consume weed seeds and insects that sheep avoid. Soil fertility was not different between the sheep and poultry paddocks. The yield of wheat from poultry paddocks in the subsequent crop was 1.25 tonne/ha versus 1.43 tonnes/ha from sheep paddocks.
Full Text Available The use of crop rotation and manure application can provide sustainability for an agricultural production system by improving soil quality and increasing nutrient use efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mineral, organic and mineral+organic fertilization on grain yield and on soil phosphorus and potassium balance, in two crop systems under no-till, with and without rotation of cover crops. The experiment was carried out from 2006 to 2008 on a clayey Rhodic Hapludox in Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil. The cropping sequence in the rotation system involving cover crops was black oat + hairy vetch + forage turnip/corn/pigeon pea/wheat/mucuna + brachiaria + sunn hemp, and in the succession system was wheat/corn/wheat/soybean. Organic and mineral+organic fertilizations consisted of the application of solely manure and manure combined with mineral fertilizer, respectively. Soil P and K balances were calculated after the second year of the experiment, up to a depth of 0.40 m. First year corn yields were higher in the crop succession system accompanied by mineral fertilization. In the second year, wheat and soybean yield did not vary between crop systems and nutrient sources, demonstrating the residual effect of crop rotation and manure use. Crop rotation with cover crops resulted in an increase in soil K levels by promoting the recycling of this nutrient in the soil. In both crop systems, the application of mineral and organic fertilizers – either in isolation or in combination – resulted in a negative soil P and K balance in the short term. This represents a threat to the sustainability of the agricultural production system in the long term, due to the depletion of soil nutrient reserves. A utilização de rotação de culturas e a aplicação de esterco pode conferir sustentabilidade ao sistema de produção agrícola, por melhorar a qualidade do solo e aumentar a eficiência de uso de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral, orgânica e mineral+orgânica na produtividade de grãos e no balanço de fósforo e de potássio no solo em dois sistemas de culturas sob plantio direto, com e sem rotação de plantas de cobertura. O experimento foi conduzido em Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná, Brasil, de 2006 a 2008, em um Latossolo Vermelho. A sequência de culturas no sistema em rotação com plantas de cobertura foi aveia preta + ervilhaca + nabo/milho/guandu/trigo/mucuna + braquiária + crotalária / milho, e no sistema em sucessão foi trigo/milho/trigo/soja/milho. As adubações, orgânica e mineral+orgânica consistiram, respectivamente, da aplicação de esterco e de esterco combinado com fertilizante mineral. O balanço de P e de K no solo foi avaliado, após o segundo ano de condução do experimento, na camada de 0,0–0,40 m de profundidade. A produtividade do milho, no primeiro ano, foi superior na sucessão de culturas e na adubação mineral. No segundo ano, a produtividade de trigo e de soja não se alterou entre os sistemas de culturas e fontes de nutrientes, o que demonstra o efeito residual da rotação de culturas e do uso de esterco. Rotação de culturas com plantas de cobertura proporcionou aumento na quantidade de K no solo, por favorecer o processo de ciclagem deste nutriente do solo. Ambos os sistemas de culturas associados à aplicação fertilizante mineral e esterco de forma isolada ou combinada resultaram em saldo negativo do balanço de P e K no solo em curto prazo, representando uma ameaça para a sustentabilidade do sistema de produção em longo prazo, devido o esgotamento das reservas desses nutrientes do solo.
While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.
Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.
The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)
The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0–4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha?1. A simulated freeze–thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, which could be mainly from microbial sources. Other samples were adjusted to approximately ?10, ?30 or ?100 hPa and amended with excess 15NO3? prior to freezing and thawing. Denitrification was the main source of N2O during a 72-h incubation at 22 °C, as judged from N2O and total 15N evolution. Although the input of C in the conventionally managed cropping system was significantly less than in the organic cropping systems, it showed higher N2O evolution at all three matric potentials. Estimates of relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0) in soil from the four cropping systems indicated that C input affected soil aeration. Soil from the two cropping systems with highest C input showed N2O evolution at DP/D0 in excess of 0.02, which is normally considered a threshold for development of anaerobic sites in the soil, presumably because the oxygen demand was also high. The study shows that cropping system affects both soil gas diffusivity and C availability, and that both characteristics significantly influence the N2O emission potential.
Petersen, SØren O; Ambus, Per
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower ...
Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Handoo, Z. A.
Full Text Available Information is needed on novel management practices to increase dryland C sequestration and soil quality in the northern Great Plains, USA. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves yield, surface residue, and soil C fractions at the 0-20 cm depth from 2004 to 2008 in a Williams loam in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage (no-tillage [NT] and conventional tillage [CT], two crop rotations (continuous spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] [CW] and spring wheat-barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.] hay-corn [Zea mays L.]-pea [Pisum sativum L.] [W-B-C-P], and two cultural practices (regular [conventional seed rates and plant spacing, conventional planting date, broadcast N fertilization, and reduced stubble height] and ecological [variable seed rates and plant spacing, delayed planting, banded N fertilization, and increased stubble height]. Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC, particulate organic C (POC, microbial biomass C (MBC, and potential C mineralization (PCM. Crop biomass was 24% to 39% greater in W-B-C-P than in CW in 2004 and 2005. Surface residue C was 36% greater in NT than in CT in the regular practice. At 5 - 20 cm, SOC was 14% greater in NT with W-B-C-P and the regular practice than in CT with CW and the ecological practice. In 2007, POC and PCM at 0 - 20 cm were 23 to 54% greater in NT with CW or the regular practice than in CT with CW or the ecological practice. Similarly, MBC at 10 - 20 cm was 70% greater with the regular than with the ecological practice in NT with CW. Surface residue, PCM, and MBC declined from autumn 2007 to spring 2008. No-tillage with the regular cultural practice increased surface residue and soil C storage and microbial biomass and activity compared to conventional tillage with the ecological practice. Mineralization reduced surface residue and soil labile C fractions from autumn to spring.
Upendra M. Sainju
Full Text Available This study evaluated microbial communities of soil (0–10 cm as affected by dryland cropping systems under different tillage practices after 5 years. The soil type was an Olton sandy loam with an average of 16.4% clay, 67.6% sand and 0.65 g kg?1 of organic matter (OM. The cropping systems evaluated were grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.—cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (Srg-Ct, cotton-winter rye (Secale cereale-grain sorghum (Ct-Rye-Srg, and a rotation of forage (f sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and Sorghum sudanense with winter rye (Srf-Rye, which were under no-tillage (nt and conventional tillage (ct practices. Soil microbial communities under cotton based cropping systems (Srg-Ct and Ct-Rye-Srg showed lower fungal:bacterial ratios compared to the soil under Srf-Rye. Soil under Srf-Rye showed higher population densities of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria while lower Actinobacteria compared to Srg-Ct and Ct-Rye-Srg. Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Verrucomicrobiae were higher in tilled soil compared to the no-tilled plots. Regardless the limited irrigation available to sustain agricultural production within these dryland cropping systems, this study demonstrated that differences in microbial communities are more affected by crop rotation than tillage management history. Although soil fungal diversity was not analyzed in this study, pyrosequencing suggests that tillage practices can affect bacterial phyla distribution in this sandy soil.
Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sor making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)
This study evaluated microbial communities of soil (0–10 cm) as affected by dryland cropping systems under different tillage practices after 5 years. The soil type was an Olton sandy loam with an average of 16.4% clay, 67.6% sand and 0.65 g kg?1 of organic matter (OM). The cropping systems evaluated were grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)—cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) (Srg-Ct), cotton-winter rye (Secale cereale)-grain sorghum (Ct-Rye-Srg), and a rotation of forage (f) sorghum (Sorghum bic...
Verónica Acosta-Martínez; Dowd, Scot E.; Bell, Colin W.; Robert Lascano; Booker, Jill D.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Upchurch, Dan R.
Plant root systems are highly plastic in response to environmental stimuli. Improved nutrient acquisition can increase fertilizer use efficiency and is critical for crop production. Recent analyses of field-grown crops highlighted the importance of root system architecture (RSA) in nutrient acquisition. This indicated that it is feasible in practice to exploit genotypes or mutations giving rise to optimal RSA for crop design in the future, especially with respect to plant breeding for infertile soils. PMID:25450041
Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Maolin; De Smet, Ive; Ding, Zhaojun
Cropping system is an essential aspect to take into account to manage blast disease (caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae). In addition to the selection of resistant cultivars, studies report opportunities to limit blast incidence by managing mineral amendment (N, Si, P, etc.), cultivar mixtures or other cropping system adaptations. In Madagascar, rice is the staple crop and food. Farmers traditionally grow irrigated or rainfed lowland rice wherever possible. In the mid-1980s, CIRAD and FO...
Sester, M.; Raveloson, H.; Michellon, R.; Dusserre, J.; Tharreau, D.
Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major crop of Eastern India grown during the wet season (June/July to September/October). Aerobic soils of the upland rice system, which are acidic and inherently phosphorus (P) limiting, support native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) activity. Attempts were made to improve P nutrition of upland rice by exploiting this natural situation through different crop rotations and application of AM fungal (AMF) inoculum. The effect of a 2-year crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) followed by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) in the first year and upland rice in the second year on native AM activity was compared to three existing systems, with and without application of a soil-root-based inoculum. Integration of AM fungal inoculation with the maize-horse gram rotation had synergistic/additive effects in terms of AMF colonization (+22.7 to +42.7%), plant P acquisition (+11.2 to +23.7%), and grain yield of rice variety Vandana (+25.7 to +34.3%). PMID:21448812
Maiti, Dipankar; Toppo, Neha Nancy; Variar, Mukund
In rotating scattering systems, the generic saddle-center scenario leads to stable islands in phase space. Non-interacting particles whose initial conditions are defined in such islands will be trapped and form rotating rings. This result is generic and also holds for systems quite different from planetary rings.
The use of intensive traditional cropping systems with burning crop residues and soil plough down with heavy machinery in food production is considered the cause of environmental degradation, i.e. soil erosion and atmospheric contamination with carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions. At a world scale the soil holds 1500 Gt of carbon, which can decrease by the inadequate soil management, increasing at the same time CO2 emission. Thus, traditional soil management can produce a large soil carbon reduction, whereas conservative soil management can increase soil carbon at a rate of 1 ton ha-1 per year. Research done by the IPCC, stated that in the next 50 to 100 years, soil might be a sink for 40-80 Gt of atmospheric carbon, if soil plough is substituted by no till with crop residues management over the soil surface, the use of appropriate crop rotations with the inclusion of grain legumes and the use of animal manure. In southern Chile, 70% of cropped land area is found, along with high level of soil degradation, since the dominant use of the traditional soil management. An exercise done with data collected from a Nitrogen Use Efficiency Research Project, on an Ultisol soil, the most eroded in southern Chile, demonstrate the feasibility of increase soil carbon sequestration shifting from soil ploughing to no burn-no till system and by the inclusion of legume crop in rotations. Soil carbon input can increase from 24 to 30.5 Gg under no burn no till, from crop res.5 Gg under no burn no till, from crop residues decomposition. These figures matches with real soil carbon variation content in the 0-20 cm depth, +2,2 10-6 Mg C ha-1 in no burn-no till systems in a 3 year period, and -3 10-1 Mg C ha-1 under traditional soil management. In the other hand with the continuous inclusion of grain legume crops in 188.000 has in rotation with grain annual crops, there is a potential to decrease carbon emission in 50 G, moreover, the shifting in the IX Region from traditional to conservation soil management system would mitigates carbon atmospheric emissions from 350 to 450 Gg
Full Text Available Short rotation woody crops (SRWC, fast growing tree species that are harvested on short, repeated intervals, can augment traditional fiber sources. These crops have economic and environmental benefits stemming from their capability of supplying fiber on a reduced land base in close proximity to users and when sensitive sites cannot be accessed. Eucalyptus and Populus appear to be genera with the greatest potential to provide supplemental fiber in the U.S. Optimal productivity can be achieved through practices that overcome site limitations and by choosing the most appropriate sites, species, and clones. Some Eucalyptus species are potentially invasive, yet field studies across multiple continents suggest they are slower to disperse than predicted by risk assessments. Some studies have found lower plant and animal diversity in SRWC systems compared to mature, native forests, but greater than some alterative land uses and strongly influenced by stand management, land use history, and landscape context. Eucalyptus established in place of grasslands, arable lands, and, in some cases, native forests can reduce streamflow and lower water tables due to higher interception and transpiration rates but results vary widely, are scale dependent, and are most evident in drier regions.
Eric D. Vance
Literature analyzes the way in which Newton's second law can be used when non-inertial rotating systems are used. However, the treatment of the work and energy theorem in rotating systems is not considered in textbooks. In this paper, we show that the work and energy theorem can still be applied to a closed system of particles in a rotating system, as long as the work of fictitious forces is properly included in the formalism. The coriolis force does not contribute to the work coming from fictitious forces. It worths remarking that real forces that do not do work in an inertial reference frame can do work in the rotating reference frame and viceversa. The combined effects of acceleration of the origin and rotation of the non-inertial system are also studied.
Manjarres, Diego A; Diaz, Rodolfo A
Avaliação do potencial de coberturas verdes e de sitemas de rotações de cultura na supressão do nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax) em pré-plantio ao pessegueiro / Evaluation of green covering potential and crop rotation systems in the suppression of the ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) in peach pre-planting
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em uma área naturalmente infestada com o nematoide anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax), coberturas verdes foram testadas quanto a sua hospedabilidade, em cultivos de inverno e verão, comparativamente às parcelas mantidas sob pousio. Três sistemas de rotação de culturas, com as mesmas espécies vegetais [...] (aveia-preta/feijão-de-porco/milheto/nabo-forrageiro; nabo-forrageiro/milheto/aveia-branca/milho, e aveia-branca/mucuna-anã/trigo/sorgo), foram avaliados quanto ao potencial supressor do nematóide de M. xenoplax por dois anos, utilizando-se, como testemunhas, de parcelas mantidas sob pousio e alqueive. Os experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Antes e após o estabelecimento de cada cultivo, as populações do nematoide foram avaliadas quanto ao número de M. xenoplax/100cm³ de solo e fator de reprodução (FR= população final/população inicial) do nematoide anelado, onde FR1,00, favorecimento da reprodução. A maioria das culturas testadas foi hospedeira desfavorável (FR Abstract in english In a field naturally infested with ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax), green covering were tested for their hostel in winter and summer crops comparing to plots kept in fallow lands. Tree crop rotation system with the same plant species (black oat/pig bean/ millet/forage radish; forage radish/ m [...] illet/white oat/corn; and white oat/mucuna deeringiana/wheat/sorghum) were evaluated for suppression potential to nematode M. xenoplax for two years, using as witness plots that were kept in fallow lands. The experiments were conducted in the field in a randomized block design with six repetitions. Before and after the establishment of each plot, the nematode populations were evaluated on the number of M. xenoplax/100cm³ of soil and the reproduction factor (RF= final population/initial population) of the ring nematode, where RF 1,00, favoring of the reproduction. Most of the crops analyzed were unfavorable host (RF
Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Flávio Luiz Carpena, Carvalho; João Guilherme, Casagrande Júnior; Elizete Beatriz, Radmann.
Use of nitrogen-15 lends understanding of the dynamics and interactions between various pools in agricultural systems, including nitrogen fixation by legumes and utilization of soil and fertilizer nitrogen by crops in general. Biological nitrogen fixation in sole and intercropped legumes is discussed, as are intercrop design and methods of assessing possible yield benefits from intercropping. Advantages that accrue from inclusion of legumes, only some of which are linked with nitrogen transfer, are discussed with particular reference to two case studies
Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L.) and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Italian ryegrass (R3) and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 yea...
Stefano Bocchi; Anna Corsini; Barbara Manachini
Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year. The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg—eastern Denmark and Foulum—western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165–170 kg N ha?1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100–110 kg N ha?1 as pig slurry. For at least 11 months, as from September 2007, static chambers were used to measure N2O emissions at least twice every calendar month. Mean daily N2O emissions across the year ranged from 172 to 438 ?g N m?2 d?1 at Flakkebjerg, and from 173 to 250 ?g N m?2 d?1 at Foulum. A multiple linear regression analysis showed inter-seasonal variations in emissions (P < 0.001), but annual N2O emissions from organic and conventional systems were not significantly different despite the lower N input in organic rotations. The annual emissions ranged from 54 to 137 mg N m?2, which corresponded to 0.5–0.8% of the N applied in manure or mineral fertilizer. Selected soil attributes were monitored to support the interpretation of N2O emission patterns. A second multiple linear regression analysis with potential drivers of N2O emissions showed a negative response to soil temperature (P = 0.008) and percent water-filled pore space (WFPS) (P = 0.052) at Foulum. However, there were positive interactions of both factors with NO3-N, i.e., high N2O emissions occurred during periods when high soil nitrate levels coincided with high soil temperature (P = 0.016) or high soil water content (P = 0.056). A positive effect (P = 0.03) of soil temperature was identified at Flakkebjerg, but the number of soil samplings was limited. Effects of cropping system on N2O emissions were not observed.
Chirinda, Ngoni; Carter, Mette Sustmann
Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year. The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg-eastern Denmark and Foulum-western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165-170 kg N ha-1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100-110 kg N ha-1 as pig slurry. For at least 11 months, as from September 2007, static chambers were used to measure N2O emissions at least twice every calendar month. Mean daily N2O emissions across the year ranged from 172 to 438 µg N m-2 d-1 at Flakkebjerg, and from 173 to 250 µg N m-2 d-1 at Foulum. A multiple linear regression analysis showed inter-seasonal variations in emissions (P < 0.001), but annual N2O emissions from organic and conventional systems were not significantly different despite the lower N input in organic rotations. The annual emissions ranged from 54 to 137 mg N m-2, which corresponded to 0.5-0.8% of the N applied in manure or mineral fertilizer. Selected soil attributes were monitored to support the interpretation of N2O emission patterns. A second multiple linear regression analysis with potential drivers of N2O emissions showed a negative response to soil temperature (P = 0.008) and percent water-filled pore space (WFPS) (P = 0.052) at Foulum. However, there were positive interactions of both factors with NO3-N, i.e., high N2O emissions occurred during periods when high soil nitrate levels coincided with high soil temperature (P = 0.016) or high soil water content (P = 0.056). A positive effect (P = 0.03) of soil temperature was identified at Flakkebjerg, but the number of soil samplings was limited. Effects of cropping system on N2O emissions were not observed.
Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Carter, Mette Sustmann
Full Text Available The effects of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata and-groundnut (Arachis hypogea on succeeding sorghum yields, soil mineral N and nematode infestationwere studied during five cropping seasons (2000 to 2004 in a weakly acid Ultisol of the agronomy research station of Farakô-Ba lo-cated in the Guinean zone of Burkina Faso, West Africa. A factorial 5x5 design of five crop rotations with five fertilizer treatments in a split-plot arrangement with four replications was used.Sorghum yields were affected by the two factors (rotation with legumes and fertilizer ap-plications during the four years. But interactions were not observed between the two factors. Monocropping of sorghum produced the lowest yields and legume–sorghum rotations increased sorghum yields by50% to 300%. Ground-nut–sorghum and cowpea–sorghum rotations increased soil mineral N by36% and 52%, re-spectively. Crop rotation influenced nematode infestation but the effects on soil and sorghum root infestation differed according to the rotation. The cowpea–sorghum rotation increased soil and sorghum root infestationby nematodes while groundnut–sorghum decree-sed the nematode population. The soil of the cowpea-sorghum rotation contained 1.5 to 2 times more nematodes than the soil of the monocropping of sorghum. In contrast, the soil ofthe groundnut–sorghum rotation contained from 17 to 19 times fewernematodes than that of themonocropping of sorghum. However, nematode infestation did not affect any of the succeeding sorghum yields. It was concluded that the parasitic effect of nematodes was limited by the predominance of positive N-effects on the development of succeeding sorghum.
Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...
Effective employment of conservation tillage (CT) and crop management practices to obtain significant amounts of C sequestration will require an understanding of quantitative relationships between crop residue inputs under different rotations and potential changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) conten...
The outline area of new cysts of Globodera rostochiensis was measured by image analysis. A linear regression of this value against egg content provided a basis for adjusting the egg number for cyst size. This adjusted egg content provides an estimate of the relative fullness of a cyst with eggs. This value showed an exponential decline in eggs over 3.5 years since the last potato crop. It corresponds to an average loss in the dormant egg population of 32.8 +/- 5.6%/year for 26 fields at Toralapa, Bolivia. This value compared well with a mean decline of 40 +/- 4%/year for 42 fields after measuring viable eggs/100 g soil on two occasions one year apart. The new approach allows declines to be estimated at one time point. The decline in lipid content of the dormant, unhatched second-stage juveniles (J2) was 17 +/- 6% per annum as measured by image analysis after Oil red O staining. This may be sufficient to compromise infectivity after 3 to 4 years of dormancy. A standard model was modified to consider the effect of both lipid depletion during dormancy and choice of susceptible potato on the population dynamics of G. rostochiensis under rotational control. It is concluded that a few cultivars may impose lower populations on G. rostochiensis in 3 to 4-year rotations than the majority used in Bolivia. PMID:19266007
Atkinson, H J; Holz, R A; Riga, E; Main, G; Oros, R; Franco, J
The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...
Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R. J.
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems. PMID:19148097
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
Full Text Available A avaliação quantitativa com diferentes tipos de indicadores é fundamental na determinação da sustentabilidade dos sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a sustentabilidade de algumas sucessões de culturas em solo de várzea, nos sistemas de plantio direto (PD e convencional (SC. O trabalho foi conduzido em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, em área experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco anos de implantação de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas de inverno e de primavera-verão, seguidos de dois anos de pousio e três anos da cultura do arroz irrigado. As culturas de primavera-verão foram o milho e a soja, além do arroz; enquanto que as de inverno foram gramíneas, leguminosas, consórcios, nabo forrageiro e campo natural. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As culturas de verão ocuparam as parcelas, enquanto as espécies de inverno foram alocadas nas subparcelas. Os parâmetros observados foram transformados em índices para padronizar as diversas variáveis, cada uma em relação àquela de melhor comportamento mensurado, e dispostos em quatro categorias de análise: (a indicadores agronômicos (matéria seca e rendimento de grãos; (b indicadores ambientais (fertilidade do solo; (c indicadores energéticos (produção e eficiência energética; d indicadores econômicos (valor bruto da produção e rentabilidade. Pela média harmônica obtida entre os índices dos indicadores, foram comparados os diferentes sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas, inferindo-se daí sua sustentabilidade e suas diferenças (Teste t P?0,05. Concluiu-se que: (a todos os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas dos quais o milho faz parte apresentam maior índice de sustentabilidade; (b os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas S1 [gramínea x soja x arroz (PD] e S4 [nabo x soja x arroz (PD] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura.The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consisted of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT or conventional (CT. The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield; (b Environmental indicators (soil fertility; (c Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency; d Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production. Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then performed, and its sustainability inferred. Analyses of contrasts between the crop success
Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior
The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974
Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John
Optimising the implementation of energy used in agriculture is an important objective in the 'Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package' adopted by the European Union. Therefore, studying the management of different cropping systems represents a good method to optimise input requirements, yield and net energy supply. The aim of this study is to compare the energy use of a 12-year rainfed cropping system, located in Tuscany, Italy. The system is cultivated under two different management intensities: a conventional system (CS) and a low input system (LIS) for a six-year crop rotation that included sugar beet, durum wheat, sorghum, sunflower, and durum wheat. In the sixth year, the soil was set-aside. The results showed that crop yield and energy yield were not significantly affected by management intensities, whereas energy efficiency of the low input system increased significantly, by about 30%. Future research should include more crops and locations to obtain further information about the range of energy parameters and their long-term trends. Furthermore, could be interesting to evaluate the overall reduction of environmental impacts and production costs that could occur limiting the use of chemicals and adopting conservative soil tillage strategies.
Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%. PMID:17494388
Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J
Full Text Available Na agricultura moderna, interessam sistemas de produção eficientes no uso da energia. Objetivou-se avaliar a conversão e o balanço energético de cinco sistemas de rotação de culturas envolvendo o triticale. Os sistemas avaliados, no período de 1987 a 1991, foram: I (triticale/soja, II (triticale/soja e aveia preta/soja, III (triticale/soja e ervilhaca/milho, IV (triticale/ soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja e V (triticale/soja, triticale/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja. Em 1990, nos sistemas II, IV e V, a aveia preta foi substituída por aveia branca. O experimento foi estabelecido em plantio direto, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas com área útil de 24 m². Na média do período de 1987 a 1989, o sistema III apresentou conversão (9,30 e balanço energético (23.860 Mcal/ha maiores do que os demais sistemas estudados (I: 5,38, II: 5,02, IV: 8,12 e V: 7,37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivamente. Nesse período, as condições climáticas transcorreram normalmente. Na média do período de 1990 a 1991, não houve diferenças significativas entre as médias para conversão e para balanço energético. Nesse período, as condições climáticas foram adversas às culturas em estudo.Efficient energy conversion production systems are important for modern agriculture. The objetive was to evaluate the energy conversion and balance of five rotation systems that included triticale. The evaluated systems, from 1987 to 1991, were: I (triticale/soybean, II (triticale/soybean and black oats/soybean, III (triticale/soybean and common vetch/corn, IV (triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/soybean, and V (triticale/soybean, triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/ soybean. In 1990, black oats was replaced by white oats in systems II, IV, and V. The experiment was set up under no-tillage, using a randomized block design with three replications and plots totalizing 24 m² . On average, for the period 1987 to 1989, system III showed higher energy conversou (9.30 and balance (23.860 Mcal/ha, as compared to the othen studied systems (I: 5.38, II: 5.02, IV: 8.12 e V: 7.37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivily. In this period, the climatic conditions were normal. On average, the period 1990 to 1991, there were no significant differences between energy conversion and balance means. In this period, climatic conditions were adverse.
Henrique Pereira dos Santos
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na agricultura moderna, interessam sistemas de produção eficientes no uso da energia. Objetivou-se avaliar a conversão e o balanço energético de cinco sistemas de rotação de culturas envolvendo o triticale. Os sistemas avaliados, no período de 1987 a 1991, foram: I (triticale/soja), II (triticale/so [...] ja e aveia preta/soja), III (triticale/soja e ervilhaca/milho), IV (triticale/ soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja) e V (triticale/soja, triticale/soja, ervilhaca/milho e aveia preta/soja). Em 1990, nos sistemas II, IV e V, a aveia preta foi substituída por aveia branca. O experimento foi estabelecido em plantio direto, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e parcelas com área útil de 24 m². Na média do período de 1987 a 1989, o sistema III apresentou conversão (9,30) e balanço energético (23.860 Mcal/ha) maiores do que os demais sistemas estudados (I: 5,38, II: 5,02, IV: 8,12 e V: 7,37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivamente). Nesse período, as condições climáticas transcorreram normalmente. Na média do período de 1990 a 1991, não houve diferenças significativas entre as médias para conversão e para balanço energético. Nesse período, as condições climáticas foram adversas às culturas em estudo. Abstract in english Efficient energy conversion production systems are important for modern agriculture. The objetive was to evaluate the energy conversion and balance of five rotation systems that included triticale. The evaluated systems, from 1987 to 1991, were: I (triticale/soybean), II (triticale/soybean and black [...] oats/soybean), III (triticale/soybean and common vetch/corn), IV (triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/soybean), and V (triticale/soybean, triticale/soybean, common vetch/corn, and black oats/ soybean). In 1990, black oats was replaced by white oats in systems II, IV, and V. The experiment was set up under no-tillage, using a randomized block design with three replications and plots totalizing 24 m² . On average, for the period 1987 to 1989, system III showed higher energy conversou (9.30) and balance (23.860 Mcal/ha), as compared to the othen studied systems (I: 5.38, II: 5.02, IV: 8.12 e V: 7.37; I: 18.067 Mcal/ha, II: 13.790 Mcal/ha, IV: 19.875 Mcal/ha e V: 19.264 Mcal/ha, respectivily). In this period, the climatic conditions were normal. On average, the period 1990 to 1991, there were no significant differences between energy conversion and balance means. In this period, climatic conditions were adverse.
Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; João Carlos, Ignaczak; Julio Cesar Barreneche, Lhamby; Augusto Carlos, Baier.
Conventional crops such as wheat, rye, triticale and sweet sorghum have been used as energy crops with the advantage that farmers already know how to grow them. However, current thinking is that growing grains as dedicated energy crops is not such a good idea, since grains require high input and annual ploughing, which leaches nitrates and other nutrients from the soil. Instead, recent European research has looked at perennial energy crops such as willow, poplar, alder, giant reed, Miscanthus and cardoon and a research project in the USA combining physiology, plant breeding and crop management has shown that switchgrass has a promising future as an energy crop. Compared to traditional crops, the perennials need lower input and pose less risk of nutrient leaching. Biomass from perennial crops contains lower levels of nutrient input and better combustion characteristics. Promising as the perennial energy crops are, they are still relatively new and do not benefit from the centuries of selection and breeding associated with conventional crops. Much progress in improving yield and quality remains to be made through better breeding and crop management. There is still very limited information on the long-term effects of energy crops on soil carbon levels and on nitrous oxide emissions. However, studies indicate that growing perennial energy crops may be a real win-win solution, delivering not only renewable energy but also clean water, better recycling and carbon sequestration in soils. Using energy crops to produce electricity is an effective way to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly through the replacement of fossil fuels. In order to plan long-term investments in crops, machinery and power stations farmers and the energy industry need clear signals from governments on the future of bioenergy. The energy crop chain should be analysed for administrative and legislative bottlenecks that may hamper commercial development. Finally there is a need for further breeding of specific energy crops with higher energy contents, lower energy inputs and optimised quality for downstream processing; for net intercropping systems with high resistance to pests and diseases; and for further R and D on cost reduction and environmental optimisation of the complete production chain. (BA)
Joergensen, U. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark); Oestergaard, H. [ Risoe National Lab., Plant Res. Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação quantitativa com diferentes tipos de indicadores é fundamental na determinação da sustentabilidade dos sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a sustentabilidade de algumas sucessões de culturas em solo de várzea, nos sistemas de plantio direto [...] (PD) e convencional (SC). O trabalho foi conduzido em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), em área experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco anos de implantação de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas de inverno e de primavera-verão, seguidos de dois anos de pousio e três anos da cultura do arroz irrigado. As culturas de primavera-verão foram o milho e a soja, além do arroz; enquanto que as de inverno foram gramíneas, leguminosas, consórcios, nabo forrageiro e campo natural. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As culturas de verão ocuparam as parcelas, enquanto as espécies de inverno foram alocadas nas subparcelas. Os parâmetros observados foram transformados em índices para padronizar as diversas variáveis, cada uma em relação àquela de melhor comportamento mensurado, e dispostos em quatro categorias de análise: (a) indicadores agronômicos (matéria seca e rendimento de grãos); (b) indicadores ambientais (fertilidade do solo); (c) indicadores energéticos (produção e eficiência energética); d) indicadores econômicos (valor bruto da produção e rentabilidade). Pela média harmônica obtida entre os índices dos indicadores, foram comparados os diferentes sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas, inferindo-se daí sua sustentabilidade e suas diferenças (Teste t P?0,05). Concluiu-se que: (a) todos os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas dos quais o milho faz parte apresentam maior índice de sustentabilidade; (b) os sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas S1 [gramínea x soja x arroz (PD)] e S4 [nabo x soja x arroz (PD)] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c) o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC)] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d) o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD)] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e) o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC)] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f) o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura. Abstract in english The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consiste [...] d of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT) or conventional (CT). The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a) Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield); (b) Environmental indicators (soil fertility); (c) Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency); d) Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production). Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons
Francisco de Jesus, Vernetti Junior; Algenor da Silva, Gomes; Luis Osmar Braga, Schuch.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em ensaio de rotação de culturas, conduzido em Pindorama, SP, num solo podzólico vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, durante os anos agrícolas de 1991/92, 1992/93 e 1993/94, avaliou-se o efeito da rotação entre milho, soja e arroz, com e sem crotalária júncea de inverno, na produção das culturas, no fin [...] al do terceiro ano da experimentação. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos na produção da soja. A rotação aumentou a produção de arroz e milho, comparativamente ao monocultivo dessas culturas. A boa produtividade alcançada das culturas no terceiro ano pode ser atribuída, além da rotação, à ocorrência regular de chuvas e ao uso de cultivares tolerantes à acidez Abstract in english The effect of crop rotation among corn, soybean and rice as summer crops, and of crotalaria as a winter crop, was evaluated by the crop yield at the end of the third year.The experiment was established at Pindorama, SP, Brazil, on an acid soil(Red -Yellow Podzolic, sandy phase). After three years , [...] there was no yield difference among treatments for soybeam production. Crop rotation was beneficial for rice and corn prodution when compared to monocultures. The good productivity in the third year could also be atributed to regular rainfall and acidity tolerant cultivars.
H.A.A., MASCARENHAS; S.S.S., NOGUEIRA; R.T., TANAKA; A.L.M., MARTINS; Q.A.C., CARMELLO.
The effects of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) and-groundnut (Arachis hypogea) on succeeding sorghum yields, soil mineral N and nematode infestationwere studied during five cropping seasons (2000 to 2004) in a weakly acid Ultisol of the agronomy research station of Farakô-Ba lo-cated in the Guinean zone of Burkina Faso, West Africa. A factorial 5x5 design of five crop rotations with five fertilizer treatments in a split-plot arrangement with four replications was used.Sorghum yields were affected ...
Abdoulsalam Sawadogo; Michel Cescas; Karim Traoré; Bouma Thio; Vincent Bado; André Bationo
The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.
Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu
Full Text Available This study presents the development of a knowledge-based features recognition system for mechanical parts. The main aim of the research was to concentrate on recognition of rotational features, namely, blind hole, through hole and slanting hole to be used in automatic process planning system. The rule-based technique was applied to recognize rotational features. The recognition criteria were based upon geometrical data from Standard for Exchange of Product data file (STEP of Computer-aided Design (CAD system. The system consists of several modules, namely, pre-processing module, inference engine module and user interface module. The developed system succeeds the design activities in manufacturing industries.
Most energy-conversion machines (e.g. vehicle engines and electric motors) involve rotating components (e.g. roller bearings and gears), which generate vibrations. The behavior of a pump which includes a deliberate fault was chosen to illustrate this assertion. The test bearing at the driven end of the pump’s motor was deliberately damaged using a 1.5mm wire-cutting method and an adjustable coupling disk introduced to impose a shaft misalignment of 40. The resulting undesirable behavior of ...
Probert, S. D.; Ogaji, S. O. T.; Lilly, M. T.; Ede, K. N.; Ogbonnaya, E. A.
The sustainability of short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) as a multifunctional system for phytoremediation—the use of plants for treatment of contaminated air, soil or water—and for producing energy biomass, was studied. SRWC is grown commercially in Sweden to produce energy biomass, nutrient-rich residues being applied as cost-efficient fertiliser to increase production. The principal residues used are municipal wastewater, landfill leachate, industrial wastewater (e.g. log-yard runoff)...
Soil solarization remains one of but a handful of nonchemical soil disinfestation methods suitable for high-value crops such as cut-flowers, strawberry and fresh market tomato and pepper. Recognition of soil solarization within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach is paramoun...
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a powerful tool for mapping the conductivity distribution of estimated objects. The EIT system is entirely implemented by electrical technique, so it is a relatively cheap system and data can be collected very rapidly. But it has few commercially medical EIT systems available. This is because impedance image unable to achieve the essential spatial resolution and this technique has an intrinsically poor signal to noise ratio. In this paper, we have developed a high performance rotative EIT system (REIT) for expanding the independent measurements. By rotate the electrodes successive, REIT could change the position of electrodes and acquire more measurement data. This rotative measurement method not only can increase the resolution of impedance images, but also reduce the complexity of measurement system. We hope the improvement of REIT will bring some help in electrical impedance tomography
Soil management practices exert important influence on biological and biochemical properties of soil. This work aimed to valuate the impact of crop rotation on soil biochemical and microbiological attributes, as well and influence on corn crop yield. The experiment was carried out during 2005/06 crop season, in Dourados – MS, Brazil. Experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments established in sub-divided plots with tree replications, which seasons were plots and management syst...
Manoel Carlos Gonçalves; Cristiano Márcio Alves de Souza; Luiz Carlos Ferreira de Souza; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Fabio Martins Mercante; Elaine Reis Pinheiro Lourente; Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva
The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1978. The program`s goal is to provide leadership in the development, demonstration and implementation of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable biomass supply systems. Three model short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) species, i.e. Populus spp., Acer saccharinum and Salix spp., have been selected for further development based on their productivity, adaptability, and suitability as biomass feedstocks. Of these three, Populus is the primary candidate for SRWC in the United States. For Populus the prescribed management system involves the use of intensive site preparation of agricultural quality lands, improved clonal plant materials at ca. 1,000 trees/ac, mechanical and chemical weed control for the first 2 years, and rotation length of 6--8 years, followed by replanting. Currently, due to the wider spacings and larger tree sizes, traditional, start-stop, one-piece harvesting techniques are being applied to SRWC; this includes the use of feller-bunchers, skidding to a common landing, and on-site chipping. Under the above silvicultural system, harvesting and transportation expenditures account for 50 to 60% of the total production costs. The productivity goals for SRWC are 8--12 t/ac/yr, with the current average across all sites and clones at ca. 4 t/ac/yr. Productivity rates on large-scale plantings have been documented at 11 t/ac/yr. To increase the average productivity rates, silvicultural enrichments [e.g., spacing variances, fertilization once per rotation (ca. 70 lbs/ac N), and irrigation], genetic improvement, and molecular genetics techniques are being applied to all model species. This research is being managed under the concept of regional, integrated Crop Development Centers. There are presently 3 Populus crop development centers.
Tuskan, G.A.; Downing, M.E.; Wright, L.L.
This research was carried out to determine soil residual effects on stand establishment rate and yield in the rotation crops soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), winter oil seed rape (WOSR) (Brassica napus L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) following Intervix® (33g Imazamox + 15g Imazapyr) spraying in Clearfield® (CL) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production. The experiments were conducted at the Trakya Agricultural Research Insti...
Süzer S.; Büyük H.
Available water, depleted soil quality, and weed competition are major constraints to dryland crop production in the northern Great Plains. We initiated a trial in 2004 comparing four crop rotations, with each rotational component in a two-by-two matrix of tillage (conventional vs. zero tillage) an...
One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem (Andropogon geradii Vitman), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass [ Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.). Generally, the optimum rate of fertilization for biomass yield by the grasses was 140 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen inputs also had pronounced but grass-specific effects on biomass and nutrient partitioning, and on carbon storage. For big bluestem and switchgrass, 140 kg N ha -1. maximized root biomass, favored allocation of nutrients to roots over shoots, and led to net increases in carbon storage over the study duration. In contrast, for indiangrass and eastern gamagrass, root biomass and root nutrient allocation were generally adversely affected by N fertilization and carbon storage increased only with 0 or 65 kg N ha-1. For all grasses, 220 kg N ha -1 tended to shift allocation of nutrients to shoots over roots and resulted in no net increase in carbon storage. Optimal nitrogen management strategies for perennial, warm-season grass energy crops should take into consideration the effects of N on biomass yield as well as factors such as nutrient and carbon balance that will also impact economic feasibility and environmental sustainability.
Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard
Many farmers in tropical and temperate countries manage a mix of crops and animals. In these systems crop residues can be used to feed the animals and the excreta from the animals as nutrients for the crops. Other forms of mixing take place where grazing under fruit-trees keeps the grass short, where manure from pigs is used to 'feed' fish in a pond or where young animals bred in remote areas are fattened near urban centres with high demands for meat. In addition, inclusion of livestock alter...
Keulen, H.; Schiere, J. B.
Root system architecture (RSA) plays a major role in plant fitness, crop performance, and grain yield yet only recently has this role been appreciated. RSA describes the spatial arrangement of root tissue within the soil and is therefore crucial to nutrient and water uptake. Recent studies have identified many of the genetic and environmental factors influencing root growth that contribute to RSA. Some of the identified genes have the potential to limit crop loss caused by environmental extremes and are currently being used to confer drought tolerance. It is hypothesized that manipulating these and other genes that influence RSA will be pivotal for future crop advancements worldwide. PMID:25448235
Rogers, Eric D; Benfey, Philip N
Full Text Available In agricultural situations, farmers usually faced with the problem of how to allocate their limited production resources among cropping and livestock activities. Farmer's planners can offer effective techniques, such as linear programming (lp to address the problem and produce optimal solution. In this paper we have demonstrated that how a farmer who has limited resources such as farmers availability ,storage capacity and availability of land can be formulated as a linear programming having linear objective function with three constraints. The objective is to develop an understanding of utility of farmer's availability resources and then maximization of total profit. In our case we have selected two crops rice and corn, formulate the (lp problem and after solving through LINGO, the results showed that farmer obtained maximum profit using his resources.
Mushtaq A. Lone
In agricultural situations, farmers usually faced with the problem of how to allocate their limited production resources among cropping and livestock activities. Farmer's planners can offer effective techniques, such as linear programming (lp) to address the problem and produce optimal solution. In this paper we have demonstrated that how a farmer who has limited resources such as farmers availability ,storage capacity and availability of land can be formulated as a linear pro...
Lone, Mushtaq A.; Mir, Shakeel A.; Maqbool, S.; Imran khan
An experimental measurement system was developed and implemented by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the 1990s. The system is a continuously rotating radial rake immersed into the duct. This rotating rake provides a complete map of the acoustic duct modes present in a ducted fan and has been used on a variety of test articles: from a low-speed, concept test rig to a full-scale production turbofan engine. The rotating rake has been critical in developing and evaluating a number of noise reduction concepts as well as providing experimental databases for verification of several aero-acoustic codes. This paper will describe the physical theory (Sofrin) and the analytical techniques (Moore) upon which the rotating rake is based will be described. Data processing and analysis as well as implementation issues will be discussed. Several Rotating Rake systems have been custom built for 3 facilities. In order of complexity of the turbo machinery test article, these are (1) the Advanced Noise Control Fan, (2) various 22-inch fan rigs in the NASA Glenn 9×15 wind tunnel, and (3) a full scale turbofan, the Honeywell TFE-731-60. Descriptions and measurement achievements of these systems will be provided (Heidelberg, Sutliff).
Full Text Available The fingerprint is the most widely used Biometric. The main focus of Intelligent Fingerprint Recognition System is to improve accuracy and efficiency.This system uses an algorithm for recovering translation parameters from two fingerprint images of the same individual that differ by Scaling, Rotation, and Transformation also known as similarity transformation or Rotation-scale-Translation (RST Transformation. This algorithm is very useful to identify two fingerprint images of the same individual which are misaligned by small transformations such as rotation or translation or scaling.The algorithm uses minutiae based matching to compare input fingerprint image with the template fingerprint image stored in the database. The algorithm uses various standard preprocessing steps. It includes all the stages to extract the minutiae. Maximum correlation between original and sensed image is found. The proposed system is tested on the pilot database.
The effects of crop rotation sequences and combinations on soil nematode populations were investigated. Tillage versus non-tillage treatments were applied to crop rotation sequences dominated by flooded rice in a split plot design. The rotated crops were rice, soybean, and corn, including a fallow for a total of eight rotation treatments. All nematode feeding groups were recovered i.e bacterial feeding-, fungal feeding-, plant feeding-, carnivorous-, and omnivorous- nematodes. A total of 24 n...
Martin Moluwa Matute; Merle Anders
Influence of temperate grass seed rotation systems on weed seed soil bank composition Influência de sistemas de rotação de sementes de gramíneas forrageiras temperadas na composição do banco de sementes invasoras no solo
Due to changing cropping practices in perennial grass seed crops in western Oregon, USA, alternative rotation systems are being considered to reduce weed infestations. Information is generally lacking regarding the effects of alternative agronomic operations and herbicide inputs on soil weed seed bank composition during this transition. Six crop rotation systems were imposed in 1992 on a field that had historically produced monoculture perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seeds. Each system...
Renato Borges de Medeiros; Steiner, Jeffrey J.
Full Text Available Rotation is a cropping system that has many advantages and ensures better crop growth and yielding. Its combinination with other cropping measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximal growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems: monoculture and two rotations, including maize, wheat and soybean (MSW and MWS, and different weed management methods (weed removal by hoeing, application of a full recommended herbicide dose (RD and half that dose (0.5 RD, and weedy check on weed biomass and maize growth parameters - leaf area index (LAI, free energy, contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, grain yield, and their possible relationships in two fields of the maize hybrids ZP 677 (H1 and ZP 606 (H2. The lowest LAI and grain yield were found in monoculture, particularly in weedy check, which had relatively high weed infestation. Higher weed biomass was also observed in herbicide treated plots in monoculture. Such high competition pressure indicates a stress reflected on reduced LAI and chlorophyll content, and increased free energy and content of carotenoids. On the other hand, rotation, particularly if it is combined with the application of herbicides or hoeing, had a positive impact on yielding potential by increasing LAI and the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and decreasing free energy.
Full Text Available High protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. is considered as major advantage for its use in nutritional components. In this way, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cropping system, site, and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea crude protein. The study comprised of three cropping systems (Maize-cowpea rotation, monocropping cowpea and intercropped cowpea, three sites (Potchefstroom, Taung, and Rustenburg, South Africa and two rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in kg ha-1 at each site (0 and 20 at Potchefstroom, 0 and 17 at Rustenburg, 0 and 23 at Taung. Moreover, a factorial experiment randomized in complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2011/12 and 2012/13 planting seasons. The protein content was determined from green leaves harvested before flowering, immature green pods and seeds during reproductive stage and maturity. Results showed that cropping system had significant effect on cowpea leaf protein content (P < 0.05. Intercropped cowpea significantly gave higher leaf protein (26.7% more content than rotational cowpea. Cowpea planted at Taung had significantly higher leaf protein (30.1% more content as compared to cowpea planted at other sites. Application of nitrogen fertilizer contributed to higher protein content of immature pods. Moreover, cowpea protein content differs among the different locations due to different soil types and climatic conditions.
E. T. Sebetha
Maize-based cropping systems (MBCSs), with different frequency of maize in the crop sequence, are common in European arable systems. Pesticide use differs according to the type of active ingredients and target organisms in different regions. Within the EU Network of Excellence ENDURE, two expert-based surveys were conducted focusing on four European study regions where experts were asked to identify MBCSs in their region, determine the current crop protection practices, propose advanced pract...
Vasileiadisa, V. P.; Sattin, M.; Weide, R. Y.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role in determining soil fertility, water holding capacity and susceptibility to land degradation. On the Chinese Loess Plateau, a large amount of crop residues is regularly removed; therefore, this agricultural area mainly depends on fertilizer inputs to maintain crop yields. This paper aims to use a computer simulation model (DeNitrification and DeComposition, or DNDC) to estimate the changes of SOC content and crop yield from 1998 to 2047 under different cropping systems, providing some strategies to maintain the SOC in balance and to increase crop yields. The results demonstrated that: (i) single manure application or combined with nitrogen fertilizer could significantly enhance the SOC content and crop yield on the sloped land, terraced field and flat land; and (ii) in contrast to sloped land and terraced field, the SOC content and crop yield both continuously increased in flat fields, indicating that the flat field in this region is a good soil surface for carbon sequestration. These results emphasize that application of manure combined with nitrogen fertilizer would be a better management practice to achieve a goal of increasing soil carbon sequestration and food security. (Author)
Mu, L.; Liang, Y.; Xue, Q.; Chen, C.; Lin, X.
Full Text Available Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC, fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yield, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice ii Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i Tillage (crop residues removed and Tillage (crop residues retained and ii No-tillage (crop residues removed and No-tillage (crop residues retained. Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1 to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1 to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry conditions.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Crop productivity, soil organic carbon (SOC), fertilizer nitrogen and water use efficiency (WUE) in rainfed dry area is influenced by tillage, rotation and crop residues management. Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 to study the effect of tillage, rotation and crop residues on wheat yi [...] eld, nitrogen fertilizer and water use efficiency and SOC under semi-arid condition in north-west Pakistan. The treatments consisted of three rotations: i) Wheat-fallow-wheat (farmers' practice) ii) Wheat- summer legume-wheat and iii) Wheat-summer cereal-wheat with two tillage and crop residues management treatments: i) Tillage (crop residues removed) and Tillage (crop residues retained) and ii) No-tillage (crop residues removed) and No-tillage (crop residues retained). Basal doses of N60: P60 (kg ha-1) to wheat, N90: P60 and N20: P60 (kg ha-1) to summer cereals and legumes rotation crops were applied respectively. Labeled urea having 1% 15N atom excess at 60 kg N ha-1 was applied to wheat as an aqueous solution in micro plot within each treatment plot. Changes in soil water storage were monitored with neutron moisture probe for calculation of WUE. The results revealed that the wheat grain and straw yield was not increased by the tillage treatment. Crop residues retention significantly enhanced the wheat grain and straw yield. Crop residues with no-tillage resulted in 520 kg ha-1 greater wheat grain yield than residues removed treatment. Similarly WUE, N yield and fertilizer N utilization by wheat was increased significantly by crop residues under no-tillage compared to the tillage treatment. Maximum N fertilizer utilization 24.1 %, 62.7 % and 38.0 % in wheat were obtained under no-tillage + residues treatment during 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. The SOC in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher in wheat-fallow-wheat and wheat-legume-wheat rotation under no-tillage + residues treatment. The results showed that no-tillage + crop residues and legume based rotation treatment were beneficial under the rainfed (dry) conditions.
W, Mohammad; S. M, Shah; S, Shehzadi; S. A, Shah.
Two-year investigations were conducted within the three-year maize-soybean-wheat crop rotation with the aim to assess the influence of two cropping systems, conditionally marked as high-input and reduced-input systems, on soybean dry matter yield and nitrogen concentration in its different plant parts. The high-input system was characterized by: ploughing at 30-32 cm, fertilization with 80 kg N and 130 P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, weed control based on oxasulfuron and, if required, a corrective trea...
Klaudija Carovi?; Zlatko Sve?njak; Ana Pospišil; Boris Varga
Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Changes in agricultural land use as a consequence of an increased demand of energy crops have resulted in an increase of maize cropped area in many regions of Germany. The focus on maize as main biogas substrate, has led in some cases to negative ecological and environmental impacts, such as a loss of agro biodiversity reflected in a loss of field flora and fauna biodiversity. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the fauna in different bioenergy cropping systems on two sites in South-West Germany, with a special focus on the species richness of carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages as an indicator for the general status of diversity. A maize field, an agroforestry system with maize and different tree species as well as different alternative biogas crops (amaranth, sunflower was investigated for their carabid beetle activity, density, and species richness using pitfall traps. Moreover, for an adequate evaluation of the carabid assemblages different common diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener diversity (H’, Simpson diversity (D and Evenness (J’ were used. In the case of the maize field on both field edges 8 and 6 carabid beetle species, respectively were trapped, while in the field centre 2 carabid beetle species were trapped. The agroforestry system indicated slightly higher crabid beetle species richness close to the tree strips. The investigation of alternative biogas crops showed no significant differences in carabid beetle diversity. Overall, the results of the different studies showed, that biodiversity of bioenergy cropping systems could be enhanced by the creation of refuge areas for carabid beetles or other animals. Refuges could be either field margins with grass and hedgerows or strips of more extensively used perennial energy crops across the field.
The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0-4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha-1. A simulated freeze-thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, which could be mainly from microbial sources. Other samples were adjusted to approximately –10, -30 or –100 hPa and amended with excess 15NO3- prior to freezing and thawing. Denitrification was the main source of N2O during a 72-h incubation at 22 °C, as judged from N2O and total 15N evolution. Although the input of C in the conventionally managed cropping system was significantly less than in the organic cropping systems, it showed higher N2O evolution at all three matric potentials. Estimates of relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0) in soil from the four cropping systems indicated that C input affected soil aeration. Soil from the two cropping systems with highest C input showed N2O evolution at DP/D0 in excess of 0.02, which is normally considered a threshold for development of anaerobic sites in the soil, presumably because the oxygen demand was also high. The study shows that cropping system affects both soil gas diffusivity and C availability, and that both characteristics significantly influence the N2O emission potential.
Petersen, SØren O.; Ambus, Per
Objective: To explore the feasibility of using rotating pliers system for treating lumbar disc herniation with concomitant prolapse. Methods: Ex vivo incision experiment was performed on 8 lumbar discs of 2 pigs using rotating pliers. Clinical application included 12 patients of lumbar disc herniation shown by CT or MRI. 40% herniations gave enough pressure on dural sac with concomitant prolapse of different degrees. The symptoms and image finding were concordant. The herniated nucleus pulposus were resected using rotating pliers system, MacNab standard was applied for the clinical evaluation. Results: The ex vivo experiments and clinical application were successful. Clinical application showed CR in 4 patients (33.3%), PR in 5 patients (41.7%) and NR in 3 patients (25.0%). CT demonstrated the herniated disk tissue retraction of different degrees in CR and PR patients, together with decrease in CT attenuation number, ranging from 8-30 HU, 18 ± 5 HU in average but no changes in NR patients. Conclusions: Percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is safe and effective to treat lumbar disc herniation with concomitant prolapse by using rotating pliers systems and thus extending the PLD application
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos cultivos de outono-inverno e primavera, em sistema de plantio direto, nos agregados e matéria orgânica de um Latossolo. O experimento foi conduzido durante as safras 2006/2007, 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. No outono-inverno foram estabelecidas parcelas principais com braquiária (Urochloa ruziziensis, sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor e sorgo consorciado com braquiária. Na primavera, foram cultivados, em subparcelas, milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea ou pousio. A soja foi cultivada como safra de verão, o que totalizou 12 tratamentos. A massa de matéria seca e o crescimento radicular das plantas de cobertura da primavera foram determinados em 2006 e 2008. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, após o manejo das plantas de cobertura de primavera, no primeiro e terceiro anos agrícolas. Foram determinados o diâmetro médio ponderado, o diâmetro médio geométrico, o índice de estabilidade de agregados, os agregados maiores que 2 mm, a matéria orgânica e os teores de carbono orgânico total nas amostras coletadas no terceiro ano. O milheto e 'Cober Crop' produziram maior quantidade de massa de matéria seca e maior crescimento radicular. A estruturação do solo melhorou com a rotação dos cultivos das plantas de cobertura antecedentes à safra de verão. O cultivo de 'Cober Crop' e milheto influenciou a formação de macroagregados nas camadas superficiaisThe objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fall-winter and spring crops, cultivated under no-tillage system, on the aggregates and organic matter of a Rhodic Ferralsol. The experiment was performed in the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Congo signal grass (Urochloa ruziziensis, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sorghum mixed with brachiaria were cropped in the fall-winter to consist the main plots. In the spring, millet (Pennisetum glaucum, 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense and Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea were cultivated as subplots as well as a fallow treatment. Soybean was cropped in the summer, totaling 12 treatments. Cover crop dry matter and root growth were evaluated in 2006 and 2008. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, after spring cover crops managing, in the first and third years. The mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, aggregate stability index, aggregates larger than 2 mm, organic matter and total organic carbon levels were evaluated in the samples of the third year. Millet and 'Cober Crop' showed higher dry matter production and root growth. The soil aggregation was improved by cover crop rotations before the summer growing season. The cultivation of 'Cober Crop' and millet influenced the macroaggregate formation in the superficial layers
Rodrigo Arroyo Garcia
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos cultivos de outono-inverno e primavera, em sistema de plantio direto, nos agregados e matéria orgânica de um Latossolo. O experimento foi conduzido durante as safras 2006/2007, 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. No outono-inverno foram estabelecidas parcela [...] s principais com braquiária (Urochloa ruziziensis), sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor) e sorgo consorciado com braquiária. Na primavera, foram cultivados, em subparcelas, milheto (Pennisetum glaucum), 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) ou pousio. A soja foi cultivada como safra de verão, o que totalizou 12 tratamentos. A massa de matéria seca e o crescimento radicular das plantas de cobertura da primavera foram determinados em 2006 e 2008. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, após o manejo das plantas de cobertura de primavera, no primeiro e terceiro anos agrícolas. Foram determinados o diâmetro médio ponderado, o diâmetro médio geométrico, o índice de estabilidade de agregados, os agregados maiores que 2 mm, a matéria orgânica e os teores de carbono orgânico total nas amostras coletadas no terceiro ano. O milheto e 'Cober Crop' produziram maior quantidade de massa de matéria seca e maior crescimento radicular. A estruturação do solo melhorou com a rotação dos cultivos das plantas de cobertura antecedentes à safra de verão. O cultivo de 'Cober Crop' e milheto influenciou a formação de macroagregados nas camadas superficiais Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fall-winter and spring crops, cultivated under no-tillage system, on the aggregates and organic matter of a Rhodic Ferralsol. The experiment was performed in the 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Congo signal grass (Urochl [...] oa ruziziensis), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum mixed with brachiaria were cropped in the fall-winter to consist the main plots. In the spring, millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 'Cober Crop' (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense) and Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea) were cultivated as subplots as well as a fallow treatment. Soybean was cropped in the summer, totaling 12 treatments. Cover crop dry matter and root growth were evaluated in 2006 and 2008. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, after spring cover crops managing, in the first and third years. The mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, aggregate stability index, aggregates larger than 2 mm, organic matter and total organic carbon levels were evaluated in the samples of the third year. Millet and 'Cober Crop' showed higher dry matter production and root growth. The soil aggregation was improved by cover crop rotations before the summer growing season. The cultivation of 'Cober Crop' and millet influenced the macroaggregate formation in the superficial layers
Rodrigo Arroyo, Garcia; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.
Eggplant is a popular vegetable consumed all over the world. Cover cropping is an efficient way of recycling nutrients and reducing inorganic fertilizer requirements to maintain the sustainability of the soil without affecting productivity and profitability. Eggplants (Solanum melongena) (Japanese varieties Hansel and Kamo) were grown in a Piedmont soil with two main treatments, cover crop (CC) and no cover crop (NC), and four sub-fertilizer treatments (T1: 0-0-0, T2: 56-28-112, T3: 84-56-168...
Ahmed Elobeid; Kurt Taylor; Muchha Reddy; Ramesh Ravella
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido um experimento sob condições de campo para avaliar o efeito da forma de manejo do solo (Plantio direto - PD e plantio convencional - PC) e dos sistemas de rotação de culturas sobre o carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic), respiração basal do solo (RBS), quociente metabólico (qCO2), car [...] bono orgânico total (Corg) e relação carbono da biomassa microbiana: carbono orgânico total (Cmic/Corg). As amostras de solo foram coletadas em uma área cultivada com trigo como cultura de inverno e soja como cultura de verão, ambas em rotação com ervilhaca, milho e aveia preta. Amostras de solo também foram coletadas em uma floresta secundária usada com referência. Os dados de cada sistema de manejo do solo (PD e PC) foram comparados com a floresta secundária pelo teste "t" (p Abstract in english An experiment was carried out under field conditions to assess the effects of soil management (no-tillage- NT and conventional tillage- CT) and crop rotation systems on microbial biomass-C (Cmic), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2), soil organic carbon content (Corg) and microbi [...] al carbon to organic carbon ratio (Cmic/Corg). Soil samples were collected on an area cultivated with wheat as winter crop and soybean as summer crop, both in rotation with vetch, maize and oats. Samples were also collected in a secondary forest used as reference. Data of each management system (NT and CT) were compared to forest area by "t" test (p
Enderson Petrônio de Brito, Ferreira; Henrique Pereira dos, Santos; Janaina Ribeiro, Costa; Helvécio, De-Polli; Norma Gouvêa, Rumjanek.
Full Text Available Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM. In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4-soybean (C3 rotation system over the period 2001–2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12–27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13–61% compared to the without dynamic case.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos [...] consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão). No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP), nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and su [...] nflower (Helianthus annus) as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop). In the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. The study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006), in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. The samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher Mean Geometric Diameter and Mean Weight Diameter (MWD) of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher MWD at 5-10 cm. Chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and MWD values at 5-10 cm. Aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.
Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.
Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar, em solo compactado, a estabilidade dos agregados influenciada pelo cultivo de espécies de cobertura em esquema de rotações de culturas, em sistema de semeadura direta, mediante o efeito da escarificação mecânica. As rotações de culturas repetidas por três anos consecutivos envolveram o cultivo de triticale e girassol, no outono-inverno, associados ao cultivo de milheto, de sorgo forrageiro e de Crotalária júncea como plantas de cobertura, antecedendo o da soja (cultura de verão. No tratamento envolvendo a escarificação mecânica, a área permaneceu em pousio entre os cultivos de outono-inverno e de verão. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado (Botucatu-SP, nos anos agrícolas de 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As amostras para a análise da estabilidade de agregados foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m após o manejo das plantas de cobertura em dezembro de 2003 e de 2005. Logo no primeiro ano de instalação do experimento, o cultivo de triticale resultou em maior porcentagem de agregados com mais de 2 mm, maior DMG e maior DMP na camada de 0 a 5 cm, além de maior DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. Já a escarificação do solo e a ausência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura proporcionaram menor porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm e menor DMP na camada de 0,05 a 0,10 m. A estabilidade dos agregados foi influenciada pela rotação de culturas, sendo maior na camada de 0 a 0,05 m e de 0,05 a 0,10 m quando o triticale foi introduzido como espécie de outono-inverno.The objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. The following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack and sunflower (Helianthus annus as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop. In the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. The study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. The samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher Mean Geometric Diameter and Mean Weight Diameter (MWD of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher MWD at 5-10 cm. Chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and MWD values at 5-10 cm. Aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.
Juliano Carlos Calonego
Full Text Available Parking is a big issue in thickly populated areas and in larger cities due to heavy traffic. This intended application of rotational multistory parking system effectively minimizes this issue. It results in less space and more secure parking. ATMEL microcontroller is used as main processor while LCD and motors are as complimentary components for display and rotation The model is based on circular mechanism giving low cost, less space and optimum performance. Password locking system is used to verify the object and detects number of free spaces available in the parking lot. The world has become a global market and numbers of vehicles are also increased to an uncontrollable situation. Keeping this problem the intended model is designed. Password locking system embedded in the work has made the parking of vehicles very much secure.
Nayab Suhail Hamirani
Assessing factors that influence groundwater levels such as land use and pumping strategy, is essential to adequately manage groundwater resources. A transient numerical model for groundwater flow with infiltration was developed for the Tedori River alluvial fan (140 km2), Japan. The main water input into the groundwater body in this area is irrigation water, which is significantly influenced by land use, namely paddy and upland fields. The proposed model consists of two models, a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated-zone water flow model (HYDRUS-1D) for estimating groundwater recharge and a 3-D groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Numerical simulation of groundwater flow from October 1975 to November 2009 was performed to validate the model. Simulation revealed seasonal groundwater level fluctuations, affected by paddy irrigation management. However, computational accuracy was limited by the spatiotemporal data resolution of the groundwater use. Both annual groundwater levels and recharge during the irrigation periods from 1975 to 2009 showed long-term decreasing trends. With the decline in rice-planted paddy field area, groundwater recharge cumulatively decreased to 61 % of the peak in 1977. A paddy-upland crop-rotation system could decrease groundwater recharge to 73-98 % relative to no crop rotation.
Iwasaki, Yumi; Nakamura, Kimihito; Horino, Haruhiko; Kawashima, Shigeto
We investigated the effects of crop type on numbers and movements of wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in field edges and in arable fields containing either winter wheat, winter barley or oil-seed rape, grown on a 3-year rotation. We also investigated the effect of habitat (field centre vs edge), and of season and year. This was done at the individual level using radio-tracking, and at the population level using live-trapping. Wood mouse population size (estimated as minimum number alive) was sig...
Macdonald, Dw; Tew, Te; Todd, Ia; Garner, Jp; Johnson, Pj
Full Text Available To determine the optimal ploughing depth and to make tillage simpler and less costly, but also taking account of edaphic and climatic conditions as well as biological and agrotechnical requirements of crops grown, long-term investigations (1994-2009 have been carried out on Stagnic Luvisol of sloping terrains in central Croatia near Daruvar. The paper presents the results relating to plant density and yields of maize (Zea mays L., soybean (Glycine max L., oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Investigation results point to the conclusion that high density crops (winter wheat, spring barley and oilseed rape are suitable for growing under reduced tillage systems. Yields of low density spring crops (maize and soybean obtained under the no-tillage system are not satisfactory, especially in climatically extreme years.
In the present investigation, organic and intensive cropping systems were compared on small autonomous drainage plots in limed Luvisoils and Cambisoils as well as non-acid Cambisoils during the period 1995-1998. In the intensive cropping system with balanced nutrient application, the yield of all crops was 38-77% higher than in the organic cropping system. Cropping intensity had no influence on mineral concentration in drainage water, which depended on geochemical soil media. The concentratio...
Sileika, Antanas; Guzys, Saulius
Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more favored with application of 10 tons ha-1 organic fertilizer.
E. A. Makinde
Efecto de la rotación de cultivos y prácticas de labranza sobre las fracciones de la materia orgánica del suelo / TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS / EFEITO DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS E PRÁTICAS DE LAVRAGEM SOBRE AS FRAÇÕES DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA DO SOLO
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As práticas de lavragem e rotação de cultivos podem modificar a matéria orgânica do solo (MOS). Um estudo conduzido por sete anos, onde se incluíram lavragem e rotação de cultivos, foi utilizado para avaliar o efeito do manejo do solo sobre as diferentes frações do C e N. O experimento foi localizad [...] o em Turén, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, e incluiu dois sistemas de lavragem, lavragem convencional (LC) e semeadura direta (SD), e duas rotações de cultivos, milho-algodão (MA) e milho-feijão (MF). Amostras de solo foram coletadas a três profundidades e se analisou o C (COT) e N orgânico total (NOT), C (MMC) e N (MMN) da massa microbiana, C e N mineralizável (Cmin e Nmin), N lábil potencialmente mineralizável (N1) e sua taxa de decomposição (kl). As mudanças observadas em COS e NOS em resposta à lavragem e à rotação de cultivos foram relacionadas com a quantidade e qualidade de resíduos de plantas que retornam ao solo, mas não com a sua distribuição no perfil do solo, com exceção da MO mineralizável. Este estudo demonstra a importância da MMC, MMN e da mineralização do C e N como índices para conhecer a dinâmica da MOS em uma zona tropical. Por outra parte, o N1 pode ser usado como indicador da capacidade do solo de liberar N da MOS. Abstract in spanish Las prácticas de labranza y rotación de cultivos pueden modificar la materia orgánica del suelo (MOS). Un estudio conducido por siete años, donde se incluyeron labranza y rotación de cultivos, fue utilizado para evaluar el efecto del manejo de suelo sobre las diferentes fracciones de C y N. El exper [...] imento fue localizado en Turén, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, e incluyó dos sistemas de labranza, labranza convencional (LC) y siembra directa (SD), y dos rotaciones de cultivos, maíz-algodón (MA) y maíz-fríjol (MF). Muestras de suelo fueron colectadas a tres profundidades y se analizó el C (COT) y N orgánico total (NOT), C (MMC) y N (MMN) de la masa microbiana, C y N mineralizable (Cmin y Nmin), N lábil potencialmente mineralizable (N1) y su tasa de descomposición (k l). Los cambios observados en COT y NOT en respuesta a la labranza y a la rotación de cultivos fueron relacionados con la cantidad y calidad de residuos de planta que regresan al suelo, pero no con su distribución en el perfil del suelo, con excepción de la MO mineralizable. Este estudio demuestra la importancia de la MMC, MMN y de la mineralización de C y N como índices para conocer la dinámica de la MOS en una zona tropical. Por otra parte, el N1 puede ser usado como indicador de la capacidad del suelo de liberar N de la MOS. Abstract in english Cultivation practices such as tillage and crop rotation can modify soil organic matter (MOS). A crop rotation-tillage study was conducted for seven years in order to evaluate the effects on the different pools of C and N. The experiment was located in Turén, Portuguesa State, Venezuela, with two til [...] lage systems: conventional tillage (CT), and no tillage (NT) and two crop rotations, corn-cotton (CC), and corn-bean (CB). Soil samples were collected at three depths and analyzed for total organic C (COT) and N (TON), microbial biomass C (MMC) and N (MMN), mineralized C and N (Cmin and Nmin), and potentially mineralized labile N (N1) and its decay rate (k l). The changes observed in COT and NOT in response to tillage and rotation were related to the quantity and quality of plant residues returned to the soil, but not to their distribution in the soil profile, with exception of MO mineralization. This study shows the importance of the MMC, MMN, C and N mineralization as indexes of MOS dynamics in a tropical region. On the other hand, N1 can be used as an indicator of the relative soil capacity to release N from MOS.
Yusmary, Espinoza; Zenaida, Lozano; Lorenzo, Velásquez.
The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.
Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna
For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.
Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)
Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...
The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N2O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO2 eq. MJbiomassproduced-1. Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation dsuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed biodiversity in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and numbers of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. On this basis, the constancy of species in particular years, Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices and diversity profiles according to Rényi were determined. Weed species richness increased linearly at all plots during the 15-year period. Chenopodium album was a constant and dominant species in terms of weed species density and biomass year after year. The quality of the plot had no clear influence on the diversity of weeds in barley. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. The significance of the correlation between the productivity of barley and weed diversity was not confirmed.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A compactação do solo pode ser corrigida mecanicamente ou usando espécies vegetais com sistema radicular vigoroso. Um experimento foi conduzido com soja (Glycine max) em rotação com triticale (X Triticosecale) e girassol (Helianthus annuus) cultivados no outono/inverno, associados com milheto (Penni [...] setum glaucum), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor) ou crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) cultivados na primavera. Rotações sob semeadura direta foram comparadas com um tratamento com escarificação no início do experimento. A qualidade do solo foi estimada usando-se o índice S e as curvas de retenção de água do solo nas profundidades de 0-0,05, 0,075-0,15, 0,15-0,20, 0,275-0,325 e 0,475-0,525 m. As rotações de culturas e a escarificação melhoraram a qualidade do solo, aumentando o índice S acima de 0,035 até 0,20 m no perfil do solo. Entretanto, a melhoria na qualidade do solo, conforme determinada por meio do índice S, não justifica o uso de escarificação mecânica, uma vez que as parcelas sob rotação de culturas em semeadura direta mostraram qualidade física do solo semelhante após três anos. Abstract in english Soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. An experiment was carried out with soybean (Glycine max) in rotation with triticale (X Triticosecale) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (P [...] ennisetum glaucum), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in spring. Crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil quality was estimated using the S index and soil water retention curves (in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.075-0.125, 0.15-0.20, 0.275-0.325, and 0.475-0.525 m deep). Crop rotation and chiseling improved soil quality, increasing the S index to over 0.035 to a depth of 20 cm in the soil profile. The improved soil quality, as shown by the S index, makes the use of mechanical chiseling unnecessary, since after 3 years the soil physical quality under no-tilled crop rotation and chiseling was similar.
Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Ciro Antonio, Rosolem.
The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimized. Here we present the results of a years' worth of soil and GHG data for a conversion from ex-set aside grassland to short rotation coppice (SRC) willow for bioenergy on a commercial scale. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transitions to SRC bioenergy crops will potentially result in increased soil carbon. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas and for considering future climate scenarios. The modelling output will also provide a user-friendly tool for land owners which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). This work was also jointly funded by the Carbo Biocrop Project.
Harris, Zoe M.; Alberti, Giorgio; Dondini, Marta; Smith, Pete; Taylor, Gail
This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Diagrammatic perturbation theory is used to consider the problem of the coupling of a molecular group libration to the lattice vibrations in solids exhibiting rotational tunneling detected by inelastic neutron scattering. The technique is applied to a molecular group of symmetry C3 in presence of th [...] e hindering potential of the solid. The spectral density for transitions between rotational tunneling states in the ground librational level is obtained as a function of temperature. Low temperature results are presented for di erent phonon spectrum parameters. They are used to check the assumption that this coupling is the origin of the peculiar behaviour of the line shifting and broadening as a function of temperature in the INS spectra of such systems.
Luciano T., Peixoto.
The aim of this work was to study the effect of long-term contrasting cropping systems on the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spore populations in the soil of a field experiment located in western Finland. Conventional and low-input cropping systems were compared, each with two nutrient management regimes. The conventional cropping system with a non-leguminous 6-year crop rotation (barley-barley-rye-oat-potato-oat) was fertilized at either full (rotation A) or half (rotation B) the recommended rate. In the low-input cropping system, plant residues were returned to the plots either as such (rotation C) or composted (rotation D). In the rotation of this system, 1 year with barley was replaced by clover, and oat was cultivated mixed with pea. Thus, the 6-year rotation was barley-red clover-rye-oat + pea-potato-oat + pea. Each rotation was replicated three times, starting the 6-year rotation in three different years, these being designated point 1, point 2, and point 3, respectively. In the low-input system, biotite and rock phosphate were used to compensate for K and P in the harvested yield, while animal manure was applied at the start only. After 13 years, rotation points 1 and 3 were studied. Barley was the standing crop in all plots of rotation point 1, while oat and oat + pea were grown in rotations C and D, respectively. AMF spores were studied by direct extraction and by trapping, sampled on 15 June and 15 August. In addition, a special assay was designed for isolation of fast colonizing, dominating AMF. The cropping system did not significantly affect AMF spore densities, although the low-input cropping system with composted plant residues had the highest density with 44 spores on average and the conventional system with full fertilization 24 spores per 100 cm(3) soil in the autumn samples. Species richness was low in the experimental area. Five Glomus spp., one Acaulospora, and one Scutellospora were identified at the species level. In addition to these, three unidentified Glomus spp. were found. Species richness was not affected by cropping system, rotation point, or their interactions. The Shannon-Wiener index of AMF spore distributions was significantly higher in the fully fertilized than in the half-fertilized conventional plots. Glomus claroideum was the most commonly identified single species in the experimental area. It occurred in all the cropping systems and their various rotation points, representing about 30% of the total number of identified spores. In August, G. claroideum accounted for as much as 45-55% of the total numbers of spores identified in the conventional system with halved fertilization. In contrast, Glomus mosseae occurred more commonly in June (26%) than in August (9%). A bioassay using roots as inoculum for isolation and culture of dominating AMF was successfully developed and yielded only G. claroideum. This indicates a high probability of being able to more generally identify, isolate, and culture fast colonizing generalist AMF for use as inoculants in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21085998
Vestberg, Mauritz; Kahiluoto, Helena; Wallius, Esa
Available water, decreased soil quality, weed competition and plant diseases constrain dryland crop production in the northern Great Plains. We initiated a field trial in 2004 comparing four crop rotations, with each component in a two-by-two matrix of tillage (conventional vs. zero tillage) and ma...
Full Text Available The paper studied new system of agriculture - crop systems without soil. The culture systems without soil can be called also the hydroponic systems and now in Romania are not used only sporadically. In other countries (USA, Japan, the Netherlands, France, UK, Denmark, Israel, Australia, etc.. they represent the modern crop technology, widely applied to vegetables, fruits, fodder, medicinal plants and flowers by the experts in this area. In the world, today there are millions of hectares hydroponics, most of the vegetables, herbs, fruits of hypermarkets are coming from the culture systems without soil. The process consists of growing plants in nutrient solutions (not in the ground, resorting to an complex equipment, depending on the specifics of each crop, so that the system can be applied only in the large farms, in the greenhouses, and not in the individual households. These types of culture systems have a number of advantages and disadvantages also. Even if today's culture systems without soil seem to be the most modern and surprising technology applied in plant growth, the principle is very old. Based on him were built The Suspended Gardens of the Semiramis from Babylon, in the seventh century BC, thanks to him, the population from the Peru”s highlands cultivates vegetables on surfaces covered with water or mud. The peasant households in China, even today use the millenary techniques of the crops on gravel. .This hydroponic agriculture system is a way of followed for Romanian agriculture too, despite its high cost, because it is very productive, ecological, can cover, by products, all market demands and it answer, increasingly, constraints of urban life. The concept of hydroponics agriculture is known and appreciated in Romania also, but more at the theory level.
Ten years (1994 to 2003) of OSU Seed Certification pre-harvest field inspection reports for 10,643 harvests from 3481 stands grown on 2779 distinct fields were georeferenced to field locations to develop a GIS of grass seed cropping history and weed distribution patterns in Linn County, Oregon. In 5...
Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions. These transitions coincide in time with changes in the oscillator dynamics. A large number of spins on a single oscillator coupled only through the in-phase oscillations behaves as a single large spin, greatly enhancing the spin-phonon coupling.
O'Keeffe, Michael F.
Irrigation facilities play an important role in the development of agriculture inRomania. Over the years, there have been consistent investments in irrigation systems, which occupied 22% of the agricultural area in late 2011. However, the share of irrigated area was located below 10% in most years, after 1989. The main objective of this paper was to analyze the structure and evolution of areas farmed by the main crop groups in five irrigation systems. The main conclusion that emerged was t...
Intercropping of corn with Arachis pintoi and Calopogonium muconoides and the effect on the soybean crop in rotation
Cultivo consorciado de milho com amendoim forrageiro e calopogônio e os efeitos na cultura da soja em rotação
This work aimed to study the intercropping of corn with Arachis pintoi cv. MG-100 and Calopogonium muconoides, regarding to vegetative growth and corn yield, capacity of production of forage dry matter, infestation of weeds and the effect of this system of production in the soybean crop in rotation. This research was carried out under field conditions form December 2008 to April 2010 in the UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized blo...
Welder Eduardo Fuzita; Núbia Maria Correia; Bruno Daniel
Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen
Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and liveweight gain per hectare of bovine increased, as the nitrogen levels increased. The results showed the effect of nitrogen input on the daily accumulation rate, dry matter yield, stocking rate and liveweight gain.
Alceu Luiz Assmann
We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para o sucesso do plantio direto há necessidade de que a cultura antecessora à principal seja boa produtora e mantenedora de cobertura vegetal. O milheto tem-se constituído em boa opção de cultivo no outono/inverno para rotação com soja, porém não há estudos avaliando o efeito do sistema na qualidad [...] e das sementes. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o efeito de três épocas de semeadura e cinco manejos com ceifas do milheto sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja cultivada em sucessão, por plantio direto, na mesma área, por três ciclos de rotação (1999/2000; 2001/2002 e 2002/2003). As épocas de semeadura constituíram três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3), em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (M1 = ceifa a cada florescimento e retirada da massa vegetal; M2 = ceifa a cada florescimento e permanência da massa vegetal; M3 = ceifa no florescimento e retirada da massa vegetal; M4 = ceifa no florescimento e permanência da massa vegetal e M5 = sem ceifa até a produção de grãos, quando foi cortada a panícula, permanecendo o restante da massa vegetal), e quatro repetições. Os experimentos de milheto foram semeados em 1999: E1 = 05/03, E2 = 25/03 e E3 = 19/04; em 2001 = E1 = 17/04, E2 = 07/05 e E3 = 27/05, e em 2002: E1 = 25/04, E2 = 15/05 e E3. = 05/06. Em cada ciclo de rotação, a soja foi implantada nos três experimentos na mesma data após o manejo final do milheto com dessecação química; as colheitas foram realizadas na mesma data, também. As sementes de soja, cv. Embrapa-48, foram avaliadas quanto ao tamanho, massa de 100 sementes, teor de água, germinação e vigor. Sementes de soja com melhor qualidade fisiológica foram obtidas, nos três ciclos de sucessão, quando cultivada após a primeira época de semeadura do milheto, independentemente do manejo com ceifas do milheto, cujo efeito foi pouco evidente. Abstract in english A successful no-tillage system requires high mass production in the preceding to the main crop that and its crop residues remain in the soil. Pearl-millet was shown to be a good option as an autumn-winter crop before soybean, in rotation, but there are no studies of this system on soybean seed quali [...] ty. The effects were investigated of three sowing times and five types of crop cut management of pearl-millet on seed quality of soybean cropped in sucession, in no-tillage system, for three crop rotation cycles (1999-2000, 2001-2002 and 2002-2003). Each pearl-millet sowing time was a trial with five treatments (M1 = cut at each flowering and no residues; M2 = cut at each flowering with residues; M3 cut at flowering and no residues; M4 = cut at flowering with residues; M5 = not cut until mature panicle harvest, then with residues) and four replications, arranged in randomized blocks. The pearl-millet trials were sown in 1999: E1 = 5 March, E2 = 25 March and E3 = 19 April; in 2001: E1 = 17 April, E2 = 7 May and E3 = 27 May; and in 2002: E1 = 25 April, E2 = 15 May and E3 = 05 June. The soybean was sown at the same time for the three trials in each crop rotation cycle, after chemical dessecation of the pearl-millet; the soybean was also harvested at the same time. The soybean seeds, cv. Embrapa-48, were evaluated by its size, weight of 100 seeds, water content, germination and vigor. Soybean seeds with better physiological quality were obtained when cropped in sucession on residues of the first pearl-millet sowing for three cycles of crops rotation, regardless of the pearl millet harvest management, whose effect was not clear.
João, Nakagawa; Leandro Borges, Lemos; Cláudio, Cavariani; Fernando Guido, Penariol.
Full Text Available Local featured program in Indonesia cannot be separated entirely from commodity strategic bases. Until in 2006, agricultural development formulation showed indicative targets for featured crops commodity production. The problem of food security is forming of farmer’s independence to protect local resources in efficiently and optimally, so these resources can be more utilized. It can be achieved by assist of information technologies and communication in forming of Geographic Information System (GIS to support consistency of food security in Indonesia. This research designs prototype geographic information system in order to conduct the accurate mapping and to know the local featured crops production in Indonesia. This level is conducted for documentation and mapping of agricultural products which is the local featured production. This documentation requires the usage of potential physical, economic, social and cultural environment by the utilization of information technology and communication, which have the ability of relevancy and accessibility of reliable information.
An experiment to evaluate the control of soybean cyst nematodes compared 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year nonhost rotations with continuous soybeans (Glycine max) in 0.2-ha plots. In a second 1-year rotation, the plots were planted to soybean or corn (Zea mays) after fumigation in the spring with a split application of 1,3-dichloropropene (748.2 liters/ha). The effects of the nematicide were apparent the first year. Soybean yield was 1,482 kg/ha compared to 233 kg/ha in the untreated plots. In the ...
Sasser, J. N.; Uzzell, Grover
Biotechnology based on plant tissue culture is complementary to conventional breeding technologies, not a substitute for them. Effective incorporation of new biotechnologies into plant breeding programmes is dependent on the plant species and the breeding objectives. Tissue culture techniques that ensure genetic stability (e.g. shoot tip and nodal cultures) are particularly useful for in vitro mutation induction and mutant plant regeneration. Direct organogenesis of adventitious buds and/or somatic embryogenesis on cultured explants offers a unique potential to dissolve chimerism and to produce homohistont mutants. In mutation breeding, non-heritable somaclonal variation should be avoided in order to minimize complications in the selection and genetic stability of mutants. Application of mutagens during in vitro culture requires certain modification, depending on the explant and the mutagen used. The advantages are large populations of individuals (propagula, cells and tissue) which can be treated before regeneration into intact plants. Experience with plant tissue culture shows several disadvantages in this system of mutation breeding. The main limitations are inadequate techniques for early screening and in vitro selection. Too little is known about the plant developmental processes and host-pathogen interaction to permit the breeder to design an effective means of selecting desirable mutants. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs
Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.
Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.
Belo, A. F.; Dias, L. S.
ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed, is a natural inhabitant of soils. A. flavus can be divided into the S and L strains, of which the S-strain isolates, on average, produce greater quantities of aflatoxins than the L-strain isolates. Aflatoxin contamination can be severe in several crops in South Texas. The structure of A. flavus communities residing in soils of South Texas was determined from 326 soil samples collected from 152 fields located from the Rio Grande Valley in the south to Fort Bend County in the north from 2001 through 2003. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the incidence of A. flavus isolates belonging to the S strain (percent S) among regions. The Coastal Bend (30.7%) and Upper Coast (25.5%) regions had significantly higher percent S incidence than the Rio Grande Valley (4.8%). No significant differences in percent S among years were detected. The CFU per gram of soil were not significantly different among regions. Strain S incidence was positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with sand content. Fields cropped to cotton the previous year had a higher S-strain incidence, whereas fields cropped to corn had greater total quantities of A. flavus propagules. Maps of S-strain patterns show that the S strain constitutes >30% of the overall A. flavus community in the area extending from the central Coastal Bend region to the central Upper Coast region. The west Rio Grande Valley had the lowest S-strain incidence (<10%). Geographic variation in S-strain incidence may influence the distribution of aflatoxin contamination in South Texas. PMID:18943177
Jaime-Garcia, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J
Hybrid poplar established as intensively managed short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) on former agricultural lands can provide habitat for wildlife. Studies of bird use of SRWC for nesting and during fall migration have shown that the numbers and kinds of breeding birds using mature plantings of hybrid poplar are similar to natural forested lands. In Minnesota, the number of species of breeding birds using habitat provided by clonal-trial plantings and young larger-scale plantings (12-64 ha) of hybrid poplar were initially most similar to those using grasslands and row-crops. As the plantings approached canopy closure, successional species became predominant. In the Pacific Northwest, breeding bird composition and density were very similar for mature plantings and forested areas; however, fall migrants were found primarily in forested areas. In the Southeast, preliminary comparisons of breeding bird use of plantings of sweetgum and sycamore with naturally regenerating forests of different ages and sizes and vegetation structure are showing no size effect on use. As with hybrid poplar, species use of the more mature plantings of sweetgum and sycamore was most similar to that of natural forests. (author)
Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.
The outline area of new cysts of Globodera rostochiensis was measured by image analysis. A linear regression of this value against egg content provided a basis for adjusting the egg number for cyst size. This adjusted egg content provides an estimate of the relative fullness of a cyst with eggs. This value showed an exponential decline in eggs over 3.5 years since the last potato crop. It corresponds to an average loss in the dormant egg population of 32.8 ± 5.6%/year for 26 fields at Torala...
Atkinson, H. J.; Holz, R. A.; Riga, E.; Main, G.; Oros, R.; Franco, J.
The experiment was conducted to study the availability and the residual effect of rock phosphate on crop performance under the rice-mungbean crop sequence. Ratchaburi (RRP) and Lamphun (LRP) rock phosphates were used to compare with triple superphosphate (TSP) at rate of 500 mg P/pot for TSP and 5000 mg P/pot for for two rock phosphates (R P). Upland rice (Sew Majun) was planted in three soils; Pakchong, Yasothorn and Lamnarai with the application of TSP and R P. 32 P - labelled TSP at 50 mg P was used as the standard in each treatment with factorial in RCB plot design. Mungbean was the succeeding crop after rice harvesting. Results showed that maximum dry weight yield was obtained from TSP application for all soil series, following by RRP and LRP respectively. The dry matter yields for all sources of phosphate application were the highest in Pakchong soil and lower in Yasothorn and Lamnarai soils respectively. The percent phosphorus derived form fertilizer (% Pdff) which obtained from 32 P dilution method was 13% average in TSP treatment for all three soils while R P treatment gave 7%. The utilization of P was the highest in TSP treatment average 2-4% (11.21 mg P) of applied P. Percent utilization obtained from RRP treatments average 0.02-0.38% (1-19 mg P) of applied P for all three soils, while LRP gave lowest % P utilization average 0.04-0.36% (2-18 mg P) of applied P. The residual P effect to mungbean succeeding crop showed that R P were superior than TSP. Dry matter yield from RRP was maximum for all soils. The % Pdff in mungbean was average 23% in TSP treatment and 35-37% from RRP and LRP from all soils. Pakchong soil gave lowest % Pdff. The % Pdff of Yasothorn and Lamnarai soils were nearly the same. The utilization from residual of TSP treatment was average 3-5% (14-25 mg P) of applied P. The residual of LRP to mungbean were average 0.4-1% (19-41 mg P) of applied P
Full Text Available The recent trend of an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs in the atmosphere has led to an ele-vated concern and urgency to adopt measures for carbon (C sequestration to mitigate the climate change. Among all GHGs, carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important one which occurs in the greatest concentration and has the strong-est radiative forcing among all. Reducing the release of CO2 to the atmosphere through “green energy” technologies or fossil fuel energy alternatives, such as wind, solar and hydraulic energies, is a major challenge. However, removal of atmospheric CO2 by terrestrial ecosystems via C sequestration and converting the sequestered C into the soil organic C has provided a great opportunity for shifting GHG emission to mitigate the climate change. Soil is an ideal reservoir for storage of organic C since soil organic C has been depleted due to land misuse and inappropriate management through the long history. To optimize the efficiency of C sequestration in agriculture, cropping systems, such as crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping, etc., play a critical role by influencing optimal yield, total increased C sequestered with biomass, and that remained in the soil. As matter of fact, soil C sequestration is a multiple purpose strategy. It restores degraded soils, enhances the land productivity, improves the diversity, protects the environment and reduces the enrichment of atmospheric CO2, hence shifts emission of GHGs and mitigates climate change.
An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...
Sources of soil organic matter (SOM) input to the soil in agro-ecosystems are typically crop residues. The question arises how removing crop residues from a field influences soil carbon sequestration. We investigated four long-term maize and grass dominant cropping systems each with a different residue management. Under silage maize (SM) all stover is removed from the field and only a stubble remains, whereas under grain maize (GM) only the grains are harvested and all stover is returned to the soil. Fields with a history of at least 15 consecutive years of either SM (with or without a second annual crop of Italian ryegrass) or GM, and fields under permanent grass were selected from a geodatabase that covers 15 years of crop rotation for all of the ca. 500,000 agricultural fields in Flanders. For each cropping system 10 fields were sampled (40 in total) following the area-frame randomized soil sampling (AFRSS) protocol (Stolbovoy et al., 2007). For 6 out of 10 fields only the topsoil was sampled (0-30 cm), whereas for the 4 other fields both topsoil and subsoil (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) were sampled. The total soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content and the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) were determined for each soil sample. From each field 1 topsoil sample was fractionated by the Zimmermann fractionation procedure (Zimmermann et al., 2007) which distinguishes between 5 different SOC fractions (POM, DOC, silt and clay associated SOC, chemically resistant SOC, SOC associated with sand fraction). Besides analysis of the SOC and nitrogen content of each fraction, the origin of the carbon was determined through isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Although there was no significant difference between SM and GM regarding the total SOC stock for the upper 30 cm (ca. 75 à 80 Mg C.ha-1), fields under continuous GM contained in the 0-30 cm layer 60% more maize-derived C4-SOC as compared to fields under continuous SM (ca. 14 and 9 Mg C.ha-1 respectively). Significant differences could also be demonstrated for the carbon fractions of soils with different cropping histories. Each fraction of a GM-topsoil contained significantly more C4-SOC as compared to a SM-topsoil (with or without a second annual crop) with the sizes of the fractions being equal. The more labile POM- en DOC-fractions accounted for the biggest part of the maize C4-SOC detected in the bulk sample, whereas the silt and clay associated SOC and chemically resistant SOC consisted mainly out of old grass C3-SOC. For the deeper soil layers no significant differences could be demonstrated between GM and SM, neither for the total SOC stock nor for the C4-SOC stock. Our results suggest that the soils with maize cropping systems in Flanders are near carbon saturation, such that crop residue management does not influence the total amount, but rather the quality of the carbon sequestered. Stolbovoy, V., Montanarella, L., Filippi, N., Jones, A., Gallego, J., and Grassi, G. (2007). Soil sampling protocol to certify the changes of organic carbon stock in mineral soil of the European Union. Version 2. EUR 21576 EN/2. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 56p. Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M.W.I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J. (2007). Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 658-667.
Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel
Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress ...
Carr, Patrick M.; Liebig, Mark A.; Gramig, Greta G.
Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...
The importance of the establishment of short-rotation tree plantations for fuel production has been of international interest for many years. In this context, in Hungary, these plantations have been conducted for a long time. In this country, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species, covering approximately 23% of the forested land (410 000 ha) and providing about 19% of the annual timber output. This paper describes an e...
Re?dei, Ka?roly; Veperdi, Irina; Tome?, Margarida; Soares, Paula
Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...
Weaver, D. B.; Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Carden, E. L.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los invertebrados que habitan el suelo son actores importantes en los procesos edáficos. La fauna edáfica comprende a organismos con tamaños y estrategias adaptativas diferentes. Los de mayor tamaño, constituyen la macrofauna (ancho del cuerpo mayor a 2 mm), que se destaca porque directa o indirecta [...] mente afectan las propiedades del suelo. Las comunidades presentes son la consecuencia de las prácticas de manejo de suelo que se realizan, por lo que tienen gran potencial de uso como indicadores. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de diferentes sistemas de rotación cultivos-pasturas sobre las comunidades de la macrofauna del suelo. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: agricultura continua sin (S1) y con fertilización (S2), rotación agricultura 33% - pradera 66% (S4), rotación agricultura 50% - pradera 50% (S5), y rotación agricultura 66% - pradera 33% (S7). El número de individuos varió de acuerdo a la intensidad de los usos del suelo evaluados. Los tratamientos S1 y S4 tuvieron respectivamente, las menores y mayores densidades poblacionales de la mayoría de los taxones. El análisis de Co-Inercia entre las propiedades edáficas y la densidad fue significativo. El primer eje ordenó los usos del suelo de acuerdo a su intensidad. Los taxones Oligochaeta y Coleoptera adultos estuvieron asociados a S4, sistema con mayor cantidad de carbono orgánico y nitrógeno total. La evaluación de la macrofauna del suelo conjuntamente con las propiedades del mismo, es una herramienta útil para evaluar la sustentabilidad ambiental de los distintos usos del suelo. Abstract in english Soil-inhabiting invertebrates play an important role in soil processes. Soil fauna include organisms of diverse sizes and adaptive strategies. Macrofauna, large organisms with body width greater than 2 mm, influence soil properties, both directly and indirectly. Their communities are influenced by s [...] oil management and thus, have a great potential as bioindicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different crop-pasture rotations on soil macrofauna. Treatments included continuous agriculture without (S1) and with (S2) fertilization, 33% crop - 66% pasture rotation (S4), 50% crop-pasture rotation (S5), and 66% crop - 33% pasture rotation (S7). The number of organisms collected varied with land use intensity; treatments S1 and S4 had the lowest and highest population densities for most taxa, respectively. The Co-Inertia analysis between soil properties and population density was significant. The first axis ordered land uses in relation to its intensity. Oligochaeta and Coleoptera adults were associated with S4, the system with highest organic carbon and total nitrogen contents. The evaluation of soil macrofauna together with soil properties is a useful tool to assess land use sustainability.
María Stella, ZERBINO.
Full Text Available Agriculture is the single biggest user of land and water in Morocco; however its performances are still low due to high rainfall variation and rates of soil productivity depletion. Increasing concerns about soil and environment quality degradation have raised the need to review existing tillage management systems and develop new systems for seed-bed preparation. Consequently, No-tillage is found a promising practice of soil management to improve simultaneously soil quality and wheat production in semiarid Morocco. However, residue management under No-tillage was Not yet studied in conjunction with wheat rotation. Therefore, a field study was conducted in the semiarid Chaouia Plain of Morocco during the period from 1994 to 2003, in order to evaluate the impacts of different tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT, No-tillage (NT; No-tillage wheat residue management scenarios (total NTr, partial NTp and No-removal of residues NTm and crop rotations (continuous wheat (CW, Wheat-Fallow (WF, Wheat-Maize-Fallow (WMF, Wheat-Lentil-Fallow (WLF and Wheat-Barley-Fallow (WBF on wheat production. Over-years, conventional tillage system permitted lower yield of wheat while NT maintenance of crop residue at the surface is needed to increase it. Basically, NTp could be adopted in mixed crop-livestock systems of semiarid areas for the purpose of guarantying grain and feed. Wheat yields were the lowest under continuous wheat for all years. Wheat-fallow rotation is an important option in dry years or areas, while wheat-fallow-lentil or barley rotations are recommended in better environments. Stability analysis indicated that yields in the No-tillage system were less influenced by adverse growing conditions than conventional tillage system, particularly under low rainfall. These results indicate that improved soil quality under No-tillage enhanced wheat yield stability by reducing the impact of adverse growing conditions.
A reasonably simple protocol for testing the performance of rotating gamma camera SPECT systems has been established, which could be performed in about 10 hours. This protocol has been used to test almost all currently available systems, including GE, Siemens, Technicare, Elscint, Phillips, CGR, etc. In general, several models of a given system were tested in order to give an indication of the range of results that might be obtained. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner (Uniformity correction, Ramp filter, no attenuation correction) in order to try to eliminate the effect of differences in software. In addition to using the Jaszczak phantom as an overall test pattern, measurements were made of spatial resolution, energy resolution, contrast, variations of sensitivity and uniformity with angle, etc. Results indicated that some systems, with a high resolution collimator and after very careful setting up, could achieve a spatial resolution of the order of 11mm, with good image quality. Not all commercially available systems performed as well. Strong indication was given of the need to improve spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity, confirming the results from simulated tomographic data for various design compromises. Tests were also performed varying the energy window used. It was found that only very few system were capable of producing artefact free images with other than a symmetric photopeak window. However, very significant improvementdow. However, very significant improvement of image quality of current systems with respect to older systems were noted. This protocol has been used, in addition, to establish a routine quality assurance program for such SPECT systems
China and other rapidly developing economies face the dual challenge of substantially increasing yields of cereal grains while at the same time reducing the very substantial environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. We used a model-driven integrated soil–crop system management approach to develop a maize production system that achieved mean maize yields of 13.0 t ha?1 on 66 on-farm experimental plots—nearly twice the yield of current farmers’ practices—with no increase in N fe...
Chen, Xin-ping; Cui, Zhen-ling; Vitousek, Peter M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Matson, Pamela A.; Bai, Jin-shun; Meng, Qing-feng; Hou, Peng; Yue, Shan-chao; Ro?mheld, Volker; Zhang, Fu-suo
Abstract - Hyperspectral remote sensing research was conducted to document the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of controlled forest plots subjected to various nutrient and irrigation treatments. The experimental plots were located on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. AISA hyperspectral imagery were analysed using three approaches, including: (1) normalized difference vegetation index based simple linear regression (NSLR), (2) partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (3) machine-learning regression trees (MLRT) to predict the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the crops (leaf area index, stem biomass and five leaf nutrients concentrations). The calibration and cross-validation results were compared between the three techniques. The PLSR approach generally resulted in good predictive performance. The MLRT approach appeared to be a useful method to predict characteristics in a complex environment (i.e. many tree species and numerous fertilization and/or irrigation treatments) due to its powerful adaptability.
Im, Jungho; Jensen, John R.; Coleman, Mark; Nelson, Eric
The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha-1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha-1, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha-1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha-1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize in the United States and more recently, Europe. Understanding the dispersal dynamics of this species will provide crucial information for its management. This study used geometric morphometric analysis of hind wing venation based on 13 landmarks in 223 specimens from nine locations in Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, to assess whether wing shape and size differed between rotated and continuously grown maize where crop rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals are found, respectively. Before assessing differences between rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals, sexual dimorphism was investigated. No significant difference in wing (centroid) size was found between males and females; however, females had significantly different shaped (more elongated) wings compared with males. Wing shape and (centroid) size were significantly larger among individuals from rotated maize where crop-rotation resistance was reported; however, cross-validation of these results revealed that collection site resistance status was an only better than average predictor of shape in males and females. This study provides preliminary evidence of wing shape and size differences in D. v. virgifera from rotated versus continuous maize. Further study is needed to confirm whether wing shape and size can be used to track the movement of rotation-resistant individuals and populations as a means to better inform management strategies. PMID:24020261
Mikac, K M; Douglas, J; Spencer, J L
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em experimentos conduzidos no campo, no sistema plantio direto, nas safras de verão de 2003/04, 2004/05 e 2005/06 foram avaliados os efeitos de culturas de inverno, da rotação e da monocultura sobre a emergência de plântulas, na incidência de podridões radiciais e no rendimento de grãos da soja. Dem [...] onstrou-se não haver efeitos das culturas de inverno sobre a emergência de plântulas da soja. Quanto à incidência de podridões radiciais em monocultura foi registrada uma intensidade de até 99,2%. O maior rendimento de grãos foi obtido na soja cultivada em rotação com uma safra com milho. Os fungos isolados do sistema radicial de plantas infectadas foram, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium spp. e Colletotrichum truncata. O solo da área experimental pode ser considerado supressivo aos fatores que reduzem a germinação, a emergência de plântulas e de morte de plântulas/plantas de soja. Quanto ao seu efeito em reduzir as podridões radiciais, ainda não se detectou efeito supressivo, porém a rotação da soja com o milho reduziu a incidência de podridões radiciais e aumentou o rendimento de grãos da soja. Abstract in english In experiments carried out in the field, under no-till planting system, in 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 summer growing seasons, the effects of winter crops, rotation and monoculture on seedling emergence, root rot incidence and soybean grain yield were assessed. There were no effects of winter crops [...] on soybean seedling emergence. As to root rot incidence on monoculture, an intensity of up to 99.2% was recorded. Grain yield was highest when soybean was cultivated in one season of rotation with corn. The fungi isolated from the root system of infected plants were Macrophomina phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum truncata. The soil at the experimental area can be considered suppressive to factors that reduce soybean germination, seedling emergence, and seedling/plant death. Considering its effect in reducing root rot, a suppressive action has not been detected yet; however, soybean rotation with corn reduced root rot incidence and increased soybean grain yield.
Erlei Melo, Reis; Marivane, Segalin; Nara Lucia, Moraes; Valeria Cecília, Ghissi.
The effect of cover crop and crop rotation on soil water storage and on sorghum yield / Efeito de cultura de cobertura e de rotação de cultura no armazenamento de água do solo e no rendimento de sorgo
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Rotação de cultura e cultura de cobertura constituem importantes meios para melhoria do rendimento de culturas em áreas de sequeiro como a região "Coastal Bend" do Estado do Texas. Um ensaio foi conduzido em 1995, como parte de um experimento de longa duração (7 anos), com o objetivo de investigar o [...] efeito da aveia (Avena sativa L.) como cultura de cobertura, e da rotação de cultura, no armazenamento da água do solo e no rendimento do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As rotações foram alocadas nas parcelas, e a cultura de cobertura, nas subparcelas. A cultura de cobertura reduziu o rendimento do sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à reduzida concentração de N disponível do solo. Por atraso no extermínio e incorporação da aveia, seu resíduo, com elevada relação C/N, atuou como dreno, pela imobilização, em lugar de ser fonte de N para o sorgo. As rotações sorgo/algodão e sorgo/soja proporcionaram efeito positivo no rendimento de sorgo. Este efeito foi atribuído à maior concentração de N nestas seqüências. Abstract in english Crop rotation and cover crop can be important means for enhancing crop yield in rainfed areas such as the lower Coastal Bend Region of Texas, USA. A trial was conducted in 1995 as part of a long-term cropping experiment (7 years) to investigate the effect of oat (Avena sativa L.) cover and rotation [...] on soil water storage and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). The trial design was a RCB in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Rotation sequences were the main plots and oat cover crop the subplots. Cover crop reduced sorghum grain yield. This effect was attributed to a reduced concentration of available soil N and less soil water storage under this treatment. By delaying cover termination, the residue with a high C/N acted as an N sink through competition and/or immobilization instead of an N source to sorghum plants. Crop rotation had a significantly positive effect on sorghum yield and this effect was attributed to a significantly larger amount of N concentration under these rotation sequences.
Demóstenes Marcos Pedrosa de, Azevedo; Juan, Landivar; Robson Macedo, Vieira; Daryl, Moseley.
Full Text Available Integrated soil management with grain legumes was studied at two villages (Ugwan Shamaki and Tashan Kaya in Kaduna State, northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria (190 day growing season. Impacts of one year rotation of Soybean and Cowpea on soil chemical properties were compared with sole maize and maize-cowpea mixture. All plots were Striga infested. Organic carbon decreased by 4 and 2% in maize after maize (SM plots in Ugwan Shamaki and Tashan Kaya respectively. Sole soybean, SC and MC mixture increased organic carbon by 10, 2 and 23% in Ugwan Shamaki and 6, 4 and 16% in Tashan Kaya respectively. pH values were lowered in the order SM> MC>SS and SC. Exchangeable Ca, Mg and K remained unchanged or slightly increased. There was positive and significant association between pH and Striga parameters, while exchangeable bases had negative association with Striga parameters. Exchangeable K have positive and significant correlation with number of cobs at harvest (R = 0.68*, total cob weight (R = 0.61* and maize grain yield (R = 0.64** at Ugwan Shamaki. Maize yield increase from maize after Soybean were 150 and 301 kg over previous maize at Ugwan Shamaki and Tashan Kaya, respectively. Corresponding increases in Cowpea maize rotated plot in the two locations were 243 and 234 kg, respectively.
Insects are constantly adapting to human-driven landscape changes; however, the roles of their gut microbiota in these processes remain largely unknown. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major corn pest that has been controlled via annual rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. This practice selected for a "rotation-resistant" variant (RR-WCR) with reduced ovipositional fidelity to cornfields. When in soybean fields, RR-WCRs also exhibit an elevated tolerance of antiherbivory defenses (i.e., cysteine protease inhibitors) expressed in soybean foliage. Here we show that gut bacterial microbiota is an important factor facilitating this corn specialist's (WCR's) physiological adaptation to brief soybean herbivory. Comparisons of gut microbiota between RR- and wild-type WCR (WT-WCR) revealed concomitant shifts in bacterial community structure with host adaptation to soybean diets. Antibiotic suppression of gut bacteria significantly reduced RR-WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory to the level of WT-WCR, whereas WT-WCR were unaffected. Our findings demonstrate that gut bacteria help to facilitate rapid adaptation of insects in managed ecosystems. PMID:23798396
Chu, Chia-Ching; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Seufferheld, Manfredo J
Highlights: • A full energy and GHG balance of bioelectricity from SRWC was performed. • Bioelectricity was efficient; it reduced GHG by 52–54% relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix. • Bioelectricity required 1.1 m2 of land kWh?1; land conversion released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha?1. • SRWC reduced GHG emission when producing electricity during the 1st rotation period. - Abstract: Short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are a promising means to enhance the EU renewable energy sources while mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are concerns that the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity may be nullified due to GHG emissions from direct land use changes (dLUCs). In order to evaluate quantitatively the GHG mitigation potential of bioelectricity from SRWC we managed an operational SRWC plantation (18.4 ha) for bioelectricity production on a former agricultural land without supplemental irrigation or fertilization. We traced back to the primary energy level all farm labor, materials, and fossil fuel inputs to the bioelectricity production. We also sampled soil carbon and monitored fluxes of GHGs between the SRWC plantation and the atmosphere. We found that bioelectricity from SRWCs was energy efficient and yielded 200–227% more energy than required to produce it over a two-year rotation. The associated land requirement was 0.9 m2kWhe-1 for the gasification and 1.1 m2kWhe-1 for the combustion technology. Converting agricultural land into the SRWC plantation released 2.8 ± 0.2 t CO2e ha?1, which represented ?89% of the total GHG emissions (256–272 g CO2e kWhe-1) of bioelectricity production. Despite its high share of the total GHG emissions, dLUC did not negate the GHG benefits of bioelectricity. Indeed, the GHG savings of bioelectricity relative to the EU non-renewable grid mix power ranged between 52% and 54%. SRWC on agricultural lands with low soil organic carbon stocks are encouraging prospects for sustainable production of renewable energy with significant climate benefits
The Coulomb criterion, as applied by Anderson (1951), has been widely used as the basis for inferring paleostresses from in situ fault slip data, assuming that faults are optimally oriented relative to the tectonic stress direction. Consequently if stress direction is fixed during deformation so must be the faults. Freund (1974) has shown that faults, when arranged in sets, must generally rotate as they slip. Nur et al., (1986) showed how sufficiently large rotations require the development of new sets of faults which are more favorably oriented to the principal direction of stress. This leads to the appearance of multiple fault sets in which older faults are offset by younger ones, both having the same sense of slip. Consequently correct paleostress analysis must include the possible effect of fault and material rotation, in addition to stress field rotation. The combined effects of stress field rotation and material rotation were investigated in the Lake Meade Fault System (LMFS) especially in the Hoover Dam area. Fault inversion results imply an apparent 60 degrees clockwise (CW) rotation of the stress field since mid-Miocene time. In contrast structural data from the rest of the Great Basin suggest only a 30 degrees CW stress field rotation. By incorporating paleomagnetic and seismic evidence, the 30 degrees discrepancy can be neatly resolved. Based on paleomagnetic declination anomalies, it is inferred that slip on NW trending right lateral faults caused a local 30 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation of blocks and faults in the Lake Mead area. Consequently the inferred 60 degrees CW rotation of the stress field in the LMFS consists of an actual 30 degrees CW rotation of the stress field (as for the entire Great Basin) plus a local 30 degrees CCW material rotation of the LMFS fault blocks.
Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Aydin, Atilla
Reniform nematode (RN) is an important pest in cotton production. Knowledge of the distribution patterns of RN is essential for selecting sampling strategies and for site-specific management. A three-year study was conducted in two fields in South Carolina with the purpose of characterizing the distribution of RN using a fine-scale sampling scheme in plots representing different soil textures (field 1), and using a large-scale arbitrary sampling scheme (field 2). Horizontal distribution data showed an aggregated pattern of RN densities at planting and after harvest in both fields each year, with patches ranging from 8 to 12 m. However, a significant neighborhood structure was only detected when suitable hosts (cotton and soybean) were planted. Correlations between RN densities and percent sand and silt were detected, showing nematode densities peaked when sand content was around 60 % and declined when sand content increased above 60-65%. When fewer samples were taken in the field with more uniform sand content, % sand was a less reliable predictor of RN densities. Vertical sampling showed the highest numbers of RN were found at 15-30 cm deep after cotton, but were deeper after a non-host crop. Understanding distribution patterns of RN is essential for selecting sampling strategies and for delineating zones for site-specific management. PMID:25412010
Holguin, Claudia; Gerard, Patrick; Mueller, John D; Khalilian, Ahmad; Agudelo, Paula
In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN.
A great deal of energy has been exerted over the years researching methods for regenerating and repairing bone and cartilage. Several techniques, especially bone implants and grafts, show great promise for providing a remedy for many skeletal disorders and chondrodystrophies. The bioreactor (rotating-wall vessel, RWV) is a cell culture system that creates a nurturing environment conducive to cell aggregation. Chondrocyte cultures have been studied as implants for repair and replacement of damaged and missing bone and cartilage since 1965 [Chesterman and Smith, J Bone Joint Surg 50B:184-197, 1965]. The ability to use large, tissue-like cartilage aggregates grown in the RWV would be of great clinical significance in treating skeletal disorders. In addition, the RWV may provide a superior method for studying chondrogenesis and chondrogenic mutations. Because the RWV is also reported to simulate many of the conditions of microgravity it is a very useful ground-based tool for studying how cell systems will react to microgravity.
Duke, P. J.; Daane, E. L.; Montufar-Solis, D.
A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena. PMID:24331614
Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R
Demanda de tração em haste sulcadora na integração lavoura-pecuária com diferentes pressões de pastejo e sua relação com o estado de compactação do solo Draft requirement in direct drilling in crop and cattle rotation systems using different grazing pressures and its relation to soil compactness status
Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com integração lavoura-pecuária em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico para avaliar o esforço de tração em hastes sulcadoras de adubo utilizadas em semeadura direta, atuando em diferentes profundidades e intensidades de pastejo, bem como o efeito desse último fator sobre o estado de compactação do solo. Os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas alturas da pastagem de inverno (aveia + azevém: 0,10; 0,20; 0,30 e 0,40 m e sem pastejo, obtidas variando-se a carga animal, e os tratamentos secundários foram duas profundidades de atuação da haste sulcadora de adubo: 0,12 e 0,15 m. A massa seca de raízes da pastagem, na camada de 0 a 0,12 m, aumentou com o incremento na intensidade de pastejo. Analisando os valores de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração, o efeito do pastejo foi detectado até 0,12 m, sendo crescentes com a intensidade de pastejo. A força de tração demandada pelas hastes aumentou de 1.900 para 4.300 N (120%, quando a profundidade de trabalho passou de 0,12 para 0,15 m. O esforço de tração nas hastes sulcadoras também foi maior quanto maior a carga de animais sobre a pastagem, embora as diferenças tenham sido significativas apenas entre os tratamentos sem pastejo e os mantidos a alturas de 0,10 e 0,20 m. Os valores de resistência do solo à penetração e de esforço de tração demandado pelas hastes sulcadoras apresentaram correlação significativa.An experiment was carried out with crop and cattle rotation in an Oxisoil, in Tupanciretã - RS, which aimed to evaluate the draft effort in fertilizer direct drillings used in direct seeding, working at different depths and intensities of fields under different grazing pressures. Grazing pressure effects on soil compactness were also assessed. The main treatments were grazing maintaining 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 m pasture (Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa without grazing, height (adjusting the number of cows on the plots and two working depths of fertilizer shanks: 0.12 m and 0.15 m. Root dry matter in the superficial layer (0.0 - 0.12 m was increased when higher grazing pressures were used. Soil resistance to a penetrometer showed increased values at higher grazing pressures; it was detected until 0.12 m depth. Draft requirement of fertilizer shanks increased from 1,900 to 4,300 N (120% when the working depth changed from 0.12 m to 0.15 m condition. Draft demand by fertilizer shanks was higher on soils under higher pressures as well, but the absolute values showed that only treatments with remaining heights of 0.10 and 0.20 m were different from those found without grazing systems. Soil resistance to penetrometer and power demand by fertilizer shanks was closely related.
Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Existing approaches to assess agricultural practices focus on the assessment of single crops or statistical data because spatially explicit information on practically applied crop rotations is mostly not available. This provokes considerable uncertainties in crop production models as regional specifics have to be neglected or cannot be considered in an appropriate way. In a case study in Saxony, we developed an approach to (i) derive representative regional crop rotations by combining different data sources and expert knowledge. This includes the integration of innovative crop sequences related to bio-energy production or organic farming and different soil tillage, soil management and soil protection techniques. Furthermore, (ii) we developed a regionalization approach for transferring crop rotations and related soil management strategies on the basis of statistical data and spatially explicit data taken from so called field blocks. These field blocks are the smallest spatial entity for which agricultural practices must be reported to apply for agricultural funding within the frame of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) program. The information was finally integrated into the spatial decision support tool GISCAME to assess and visualize in spatially explicit manner the impact of alternative agricultural land use strategies on soil erosion risk and ecosystem services provision. Objective of this paper is to present the approach how to create spatially explicit information on agricultural management practices for a study area around Dresden, the capital of the German Federal State Saxony. PMID:23751946
Lorenz, Marco; Fürst, Christine; Thiel, Enrico
The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. PMID:23994820
Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco
This paper presents the results of investigations on the weed infestation and vertical distribution of weed seed bank in rendzina under spring cereals cultivation in crop rotations and monoculture. Used herbicides (MCPA and fenoxaprop-P-etylu) decreased the number of weeds and species composition in comparison with harrowing. In the soil layer of 0-25 cm used in the monoculture there was found about 22,9% weed seeds more than in crop rotation. In the canopy of spring cereals the follow...
Andrzej Weso?owski; Andrzej Wo?niak
During the evolution of the binary system, many physical processes occur, which can influence the orbital angular velocity and the spin angular velocities of the two components, and influence the non-synchronous or synchronous rotation of the system. These processes include the transfer of masses and angular momentums between the component stars, the loss of mass and angular momentum via stellar winds, and the deformation of the structure of component stars. A study of these processes indicates that they are closely related to the combined effects of tide and rotation. This means, to study the synchronous or non-synchronous rotation of binary systems, one has to consider the contributions of different physical processes simultaneously, instead of the tidal effect alone. A way to know whether the rotation of a binary system is synchronous or non-synchronous is to calculate the orbital angular velocity and the spin angular velocities of the component stars. If all of these angular velocities are equal, the rotation of the system is synchronous. If not, the rotation of the system is non-synchronous. For this aim, a series of equations are developed to calculate the orbital and spin angular velocities. The evolutionary calculation of a binary system with masses of 10 M ? + 6 M ? shows that the transfer of masses and angular momentums between the two components, and the deformation of the components structure in the semidetached or in the contact phase can change the rotation of the system from synchronous into non-synchronous rotation.
Li, ZhiXiong; Huang, RunQian; Wang, ShuMin
Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control.
Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control. PMID:23443401
Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland
Phytoremediation, more precisely phytoextraction, has been placed forward as an environmental friendly remediation technique, that can gradually reduce increased soil metal concentrations, in particular the bioavailable fractions. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of growing willows and poplars under short rotation coppice (SRC) on an acid, poor, sandy metal contaminated soil, to combine in this way soil remediation by phytoextraction on one hand, and production of biomass for energy purposes on the other. Above ground biomass productivities were low for poplars to moderate for willows, which was not surprising, taking into account the soil conditions that are not very favorable for growth of these trees. Calculated phytoextraction efficiency was much longer for poplars than these for willows. We calculated that for phytoextraction in this particular case it would take at least 36 years to reach the legal threshold values for cadmium, but in combination with production of feedstock for bioenergy processes, this type of land use can offer an alternative income for local farmers. Based on the data of the first growing cycle, for this particular case, SRC of willows should be recommended. PMID:22046760
Ruttens, Ann; Boulet, Jana; Weyens, Nele; Smeets, Karen; Adriaensen, Kristin; Meers, Erik; Van Slycken, Stijn; Tack, Filip; Meiresonne, Linda; Thewys, Theo; Witters, Nele; Carleer, Robert; Dupae, Joke; Vangronsveld, Jaco
Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to compare soil microbial populations, microbial-N status and soil physical and chemical characteristics in a no-till, unfertilized, direct-sown, wheat-rice, relay-cropping system (NTWR and also in a conventional transplanted rice single cropping system (CTR. The wheat-rice system was imposed for 2, 4 and 7 years to identify the time course responses in the soil and crop. Recycling of crop residues in the wheat-rice cropping system generally increased the soil organic matter (OM contents but reduced the level of available P2O5 compared with the conventional system. Generally the soil was fertile with a high initial organic matter contents. Organic matter was increased by 30% during the 7 years of wheat-rice cropping. Other soil physical features, bulk density and permeability to air and water indicated that soil structure could be improved in response to wheat-rice cropping. Seasonal variability of soil microorganisms suggested that 7-year cropping could improve soil physicochemical characteristics but mineral contents in relation to cation exchange capacity (CEC would decrease after 4-years cropping. Soil tillage may adversely affect soil microbial dynamics. In conclusion, a no-till, unfertilized, direct-sown, wheat-rice cropping system, is likely to sustain grain yield by improving soil bio-physicochemical factors and is one of the most ecologically stable, economically sound and socially supportive wheat-rice production systems.
The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid- body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than unity. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industr
Shevchuk, Igor V
For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.
Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)
For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.
Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others
For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.
Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)
In the aerobic rice system, adapted rice cultivars are grown in non-flooded moist soil. Aerobic rice may be suitable for double cropping with winter wheat in the Huai River Basin, northern China plain. Field experiments in 2005 and 2006 were conducted to study the response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to sequential rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in aerobic rice—winter wheat (AR-WW) and winter wheat—aerobic rice (WW-AR) cropping sequences. Fertilizer treatments...
Dai, X. Q.; Zhang, H. Y.; Spiertz, J. H. J.; Yu, J.; Xie, G. H.; Bouman, B. A. M.
The influence of growing and incorporating summer cover crops on subsequent vegetable crop production and on population densities of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated in field and pot experiments at Homestead, Florida. The cover crops utilized in the field and pot exper...
Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177
Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal
We aim to eliminate or reduce significant impediments to conductive target detection and conductive cover penetration in airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems. Existing limitations come from the very high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth's magnetic field. We use the output of tri-axial rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors. The approach is successful in reducing rotation noise by one to two orders of magnitude at low frequencies.
Kratzer, Terence 12Macnae, James
We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with the Newton's second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an `angular' impulse-momentum equation (Poinsot-Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a `rotational' pseudo-work-energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed.
Many herbicides with different HRAC-groups are available for weed control in maize. Because of narrow maize crop rotation summer weeds and warmth loving weeds are encouraged. On the other hand the new confirmed cases of an ALS target site resistance in the weed species Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in Brandenburg, Stellaria media in Saxony and Matricaria recutita and Tripleurospermum perforatum in Brandenburg and Thuringia, warn that in the future the sulfonylureas must be...
Ewert, Katrin; Schro?der, Gerhard; Meinlschmidt, Ewa; Bergmann, Elke
Atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico após 12 anos sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas Chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept after 12 years under conventional and no tillage with crop succession and rotation
Full Text Available O manejo adequado do solo é uma das bases para a sustentabilidade do sistema agrícola. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico após 12 anos em dois sistemas de preparo do solo, com rotação e sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando preparo convencional (PC e semeadura direta (SD, sob rotação (r e sucessão (s de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As sequências de cultivo foram: feijão-pousio-milho-pousio-soja-pousio no PCr; milho-pousio no PCs; feijão-aveia-milho-nabo-soja-ervilhaca na SDr; e milho-ervilhaca na SDs. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-2,5; 2,5-5; 5-10; e 10-20cm. Avaliou-se carbono orgânico total (COT, cálcio, magnésio, alumínio trocável, fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio total (NT e pH em água. A SD aumentou os teores de COT e nutrientes em comparação ao PC, especialmente na camada superficial do solo. O cultivo de milho e ervilhaca em sucessão aumentou os teores de COT e NT na camada superficial do solo em comparação com a rotação sob semeadura direta.Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional tillage (CT and no-till (NT, with rotation (r and succession (s cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC, calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen (TN and water pH. The no-tillage system increased TOC and nutrient levels in comparison with conventional tillage, especially in the surface soil layer. Maize and vetch crop succession had higher TOC and TN contents in the surface soil layer compared to crop rotation under no-tillage.
Andréia Patrícia Andrade
Atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico após 12 anos sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas / Chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept after 12 years under conventional and no tillage with crop succession and rotation
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O manejo adequado do solo é uma das bases para a sustentabilidade do sistema agrícola. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar atributos químicos de um Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico após 12 anos em dois sistemas de preparo do solo, com rotação e sucessão de culturas. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, [...] utilizando preparo convencional (PC) e semeadura direta (SD), sob rotação (r) e sucessão (s) de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As sequências de cultivo foram: feijão-pousio-milho-pousio-soja-pousio no PCr; milho-pousio no PCs; feijão-aveia-milho-nabo-soja-ervilhaca na SDr; e milho-ervilhaca na SDs. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-2,5; 2,5-5; 5-10; e 10-20cm. Avaliou-se carbono orgânico total (COT), cálcio, magnésio, alumínio trocável, fósforo, potássio, nitrogênio total (NT) e pH em água. A SD aumentou os teores de COT e nutrientes em comparação ao PC, especialmente na camada superficial do solo. O cultivo de milho e ervilhaca em sucessão aumentou os teores de COT e NT na camada superficial do solo em comparação com a rotação sob semeadura direta. Abstract in english Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional t [...] illage (CT) and no-till (NT), with rotation (r) and succession (s) cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC), calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen (TN) and water pH. The no-tillage system increased TOC and nutrient levels in comparison with conventional tillage, especially in the surface soil layer. Maize and vetch crop succession had higher TOC and TN contents in the surface soil layer compared to crop rotation under no-tillage.
Andréia Patrícia, Andrade; Álvaro Luiz, Mafra; Cristiano Della, Picolla; Jackson Adriano, Albuquerque; Ildegardis, Bertol.
Plastic deformation by slip induces rotations of the crystallographic lattice and evolution of dislocation structures. Both lattice rotations and dislocation structures exhibit a dependence on the grain orientation, which reflects underlying relations to the slip pattern. Relations between the type of dislocation structure formed, in particular the crystallographic alignment of dislocation boundaries, and the slip pattern are demonstrated. These relations are applied to polycrystals deformed in tension and rolling, producing good agreement with experiment for rolling but less good agreement for tension. The grain orientations, for which the relations do not hold in tension, are also the grain orientations where the deviation between lattice rotations observed by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) during tension deviate the most from those predicted with the Taylor model. The origin of these discrepancies is discussed. Finally, the implications of the relations between slip and dislocation structures for the modelling of mechanical properties are discussed.
A neutron interferometer in constant absolute rotation will exhibit a certain phase-shift between its two beams, a phenomenon shared with the classic Sagnac or Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiments or with the modern laser-gyrocompass composed of lasers in a ring. To first order in the rotational frequency, it is possible to understand by employing only rudimentary theory, the essence of this phenomenon to any degree of relativistiness of the participating particle. This paper is mainly paedagogical, noting the similarity due to permanent rotation between photon-, electron and neutron-interferometers. Future experimentation, aside from corroborating well believed tenets, may hope with improving precision to bring new approaches to measurement of fundamental effects
The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...
Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.
An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%), represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species) were found in the spring wheat crop under no-...
Sekutowski, Tomasz R.; Janusz Smagacz
Information about field drainage/wetness is useful for farmers to plan field management in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field. Wet injury is a loss to farmers in upland crop farming, experience is the most common way of approaching this risk. In this study, we propose to provide efficient and objective classify and mapping method of such field drainage information using aerial photography. Study area (500 ha) is located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. In this area, we acquired multitemporalaerial photographs (ADS40) three times after the rain on winter. Digital Number (DN) of Blue, Green, Red and Near Infrared band were used to analyze. To analyze the relationship between each band DN and soil moisture, mass soil water content of 0-5cm depth was determined using the 100ml core sample at 22 sites on shooting date. And to verify our classification of the drainage and wetness, volumetric soil water content was monitored using TDR sensor (Decagon, ECH2O) at 5cm, 10cm and 20 cm depth at 16 sites. First, optimum band was selected from correlation analysis of mass soil water content and DN. Next, optimum band DN of three aerial photographs at field area was grouped by cluster analysis (ISODATA method). We found a good positive correlation between mass soil water content and red band DN, by selecting optimum bands. 17 groups were found from cluster analysis using three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions. After that, we classified them into five levels of field drainage based on red band DN values. We generated maps of drainage/wetness based on these results. We compared volumetric soil water content at the monitoring site for the "Dry" and "Wet" points, water was drained quickly at the "Dry" site but it needed more than 1 week the volume soil water content back to revert before rain at the "Wet" site. By the result, we positively verified our classification. We used three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions as proxy of top soil moisture content. It is thought to be an indication of drainage/wetness. Generally, estimating soil water content at field scale from a remote sensing data was difficult. But this method can classify the study area relatively. We think it is enough as a soil information for farmers.
Ritsuko, Fuchiyama; Takeshi, Ota; Michikazu, Fukuhara
Abandoned lands and tree crops on short rotations : a favourable combination for energy; Les terres abandonnees et les cultures d`arbres sur courtes rotations : une conjoncture favorable pour l`energie
Short-rotation intensive culture on abandoned farmlands has successfully been used in Sweden to produce woody biomass as an energy source. Because of changing economic conditions, it is estimated that 33,000 hectares of farmland are abandoned every year in Quebec. Although it is impractical to use these lands for conventional farming crops, they are nevertheless well-suited for tree plantations. Results of a study to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in Quebec were discussed. Three plantations of one hectare each were established on abandoned farmlands 90 km southwest of Montreal for this pilot study. Salix discolor and Salix viminalis were planted in fertilized and non-fertilized plots. A detailed analysis of costs for planting, maintaining, and harvesting the crop was conducted over a period of three years. Results demonstrate that the economic and soil conditions in southern Quebec make wood biomass a profitable crop on abandoned farmlands. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.
Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
The North China Plain is one of the key crop-producing regions in China. However, water resources in the area are limited. Accurate modeling of water consumption and crop production in response to the changing environment is important. To describe the two-way interactions among climate, irrigation, and crop growth better, the modified crop phenology and physiology scheme from the SiBcrop model was coupled with the second version of the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to simulate crop phenology, crop production, and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and summer maize, which are two of the main crops in the region. In the coupled model, the leaf area index (LAI) produced by the crop phenology and physiology scheme was used in estimating sub-hourly energy and carbon fluxes. Observations obtained from two typical eddy covariance sites located in this region were used to validate the model. The coupled model was able to accurately simulate carbon and energy fluxes, soil water content, biomass carbon, and crop yield, especially for latent heat flux and carbon flux. The LAI was also well simulated by the model. Therefore, the coupled model is capable of assessing the responses of water resources and crop production to the changes of future climate and irrigation schedules of this region.
Lei, H.; Yang, D.; Lokupitiya, E.; Shen, Y.
Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield Produção de biomassa e presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em culturas utilizadas em rotação com a cana-de-açúcar
Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. vem sendo cultivada no Brasil para produção de açúcar e agroenergia. Em seu sistema de produção, após um ciclo de 4 a 8 anos, é possível a rotação com plantas de cobertura, antes do seu replantio, para melhoria do solo e geração de renda. Estudou-se a caracterização e produtividade de biomassa de leguminosas (como adubos-verdes e girassol (Helianthus annuus L., a ocorrência natural de micorrizas, o teor de açúcar e a produtividade em colmos da cana-de-açúcar IAC 87-3396 e a viabilidade econômica desse sistema com cultivo após as opções de rotação, com quantificação da produtividade durante três cortes consecutivos. O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. IAC-Caiapó, girassol cv. IAC-Uruguai e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy foram as culturas que apresentaram maior percentagem de colonização por fungos micorrízicos. O girassol foi a planta de cobertura que mais extraiu nutrientes do solo, seguido por amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L. cv. IAC-Tatu e feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek. A colonização por fungos micorrízicos mostrou correlação positiva com a altura de plantas de cana no primeiro corte (p = 0,01 e R = 0,52, mas não se correlacionou com a produtividade de colmos ou açúcar. No primeiro corte, o girassol foi a cultura de rotação que ocasionou o maior aumento de produtividade, da ordem de 46% em colmos e de 50% na quantidade de açúcar, em comparação com a testemunha. Com exceção dos amendoins, todas as culturas em rotação aumentaram a renda líquida do sistema na média de três cortes de cana-de-açúcar.Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapó, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek. The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52 but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests.
Edmilson José Ambrosano
Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield / Produção de biomassa e presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em culturas utilizadas em rotação com a cana-de-açúcar
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objecti [...] ve of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapó, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. Abstract in english A cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) vem sendo cultivada no Brasil para produção de açúcar e agroenergia. Em seu sistema de produção, após um ciclo de 4 a 8 anos, é possível a rotação com plantas de cobertura, antes do seu replantio, para melhoria do solo e geração de renda. Estudou-se a caracterização [...] e produtividade de biomassa de leguminosas (como adubos-verdes) e girassol (Helianthus annuus L.), a ocorrência natural de micorrizas, o teor de açúcar e a produtividade em colmos da cana-de-açúcar IAC 87-3396 e a viabilidade econômica desse sistema com cultivo após as opções de rotação, com quantificação da produtividade durante três cortes consecutivos. O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. IAC-Caiapó, girassol cv. IAC-Uruguai e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) foram as culturas que apresentaram maior percentagem de colonização por fungos micorrízicos. O girassol foi a planta de cobertura que mais extraiu nutrientes do solo, seguido por amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L.) cv. IAC-Tatu e feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). A colonização por fungos micorrízicos mostrou correlação positiva com a altura de plantas de cana no primeiro corte (p = 0,01 e R = 0,52), mas não se correlacionou com a produtividade de colmos ou açúcar. No primeiro corte, o girassol foi a cultura de rotação que ocasionou o maior aumento de produtividade, da ordem de 46% em colmos e de 50% na quantidade de açúcar, em comparação com a testemunha. Com exceção dos amendoins, todas as culturas em rotação aumentaram a renda líquida do sistema na média de três cortes de cana-de-açúcar.
Edmilson José, Ambrosano; Rozario, Azcón; Heitor, Cantarella; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Eliana Aparecida, Schammass; Takashi, Muraoka; Paulo César Ocheuze, Trivelin; Fabrício, Rossi; Nivaldo, Guirado; Maria Regina Gonçalves, Ungaro; Juliana Rolim Salomé, Teramoto.
Prior research has shown that conventional corn-soybean cropping systems are economically riskier in the claypan MLRA, caused by variable rain and limited water holding capacity above the low-permeability claypan. These observations prompted research into alternative cropping systems that offer more...
Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Andisol for Six Crop Rotations with Different Soil Management Intensity Carbono y Nitrógeno Orgánicos Disueltos en un Andisol Sometido a Seis Rotaciones de Cultivos con Diferente Intensidad en el Manejo del Suelo
Soil organic matter (OM) content is a quality indicator, but is an inadequate indicator in the short-term because these changes take place slowly, so dissolved organic components have emerged as an alternative. In volcanic soil subjected to different crop rotations with distinct land use intensity, dissolved organic C and N (DOC and DON) were determined as well as their relationship with total C and N contents in the soil, considering the effects of crop rotation, fertilization level, and soi...
Pablo Undurraga D; Erick Zagal V; Gloria Sepúlveda W; Natalia Valderrama V
A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systemsms. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus)-related environmental burdens are released from the soil during cultivation
Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...
Intercropping which is closely associated with peasant agriculture is a practice that involves the growth of two or more crops in proximity, in the same field during a growing season to promote interactions between them. Reasons for this practice include insurance against total crop failure, yield increment, weed control and high monetary returns. Studies on crop mixture have recently focused on cereal-vegetable intercropping system, such as maize-okra, maize-tomato, maize-leafy green, mai...
Ijoyah, M. O.
Full Text Available Tomato is now the most widely grown vegetable crop in World. It is grown throughout the world in farm gardens, small home-gardens, and by market gardeners for fresh consumption as well as for processingpurposes. This Tomato crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Tomato Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Tomato Information System and the other is Tomato Crop Expert System where in Information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases,Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Tomato fruits and plants. In Advisory System, the user is having aninteraction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measure of disease. This Tomato Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Tomato Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to tomato crop based on the symptoms.This Rule based Expert System validates the symptoms of the tomato crop using the techniques of ID3 Algorithm and some optimization algorithms. This is a Web based Expert System with java as the front end and SQL as the backend.
Prasad Babu M.S
The methods by which isotopic techniques have been used in sole cropping studies are reviewed, and the application of those techniques to complex cropping systems is discussed. Strip intercropping, sequential cropping, and relay, row, and mixed intercropping are shown to present many complexities which isotopes could play an important role in clarifying. The depth, spread and activity of rooting systems can be studied with P-32 or P-33, and double labelling may be very informative in defining the interpenitration or changes in rooting pattern resulting from intercropping. Nitrification inhibitors with N-15 labelled fertilizer may be useful in restricting fertilizer N to the non-fixing component of row or mixed intercropping systems. Similarly, P-32, N-15 and S-35 labelled fertilizers may be useful for fertilizer placement studies. Where legumes are included in the cropping systems N-15 abundance techniques can be used to estimate the contribution of N biologically fixed by the legume to the entire cropping system. (author)
This thesis describes a novel, single point-of-attachment, gravitational torque energy harvesting system powered from rotational motion. The primary aim of such a system is to scavenge energy from a continuously rotating host in order to power a wireless sensor node. In this thesis, a wireless tachometer was prototyped. Most published work on motion-driven energy harvesters has used ambient vibrations in the environment as the energy source. However, none of the reported device...
Toh, Tzern Tzuin
This paper presents a reliable coin recognition system that is based on a polar harmonic transform. Coins are widely used in daily routine at various places like in banks, automated weighing machines, supermarkets, organizations for research purposes. So, there is a basic need to recognize the coin very accurately. There is problem that if coin is rotated at some angle then the system is unable to recognize it so we are going to introduce a new approach for rotation invariant for coi...
Sandeep Kaur,; Mandeep Kaur?
Full Text Available In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10, root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8, grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10, grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8, KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr, on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide used was ethylene dibromide (EDB and was applied to each tobacco crop, as is standard practice. Chloris gayana cv. ‘Rhodes Katambora’, presumably a poor host of nematodes, was the grass used in all the grass-grass-grass-Tobacco rotations. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. ContKM10, KM10-Cr, G-G-G-RK8, ContiRK8 and RK8-Cr reduced root knot galling while G-G-G-KM10 increased galling. Sore shin increased with every year of rotation regardless of rotation, except in the case of G-G-G-KM10 and G-G-G-RK8 which reduced infection relative to other rotations. With the exception of G-G-G-RK8, all rotations that included RK8 suppressed root knot infection but did not suppress sore shin infection. The rotations including KM10 suppressed nematodes only with EDB treatment yearly and did not suppress sore shin except the rotation G-G-G-KM10. The role of Crotolaria juncea was masked by either RK8 or EDB. Host plant resistance in the form of RK8 was effective in controlling nematodes but did not reduce sore shin except mildly when rotated with the grass. This work recommends the use of resistant cultivars with broad-spectrum resistances.
Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N2O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary enerGHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well. Results show that the use of crop residues in a biorefinery saves GHG emissions and reduces fossil energy demand. For instance, GHG emissions are reduced by about 50% and more than 80% of non-renewable energy is saved. Land use change effects have a strong influence in the final GHG balance (about 50%), and their uncertainty is discussed in a sensitivity analysis. Concerning the investigation of the other impact categories, biorefinery systems have higher eutrophication potential than fossil reference systems. Based on these results, a residues-based biorefinery concept is able to solve two problems at the same time, namely find a use for the abundant lignocellulosic residues and ensure a mitigation effect for most of the environmental concerns related to the utilization of non-renewable energy resources. Therefore, when agricultural residues are used as feedstocks, best management practices and harvest rates need to be carefully established. In fact, rotation, tillage, fertilization management, soil properties and climate can play an important role in the determination of the amount of crop residue that can be removed minimizing soil carbon losses.
Recent results are presented concerning the development of magnetofluidic leakage-free rotating seals for vacuum and high pressure gases, evidencing significant advantages compared to mechanical seals. The micro-pilot scale production of various types of magnetizable sealing fluids is shortly reviewed, in particular the main steps of the chemical synthesis of magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids with light hydrocarbon, mineral oil and synthetic oil carrier liquids. The behavior of different types of magnetizable fluids in the rotating sealing systems is analyzed. Design concepts, some constructive details and testing procedures of magnetofluidic rotating seals are presented such as the testing equipment. The main characteristics of several magnetofluidic sealing systems and their applications will be presented: vacuum deposition systems and liquefied gas pumps applications, mechanical and magnetic nanofluid combined seals, gas valves up to 40 bar equipped by rotating seal with magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids.
Mustard catch crop has been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with an without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate (NO3--N) via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 µg kg-1 d-1, respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L-1) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L-1) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land.
Mofizur Rahman Jahangir, Mohammad; Minet, Eddy; Johnston, Paul; Coxon, Catherine; Richards, Karl
Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.
Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.
Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m-2 y-1, respectively, compared to 52 g m-2 y-1 for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhanures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation. (author)
Full Text Available This paper presents a reliable coin recognition system that is based on a polar harmonic transform. Coins are widely used in daily routine at various places like in banks, automated weighing machines, supermarkets, organizations for research purposes. So, there is a basic need to recognize the coin very accurately. There is problem that if coin is rotated at some angle then the system is unable to recognize it so we are going to introduce a new approach for rotation invariant for coin recognition that is if coin image is rotated at some angle it can be recognized and will prove rotation invariant. So, this paper focuses on removing the need of placing coin in particular position by using artificial neural network.
The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…
Soil and crop management practices can influence CO2 emission from crop and grasslands and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of two irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and six management practices [no-till malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) with 67 or 134 kg N ha-1 (NT...
Soil organisms are sensitive indicators of changes in soil properties. This study reports the effects of different organic management practices on soil collembolans and nematodes. Cropping systems in the experiment vary the cover crop species, tillage frequency, and planting time. The two organic...
Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop rotation, i.e., RT, CT, and NT, showed a lower efficiency in the reduction of water losses with regard to the efficiency of soil losses decrease. So many rainfall events during our experimental period showed similar water losses for all the management and crop systems, which was mainly true for rainfalls causing high volumes of runoff and with a small time interval between successive events. During the autumn-winter seasons water losses were lower than in the spring-summer seasons, whereas greater soil losses in the spring-summer season were solely recorded in the CT and BS treatments. Heavy water losses by runoff recorder under conservation tillage, specifically in the NT management system suggest the need for adoption of additional structural conservation practices, such as for example terracing, in order to supplement the positive effect of soil cover by crop residues in controlling water erosion. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity and the significance of this relationship decreased as the efficiency of soil management system for the control of soil erosion increased.
Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.
Studies were carried out to determine the effects of four fertilizer recommendation systems (bianket recommendation, soil test recommendation, recommendation based on nutrient supplementation index and unfertilized control) on five cropping systems (sole cassava, maize, melon, cassava + maize and cassava + maize + melon). The experiment was a split-plot in randomised complete block design, with fertilizer recommendation systems in main plots and cropping systems in subplots. Observations were...
Fondufe, Ey; Eneji, Ae; Agboola, Aa; Yamamoto, S.; Honna, T.
The Pothwar tract of rainfed area has enormous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate -15 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM at the rate 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity ohelp the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time. (author)
Rotational effects which are negligible in earth's magnetosphere become dominant in the magnetospheres of the outer planets where they give rise to Birkeland current circuits coupling the ionospheric and magnetospheric motions. The centrifugal force of corotation produces an azimuthal ring current in the magnetosphere while the Coriolis force produces a current parallel to the plasma flow. The acceleration current also becomes significant when deviations from strict corotation are appreciable. In general, none of these currents are divergence-free, and closure is provided by ionospheric conduction currents via connecting Birkeland currents. Thus the ionospheric conductivity regulates magnetospheric motions much as it does in the terrestrial case. The effects of such currents have been clearly observed in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Birkeland current circuits also transmit planetary angular momentum to external sinks such as conducting satellites (e.g., Io), plasma production sites (e.g., the Io torus), and/or the surrounding solar wind (as proposed for Uranus). 43 references
Upland rice yield as affected by previous summer crop rotation (soybean or upland rice) and glyphosate management on cover crops Produtividade do arroz de terras altas afetada pela rotação de cultura e pelo manejo de glifosato nas plantas de cobertura do solo
The appropriate chemical management of cover crops in no-tillage aims to obtain greater benefits with its employment in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to assess upland rice yield as affected by the previous summer crop, species and desiccation timing of cover crops by glyphosate. Sown cover crops were sown (November 2007), followed by rice in half of the experimental area and soybean in the other half (November 2008). After the harvesting of these crops, the same cover ...
Nascente, A. S.; Crusciol, C. A. C.; Stone, L. F.; Cobucci, T.
Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation sequences and combinations on soil nematode populations were investigated. Tillage versus non-tillage treatments were applied to crop rotation sequences dominated by flooded rice in a split plot design. The rotated crops were rice, soybean, and corn, including a fallow for a total of eight rotation treatments. All nematode feeding groups were recovered i.e bacterial feeding-, fungal feeding-, plant feeding-, carnivorous-, and omnivorous- nematodes. A total of 24 nematode genera in 20 families were identified and categorized into their respective trophic groups and colonizer persister (cp values. All rotations that included soybean significantly (P<0.05 or numerically increased soil nematode populations, irrespective of trophic groups, while all rotations that included rice and corn, had a nematode reductive effect. No-tillage plots recorded significantly higher populations of the predatory nematodes. The effectiveness of a rotation sequence depends primarily on the crop species and secondarily on soil conditions e.g anaerobic.
Martin Moluwa Matute
Quantum systems of ultra-cold particles constitute a unique tool for studying the fundamental phenomena of physics in their purest and most isolated forms. Complicated dynamics are found even for few particles and to comprehend the features of systems with many particles, we must first understand these basic building blocks. In this dissertation we investigate few-particle behavior in rotating traps and optical lattices. These systems are both experimentally realizable and are used on a daily basis in quantum gas laboratories all over the world. At temperatures near absolute zero the quantum mechanical nature of particles dominate, resulting in a behavior fundamentally different from that of classical particles. In rotating systems this causes quantization of angular momentum which can lead to macroscopic vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. In optical lattices the atom becomes extended over several lattice points causing complicated many-body dynamics and phase transitions.
SØrensen, Ole SØe